Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 5, 1642-45. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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Containing Passages relating to the Scots, in the Years, 1642. and 1643. and Transactions both of the King and the Parliament with them, until the Advance of their Army into England, January the 15th. 1643–4.
The Scots Commissioners, resident at London, touching the Treaty for their sending over Forces against the Rebels in I Ireland, on the 15th of January, 1641–2. delivered Two Papers, One to the King, the Other to the Two Houses, taking Notice of the then growing Differences between His Majesty and His Two Houses of Parliament, which has been recited in its proper place, together with the Kings Resentments thereof.
In the Month of July following, the English Parliament sent a Declaration into Scotland, expressing their Apprehensions of Dangers, their Desires to prevent effusion of Blood, and their Affections to Reformation both in Church and State: To which the General Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland returned this Answer:
The General Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland having received a Declaration sent unto them by the Commissioners of this Kingdom, now at London, from the Honourable Houses of the Parliament of England, expressing their Care to prevent the effusion of Christian Blood in that Kingdom, and their Affections to Reformation both in Kirk and State: And having taken the same to such consideration as the Importance of so weighty Matters, and the high Estimation they have of so Wise and Honourable Assembly, as is the Parliament, of England did require, have, with universal consent, resolved upon this following Answer:
1. That from the recent Sense of the goodness of GOD, in their own late deliverance, and from their earnest desire of all happiness to Their native King, and that Kingdom, they bless the Lord for perserving them in the midst of so many unhappy Divisions and Troubles from a bloody Intestine War, which is from GOD the greatest Judgment, and to such a Nation the Compend of all Calamities. They also give GOD thanks for their former and present desires of a Reformation, especially of Religion, which is the Glory and Strength of a Kingdom, and bringeth with it all Temporal Blessings of Prosperity and Peace.
2. That the Hearts of all the Members of this Assembly, and all the well affected in this Kingdom, are exceedingly grieved and made heavy, That in so long a time, against the Professions both of King and Parliament, and contrary, to the joynt Desires and Prayers of the Godly in both Kingdoms, to whom it is more dear and precious than what is dearest to them in the World, the Reformation of Religion hath moved so slowly, and suffered so great interruption. They consider, That not only Prelates, formal Professors, prophane and worldly Men, and all that are Popishly affected, are bad Counsellors and Workers, and do abuse their Power, and bend all their Strength and Policies against the Work of GOD, but the GOD of this World also, with Principalities and Powers, the Rulers of the Darkness of this World, and Spiritual Wickednesses in High-places, are working with all their Force and Fraud in the same Opposition, not without hope of Success; they having prevailed so far from the beginning, That in the time of the best Kings of Judah of old, and the most part of the Reformed Kirks of late, a thorough and perfect Reformation hath been a work of great difficulty. Yet do they conceive, That as it ought first of all to be intended, so should it be above all other things with confidence in GOD, who is greater than the World, and he who is in the World, most seriously endeavoured. And that when the Supreme Providence giveth opportunity of the accepted Time and Day of Salvation, no other Work can prosper in the hands of his. Servants, is it be not apprehended, and with all Reverence and Faithfulness unproved. This Kirk and Nation, when the Lord gave the Calling, considered not their own deadness, nor staggered not at the promise through unbelief, but gave Glory to GOD; and who knoweth (We speak it in Humility and Love, and from no other mind than from a desire of the Blessing of GOD upon our King and that Kingdom) but the Lord hath now some Controversie with England, which will not be removed, till first and before all the Worship of His Name, and the Government of His House be settled according to His own Will: When this desire shall come, it shall be to England, after so long deferred hopes, a Tree of Life, which shall not only yield Temporal Blessings unto themselves, but also shall spread the Branches so far, that both this Nation, and other Reformed Kirks, shall find the Fruits there of to their Greater Satisfaction.
The Commissioners of this Kingdom, in the late Treaty of Peace, considering that Religion is not only the mean of the Service of God, and saying of Souls, but is also the Base and Foundation of Kingdoms and Estates and the strongest Band to rye Subjects to their Prince, in true Loyalty; to knit the Hearts of one to another in true Unity and Love, did with Preface of all due Respect and Reverence, far from Arrogance or Presumption, represent in Name of this Kingdom, their serious Thoughts, and earned Desires, for Unity of Religion, that in all His Majesties Dominions there might be one Confession of Faith; one Directory of Worship; one publick Catechism; and one Form of Church Government: This they conceived to be acceptable to God Almighty, who delighteth to see his People walking in Truth and Unity: To be a special means for Conserving of Peace betwixt the Two Kingdoms; Of easing the Kings Majesty, and the publick Government of much Trouble, which ariseth from Differences of Religion, very grievous to Kings and Estates; of great Content to the King Himself, to His Nobles, His Court, and His People, when occasion to be Abroad, that without scruple to themselves, or scandal to others, all may resort to the same publick Worship as they were at their own Dwellings: Off suppressing the Names of Heresies, and Sects, Puritans, Conformists, Separatists Anabaptists, &c .which do rent asunder the Bowels both of Kirk and Kingdom: Of dispair of Success to Papists and Recusants to have their Profession, which is inconsistent with the true Protestant Religion, and Authority of Princes set up again: And of drawing the Hearts and Hands of Ministers from unpleasant and unprofitable Controversies, to the pressing of Mortifications, and to Treatises of true Piety, and Practical Divinity. The Assembly doth now enter upon the Labour of the Commissioners, unto which they are encouraged, not only by their Faithfulness in the late Treaty, but also by the Zeal and Example of the General Assemblies of this Kirk in former times, as may appear by the Assembly at Edinburgh, December 25. in the Year 1566, which ordained a Letter to be sent into England against the Surplice, Tippet, Corner-Cap, and such other Ceremonies as then troubled that Kirk, that they might be removed; by the Assembly at Edinburgh, April, 24 1583, humbly desiring the Kings Majesty to Command his Embassador then going into England, to deal with the Queen, that there might be a Union and Band betwixt them and other Christian Princes and Realms, Profession the True Religion for Defence and Protection of the Word of GOD, and Professors thereof, against the Perfections of Papists, and Considerate joyned and knit together by the bloody League of Trent; as also, That Her Majesty would disburthen their Brethren of England, of the Yoke of Ceremonies, imposed upon them against the liberty of the Word; and by the Assembly at Edinburgh, March, 3. 1589. ordaining the Presbytery at Edinburgh to use all good and possible means for the Relies and Comfort of the Kirk of England, then heavily troubled for maintaining the True Discipline and Government of the Kirk: And that the Brethren in their private and publick Prayers recommend the Estate of the afflicted Kirk of England to GOD. While now, by the Mercy of GOD, the conjunction of the Two Kingdoms is many ways encreased: The Zeal of the General Assembly towards their Happiness ought to be no less: But besides these, the Assembly is much encouraged to this Duty, both from the King's Majesty and His Parliament, joyntly in their Answer to the Proposition made by the late Commissioners of the Treaty in these Words: To their desires concerning Unity of Religion, and Uniformity of Kirk Government, as a special means for conserving of Peace betwixt the Two Kingdoms, upon the Grounds and Reasons contained in the Paper of the 10th of March, and given into the Treaty and Parliament of England. It is answered upon the 15th of June, That his Majesty, with the advice of both Houses of Parliament, doth approve of the Affection of his Subjects of Scotland, in their desire of having Conformity in Kirk-Government, between the Two Nations: And as the Parliament hath already taken into Consideration the, Reformation of Kirk Government, so they will proceed therein in due time, as shall best conduce to the Glory of GOD, the Peace of the Kirk, and of both the Kingdoms. And also severally; for his Majesty knoweth, That the Custody and Vindication, the Conservation and Purgation of Religion are a great part of the Duty of Civil Authority and Power. His Majesty's late Practice, while he was here in Person, in resorting frequently to the exercises of publick Worship: His Royal Actions in establishing the Worship and Government of this Kirk in Parliament, and in giving Order for a competent Maintenance to the Ministry and Seminaries of the Kirk: And his Majesty's Gracious Letter to the Assembly (seconded by the Speech of his Majesty's Commissioners) which containeth this Religious expression; Where any thing is amiss we will endeavour in a fair and orderly way, a Reformation: And where Reformation is settled, We resolve with that Authority wherewith GOD hath vested us to maintain and defend it in Peace and Liberty, against all trouble that can come from without, and against all Heresies, ects, and Schisms which may arise from within: All these do make us hopeful, That his Majesty will not oppose but advance the work of Reformation. In like Manner, the Honourable Houses of Parliament, as they have many times before Witnessed their Zeal, so now also in their Declaration sent to the Assembly, which not only sheweth the constancy of their Zeal, but their great Grief, that the Work hath been interrupted by a malignant Party of Papists, and evil-affected Persons, especially of the corrupt and dissolute Clergy, by the incitement and instigation of Bishops and others. Their hopes, according to their earnest desire, when they shall return to a peaceable and Parliamentary proceeding, by the blessing of God, to settle such a Reformation in the Church, as shall be agreeable to GOD'S Word; and that the result shall be a most firm and stable Union between the Two Kingdoms of England and Scotland, &c. The Assembly also is not a little encouraged by a Letter sent from many Reverend Brethren of the Kirk of England, expressing their Prayers and endeavours against every thing which shall be found prejudicial to the establishment of the Kingdom of CHRIST, and the Peace of their Sovereign. Upon these encouragements, and having so potent a door pf Hope, the Assembly doth confidently expect, That England will now. bestir themselves in the best way for a Reformation of Religion, and do most willingly offer their Prayers and utmost endeavours for furthering so great a Work, wherein CHRIST is so much concern'd in his Glory, the King in his Honour, the Kirk and the Kingdom in their Happiness, and this Kirk and Kingdom in the purity and peace of the Gospel.
4. That the Assembly also, from so many real Invitations, are heartened to renew the Proposition made by the aforenamed Commissioners of this Kingdom, for beginning the Work of Reformation, at the Uniformity of Kirk-Government; for what hope can there be of Unity in Religion, of one Confession of Faith, one Form of Worship, and one Catechism, till there be first one Form of Ecclesiastical Government; yea, what hope can the Kingdom and Kirk of Scotland have of a firm and durable Peace, till Prelacy, which hath been the main cause of their Miseries and Troubles first and last, be pluck'd up Root and Branch, as a Plant which God hath not Planted, and from which no better Fruit can be expected, than such four Grapes, as this day set on edge the Kingdom of England.
5. The Prelatical Hierarchy being put out of the way, the Work will be easie, without forcing any Conscience, to settle in England the Government of the Reformed Kirks by Assemblies: For although the Reformed Kirks do hold, without doubting their Kirk-Officers and Kirk-Government, by Assemblies higher and lower in their strong and beautiful Subordination, to be Ture divino and perpetual; yet Prelacy, as it differeth from the Office of a Pastor, is almost universally acknowledged by the Prelates themselves, and their adherents, to be an human Ordinance, introduced by human Reason, and settled by human Law and Custom, for supposed Conveniency; which therefore, by human Authority, without wronging any Man's Conscience, may be altered and abolished upon so great a Necessity, as is a hearty Conjunction with all the Reformed Kirks, a firm and well-grounded Peace between the Two Kingdoms, formerly divided in themselves and betwixt themselves, by this Partition-Wall, and a perfect Union of the Two Kirks in the Two Nations, which, although by the Providence of GOD in one island, and under one Monarch, yet ever since the Reformation, and for the present also are at great difference in the point of Kirk-Government, which in all Places hath a more powerful Influence upon all Parts of the same Religion, than any other Reformed Kirks, although in Nations at greatest distance, and under divers Princes.
6. What may be required of the Kirk of Scotland for furthering the Work of Uniformity of Government, or for agreeing upon a common Confession; of Faith, Catechism, and Directory for Worship, shall, according to the Order given by this Assembly, be most willingly performed by Us, who long extremely for the Day, when King and Parliament shall joyn, for bringing to pass so great so good a Work: That all Wars and Commotions ceasing, all Superstition, Idolatry, Heresie, Sects and Schisms being removed; as the Lord is One, so His Name may be One, amongst us; and Mercy and Truth, Righteousness and Peace meeting together, and kissing one an other, may Dwell in this island.
The Parliaments Approbation of the Scots Declaration for Mutual Reformation.
We the Lords and Commons in Parliament Assembled, having with much Contentment perused the Btotherly and Christian Answer, which the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland have made unto the Declaration formerly sent unto them from us; and finding therein great Expressions of Love to this Church and Kingdom, and of Prudence and Faithfulness in propounding those things which may conduce to a more close and firm Union of the Two Churches and Nations of England and Scotland, in preserving and maintaining the Truth and Purity of the Reformed Religion, not only against Popery, but against all other Superstitious Sects and Innovations whatsoever, have thereupon resumed into our Consideration and Care, the Matters concerning the Reformation of Church-Government and Discipline, which we have often had in Consultation and Debate since the beginning of this Parliament; and ever made it our chieseft Aim, though we have been frequently interrupted, and Powerfully opposed in the Prosecution and Accomplishment of it.
And however, we continue still in the Storm and Conflict, finding small abatement of Difficulty, and much encrease of Malignity and Perverseness in the opposition wherewith this great and necessary work of Reformation is Encountered; yet we heartily thank GOD, and rejoyce with our Brethren, of Scotland, for that Peace, Liberty, and Preservation which GOD hath afforded them, taking it as a Pledge and earnest of the like Mercy intended to us in His good Time; and hoping that he will not only free us from the most grievous and destructive Miseries and Calamities of a Civil War, but graciously perfect our Designs and Endeavours of a full Reformation in all Matters appertaining to Religion: which, as it is the greatest Honour and Service which GOD receives from his People, so we acknowledge with our Brethren, That it is the surest foundation of Glory, Strength and Happiness, which he bestows upon any Nation.
The manifold obstructions and impediments which we have met with in seeking this great Blessing, do give to us, and all GOD'S People, great cause of Grief, and works in us an earnest longing for the removal of them; yet knowing, that all the wonderful Works of GOD in this kind have been brought to perfection through many oppositions and seeming impossibilities, that so the conclusion might be more Glorious or his Divine Majesty, and comfortable to his Children, we cannot but in humility and submission expect the like Issue of our wrestling and striving with that fierce and peremptory opposition which hath been framed and acted against us, by the subtile and busie Engines of Satan, the most pestilent Incendiaries among us, the Jesuits from abroad, a virulent and discontented Party at home, consisting of. the Prelatical Clergy, Atheillical Projectors against Religion, Prophane and Sensual Self-lovers, heightened and enflamed against us, with a Spirit of malignity beyond the example of former Times, wherein we have had manifold occasions to discern both our own Weakness and Imperfections, and the Divine Mercy and Goodness; and to hope that GOD having upheld us so long beyond our own Strength and Merit, will bring us through at last to the full accomplishment of his own Praise, and of the Joy of this and other Churches.
We acknowledge it an act of Love to us, and of Wisdom for the good of both Churches, for which we are thankful both to GOD and them, that our Brethren of Scotland have bestowed their serious Thoughts and earnest Desires for Unity of Religion: That in all his Majesty's Dominions there might be One Confession of Faith, One Directory of Worship, One Publick Catechism, and One Form of Church-Government. And although it will hardly be obtained punctually and exactly, unless some way might be found for a mutual Communication and Conjunction of Counsel and Debate, in framing that one Form; yet both intending the same End, proceeding by the same Rule of GOD'S Word, and guided by the same Spirit; We hope, by GOD'S assistance, to be so directed, that we may cast out whatsoever is offensive to GOD, or justly displeasing to any Neighbour-Church; and so far agree with our Brethren of Scotland, and other Reformed Churches, in all substantial parts of Doctrine, Worship, and Discipline, that both we and they may enjoy those Advantages and Conveniences which are mentioned by them in this their answer, in the more strict Union of both Kingdoms, more safe, easie, and comfortable Government of his Majesty, and both to Himself and People more free Communion in all Holy Exercises and Duties of Worship, more constant security of Religion, against the bloody Practices of Papists and deceitful Errors of other Sectaries, and more profitable use of the Minillry, for the compassing and attaining whereof, we intend to use the labour and advice of an Assembly of Godly Learned Divines; for the convening of whom, a Bill hath already past both Houses, which had taken effect long since, if we could have obtained his Majesty's Royal Consent thereunto: All which considered, we acknowledge the faithful and affectionate Expressions of our Brethren in wishing and desiring this great advantage for us, doth fully deserve Thanks, which we have formerly expressed, and no whit stand in need of that Apology which they are pleased for to make.
The main Cause which hitherto hath deprived us of these and other great advantages which we might have, by a more close Union with the Church of Scotland, and other Reformed Churches, is the Government by Bishops, which to strengthen itself hath produced many other differences in Discipline and Ceremonies betwixt them and us, and is apt to work in the minds of those who are the approvers and defenders of it, such a disesteem of, and opposition to those Churches as makes us dispair of that most beneficial and desirable conjunction with them, until this great Impediment be removed: Whereupon we have entred into a serious consideration what good we have received from this Government by Bishops, which may countervail such a Loss and Inconvenience; and we are so far from apprehending any Satisfaction herein, that we plainly perceive it a Cause of many other Calamities, Dangers, and intolerable Burthens, being a dishonour to GOD, by arrogating to themselves a Preheminence and Power which. He hath not given them, by prophaning the purity of his Ordinances, with the mixture of their own Injunctions, by withstanding the frequent and powerful Preaching of the Gospel, that so their usurped Authority might receive more easie admittance into the ignorant, misguided Consciences of Men, by corrupting the Ministry with Pride, Ambition, Covetousness, Idleness and Luxury, by suppressing the Spiritual Power and Efficacy of Religion, and turning it into Formality and Pomp, by enclining to Popery, the Principles thereof being suitable to that Government, and contrary to those Principles which were the first grounds or Reformation: We likewise find it most pernicious to the Civil State and Common-wealth, in that the Bishops have ever been active to infuse into our Kings such Tenants and Positions as are contrary to the Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom, and apt to introduce Tyranny and an Arbitrary Power over the Lives, Liberties, and Propriety of the Subjects; and that they have been forward to incite the King against his People, and by force of Arms to corstrain them to submit to such an Arbitrary Government; and by unlawful Contribution of Money to assist his Majesty in making War upon his Subjects, whereof there are many Evidences, both in those Preparations which not long since were made to Invade Scotland, and in the War now raised against the Parliament and Kingdom of England; and yet they have shewn themselves so ambitious of Sovereignty, that they forbear not to maintain in Sermons and Printed Books, That the Kings Scepter ought to submit to Aaron's Rod, and the Mitre to be above the Sword, which argues in them an Antichristian Spirit, to exalt themselves above all that is called GOD and a design (when they have brought the Kingdom to be disposed at their Pleasure) to subject: his Majesty to their own Arbitrary Censures, that themselves, may Triumph in the Bondage, both of King and People.
Upon all which, and many other Reasons, we do declare; That this Government by Arch-Bishops, Bishops, their Chancellors, and Commissaries, Deans and Chapters, Arch-deacons,, and other Ecclesiastical Officers depending upon the Hierarchy, is evil, and justly offensive and burthensome to the Kingdom, a great impediment to Reformation and growth of Religion, very prejudicial to the State and Government of this Kingdom; and that we are resolved, that the same shall be taken away. And according to our former Declaration of the seventh of February, our purpose is to Consult with Godly and Learned Divines, that we may not only remove this, but settle such a Government as may be most agreeable to Gods Holy Word, most apt to procure, and conserve the Peace of the Church at home, and happy Union with the Church of Scotland, and other Reformed Churches abroad, and to establish the same by a Law, which we intend to frame for that Purpose, to be presented to his Majesty for his Royal Assent. And in the mean time, humbly to beseech his Majesty, that a Bill for the Assembly may be passed in time convenient, for the Meeting to be by the fifth of November next, the miserable Estate. of Church and Kingdom not being able to endure any longer delay.
This being the Resolution of both Houses of Parliament, we do desire our Brethren of Scotland to concur with us in Petitioning his Majesty, That his Royal Authority may he applied to the Conservation of a firm Unity between the Two Kingdoms; and that they likewise will think Good to send to the same Assembly some Godly and Learned Divines of that Church, whereby an Uniformity in Form of Church Government may be obtained, and thereby a more easie passage made to the fettling of one Confession of Faith, one Liturgy, or Directory of the publick Worship, and one Catechism in all Three Kingdoms, which we hope, through Gods Blessing, will have such an effect in all his Majesties Dominions, as will much advance the Honour and Service of GOD; enlarge the Greatness, Power and Glory of the King; confirm the Peace, Security, and Prosperity of all his good Subjects; make way to the Relief and Deliverance of the poor afflicted Churches abroad; and to the total Abolishing of the Usurpation and Tyranny of Rome, being the prime Cause and Fountain of all the Miseries and Calamities, the bloody Massacres, Outrages, Cruelties, and bitter Persecution of GOD'S People in all the Christian World for many Ages.
The aforesaid Assembly of the Kirk also at the same Time sent a Petition to the Council in Scotland, desiring they would joyn in it, to the King, for an Uniformity in Church-Government throughout all his Dominions. And 'also that in Consideration of the Commotions in England, the Conservators of the Peace (a Court Establish'd by the late Parliament in Scotland, to look after the Preservation of the Articles of the late Treaty with England) might meet: The Marquis Hamilton (who had parted with the King at York, and came to Edinburgh about the beginning of July, to advance his Majesties Interest in that Kingdom,) opposed this what he could, but yet it was carried; And the King gave them the following Answer in a Letter to the Council.
By your Letter to us of the Nineteenth of this instant August, we find you concur with our late General Assembly in their Desire to us about Unity of Religion, and Uniformity of Church Government in all our Three Kingdoms; which cannot be more earnestly Desired by you, than it shall be really endeavoured by us, in such a way as we in our Conscience conceive to be best for the flourishing Estate of the true Protestant Religion. But us for joyning with our Houses of Parliament here in this Work, it were improper at this time to give any Answer; for since their Meeting they have never made any Proposition to us concerning Unity of Religion, or. Uniformity of Church-Government: So far are they from desiring any such Thing, as we are Confident the most considerable Persons, and those who make fairest Pretensions to you of this kind, will no sooner Embrace a Presbyterial, than you an Episcopal. And truely it seems, (notwithstanding whatsoever Profession they have made to the contrary) that nothing hath been less in their Minds than setling of the true Religion, and Reforming such Abuses in the Church-Government, us possibly have crept in, contrary to the Establisht Law of the Land; to which we have been so far from being Averse, that we have by divers Declarations, and Messages, pressed them to it, though hit her to it hath been to small Purpose. But whenever any Proposition shall be made to us by them, which we shall conceive may any way advance the Unity of the true Protestant Religion, according to the Word of God; or Establish the Church-Government, according to the known Laws of the Kingdom, we shall by our chearful joyning with them, let the World see, that nothing can be more acceptable to us, than the furthering and advancing of so good a Work; so we bid you Farewel.
The Scottish Commissioners having concluded the Treaty about the Forces to be sent into Ireland, returned about the end of August into Scotland; but then the Council there sent the Earl of Lindsey, and Sir John Smith, to lie at London for Correspondence.
The Declaration of the Lords and Commons Assembled in the Parliament of England, to the Subjects of Scotland.
We the Lords and Commons Assembled in the Parliament of England, considering with what Wisdom, and publick Affection, our Brethren of the Kingdom of Scotland did concur with the Endeavours of this Parliament, and the Desires of the whole Kingdom, in procuring and establishing a firm Peace and Amity between the Two Nations; and how Lovingly since they have invited us to a nearer and higher Degree of Union in Matters concerning Religion and Church-Government, which we have most willingly and affectionately Imbraced, and intend to pursue, cannot doubt but they will, with as much Forwardness and Affection, concur with us in setling Peace in this Kingdom, and preserving it in their Own; that so we may mutually reap the Benefit of Amity and Alliance, so happily made, and strongly confirmed, betwixt the Two Nations. Wherefore, as we did about a Year since, in the first appearance of Trouble, then beginning amongst them actually Declare, that in our Sence and Apprehension of the National Alliance betwixt us, we were thereby bound to apply the Authority of Parliament and Power of this Kingdom to the Preservation and Maintenance of their Peace; And seeing now that the Troubles of this Kingdom are grown to a greater height, and the subtil Practices of the Common Enemy of the Religion and Liberty of both Nations, do appear with more Evidence, Strength and Danger than they did at that time, we hold it necessary to declare, That in our Judgment the same Obligation lies upon our Brethren, by the afore-mentioned Act, with the Power and Force of that Kingdom to I assist us, in repressing those amongst us who are now in Arms, and make War, not only without consent of Parliament, but even against the Parliament, and for the destruction thereof.
Wherefore we have thought good to make known to our Brethren, that his Majesty hath given Commission to divers eminent and known Papists to raise Forces and compose an Army in the North, and other Parts of this Kingdom, which is to joyn with divers Foreign Forces, intended to be Transported from beyond the Sea, for the destruction of this Parliament, and of the Religion and Liberty of the Kingdom; and that the Prelatical part of the Clergy and their Adherents, have likewise Invited his Majesty to I raise another Army, which in his own Person he doth conduct against the Parliament and the City of London, Plundering and Robbing several Well-affected Towns within their Power: And that in prosecution of their Malice, they are so presumptuous and predominant of his Majesty's Resolution, that they forbear not those Outrages in places to which his Majesty hath given his Royal Word and Protection. A great Cause and Incentive of which Malice proceeds from the design they have to hinder the Reformation of Ecclesiastical Government in this Kingdom, so much longed for by all the true Lovers of the Protestant Religion, And hereupon we further desire our Brethren of the Nation of Scotland, to raise such Forces as they shall judge sufficient for securing the Peace of their own Borders against the ill-affected Persons there: As likewise to assist us in suppressing the Army of Papists and Foreigners. Which, as we expect, will shortly be on foot here; and, if they be not timely prevented, may prove as mischievous and destructive to that Kingdom, as to ourselves.
And though we seek nothing from his Majesty that may diminish his just Authority or Honour; and have by many humble Petitions, endeavoured to put an end to this unnatural War and Combustion in the Kingdom, and to procure his Majesty's Protection and Security for our Religion, Liberty and Persons; according to that great Trust which his Majesty is bound to by the Laws of the Land; and shall still continue to renew our Petitions in that kind: yet, to our great Grief, we see the Papistical and Malignant Counsels so prevalent with his Majesty, and his Person so engaged to their Power, that we have little hope of better Success of our Petitions than we formerly had, and are thereby necessitated to stand upon our just Defence, and to seek this speedy and powerful Assistance of our Brethren of Scotland, according to that Ad agreed upon in the Parliament of both Kingdoms, the common duty of Christianity, and the particular Interests of their own Kingdom.
To which we hope God will give such a Blessing, that it may produce the preservation of Religion, the Honour, Safety, and Peace of his Majesty and all his Subjects, and a more strict conjunction of the Counsels, Design and Endeavours of both Nations for the Comfort and Relief of the Reformed Churches beyond Sea.
His Majesty's Massage to the Lords of His Privy-Council of Scotland, upon Occasion of the said Declaration.
Right Trusty, and Right Well-beloved Cousins and Counsellors; and Right Trusty and Well-beloved Counsellors; We Greet you well: We have lately seen a Paper presented to Us, by the Earl of Lindsey, as a Declaration of the Lords and Commons Assembled in the Parliament of England, of the Seventh of November, to Our Subjects of Our Kingdom of Scotland; which after many high Taxes of Us and Our Government, very earnestly Invites, and in a manner Challenges Assistance from that Our Native Kingdom, of Men and Arms, for making a War against Us, making a claim to that Assistance, by virtue of the late Act of Pacification; to the which (out of Our desire to make a perpetual Union between Our Two Kingdoms, for the happiness of both; and by it the more firmly to establish Our own Greatness and just Power) We chearfully consented.
As We are at Our Soul afflicted, that it hath been in the Power of any Factious, Ambitious, and Malicious Persons, so far to possess the Hearts of many of Our Subjects of England, as to raise this miserable Distemper and Destruction in this Kingdom, against all Our real Actions and Endeavours to the contrary; so We are glad, that this Rage and Fury hath so far transported them, that they apply themselves in so gross a manner to Our Subjects of Scotland, whose experience of Our Religion, Justice, and love of Our People will not suffer them to believe those horrid Scandals laid upon us; and their Affection, Loyalty, and Jealousie of Our Honour will disdain to be made Instruments to oppress their Native Sovereign, by assisting an odious Rebellion.
We have from time to time acquainted Our Subjects of that Kingdom, with the Accidents and Circumstances which have disquieted this; how (after all the acts of Justice, Grace, and Favour, performed on Our part, which were, or could be desired to make a People compleatly happy) We were driven by the force and violence of rude and tumultuous Assemblies, from Our City of London, and Our Two Houses of Parliament: How Attempts have been made to Impose Laws upon Our Subjects, without Our Consent, contrary to the Foundation and Constitution of this Kingdom,
How Our Forts, Goods, and Navy were seized, and taken from Us by Force, and imployed against Us: Our Revenue and ordinary Subsistance wrested from Us: How We have been pursued with scandalous and reproachful Language; bold, false, and seditious Pasquels and Libels, publickly allowed against Us: And been told, that We might, without Modesty and Duty, be Deposed. Now, after all this (before any Force raised by Us) an Army was raised, and a General appointed to lead that Army against Us, with a Commission to Kill, Slay, and destroy all such who should be faithful to Us; that when We had been by these means compelled by the Assistance of Our good Subjects to raise an Army for Our necessary Defence, We sent divers. Gracious Messages, earnestly desiring, That the Calamities and Miseries of a Civil War might be prevented by a Treaty; and so We might know the grounds of this misunderstanding: How We were absolutely refused to be Treated with: And how at last the Army (raised, as was pretended, for the defence of Our Person) was brought into the Field against Us, gave Us Battle, and (though it pleased God to give Us the Victory) destroyed many of Our good Subjects, with as imminent danger to Our own Person, and Our Children, as the Skill and Malice of desperate Rebels could contrive: Of all which, and the other Indignities, which have been offered Us, We doubt not the Duty and Affection of Our Scotish Subjects will have so just a Resentment, that they will express to the World the sense they have of Our Sufferings. And Our good Subjects of Scotland are not, We hope, so great Strangers to the Affairs of this Kingdom, to believe, that this Misfortune and Distraction is begot and brought upon Us by Our Two Houses of Parliament (though, in truth, no unwarrantable Action against the Law can be justified, even by that Authority) they will know how the Members of Both Houses have been driven thence, insomuch that of above Five Hundred Members of the House of Commons, there are not now there above Eighty; and of above One Hundred of the House of Peers, not above Fifteen or Sixteen; all which are so awed by the multitude of Anabaptists, Brownists, and other Persons desperate and decayed in their Fortunes, in and about the City of London; that, in truth, their Consuitations have not the Freedom and Privilege which belongs to Parliaments. Concerning any Commissions granted by Us to papists, to raise Forces: We must refer Our good Subjects to a Declaration lately set forth by Us, upon the occasion of that Scandal, which we send, together with This: And for Our own true and zealous Affection to the Protestant Religion (the advancement whereof Our Soul desires) We can give no other Instance, than Our constant Practice, on which Malice itself can lay no blemish: And those many Protestations we have made in the sight of Almighty GOD, to whom We know We (hall be dearly accomptable, if We fail in the Observation.
For that Scandalous Imputation of Our intention of bringing in Foreign Forces, as the same is raised without the least colour or shadow of Reason, and solemnly disavowed by Us, in many of Our Declarations: So there can not be a clearer Argument to Our Subjects of Scotland, that We have no such Thought, than that We have hitherto forborn to require the Assistance of that Our Native Kingdom, from whose Obedience, Duty, and Affection. We should confidently expect it, if We thought Our own Strength here too weak to preserve Us: And of whose Courage and Loyalty We shall look to make Use, before We (shall think of any Foreign Aid to Succour Us. And We know no reasonable or understanding Man can suppose Our good Subjects of Scotland are obliged or enabled by the late Act of Parliament in both Kingdoms to obey the Invention which is made to them by this pretended Declaration; when it is so evidently provided for by that Act, that as the Kingdom of England shall not make War against the Kingdom of Scotland, without consent of the Parliament of England; so the Kingdom of Scotland shall not make War against the Kingdom of England, without the consent of the Parliament of Scotland: And when they have always declared themselves so careful of Our Honour, Safety, and just Rights, which now undergo so great Violation.
This We have thought fit to say, upon Occasion of this late Declaration, and do commend it to You, the Lords of Our Privy-Council of Our Kingdom of Scotland, to be Communicated and Published to all Our loving Subjects there: And if the Grave Counsel and Advice which You derived hither by your Act of the Two and Twentieth of April last, had been followed here, in a tender Care of Our Royal Person, and of Our Princely Greatness and Authority, then would not this face of Confusion have appeared, which now threatens this Kingdom: And therefore We require You to use your utmost Endeavours to Inform Our Subjects of that Our Kingdom, of the truth of Our Condition; and that You suffer not the Scandals and Imputations laid on Us by the Malice and Treason of some Men, to make any impression in the minds of Our People, to the lessening or corrupting their Affection and Loyalty to Us, but that You allure them the hardness We now undergo, and the Arms We have been compelled to take up, are for the Defence of Our Person, and Safety of Our Life; for the Maintenance of the True Protestant Religion; for the Preservation of the Laws, Liberties, and Constitutions of this Kingdom; and for the just Privileges of Parliament: And look no longer for the Blessing of Heaven, than We endeavour the Defence and Advancement of all These: And We doubt not a dutiful Concurrence in Our Subjects of Scotland, in the Care of Our Honours and just Rights, will draw down a Blessing upon that Nation too.
Tho' the Trust of this Bearer needs not a Credential Letter, yet the Civility of a Friend-cannot but tender his Hand, as well as by word of Mouth, express his Kindness and resentment of Courtesies, which of lute have been such, that you have given me just Cause to give you better thanks, than I will offer at in words. I shall not neglect the lazy use of so Trusty a Bearer, by referring to him not only the States of my Affairs here, but likewise in what way you will be of most use to me. Yet I cannot but tell you, I have set up my rest upon the Justice of my Cause, being Resolved, That no Extremity or Misfortune shall make me yield; For I will be either a Glorious King, or a patient Martyr, and as yet not being the first, nor at this present apprehending the other, I think it now no unfit time, to express this my Resolution unto you. One Thing more, (which but for the Messenger, were too much to Trust to Paper) the failing of one Friend hath indeed gone very near me; wherefore I am Resolved, That no Consideration whatsoever shall ever make me do the like. Upon this Ground J am certain, That God hath either so totally forgiven me, that he will Bless this good Cause in my Hands; Or that all my Punishment shall be in this World, which without performing what I have Resolved, I cannot flatter myself will End here. This unaccustomed Freedom, will (I am confident) add Chearfulness to your honest Resolutions, seeing besides Generosity, to which I pretend a little, my Conscience will make me slick fast to my Friends, assuring you, I have none, if I am not,
The 20th of December being a Council Day, the Chancellor Lowdon presented them with a Letter from the Lord Lindsey from London; and the last recited Declaration of the Parliament, which being Read, Lanerick produced the Kings Message (before also recited) concerning it; upon which, a great Dispute arose, but at last, by the Industry of Hamilton, Lanerick, and their Party, it was carried, That the Kings Declaration should be Printed, and not the Parliaments.
Upon which there was on the 6th of January exhibited to the Conservators of the Peace, a Petition of divers Noblemen, Barons, Gentlemen, Burgesses, and Ministers, complaining of the Councils putting to the Press his Majesties Letter, containing Aspersions of odious and desperate Rebellion against the Parliament of England, without Printing their Declaration, to which his Majesties Letter is an Answer; which the Petitioners fear may diminish the Confidence between the Two Kingdoms, breed Jealousies, interrupt their Union and Peace, and impede the so much desired Unity of Religion, and Uniformity of Kirk-Government, &c.
At the same time there was a cross Petition preferred, signed by many Noblemen and Gentlemen, (but no Ministers) expressing their Disapprovement of the other Petition, that they desired Uniformity, but no ways intended to pass their Bounds in prescribing Rules and Limits to his Majesty. And praying the Lords of the Council not to do any thing that might give the King Occasion to Repent of the Trust he so Graciously expresses Himself to have reposed in this his Antient and Native Kingdom; And that they would not, if they thought fit to return any Answer to the English Parliaments Declaration, promise any thing which might molest the Peace of this Kirk and Kingdom, &c.
But before this, the Conservators of the Peace (who met the 24th of September, 1642) were inclined to send Commissioners into England, to Mediate between the King and his Two Houses; And to that Purpose wrote Letters to his Majesty and the Parliament, dated the 29th of September, tendring such their Service, and desiring from them respectively, Safe-Conducts for such, as should be imploy'd in that Negotiation: The Parliament return them an Answer, the 20th of October, approving of their Wisdom, Brotherly Affection, &c. and send them a blank Safe-Conduct, only excepting put of the same, James Duke of Lenox, and Robert Earl of Roxborough, as being both Delinquents to this Parliament.
Right Trusty and Well-Beloved Cousins and Counsellors; Right Trusty, and Trusty and Well-Beloved Counsellors; and Trusty and Well-Beloved; We Greet you well. By your Letter of the 29th of September, We Conceive how sensible you are of the present Distractions of this Kingdom, which cannot be a greater Grief to any than to Our Self; Rut seeing all the Means We could possibly use for the Removal thereof, are (by the Practices of such as study Divisions) prevented; and all Our Offers of Treating (in a fair way to settle these Distempers) slighted, and not regardd, We are for the Defence of true Religion, and the Maintenance; of the Liberties of the Subject, the Privileges of Parliament, and Our just (and ever till now unquestioned Authority) necessitated to put Our Self in the posture We are now in; And We shall not further beg a Blessing from GOD on Our Proceedings than We intend the Preservation of these.
As for your Resolution of sending here some of your Number, We see no. Reason why they should apprehend any Danger in their Repair to Us; for they may be Confident to have a safe and free Access to Our Person, which We have never denied to any of Our good Subjects, who Repaired to Us in a Dutiful manner, and were not out of Our Protection; Therefore We Conceive the Granting of a Safe-Conduct to any such absolutely unnecessary; But if they apprehend any Danger from the present Disorders of this Kingdom, and Armies now on Foot, We will Grant such a Pass both for their Coming and Return, as We ordinarily give to any of Our-Subjects, of Servants, for passing through Our Garrison Towns, or Armies, which We doubt not will both secure them, and satisfie you; so We bid you heartily Farewel.
The Conservators on the 16th of November, by a Second Letter, renew their Request for a Safe-Conduct; and express their Reasons for it in a Letter to the Earl of Lanerick his Majesties Secretary for Scotland, alledging, That his Majesties Letter is so dubious, that they cannot perceive a clear Approbation of their Sending, and Mediation, not yet of a Safe-Conduct so be sent them.
Whereas the Commissioners appointed by Us, and Our Parliament of Scotland, for preserving the Articles of the Treaty, have thought fit to send unto Us, being some of their Number. Therefore (for their better security in these times of Commotions of Soldiers, and People in Arms) We have thought fit to Declare so all Our Officers and Soldiers of Our Armies, Sheriffs, Mayors, and all other Our Subjects whatsoever, That We have taken, like as by their Presents, We do take the saids Commissioners, and any others their Adjuncts hereafter, being of their own number, with all their Menial and Domestick Servants and Attendants, into Our Royal Pratection and Safe-Guard, assuring them upon the Royal Word and Faith of a Prince, That the aforesaid their Persons, Servants, and whole Retinue aforesaid, shall be safe and free from all Danger, Molestation, Restraint, or Detention in their repair to Us, Our House. of Parliament, or any Part of Our Kingdom of England, abode therein, and return to Scotland at their Pleasure. And for the further Assurance hereof, We are graciously pleased to Sign, and cause Affix, Our. Signet to this Our full and free Safe-Conduct, and Safe-Guard to the Persons above-named, their said Adjuncts Servants, and Retinue foresaid, from all Harm and Restraint in their Coming, abode in this Kingdom, and return to Scotland, in als ample a meanings and real Assurance, as ever any Safe Guard, or Safe-Conduct, with all the Clauses thereof, in this, or any other Kingdom doth import. And that a Copy hereof, under the Hand of Our Principal Secretaries of State, shall be of als great Force and Effect, for the Safe-Conduct, and securing of their Persons, or any of them, their Retinue and Servants asoresaid, as this Original Signed by Our Royal Hand, and under Our Signet. And We Ordain this Our Safe-Conduct to be publickly intimated to all the Officers and Soldiers of Our Armies, Sheriffs, Mayors and all others Our Subjects, whereby none may pretend Ignorance of the same, Requiring and Commanding them to observe, and give ready Obedience hereunto, or to a Copy thereof so Attested under the Hands of any of Our principal Secretaries of State, as they will Answer upon the Contrary at their highest Perils.
The Commissioners Named were John Earl of London, Lord High Chancellor; John Earl of Lindsey; Sir Archibald Johnston of Waristoun and Mr. Robert Barclay, Provost of Iriving: Their Commission from the Conservators, bearing date at Edinburgh, the 18th of January, 1642–3. But the Earl of Lanerick excepted against Waristoun in the King's Name, and produced his Majesty's Warrant for it; and so, tho' he continued named in the Commission, he was not sent.
The several Papers paesented to his Majesty by the Scots Committee at Oxford, in February 1642–3. With his Majesty's respective Answers thereunto.
Since We your Majesty's most Humble and Loyal Subjects are come into this Kingdom, upon a Safe-Conduct, from your Majesty, and your Houses of Parliament, in name of the Commissioners, for conserving the Peace between the Two Kingdoms, to, offer Our best endeavours for removing the unhappy Differences betwixt your Majesty and your Houses of Parliament, in such a way as may serve most for the good of Religion, your Majesty's Honour, and Peace of your Kingdoms, and according to our Duty, have made Our first Address to your Majesty: It is Our humble Desire, That your Majesty, in your Royal Goodness and Inclination to Peace, may be pleased so far to approve Our Intentions and accept of Our Mediation, that We may be allowed by your Majesty, to go to the Houses of Parliament, for their Approbation thereof; that thereafter We may in Humility propose to your Majesty and them, the particular Desires and and Overtures committed unto Us, and conducing to so good Ends.
His Majesty's Answer.
We, have considered of your Proposition, and the Commission by which you are Authorized to come hither from the Commissioners for conserving the Peace between both Kingdoms: We have likewise duly and carefully examined and weighed the Act of Pacification between Our Two Kingdoms, and upon which you seem to ground your Commission, and to hold your selves warranted and obliged to contribute your utmost endeavours for Unity of Religion and Uniformity of Church Government within all Our Dominions, and for removal of the Differences, between Us and Our Two Houses of Parliament. There is nothing concluded in that Treaty by that Act, which We shall not with all Solemnity and Constancy always observe; and hope it will be the Care of all Our loving Subjects of both Nations, precisely to do so too: That the Peace may be perpetually kept between them; neither is there any means We would not Use to remove these unhappy Differences between Our Two Houses of Parliament and Us, as We have done to prevent them. But We do not yet understand that you or the Commissioners for conserving of the Peace between both Kingdoms, are warranted and obliged by that Act to interpose in these Affairs and Differences in Our Kingdom of England: And therefore We cannot, in a Business which so much concerns the Honour and Interest of the Nation, admit you under that Capacity; or consent, that you go so qualify'd to Our Two Houses of Parliament, for such a Mediation, until you shall make it appear to Us upon what branch of that Act this Warrant and Obligation of yours, and of them that sent you is founded.
The Reply of the Scots Committee.
As your Majesty's Christian and Royal Inclination to Peace, many times before, and now again, manifested in your Majesty's constant Profession, to use all means for removing the unhappy Differences betwixt your Majesty, and your Two Houses of Parliament, did before Our coming hither, make Us hopeful of good Success in Our Employment; so did We conceive from your Majesty's Safe-Conduct, granted unto Us at Our coming, Our Commission for that End would have been unquestionable, and Our humble Endeavours and Mediation acceptable to your Majesty.
The Grounds upon which it may appear, that the Commissioners for conserving the Peace did find themselves Warranted, and obliged to interpose in these Affairs and Differences, are at length exprest in their Letter to your Majesty, and in their Declaration to the Houses of Parliament; whereupon the Safe-Conduct were granted, which were no other but the Duty they owe to God Almighty, by their National Oath, to your Majesty their Sovereign Lord, by their Allegiance and greatest Native Interest in the Safety of your Royal Person and Greatness: To the Kingdom of England by the publick Faith and Fraternity, and to their own Native Country, your Majesty's Kingdom of Scotland by Nature, and by the Trust reposed in them by your Majesty, and your Parliament; unto which they could not be answerable, if they should not use their best Endeavours for removing these Differences between your Majesty and your Houses of Parliament, as reflecting upon that Kingdom, and Evidently tending to the Disturbance of the common Peace of the Two Kingdoms; knowing assuredly, that if the Parliament had been Sitting, they would have taken this as a Matter of greatest Necessity and Concernment before all other Things, to their most serious Consideration. A special Obligation and Warrant of this Desire and Duty of our Mediation, doth also arise from the Answer which your Majesty and your Houses of Parliament did give unto the Eighth Demand in the Treaty of Pacification, concerning Unity of Religion, which was not only propounded as a principal Means for conserving of Peace between the two Kingdoms, and hath been a Ground to the Commissioners for conserving of the Peace, to insist in the same Desires to your Majesty, as a principal means of Peace; but also of divers Petitions to your Majesty from the General Assembly, and the Commissiners thereof, and of your Majesty's Answer to them; of Declarations from them to the Two Houses of Parliament, and from the Two Houses of Parliament to them, and of divers Letters to your Majesty, and Declarations to the Houses of Parliament, from the Lords of the Privy-Council, for Unity of Religion, and Uniformity of Kirk-Government, as promising Peace, Prosperity, and all sorts of Blessings to both Kingdoms. Upon these and the like Grounds, did the Commissioners for conserving the Peace, seconded with the Approbation of the Lords of Council, and with the joynt desires of the Commissioners of the General Assembly, find themselves Warranted and Obliged to use all good means, and to contribute their utmost Endeavours for that Unity of Religion, and Uniformity of Kirk-Government, in all your Majesty's Dominions, and for removing the Differences betwixt your Majesty, and your Houses of Parliament; and for these so much wished for Ends, have sent us, of their own Number, your Majesty's most humble and faithful Subjects, who would, esteem it our greatest Happiness on Earth, to have the Honour to be Instruments in so good a Work: And now do again, in all Humility and Faithfulness, according to our Commission, offer our Service and best Endeavours to your Majesty, and desire to be permitted by your Majesty, to go to the Houses of Parliament, that we may, without longer delay, acquit our selves in the Trust committed unto us.
His Majesty's Answer.
We have made no Prefession, or used no Expression of our Intention to Peace, which our Actions have not, and shall not always make good: God and the World will bear us Witness, we have omitted no possible "means our Understanding could suggest to us, to remove those unhappy Differences. But how our Safe-Conduct, which is only a safe Admission of you into this Kingdom, should confer a Capacity upon you, or qualifie you in a condition the Law hath not given you, we cannot understand our safeguard shall by no means be violated, though we cannot admit the Authority and Obligation you pretend to by your Commission.
As we shall to our utmost Power, maintain and defend the Laws of that our Native Kingdom, in that Kingdom; so we have been, and shall be more punctually careful not to do, or (to our Power) to suffer any thing to be done in this, which may reflect upon that our Kingdom, or tend to the Disturbance of the Common Peace of our two Kingdoms, and so may have any Ground of Inviting any such Mediation to us but we conceive, there is more Ground for those who sent you, as Conservators of the Articles of 'Treaty, to think themselves sufficiently Authorised to take Notice of, and resent the Declaration of our two Houses of Parliament, Inviting our Subjects of that Nation to Assist against us, as being a desire directly contrary to the Articles of the Treaty, and which doth really and evidently tend to the common Disturbance of the Peace between the two Kingdoms, and so within the proper bounds of their Commission and Trust.
We have again deliberately considered of the Answer of the Eighth Demand in the Treaty of Pacification, concerning Unity of Religion, and Uniformity of Church Government, and cannot find in that Answer the least Obligation or Warrant of this Desire of yours, in the point of Mediation: The Answer of' us and our two Houses of Parliament here, to that desire being this; That we did approve of the Affection of our Subjects of Scotland, in their desire of having a Conformity of Church Government between the two Nations. And as the Parliament had already taken into Consideration, the Reformation of Church Government, they would proceed therein in due time, as should best conduce to the Glory of God, and Peace of the Church and of both Kingdoms; but that this Reformation should be, by abolishing the Order of Bishops out of this Kingdom, or that the Confervators of the Articles of Treaty should intermeddle in the Time or Circumstances of such a Reformation, which cannot be judged without the knowledge of the Laws, and Policy of this Kingdom, is not so much as Implied by any Words in that Answer; or in the whole Act of Pacification. And the Act of Parliament of our Kingdom of Scotland, which Authorizeth the Commissioners for conserving of the Articles of the Treaty (which is the Stile of the Commissioners, from whom you are sent, and who have all their Authority by Virtue of that Act) gives them Power only, betwixt the Sitting of the Parliament, to Convene amongst themselves, or with such as shall be chosen by us, and our Parliament of England, and to endeavour, by all lawful means, for preserving and keeping the said Articles of Peace, concluded in the said Treaty already, and not otherwise: Declaring, that the Power of this Commission shall be restrained to the Articles of Peace, concluded in the said Treaty, so that these Commissioners have not the least tittle of Authority to interpose in matters of Difference within the Kingdom of England, but only where the Peace and Articles concluded between the two Kingdoms are Violated. And if neither of those Acts of Parliament give the least Colour or Authority to those Commissioners (as apparently they do not) to undertake a Mediation in the unhappy Differences of this Kingdom, you will find no other Title to it by your National Oath, by Nature, and by your Publick Faith and Fraternity, than any other of our good Subjects of that our Native Kingdom of Scotland, or indeed of either of our other Kingdoms, may Challenge to themselves: And whether that can be a Capacity of Mediation between us, and both our Houses of Parliament; (when under pretence of their Commands, Arms are taken up against us, and Endeavours have been used to destroy us and our Children) yourselves will easily judge. Neither hath any consent been given by us to it, in our Answers to any Letters from the Commissioners of that our Kingdom of Scotland (what Desires or Intimations have been in their Letters to us, or in their Declarations to both Houses of Parliament, is not meterial) which is acknowledged in their Letter to our Secretary of Scotland, in which they say, They carnot perceive a clear approbation from us of your Sending and Mediation. Neither can we, by any means admit, that the Commissioners of Scotland, for conserving the Articles of Treaty, or the Lords of our Council of that Kingdom, or the Commissioners of the General Assembly there, are in any degree Warranted or Obliged to intermeddle in the Religion of Church-Government of this Kingdom, which is so intermixt with the Civil Government, that the same cannot be understood by them.
The Scots Committee.
If your Majesties Native Kingdom of Scotland, could in the Conscience of their Duty to God, of Loyalty to your Majesty, of providing for their own Safety, and of Charity to their Bretheren of England, have sitten still as Idle beholders of the present Combustion and Calamities, it might havebeen accounted a Presumption or Officiousness to offer to interpose and meddle in Matters wherein they were not specially concerned, but that manifold and undeclinable necessity, did constrain the Commissioners for conserving the Peace between the two Kingdoms (who; by reason of the Trust reposed in them, by your Majesty and the late Parliament, and of the universal Expectation of that Kingdom, were in Duty most concerned to bestir themselves in matters of that kind) to offer in all Humility and Love, their best Service and Endeavours to your Majesty, and the two Houses of Parliament, for a desirable and blessed Pacification, for this purpose, and no other publick of private Project or Design of their own, did they crave a Safe-Conduct (the constitution of Affairs, and the time so requiring) for such of their own number as they should desire to send to your Majesty, and the Houses of Parliament, which your Majesty was graciously pleased to grant, without either opposing of that, or intimating any other end of their repairing into England, which they conceived your Majesty would have done, if their Mediation (which importeth no other Authority, but that they are warranted and obliged to make offer of this their humble Duty and Service) would not have been acceptable; yet do they not pretend your Majesty's Safe-Conduct to be an Invitement of this Mediation, but only a Warrant of Admitting, and a ground of Accepting of them, who, according to their Commission from your Majesty and the Parliament, had applyed themselves to so Pious and necessary a Duty.
We do earnestly beseech God, by whom Kings Reign, to bless your Majesty, in your Royal and Fatherly Care of the conserving of the Peace of your Dominions, both in themselves and of each of them with another. But as no humane Prudence or Solicitude is able, at some times to prevent the Commotion of Kingdoms; so it is impossible where Kingdoms be so nearly joyned betwixt themselves, and so straitly United under one Hand, to extinguish the sympathy and sense of the Troubles of their Head, and Fellow Subjects; or so to stop the deluge of the Troubles of the One, that it affect not the Other, with the Danger of the like, to the Disturbance of the common Peace of Both. The Commissioners for conserving the Peace according to their Duty (for the performing whereof they are to Answer to your Majesty, and the Parliament of that Kingdom) did consider of your Majesty's several Letters and Declarations to them, expressing your confidence in your Majesties Subjects there; and did so far take Notice of the Invitation of the two Houses of Parliament for Assistance, that after long and mature Deliberation, they resolved, without any other Determination or Undertaking, to send up some of their own Number to receive to presence, particular and full Information of the Differences betwixt your Majesty and them, to offer in all Humility to your Majesty, and in all Love to them, their earnest Desires and bell: Endeavours to prevent the Effusion of more Blood, by an happy Accommodation; and if the Differences were greater than by them could be removed, to make true Relation of the state of Matters, and faithful account of their Diligence to your Majesty and the Parliament of that Kingdom; who, in their greater Wisdom and Authority were to consider and resolve what is fit to bedone in the time of so great Difficulties and Dangers for your Majesty's Honour, their own Safety, and the common Peace of both Kingdoms, which Course and Method if they had not followed, they could not have been answerable neither to God, nor to your Majesty and the Parliament, nor to the Christian World, which might justly wonder and be astonished, that they who lately had the Sense of Troubles, should sit still in Ease and Security in the time of the Danger of Religion, your Majesty's Person, and their own Peace, and of the Distress of their Brethren.
When your Majesty in your Royal Wisdom shall in the eighth Article of the Treaty be pleased to compare the Demand of Uniformity of Kirk-Government, as a principal Mean of a well-governed and durable Peace, with the Answer acknowledging this Desire to be a T'estimony of the Affection of your Majesty's Subjects of Scotland, and promising that the Parliament would in due time proceed to the Reformation of Church-Government, as should best conduce to the Glory of God, and Peace of the Church, and of both Kingdoms, and withal shall be pleased to consider, that the two Houses of Parliament have since declared to the General Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland, to the Commissioners for conserving the Peace, and to the Lords of secret Council, that they were about the Reformation so much desired and intended for so good Ends, and at last both Houses of Parliament, who must have the Knowledge of the Laws and Policy of this Kingdom, have past their Bill for abolishing of the Order of Bishops, as a principal Mean of the desired Uniformity in Kirk-Government, it will by this Progress evidently appear, that not only the Commissioners of the General Assembly have suffcient Ground for their late Supplication, but the Commissioners for conserving this Article of the Treaty have reason, from the Act of Pacification, and the Act of Parliament, for their Mediation about this Point, so necessary for a firm and settled Peace, and at this time when both Houses have past their Bill; nor are we out of hope but your Majesty, from your Princely Inclination to Peace, and from your wonted Justice and Goodness, never to be repented of, will in the end, against all Difficulties, give way to this Desire, which may be a Mean not only of Peace, but of many other Blessings to your Majesty and all your Dominions, to all the reformed Kirks, and the whole Christian World, as is at length express'd in the Demand, which was the occasion of the Article of the Treaty.
As the Commissioners for conserving of the Articles of the Treaty (and consequently for conserving the Peace, in so far as it may be conserved by conserving of these Articles, and by preventing and removing all Occasions which may tend to the disturbance thereof) have Power by the Aft, betwixt the fitting of Parliaments, to meet amongst themselves, or with such as shall be chosen by your Majesty and the Parliament of England, and to endeavour by all lawful Means for preserving the Articles of Peace concluded in the Treaty alternately, so is it manifest and undeniable, that whilst these Commissioners are not named, they may meet with your Majesty and the Houses of Parliament now sitting, who have the Power originally in yourselves; and as they are to conserve such Articles of the Treaty as were perfectly concluded at that time, so are they no less obliged to conserve every other Article of the Treaty, in so far as it was concluded, and in all Reason and Equity to procure, by all good means, that the Articles which were agreed upon in the general, and left dependent and promised in the Particulars to be determined in due time, might be perfected and finally concluded, that all of them at last might equally become the Object of the Care of the Confervers of the Peace, who could not answer for their Fidelity, if by their ceasing or Negligence they did suffer Articles of this kind, which were more to be esteemed than some of those which were fully concluded (they being so important for the common Peace) to perish or expire.
If your Majesty's Privy-Council, or others of Publick Trust, upon the Obligation of their National Oath, their Allegiance to your Majesty, and their Publick Faith, should offer themselves to interpose in this Exigence, when your Majesty's Person and Dominions are in so great danger by Armies, we believe your Majesty would take it as a pious, loyal and charitable Motion; may not then the Commissioners for conserving of the Peace, who, besides all the former Bonds tying them after a special manner above all other your Majesty's Subjects, are warranted by the Articles of the Treaty, and encouraged by your Majesty's safe Conduct, craved upon their Part for that End, and granted by your Majesty to them, as sensible of the Distractions of this Kingdom, and for no other End, be very confident of your Majesty's gracious Acceptance of their Mediation? The Letter of the date at Edinburg, November 16, 1642, did desire both a more clear Approbation from your Majesty, and a safe Conduct; but they conceiving the obtaining of a safe Conduct, which before had been denied to be a real Approbation of their Desires, did not any more insist in seeking a formal Approbation, which upon wife Considerations might by your Majesty have been past in Silence.
If upon these Reasons, which did give Satisfaction to the Commissioners of Peace, your Majesty think it not fit to accept the Offer of this our Service in this great Business, and if your Majesty conceive the Intermixture of the Civil and Church-Government of this Kingdom (which the Houses of Parliament, who know it, judge not to be necessary) to be a Matter that cannot be understood by the Commissioners of Peace, the Lord's of your; Majesty's Council, or the Commissioners of the General Assembly, do humbly desire to know whether, according to our former Proposition, your, Majesty will permit us to go to the Houses of Parliament, for delivering the Declaration of the Commissioners for Peace, as a special Point of our Trust committed to us; we do also beseech (which is another Point of our Trust) that your Majesty will be pleased, according to your gracious Promise express'd in the late Parliament, presently to indict a new Parliament to as short a Day as upon Warrant from your Majesty the Subjects may be lawfully warned thereunto, for such necessary Causes as concern the Publick of that Kingdom, and the common Peace of the two Kingdoms, that your Majesty having declared your Royal Pleasure concerning these our humble Desires, we may without farther dispute or delay return to those that sent us, praying that some more fit effectual Means may be found for feeling your Majesty and your Kingdoms in Safety and Peace.
His Majesty's Answer.
It is acknowledged by his Majesty, that if any one of the Articles of the Treaty had been broken or violated (as his Majesty doth not so much as fee pretended) or any Debate or Difference had risen thereupon (about which there is now no Dispute) the Commissioners had then been not only warranted, but obliged to have laboured to prevent all Troubles and Divisions which might arise by such a Breach, to the Disturbance of the common Peace, and to remove and compose all such Differences, according to sucb Power as was granted to them; but till his Majesty be satisfied that Authority is by some Law given to the Commissioners for conserving the Articles of the Treaty, to represent his Majesty's native Kingdom of Scotland in this Offer of mediating for a desired and blessed Pacification here, his Majesty cannot see has, the pious, dutiful, provident or charitable Concernment of that Kingdom in the Calamities of this, or their Sympathy and Sense of the Troubles their, Head and Fellow-Subjects, can inieress the Commissioners any more than any other of his good Subjects of that Kingdom, to bestir themselves in Matters of that kind, or why any such Endeavours should be by any (much less universally) expected from them, so far is he from seeing that any undeniable Necessity constrained them to it.
And since the express Words of the Act of Pacification itself are, that the Power of the Commission shall be reftrained to the Articles of Peace in the Treaty, and the very Words of the Commission itself restrain their Endeavours to the preferring and keeping the Articles of Peace concluded in the Treaty alternately (so that his Majesty cannot but wonder whence they can pretend any Obligation or Authority to intermeddle with or press concerning any such Articles as are not concluded, but still dependent, how important soever they suppose them to be even to the common Peace) and giving them only liberty to convene to that effect amongst themselves, or with the Commissioners chosen by his Majesty with Consent of the Parliament of England, and restraining them in all their Proceedings to the Power granted to them in manner aforesaid, and no otherwise (as clearly intending to restrain all Power that might be pretended to any Inferences, Analogies or Conferences, how manifest joever they might appear.) and requiring them to consist of the Number of Twelve, and not giving them Power to delegate a smaller Power, his Majesty cannot consent that a Number the Law allows not (that is three) sbould address themselves to those the Law hath not appointed them (that is both Houses) not only concerning that which the Law intrusted not to them (as a Pacification here) but even concerning that from which the Law expresly restrains them, that is, one of the Articles of the Treaty no way concluded or agreed on, but expresly reserved by the Parliament, to be considered in due (that is their own) time, concerning Church-Government, the Intermixture of which with the Civil Estate, as his Majesty still conceives to be very great, of very high Concernment, and not to be understood by the Commissioners, who have not the Knowledge of the Laws and, Policy of this Kjngdom, so his Majesty is confident (notwithstanding the Declaration and the Bill abolishing the Order of Bishops) that if they well knew how generally any thing of that kind was opposed whilst the Houses continued full, and how much the major part of both Houses were absent at the passing of that Declaration and Bill (insomuch as his Majesty is credibly inform d there were not above five Lords present when the Bill past and what violent and tumultuous Assemblies had occasioned so great and unusual an Absence, they would be confident, as he is, that in a full and peaceable Convention of Parliament both Houses will appear to be of the same Opinion with his Majesty in this Particular, and to have in that the same Thoughts of the Law and Policy of this Kingdom.
His Majesty's Care that the Deluge of the Troubles of this Kingdom effect not that with the danger of the like, is very visible to all the World, his Majesty, out of his great Desire of continuing them in Peace and Tranquillity, not desiring any Assistance from them, even for his own Preservation; and whoever doth desire any Commotion there, to assist their rebellious and invasive Arms, will, he hopes, be look'd upon as the Troublers of the Peace, and as Incendiaries labouring to lay Foundations of perpetual Hostility between the Kingdoms, and then (for ought his Majesty can see) there will be no cause to suspect any Commotions there, and such Dangers will prove rather imaginary than real, tho' the Conservators of the Treaty contain themselves within their legal and proper Bounds.
His Majesty wonders, that since his Approbation of their Mediation was desired, when his safe Conduct was ask'd, and the first was not given, when the latter was, that it should not have been easily seen by this Proceeding of his Majesty, that as he never granted the first (as seeing no Authority they had for such a Mediation) so he only at last granted the other, as contented to hear what they could say to him upon that Point, either as private Persons, or to give him better Satisfaction than he could give himself, what Right they could pretend to any publick Capacity of that kind; but having heard all that they have offered, and not finding any thing that warrants them in this in any special manner above his Majestys other Subjects, his Majesty cannot with reason admit of any private Persons whatsoever into such a publick Capacity or with his own Dignity, and that of this Nation, allow his Subjects of another Kingdom, not authorized by any Law, to make themselves (under the Title of Mediation) Umpires and Arbirators of the Differences here.
For the calling of a Parliament in Scotland, his Majesty desires to know what Promise of his it is which they mention him to have particularly expres'd to his late Parliament? The Law which his Majesty then graciously past concerning that Point, his Majesty well remembers (and will justly, punctually and religiously observe, together with all the rest consented to by him) that the Parliament there shall convene upon the first Tuesday of June 1644, and according to the same Act will appoint one betwixt this and that Day; if his Majesty shall think fitting, who, as he is by that very Law express'd to be sale Judge of that Convenience, so the Commissioners are neither by that nor any other Law entrusted or enabled to judge thereof.
The Scots Commissioners being not able to obtain his Majesty's Leave to go to London, Lowdon was inclinable to make a Protestation, that his Majesty had thereby violated their safe Conduct, but he was diverted from that Resolution, and so took Leave of the King, and return'd to Scotland, only Lindsey went back to London, from whence he came.
The humble petition of the Commissioners of the General Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland, met at Edinburgh Jan. 4. 1643.
Our Silence and ceasing to present before your Majesty our humble Thoughts and Desires at this time of common Danger to Religion, to your Majesty's sacred Person, your Crown and Posterity, and to all your Majesty's Dominions, were Impiety against God, Unthankfulness and Disloyalty against your Majesty, and indirect Approbation and hardning of the Adversaries of Truth and Peace in their wicked Ways and Cruelty against our Brethren, lying in such Depths of Affliction and Anguish of Spirit; any one of which Crimes were in us above all others inexcusable, and would prove us most unworthy of the Trust committed unto us. The Flame of this common Combustion hath almost devoured Ireland, is now wasting the Kingdom of England, and we cannot tell how soon it shall enter upon ourselves, and set this your Majesty's most ancient and native Kingdom on fire; if in this woful Case and lamentable Condition of your Majesty's Dominions all others should be silent, it behoveth us to speak; and if our Tongues and Pens should cease, our Consciences within us would cry out, and the Stones in the Streets would answer us.
'Our great Grief and Apprehension of Danger is not a little increased, partly by the Insolency and Presumption of Papists, and others disaffected to the Reformation of Religion, who, altho' for their Number and Power they be not considerable amongst us, yet thro' the Success of the Popish Party in Ireland, and the Hopes they conceive of the prevailing Power of Popish Armies, and the Prelatical Faction in England, they have of late taken Spirit, and begun to speak big Words against the Reformation of Religion, and the Work of God in this Land; and partly, and more principally, that a chief Praise of the Protestant Religion (and thereby our not vain, but just Gloriation) is by the publick Declaration of the Earl of Newcastle, General of your Majesty's Forces for the Northern Parts, and nearest unto us, transferred unto Papists, who, altho' they be sworn Enemies unto Kings, and be as infamous for their Treasons and Conspiracies against Princes and Rulers, as for their known Idolatry and spiritual Tyranny, yet are they openly declared to be not only good Subjects, but far better Subjects than Protestants, which is a new and soul Disparagement of the reformed Religion, a notable Injury to your Majesty in your Honour, a sensible Reflection upon the whole Body of this Kingdom, which is impatient that any Subjects should be more loyal than they, but abhorreth and extremely disdaineth that Papists, who refuse to take the Oath of Allegiance, should be compared with them in Allegiance and Fidelity, and (which being a strange Doctrine from the Mouth or Pen of professed Protestants) will suffer a hard Construction from all the reformed Kirks.
'We therefore your Majesty's most humble and loving Subjects, upon these and the like Considerations do humbly intreat that your Majesty may be pleased in your Princely Wisdom first to consider, that the Intentions of Papists, directed by the Principles of their Profession, are no other than they have been from the beginning, even to build their Babel, and to set up their execrable Idolatry and Antichristian Tyranny in all your Majesty's Dominions, to change the Face of your two Kingdoms of Scotland and England into the Similitude of miserable Ireland, which is more bitter to the People of God, your Majesty's good Subjects, to think upon, than Death; and whatsoever their present Pretences be for the Defenee of your Majesty's Person and Authority, yet in the end, by their Arms and Power, with a display'd Banner, to bring that to pass against your Royal Person and Posterity, which the fifth of November (never to be forgotten) was not able by their subtil and undermining Treason to produce, or, which will be their greatest Mercy, to reduce your Majesty and your Kingdoms to the base and unnatural Slavery of their Monarch the Pope.
'And next, that your Majesty, upon this undeniable Evidence, may timously and speedily apply your Royal Authority for disbanding their Forces, suppressing their Power, and disappointing their bloody and merciless Projects.
'And for this End we are with greater Earnestness than before constrained to fall down again before your Majesty, and in all Humility to renew the Supplication of the late General Assembly, and our own former Petition in their Name, for Unity of Religion, and for Uniformity of Church-Government in all your Majesty's Kingdoms, and to this effect for a Meeting of some Divines to be holden in England, unto which, according to the Desire of your Majesty's Parliament, some Commissioners may be sent from this Kirk, that in all Points to be proponed and debated there may be the greater Consent and Harmony. We take the Boldness to be the more instant in this our humble Desire, because it concerneth the Lord Jesus Christ so much in his Glory, your Majesty in your Honour, the Kirk of England (which we ought to tender as our own Bowels, and whole Reformation is more dear unto us than our Lives) in her Happiness, and the Kirk of Scotland in her Purity and Peace, former Experience and daily Sense teaching us, that without the Reformation of the Kirk of England there is no Hope or Possibility of the Continuance of Reformation here.
'The Lord of Heaven and Earth, whose Vicegerent your Majesty; is, calleth for this great Work of Reformation at your Hands, and, the present Commotions and Troubles of your Majesty's Dominions, are either a Preparation in the Mercy of God for this blessed Reformation and Unity of Religion (which is the Desire, Prayer, and Expectation of all your Majesty's good Subjects in this Kingdom) or, which they tremble to think upon, and earnestly deprecate, are in the Justice of God for the Abuse of the Gospel, the tolerating of Idolatry and Superstition against so clear a Light, and not acknowledging the Day of Visitation, the beginning of such a doleful Desolation, as no Policy or Power of Man shall be able to prevent, and as shall make your Majesty's Kingdoms within a short Time as miserable as they may be happy by a Reformation of Religion. God forbid that whilst the Houses of Parliament do prosess their Desire of the Reformation of Religion in a peaceable and Parliamentary way, and pass their Bills for that End in the Particulars, that your Majesty, the Nurse-Father of the Kirk of Christ, to whose Care the Custody and Vindication of Religion doth principally belong, should, to the provoking of the Anger of God, the stopping of the Influence of so many Blessings from Heaven, and the grieving of the Hearts of all the Godly, frustrate our Expectation, make our Hopes ashamed, and hazard the Loss of the Hearts of all your good Subjects, which, next unto the Truth and Unity of Religion, and the Safety of your Kingdoms, are willing to hazard their Lives, and spend their Blood for your Majesty's Honour and Happiness.
'We are not ignorant that the Work is great, the Difficulties and Impediments many, and that there be both Mountains and Lions in the way; the strongest Lett, till it be taken out of the way, is the Mountain of Prelacy, and no wonder, if your Majesty consider how many Papists, and Popishly affected, have for a long time found Peace and Ease under the Shadow thereof, how many of the Prelatical Faction have thereby their Life and Being, how many profane and worldly Men do fear the Yoke of Christ, and are unwilling to submit themselves to the Obedience of the Gospel, and how many there be whose Eyes are dazled with the external Pomp and Glory of the Kirk, whose Minds are miscarried with a Conceit of the governing of the Kirk by the Rules of Human Policy, and whose Hearts are affrighted with the Apprehensions of the dangerous Consequences which may ensue upon Alterations; but when your Majesty in your Princely and Religious Wisdom, shall remember from the Records of former Times, how against the Gates of Hell, the Force and Fraud of worldly and wicked Men, and all panick Fears of Danger, the Christian Religion was first planted, and the Christian Kirk thereafter reformed, and from the Condition of the present Times, how many, from the Experience of the Tyranny of Prelates, are afraid to discover themselves, left they be revenged upon them hereafter; whereas Prelacy being removed, they would openly prosess what they are, and join with others in the way of Reformation; all Obstacles and Difficulties shall be but Matter of the Manifestation of the Power of God, the principal Worker, and the Means of the greater Glory to your Majesty, the prime Instrument.
'The Intermixture of the Government of Prelates with the Civil State, mentioned in your Majesty's Answer to our former Petition, being taken away, and the right Government by Assemblies, which is to be seen in all the reformed Kirks, and wherein the Agreement will be easy, being settled, the Kirk and Religion will be more pure and free from Mixture, and the Civil Government more found and firm; that Government of the Kirk must suit best with the Civil State, and be most useful for Kings and Kingdoms, which is best warranted by God, by whom Kings do reign, and Kingdoms are established; nor can a Reformation be expected in the common and ordinary way, expressed also in your Majesty's Answer, the wisest and most religious Princes have found it imposssible, and implying a Repugnancy, since the Persons to be reformed and the Reformers must be diverse, and the way of Reformation must be different from the corrupt way, by which Defection of Workmen and Corruption in Doctrine, Worship and Government, have entred into the Kirk; suffer us therefore, dread Sovereign, to renew our Petitions for this Unity of Religion and Uniformity of Kirk-Government, and for a Meeting of some Divines of both Kingdoms, who may prepare Matters for your Majesty's View, and for the Examination and Approbation of more full Assemblies. The National Assembly of this Kirk, from which we have our Commission, did promise in their Thanksgiving for the many Favours expressed in your Majesty's Letter, their best Endeavour to keep the People under their Charge in Unity and Peace, and in Loyalty and Obedience to your Majesty and your Laws, which we confess is a Duty well beseeming the Preachers of the Gospel.
'But we cannot conceal how much both Pastors and People; are grieved and disquieted with the late Reports of the Success, Boldness and Strength of Popish Forges in Ireland and England, and how much Danger from the Power of so malicious and bloody Enemies is apprehended to the Religion and Peace of this Kirk and Kingdom, conceived by them to be the Spring whence have issued all their Calamities and Miseries, which we humbly remonstrate to your Majesty, as a Necessity requiring a General Assembly, and do earnestly supplicate for the Presence and Assistance of your Majesty's Commissioner at the Day to be appointed, that by universal Consent of the whole Kirk the best Course may be taken for the Preservation of Religion, and for the averting of the great Wrath which they conceive to be imminent to this Kingdom. If it shall please the Lord, in whose Hand is the Heart of the King, as the Rivers of Waters, to turn it whithersoever he will, to incline your Majesty's Heart to this thorough Reformation, no more to tolerate the Mass, or any part of Romish Superstition or Tyranny, and to command that all good Means be used for the Conversion of your Princely Consort the Queen's Majesty (which is also the humble Desire of this whole Kirk and Kingdom) your joint Comforts shall be multiplied above the Days of your Affliction to your incredible Joy, your Glory shall shine in Brightness above all your Royal Progenitors, to the Admiration of the World, and the Terror of your Enemies, and your Kingdoms so far abound in Righteousness, Peace and Prosperity, above all that hath been in former Generations, that they shall say, It is good for us that we have been afflicted.
His Majesty's Answer to a late Petition presented to him by the Hands of Alexander Henderson, from the (Commissioners of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
We received lately a Petition from you by the Hands of Mr. Alexander-Henderson, to the which we intended to have given an Answer, as soon as we had transacted the Business with the other Commissioners addressed to us from the Conservators of the Treaty of that our Kingdom; but finding the same to be published in Print, and to be dispersed throughout our Kingdom; to the great danger of scandalling of our well-affected Subjects, who may interpret the Bitterness and Sharpness of some Expressions not to be so agreeable to that Regard and Reverence which is due to our Person, and the Matter itself to be reproachful to the Honour and Constitution of this Kingdom, we have been compelled the more strictly to examine as well the Authority of the Petitioners, as the Matter of the Petition itself, and to publish our Opinion of both, that our Subjects of both Kingdoms may see how equally just and sensible we are of the Laws and Honour of both our Kingdoms.
And first, upon perusal of the Petition, we required to see the Commission by which the Messenger who brought this Petition, or the Persons who sent him, are qualified to intermeddle in Affairs so foreign to their Jurisdiction, and of so great Concernment to this our Kingdom of England; upon Examination whereof, and in Defence of the Laws and Government of this our Kingdom, which we are trusted and sworn to defend, we must profess, that the Petitioners, or the General Assembly of our Church of Scotland, have not the least Authority or Power to intermeddle or interpose in the Affairs of this Kingdom or Church, which are settled and established by the proper Laws of this Land, and till they be altered by the same competent power, cannot be enveighed against, without a due Sense of us and this Nation, much less can they present any Advice or Declaration to our Houses of Parliament against the same, or to that purpose to send any Letters, as now they have done, to any Ministers of our Church here, who by the Laws of this Land cannot correspond against the same; therefore we do believe that the Petitioners, when they shall consider how unwarranted it is by the Laws of that Kingdom, and how contrary it is to the Laws of this, to the Professions they have made to each other, and how unbecoming in itself for them to require the ancient, happy and establish'd Government of the Church of England to be altered, and conformed to the Laws and Constitutions of another Church, will find themselves misled by the Information of some Persons here, who would willingly engage the Petitioners to soment a Difference and Division between the two Kingdoms, which we have with so much Care and Industry endeavoured to prevent, not having laboured more to quench the Combustion in this Kingdom, than we have to hinder the like from either devouring Ireland, or entring into Scotland, which, if all others will equally labour, will undoubtedly be avoided; but we cannot so easily pass over the mention of Ireland, being mov'd to it by scandalous Aspersions that have been often cast upon us upon that Subject, and the use that hath been made of the woful Distractions of that Kingdom, as of a Seminary of Fears and Jealousies to beget the like Distractions in this, and which (left they may have farther Influence) we are the more willing to make our Innocence appear in that Particular.
When first that horrid Rebellion began we were in our Kingdom of Scotland, and the Sense we had then of it, the Expressions we made concerning it, the Commissions (together with some other Assistance) we sent immediately into that Kingdom, and the Recommendation we made of it to both our Houses of Parliament in England, are known to all Persons of Quality there and then about us; after our return into England our ready concurring to all the Desires of both Houses that might most speedily repress that Rebellion, by parting the Bill of Pressing, and in it a Clause which quitted a Right challenged by all, and enjoy'd by many of our Predecessors, by parting with our Rights in the Lands escheated to us by that Rebellion, for the Encouragement of Adventurers, by emptying of our Magazines of Arms and Ammunition for that Service (which we have since needed for our necessary Defence and Preservation) by consenting to all Bills for the raising of Money for the same, tho' containing unusual Clauses, which trusted both Houses without us with the Matter of disposing it; our often pressing both Houses not to neglect that Kingdom, by being diverted by Considerations and Disputes less concerning both Kingdoms; our Offer of raising 10000 Voluntiers to be sent thither, and our several Offers to engage our own Royal Person in the Suppression of that horrid Rebellion, are no less known to all this Nation, than our perpetual Earnestness by our foreign Ministers to keep all manner of Supplies from being transported for the Relief of the Rebels, is known to several neighbouring Princes; which if all our Subjects will consider, and withal how many of the Men, and how much of the Money raised for that End, and how much Care, Time and Industry have been diverted from that Employment, and employed in this unnatural War against us (the true Cause of the present Misery and Want which our British Armies there do now endure) they will soon free us from all those Imputations so scandalously and groundlesly laid upon us, and impute the continuance of the Combustion of that miserable Kingdom, the Danger it may bring upon our Kingdoms of England and Scotland, and the beginning of this doleful Desolation, to those who are truly guilty of it.
For Unity in Religion, which is desired, we cannot but answer, that we much apprehend left the Papish may make some Advantage of that Expression, by continuing that Scandal with more Authority, which they have ever heretofore used to cast upon the Reformation, by interpreting all the Differences in Ceremony, Government, or indifferent Opinions between several Protestant Churches, to be Differences in Religion; and left our good Subjects of England, who have ever esteemed themselves of the same Religion with you, should suspect themselves to be esteemed by you to be of a contrary; and that the Religion which they and their Ancestors have held ever since the blessed Reformation, and in and for which they are resolved to die, is taxed and branded of Falshood or Insufficiency, by such a Desire.
For Uuiformity in Church-Government, we conceiv'd the Answer formerly given by us to the former Petition in this Argument, would have saisfied the Petitioners, and is so full, that we can add little to it; viz,. That the Government here established by the Laws, hath so near a Relation and Intermixture with the Civil State ("which may be unknown to the Petitioners) that till a composed disgested Form he presented to us, upon a free Debate of both House in a Parliamentary Way, whereby the Consent and Approbation of this whole Kingdom may be had, and we, and all our Subjects may discern what is to be left in or brought in, as well as what is to be taken away, we know not how to consent to any alteration, otherwise than to such an Act for the ease of tender Consciences is the Matter of Ceremonies, as we have often offered; and that this, and any thing else that may concern the Peace of the Church, and the Advancement of God's true Religion, may be soberly discussed, and happily effected, we have formerly offered and are still willing that Debates of that Nature may be entred into by a Synod of Godly and Learned Divines, to be regularly chosen according to the Laws and Customs of this Kingdom; to which we shall be willing that some Learned Divines of our Church of Scotland be likewise sent, to be present, and offer and debate their Reasons. With this Answer the Petitioners had great Reason to Aquiesce, without enlarging the Matter of their former Petition only with bitter Expressions against the established Government and Laws of their neighbour Nation, (as if it were contrary to the Word of God) with whom they have so lately entred into a strict Amity and Friendship.
But we cannot enough wonder, that the Petitioners should interpose themselves, not only as sit Directors and Judges between us and our two Houses of Parliament, in Business so wholly concerning the Peace and Government of this our Kingdom, and in a Matter so absolutely entrusted to us, as what new Laws to consent or not to consent to; but should assume and Publish, that the desire of Reformation in this Kingdom is in a peaceable and Parliamentary way; when all the World may know, that the Proceedings here have been and are not only contrary to all the Rules and Precedents of former Parliaments, but Destructive to the Freedom, Priviledge, and Dignity of Parliaments themselves; that we were first driven by Tumults, for the safety of our Life, from our Cities of London and Westminster, and have been since pursued, fought withal, and are now kept from thence by an Army, raised, as is pretended, by the two Houses, which consist not of the fourth part of the number they ought to do, the rest being either driven from thence by the same violence, or expell'dor imprisoned for not consenting to the Treasons and unheard-of Insolencies practised against us: And if the Petitioners could believe these Proceedings to be in a peaceable Parliamentary way, they were very unacquainted with the Order and Constitution of this Kingdom, and not so fit instruments to promote that Reformation and Peace they seem to desire.
We cannot believe the intermixture of the present Ecclesiastical Government with the Civil State to be other than a very good Reason; and that the Government of the Church should be by the Rules of Human Policy, to be other than a very good Rule, unless some other Government were as well proved, as pretended, to be better Warranted by the Word of God.
Of any Bills offered us for Reformation, we shall no now speak, they being a part, of those Articles upon which we have offered, and expect to Treat; but cannot but wonder by what Authority you prejudge our Judgment herein, by Denouncing, God's Anger upon us, and our hazard of the loss of the Hearts of all our good Subjects, if we content not unto them. The influence of so many Blessings from Heaven upon the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and our Father of Blessed Memory, and the acknowledgement of them by all Protestant Churches to have been carefull Nurses of the Church of Christ, and to have excellently discharged their Duties in the Custody and Vindication of Religion, and the Affection of their Subjects to them, do sufficiently assure us, that we should neither stop the influence of such Blessings, nor grieve the Hearts of all the Godly, nor hazard the loss of the hearts of our good Subjects, although we still maintain in this Kingdom the same Established Ecclesiastical Government, which flourished in their times, and under their special Protection.
We doubt not but our Subjects of Scotland will rest abundantly satisfied with such alterations in their own Church as we have assented unto; and not be perswaded by a meer assertion, that there is no hope of the Continuance of what is there settled by Law, unless that be likewise altered which is settled here: And our Subjects of England will never depart from their dutiful affection to us, for not contenting to New Laws, which by the Law of the Land, they know, we may as justly reject, if we approve not of them, as either House hath power to prepare for or both to propound to us. Nor are you a little mistaken if either you believe the generality of this Nation to desire a change of Church-Government, or that most of those who desire it, desire by it to 'introduce that which you only esteem a Reformation, but are as unwilling to what you call the Yoke of Christ, and Obedience to the Gospel, as those whom you call profane and worldly Men; and so equally averse both to Episcopacy and Presbytery, for if they should prevail in this particular, the Abolition of the one would be no Lett to the other; nor would your Hearts be less grieved, your expectations less Frustrated, your hopes less Ashamed, or your Reformation more secured. And the Petitioners, upon due Consideration, will not find themselves left mistaken in the Government of all the Reformed Churches; which they say is by Assemblies, than they are in the best way of a Reformation, which sure is best to be in a common and ordinary Way, where the passion or interact of particular Men may not Impose upon the Publick; but Alteration be then only made, when, upon calm Debates, and evident and clear Reason and Convenience, the same shall be generally consented to, for the Peace and Security of the People, and those who are trusted by the Law with such Debates, are not devested of that Trust upon a general charge of Corruptions pretended to have entered by that way, and of being the Persons to be Reformed, and so unfit to be Reformers. And certainly, the like Logick, with the like Charges and Pretences, might be us'd to make the Parliament itself an incapable Judge of any Reformation either in Church or State.
For the general Expressions in the Petition against Papists, in which the Petitioners may be understood to charge us with compliance and favour even to their Opinions; we have taken all occasion to publish to the World our practice and resolution in the True Protestant Reformed Religion: and we are verily perswaded, there is no one Subject in either of our Dominions, who at all knows us, and hath observed our Life, but is in his Soul satisfied of our Zeal and unmovable Affection to that Religion, and of our true dislike of, and hearty opposition to Popery. And as we willingly consented, at our being in Scotland, to all Acts proposed to us for the Discountenancing and Reforming the Papists in that our Kingdom; so by our Proclamations for the putting of all Laws severely in execution against Recusants; and by not refusing any one Bill presented to us to that purpose in this Kingdom, and by our perpetual and publick Professions of readiness, with the Advice of our two Houses of Parliament, prepared for us in a deliberate and orderly way, to find same expedition to perfect so good a Work. We conceiv'd we had not left it possible for any Man to believe us guilty of Tolerating any part of the Romish Tyranny or Supertition, or to suspect that the Conversion of our dearest Consort, was not so much our desire, that the Accession of as many Crowns as God hath already bestowed upon us, would be more Welcome to us than that Day. A Blessing which it is our daily Prayer to the Almighty to bestow upon us.
But we might well have expected from the Petitioners, who have in their solemn National Covenant literally sworn so much Care of the Safety of our Person, and cannot but know; in how much Danger that hath been, and still is by the power and threats of Rebellious Arms, that they would as well have remembred the Twenty third of October, as the Fifth of November; and as well have taken Notice of the Army raised and led against us by the Earl of Essex, which hath actually Assulted and Endeavoured to Murther us; which we know to abound in Brownists, Anahaptists, and other Sectaries, and in which we have Reason (by the Prisoners we have taken, and the Evidence they have given) to believe there are many more Papists (and many of those Foreigners) than in all our Army, as have advised us to Disband out of the Army of the Earl of Newcastle, which is raised for our Defence, the Papists in that Army, who are known to be no such number as to endanger their obtaining any power of building their Babel, and setting up their Idolatry, and whose Loyalty he hath reason to Commend (though he was never of suspected for favouring their Religion) not before that of Protestants, but of such as Rebel under that Title; and whose Assistanee is as due to us by the Law of God and Man, to rescue us from Domestick Rebellion, as to Defend us from Foreign Invasion, which we think no Man denies to be lawful for them to do. But we do solemnly Declare and protest, That God shall no soonet free us from the desperate and rebellious Arms taken up against its, but we shall Endeavour to free Ourselves and Kingdom from any fear of Danger from the other, by Disfarming them according to the Laws of the Land, as we shall not fail to send our Commissioner to the Assembly at the time appointed for it by the Laws of Scotland.
To conclude, we desire and require the Petitioners (as becomes good and pious Preachers of the Gospel) to use their utmost Endeavours to compose any Diffraction in Opinions, or Misunderstandings, which may by the Faction of some turbulent Person's be raised in the minds of our good Subjects of that our Kingdom, and to infuse into them a true sense of Charity, Obedience, and Humility, the great Principles of Christian Religion; that they may not suffer themselves to be transported with things they do not understand, or think themselves concerned in the Government of another Kingdom, because it is not according to the Customs of that in which they live but that they dispose themselves with Modesty and Devotion to the Service of Almighty God, with Duty and Affection to the Obedience of us and our Laws (remembring the singular Grace, Favour and Benignity we have always exprssed to that our Native Kingdom) and with Brotherly and Christian Charity one towards another; And we doubt not but God in his Mercy to us and them, will make us Instruments of his Blessings upon each other and both of us in a great measure of Happiness and Prosperity to the whole Nation.
About the beginning of May, it was moved in Scotland, That there might be a joint-meeting of the Council, the Conservators of the Peace, and the Commissioners for publick Burthens: To whom it was proposed, that, considering the hazard the Nation was in, by Reason of Armies which were now levying in the North of England, there was a Necessity of putting the Kingdom in a posture of Defence, which could not be done without a Convention of Estates, or a Parliament; and therefore it was urged, That such a Convention might be forthwith Summoned. Marquis Hamilton and several others argued strongly against this; alledging, That for them to indict (or appoint) the same, was an Encroachment upon the King's Prerogative in the highest degree, and against the Laws of the Land. However, it was carried by the majority, That the Lord Chancellor should summon a Convention of Estates against the 22d of June.
On the 15th of May the Earls of Roxburgh, Kinnoul and Lanerick arrived at Edinburgh, with Instructions from the King, and the following Declaration: with which also was sent a Patent, whereby Hamilton for his Services was created a Duke.
His Majesties Declaration to all his Loving Subjects in his Kingdom of Scotland, May 1643.
As there hath been no Mean left unattempted, which the Malice and Wit of Rebellion could devise, to infect and poyson the Affections and Loyalty of our good Subjects of our Kingdom of England, and to withdraw their Hearts from us, by the most pernicious and desperate Calumnies that could be invented; to undervalue and lessen our Reputation with Foreign Princes, by Injuries and Affronts upon their Publick Ministers, and by presuming to send Agents qualified for Negotiation without our consent, and, in truth, to expose us and our Royal Authority to scorn and contempt, by assuming a Power over us: So the pernicious Contrivers of these bloody Distempers have not delighted in any Art more than that, by which they have hoped to stir up our good Subjects of that our Native Kingdom of Scotland to joyn with them, and to infuse in them a Jealousie and Disesteem of our true Affection, and our gracious Intentions towards that Nation. To this purpose they have used great Industry to convey into that our Kingdom, and to scatter and disperse there, divers Seditious Pamphlets framed and contrived against our Person and Government; and have sent Agents of their own to reside there, and to promote their Designs; one of whom, lately resident there, one Pickering, by his Letters of the 9th of January to Mr. Pym, affaires him of the Concurrence of that Kingdom, and that the Ministers in their Pulpits do in downright terms press the taking up of Arms; and in an other of his Letters to Sir John Clotworthy, says, That the Trumpet founded to the Battel, and cried, Arm! Arm! with many other bold, Scandalous, and seditious Passages, very derogatory from the Duty and Affection which we are confident our good Subjects of that our Native Kingdom bear to us. To this purpose, they traduce us with Raising and Making War against our Parliament; of having an Army of Papists, and favouring of that Religion; of endeavouring to take away the Liberty and Property of our Subjects: And upon these Grounds they have presumed by a publick Declaration to invite our good Subjects of our Kingdom of Scotland to joyn with them, and to take up Arms against us, their natural Leige-Lord. Lastly, to this purpose they Endeavour, as well in publick as by secret Insinuations, to beget art Apprehension in them, That if we prevail so far here, as by the Blessing of God to preserve Ourself from the Ruine they have designed to us, the same will have a dangerous Influence upon that our Kingdom of Scotland, and the Peace established there; and that our good Laws, lately established by us for the Happiness and Welfare of that our Native Kingdom, will be no longer observed and maintained by us, than the same necessity, which they say extorted them from us, hangs upon us: but that we will turn all Our Forces against them. A Calumny so groundlesly and impiously raised, that if we were in any degree Conscious to ourself of such wicked Intentions, we should not only not expect a dutiful sense, in that our Native Kingdom, of our Sufferings, but should think ourselves unworthy of so great Blessings, and eminent Protection, as we have received from the Hands of the Almighty, to whom we must yeild a dear Account for any breach of Trust, or failing of our Duty toward our People.
But as we have taken special Care from time to time to Inform our good Subjects of that our Native Kingdom of the Occurrences here, Particularly by our Declaration of the 12th of August, wherein is a clear plain Narrative of the beginning and progress of our Sufferings to that time: So the bold and unwarranted Proceedings of these desperate Incendiaries have been so publick to the World, that our good Subjects of Scotland could not but take Notice of them; and have observed, that after we had Freely and Voluntarily consented to so many Acts of Parliament, as not only repaired all former Grievances, but also added whatsoever was proposed to us, for the future Benefit and Security of our Subjects; insomuch that in truth there wanted nothing to make the Nation compleatly happy, but a just sense of their own excellent Condition, a few discontented, ambitiom and factious Persons so far prevailed over the Weakness of others, that instead of receiving that return of Thanks and Acknowledgement which we expected and deserved, out People were Poysoned with seditious and scandalous Fears and Jealousies concerning us; we were encountred with more unreasonable and importunate Demands, and at last were driven through Force and Tumults to flee from our City of London for the Safety of our Life: After which, we were still pursued with unheard-of Insolencies and Indignities; and such Members of either House as refused to joyn in these unjustifiable Resolutions, were driven from these Councils, contrary to the Freedom and Liberty of Parliament: insomuch that four parts of five of that Assembly was like wise forced, and are still kept from thence; our Forts, Towns, Ships and Arms were taken from us; our Money, Rents and Revenue seized and detained: And that then a powerful and formidable Army was raised and conducted against us, (a good part of which was raised and mustered before we had given out Commissions for raising one Man); That all this time we never denied any one Thing, but what by the known Law was unquestionably our own; That we earnestly desired and pressed a Treaty, that so we might but know at what price we might prevent the Miseries and Desolation that were threatned; That this was absolutely and scornfully refused and rejected, and we compelled, with such of our good Subjects as came to our Succour, to make use of our defensive Arms, for the Safety of our Life, and Preservation of our Posterity. What palled since that Battel hath been given us, our own Person and our Children endeavoured to be destroyed, those unheard-of Pressures that have been exercised upon our poor Subjects, by Rapin, Plundering and Imprisonment, and that Confusion which is since brought upon the whole excellent Frame of this Government, is the Discourse of Christendom. We are very far from making a War with or against our Parliament, of which we ourself are an Essential Part; our principal Quarrel is for the Privileges of Parliament, as well those of the two Houses, as our Own. If a few Persons had not by Arts and Force first awed, and then driven away the rest, these Differences had never arisen, much less had they ever come to so bloody a Dicision. we have often accused these Persons against whom our Quarrel is, and desired to bring them to no other Trial than that of the Laws of the Land, by which they ought to be tried.
As we have been compelled to take up these Defensive Arms for the Safety of our Life, assaulted by Rebellious Arms, the Defence of the true Reformed Protestant Religion, scornfully Invaded by Brownists, Anabaptists, and other Independent Sectaries, (who in truth are the principal Authors and sole Fomenters of this unnatural War) for the Maintenance of the Liberty and Property of the Subjects, (maliciously violated by a vast, unlimited, Arbitary Power,) for the Preservation of the Right, Dignity, and Privileges of Parliament, (almost destroyed by Tumults and Faction:) So what by Violence hath been taken away from us being restored, and the freedom of Meeting in Parliament being Secured, we have lately offered (though we have not been thought worthy of an Answer) to Disband our Army, and leave all Differences to the trial of a full and peaceable Convention in Parliament: And we cannot from our Soul desire any Blessing from Heaven more than we do a peaceable and happy End of these unnatural Distractions.
For the malicious groundless Aspersion of having an Army of Papists; though, in the Condition and Streight to which we are brought, no Man had reason to wonder if we received Assistance from any of our Subjects, of what Religion soever, who by the Laws of the Land are bound to perform all Offices of Duty and Allegiance to us: yet it is well known that we took all possible Care by our Proclamations to inhibit any of that Religion to Repair to us, which was precisely and strictly observed (notwithstanding even all that time we were traduced as being attended by none but Papist, when in a Month together there hath not been one Papist near our Court) though great numbers of that Religion have been with great Alacrity entertained in that Rebellions Army against us. And others have been seduced, to whom we had formerly denied Employment, as appears by the Examination of many Prisoners, of whom we have taken Twenty and Thirty at a time, of one Troop or Company, of that Religion. What our Opinion is of that Religion, our frequent solemn Protestations before Almighty God (who knows our Heart) do manifest to the World; and what is our Practice in Religion, is not unknown to our good Subjects of that our Native Kingdom. And as we have Omitted no way our Conscience and Understanding could suggest to be for the promoting and advancing the Protestant Religion; so we have prosessed our readiness in a full and peaceable Convention of Parliament, to consent to whatsoever shall be proposed by Bill for the better Discovery and speedier Conviction of Recusants; for the Education of the Children of Papists by Protestants in the Protestant Religion; for the prevention of the Practices of Papists against the State, and the due Execution of the Laws, and the true levying of Penalties against them: so we shall further embrace any just Christian means to suppress Popery in all our Dominions; of which Inclination and Resolution ours, that our Native Kingdom hath received good Evidence.
For the other malicious and wicked Insinuations, That our Success here upon the Rebellious Armies raised to Destroy us, will have an influence upon our Kingdom of Scotland, and that we will endeavour to get loose from those wholsome Laws that have been enacted by us there; we can say no more, but our good Subjects of that Kingdom willremember with what Deliberation, ourself being present at all the Debates, we consented to these Acts. And we do assure our Subjects there, and call God Almighty to Witness of the Uprightness and Resolution of our Heart in that point, that we shall always use our utmost Endeavours to Desend and Maintain the Rights and Liberties of that our Native Kingdom, according to the Laws established there; and shall no longer look for Obedience, than we shall govern by the Laws. And we hope that our Zeal and Carriage, only in Defence of the Laws and Government of this Kingdom, and the subjecting ourself to so great Hazard and Danger, will be no great Argument, that when the Work is done, we Will pass through the same Difficulties to alter and invade the Constitutions of that our Kingdom. We find disadvantage enough to struggle with, in the Defence of the most upright, innocent, and just cause of taking up Arms; and therefore if we wanted the Conscience, we cannot the Discretion, to tempt God in an unjust Quarrel. The Laws of our Kingdom shall be always Sacred to us: We shall refuse no hazard to Defend them; but sure we shall run none to invade them.
And therefore we do conjure all our good Subjects of that our Native Kingdom, by the long, happy, and uninterrupted Government of us, and of our Royal Progenitors over them; by the Memory of those many large and publick Blessings they enjoyed under our Dear Father; by those ample Favours and Benefits they have received from us; by their own folemn National Covenant, and their Obligations of Friendship and Brotherhood with the Kingdom of England, not to suffer themselves to be misled and corrupted in their Affections and Duty to us, by the Cunning, Malice and Industry of these Incendiaries and their Adherents; but to resist, and look upon them as Persons who would involve them in their Guilt, and sacrifice the Honour, Fidelity and Allegiance of that our Native Kingdom, to their private Ends and Ambition. And we require our good Subjects there, to consider, that the Persons who have contrived, somented, and do still maintain these bloody Distractions, and this unnatural Civil War, what Pretence soever they make of their Care of the True Reformed Protestant Religion, are in truth Brownists, and Anabaptists, and other Independent Sectaries; and though they seem to desire an Uniformity of Church-Government with our Kingdom of Scotland, do no more intend, and are so far from allowing the Church-Government by Law established there (or indeed any Church-Government whatsoever) as they are from consenting to the Episcopal. And we cannot but expect a greater sense of our Sufferings, since the Obligations we have laid on that our Native Kingdom are used as Arguments against us here, and our free consenting to some Acts of Grace and Favour there, which were asked of Us, by reason of our necessary Residence from thence, have encouraged ill-affected Persons to endeavour by Force to obtain the same here, where we usually reside.
To conclude, we cannot think that our good Subjects there will so far hearken to the Treason and Malice of our Enemies, as to interrupt their own present Peace and Happiness. And God so deal with us, and our Posterity, as we shall inviolably observe the Laws and Statutes of that our Native Kingdom, and the Protestations we have so often made for the Defence of the True Reformed Protestant Religion, the Laws of the Land, the just Privileges and Freedom of Parliament.
His Majesty having Notice, That a Convention of Estates was summoned without his order or privity, resolved at first absolutely to forbid it; but afterwards by a Letter dated at Oxford the 10th of June, did permit them to Meet, Consult and Conclude, touching ways to supply the Scotish Army in Ireland, and touching relieving publick Burthens, by pressing a speedy Payment of the Brotherly Assistance due from England; but expresly required them to limit their Consultations to those Particulars, and that they should do nothing that might tend to the Raising of Arms.
This Convention of Estates is a Court made up of all the Members of Parliament: but as they are called and fit without the State or Formalities used in Parliament, so their Power is to raise Money or Forces, but cannot Make or Repeal Laws. When this Court met on the 22d of June, the first thing in debate was that Provisoe or Limitation in the King's Letter: Hamilton and eighteen Lords, and but one Knight, Voted it no Convention, but as regulated by the King's Letter; but all the rest Voted it A free Convention; whereupon Hamilton and his Party withdrew, and would sit in the Convention no more. However they proceeded, and on the second of August the General Assembly of the Kirk also met.
In the mean time the two Houses of Parliament in England resolved to send certain Commissioners into Scotland, to negotiate a Treaty, of Assistance, and on the 18th of July agreed upon their Instructions. The Commissioners appointed were, the Earl of Rutland and the Lord Gray of Wark for the Lords, and Sir William Armyn, Sir Henry Vane the younger, Mr. Hatcher, and Mr. Darley for the Commons. But the Lord Gray refused to go, alledged his inability of Body to bear so long a Journey; and for his contempt to the House therein, was committed to the Tower, and soon after released. The Other Five set forward July the 20th, and two Ministers, viz. Mr. Marshal and Mr. Nye, were appointed to attend them. They went by Sea, and arrived at Leith August the 7th, where they were entertained, and conveyed to Edinburgh on the 9th by the Earl of Lindsay and Sir Archibald Johnston; and delivered a Declaration of the two Houses, expressing the substance Substance of their Errand to the Convention of Estates, and another to the General Assembly (which, together with the respective Answers thereunto, are herein after recited.)
The Assembly and Convention respectively appointed Committees to treat with them, who proposed it as the best Means for the accomplishing the Union and Assistance desired, that both Nations should enter into a solemn mutual Covenant, to be drawn by their joint Approbation; which being drawn, and agreed upon by the said Commissioners and Committees, was propounded to the Assembly by Mr. Alexander Henderson the Moderator, August the 7th; and after some Opposition by the King's Commissioner (which occasioned the Dispute of his Majesty's negative Voice in the Assembly, but over-ruled) the same was carried there, as also in the Convention of the Estates the same day, and on the 18th dispatch'd for England by the Lord Maitland (afterwards Duke Lauderdale) Mr.Henderson and Mr. Gillespy, as Commissioners from the General Assembly, to consult with the Parliament and the Assembly of Divines. They also brought Answers to the several Declarations sent to the Convention and Assembly, which follow altogether.
A Declaration of the Lords and Commons of the Parliament of England to the Kingdoms and Estates of Scotland.
We the Lords and Commons in Parliament being very sensible of the miserable State and Condition whereunto this Kingdom, and all the other Dominions belonging to this Crown, are fallen, by this present War, which the King hath raised against the Parliament by the Instigation of the Popish, Prelatical, and Malignant Party, do hereby declare to our Brethren the Estates and other Subjects of the Kingdom of Scotland, that not only according to our Resolution and Promise signified in our former Declarations, we have nominated and appointed John Earl of Rutland, Sir William Armine Bar. Sir Henry Vane jun. Kt. Thomas Hatcher and Henry Darley Esqrs; to be Committees and Commissioners of both Houses of Parliament, or any three or more of them, for settling all Matters concerning Debts and Accounts in which this Kingdom standeth engaged to them, but more especially to desire their present and speedy Aid and Assistance for Security of Religion and Liberty of both Kingdoms, for restoring and preserving the Peace of this Kingdom, and bringing to condign Punishment the Subjects of either Kingdom, and all other who are and have been the Authors, Incendiaries, or Actors in this unnatural War, raised for the Alteration of Religion, introducing of Popery, subverting the fundamental Government of this Land, and for the Hindrance of Reformation in Matters of Religion, being a most effectual Means for preserving the Peace of both Kingdoms, according to the late Act of Pacification, by which both States stand oblig'd to help one another; whereof we assure ourselves our Brethren will make no doubt, if they please to consider, that divers Subjects of the Kingdom of Scotland, Noblemen and others, have risen in Arms, and are joined with the Papists and Prelatical Party here, and are now in actual War against the Parliament and Kingdom of England; which being done without Consent of the Parliament of Scotland, all such Persons of that Nation are become Traytors to the Kingdom of Scotland by that Act of Pacification, and both Kingdoms are bound in repressing their Forces by the publick Faith of each Kingdom declared in that Act; and we desire our Brethren should take notice, that the said Committees or Commissioners have received ample Instructions concerning the Proposition of the Aid desired, and the Satisfaction to be made for the fame, with Power and Authority to agree therein, according to such Instructions as they have, or shall receive from both Houses of Parliament; and therefore we desire that full Credit may be given to them in that behalf: And because our Enemies have already great Forces in divers parts of the Kingdom, and do intend to draw great numbers of Rebels out of England, and have sollicited for other Supplies from Foreign Parts we do eat nestly request our Brethren of Scotland to hasten the Aid desired, and to consider, That although in these straits and perplexities of Want and Danger, they shall not receive such plentiful entertainment as might at other times be expected, yet they cannot fail of great Honour and Advantage by this Undertaking, both in the Service therein done to God, whose Causeit is, and the Dangers and Miseries which thereby shall be kept from themselves and they may rest assured, that in all opportunities the two Houses of Parliament, and this Nation, will be ready to express their thankfulness for the help which they shall receive from them, and their forwardness and affection to the Peace and Prosperity of that Church and Kingdom.
The Declaration of the Convention of Estates in Scotland, to the Honourable Houses of the parliament of England.
We have received from the hands of Sir William Armine Baronet, Sir Henry Vane junior, Knight, Thomas Hatcher and Henry Darley Esqs; Committees and Commissioners of the Honourable Houses of the Parliament of England, their Declaration lately sent unto us, expressing the present bleeding and distressed estate of that Kingdom, and desiring a more near and strict Union between the two Nations for their mutual Defence against the Papists, the Prelatical Faction, and their Adherents, together with our present Aid and Assistance for the relief of our Brethren of England; remitting all particulars concerning the same to be further communicated to us, by the above said Committees and Commissioners; which particulars have accordingly been made known both to us and the general Assembly of this Kingdom, by the Commissioners of the two Houses, who have pursued the same with so great Wisdom, Fidelity, and Diligence, as hath very much furthered the Work, and deserves a very large testimony on their behalf.
Upon serious consideration hereof, we do declare to these Honourable Houses, That this Kirk and Kingdom are deeply affected with the sense of the dad calamitous conditions of their Brethren of England; and are most ready and willing to contribute their best and utmost endeavours for the preservation of Religion, which is no other than the Soul; the Protestant Party, which is the Body; our own Lives, who are the Members: All these being in so extreme and imminent danger to be utterly ruined, by the Power and Policy of the Papists, Prelatical Faction, Malignants, and other Adherents, the common Enemies of both Kingdoms, now raging in Arms as well in England as in Ireland.
For further confirmation hereof, we may truly say, That this our sympathy and willingness to have the Counsels and Courses of both Kingdoms joined together for the Common Safety of this Island, as it hath been often largely expressed and promised by the several Judicatories of this Kirk and Kingdom, so it will now most evidently appear, by the results of the Committees of the Assembly, and our Committees, with the Commissioners of the Honourable Houses; and by the other Declarations, Letters, and Actions both of us, and the general Assembly, concerning the nearer Union between both Kirks and Kingdoms, for the mutual Defence against Papists, Prelates, and (Malignants, and the most effectual means for the saving of the Religion, King and Kingdoms from the present Dangers; of all which the Commissioners of the two Houses will be the best Witnesses, and the Papers themselves the clearest Evidences and Demonstrations. And seeing the general Assembly of this Kingdom do send into England some of their number (Men of approve Faithfulness and Abilities) to be Commissioners from them, for contributing their best endeavours to encourage the hearts and strengthen the hands of that Kirk and Kingdom in this Cause of God against all their present Difficulties and Distresses, which God in his own good time and way will turn into a comfortable Calm, and give issue with the temptation.
We have thought fit hereby to commend the said Commissioners, and any other whom we shall send with them, to be received by the Parliament of England, and Assembly or Divines there, with Favour and Trust, and have given Warrant to them more largely to express the Christian sense and fellow-feeling of this Kirk and Kingdom with their Brethren of England, and their willingness and readiness to concur in all good and possible ways for the Common Safety of the Kingdoms, and for to satisfie Scruples, prevent Misapprehensions, and remove Difficulties that may occur in the way of this great Work.
And that nothing might be wanting on our part for prosecuting the Common Cause, and answering the expectation and desires of our Brethren of England, both the General Assembly and Convention of Estates, being necessitated to adjourn for the good of the business, (the extremity, of the Dangers requiring speedy prevention) they have given very full and ample Commissions to the Commissioners residing at E. for to do every thing that shall be found by common Advice necessary and possible for so good ends, being so throughly sensible of the growing Evils and Miseries that are ready to over-run our Sister Kirk and Kingdom of England, and through their sides to wound us, that we shall not content ourselves only to manifest our affections in Declarations, but, when the opportunity serves, so far as lies in us, shall shew forth ourselves in every lawful way sutable to our own Dangers, and Extremities of our Brethren, to whom we are, and desire yet to be more firmly joined in so many near Ties and Relations.
A Declaration of the Lords and Commons in the parliament of England, to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
The Lords and Commons in Parliament, acknowledging with humble thankfulness to Almighty God, the Disposer of hearts, the Christian Zeal and Love which the General Assembly of the Churches of Scotland have manifested, in their pious endeavours for the Preservation of the true Reformed Protestant Religion from the subtil Practices and Attempts of the Popish and Prelatical Party, to the necessary Reformation of Church-Discipline and Government of this Kingdom, and the more near Union of both Churches: Do earnestly desire that Reverend Assembly to take notice, That the two Houses of Parliament fully concurring with them in those pious intentions, for the better accomplishment thereof, have called an Assembly of divers godly and learned Divines, and others of this Kingdom, unto the City of Westminister, who are now fitting and consulting about these matters. And likewise have nominated and appointed John Earl of Rutland, Sir William Armine Baronet, Sir Henry Vane the younger, Knight,. 'Thomas Hatcher and Henry Darley Esquires, Committees and Commissioners of both Houses to the Kingdom and States of Scotland, who, besides their Instrutions in matters concerning the Peace and Commonweal of both Kingdoms, have received directions to resort to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and propound and consult with them, or any Commissioners deputed by them, in all occasions which may further the so much-desired Reformation in Ecclesiastical matters in this Church and Kingdom. In performance whereof, Master Stephen Marshal and Master Philip Nye, Ministers of God's Word, and Men of approved Faithfulness and Ability in their Function, both Members of this Assembly of Divines here congregated fitting, are appointed to assist and advise the same Committee in such things as shall concern this Church. And the two Houses do hereby commend the Committees and Divines aforementioned to the Reverend Assembly of the Church of Scotland, to be by them received with favour, and credited in these things which they, or any three or more of them, shall propound to them.
It is likewise desired, That the Reverend Assembly will, according to their sormer promises and resolution, send to the Assembly here such number of godly and learned Divines, as in their Wisdom they think most expedient, for the furtherance of this Work, which so much concerns the Honour of God, the Prosperity and Peace of the two Churches of England and Scotland, and which must needs have a great influence in procuring a more safe and prosperous condition to other Resormed Churches abroad. And that their endeavours may be more effectual, the two Houses do make this request to them, with their Authority, Advice, and Exhortation, so far as belongs to them, to stir up that Nation to send some competent Forces in aid of this Parliament and Kingdom, against the many Armies of the Popish and Prelatical Party, and their Adherents, now in Arms for the Ruine and Destruction of the "Reformed Religion, and all the Prosessors thereof. In all which they shall do that which shall be pleasing to God, whose Cause it is, and likewise safe and advantageous to their own Church and Kingdom, who cannot enjoy the great Blessing of Religion, Peace ana Liberty in that Kingdom, is this Church and Kingdom, by the prevailing violence of that Party, shall be brought to Ruine and Destruction.
The General Assemblies Answer and Declaration to the Parliament of England.
The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, having received a Declaration from the Honourable Houses of the Parliament of England, by their Committees and Commissioners now residing here, have thought good to make known to the Lords and Commons in Parliament, That all the Members of this Assembly, and others well-affected here. Do with most thankful respects take special notice of the expressions which they have been pleased to make in the aforenamed Declaration, not only concerning their approbation of the desires and endeavours of the General Assembly of this Kirk for the Reformation of the Kirk of England, and the Union of both Kirks in Religion and Church-Government, but also concerning the resolution of both Houses fully to concur with them in those pious intentions. With the same thankfulness, and due reverence, they acknowledge the high respects expressed towards them by both Houses, in directing unto them their Committees and Commissioners, assisted by two Reverend Divines, and in desiring some of the godly and learned of this Kirk to be sent unto the Assembly sitting there. The Assembly doth bless the Lord, who hath not only inspired the Houses of Parliament with Desires and Resolutions of the Resormation of Religion, but hath advanced by several steps and degrees that blessed Work, by which as they shall most approve themselves to the Resormed Kirks abroad, and to their Brethren of Scotland, so shall they most powerfully draw down stom Heaven the Blessings of Prosperity and Peace upon England; And as it is the earnest wish of their Brethren here, that the true state and ground of the present Disserences and Controversies in England, may be more and more cleared, to be concerning Religion; and that both Houses may incessantly prosecute that good Work, first, and above all other matters; giving no sleep to their eyes, nor slumber to their eye-lids, until they find out a place for the Lord, an habitation for the Mighty God of Jacob, whose favour alone can make their Mountain strong, and whose presence in his own (Ordinances shall be your glory in the midst of them: so it is our confidence, that the begun Reformation is of God, and not of Men; that it shall increase, and not decrease; and that he to whom nothing is too hard, who can make Mountains Valleys, crooked things streight, and rongh ways smooth, shall lead along and make perfect this most wonderful Work, which shall be remembred to his Glory in the Kirk, throughout all Generations. And left through any defect upon the General Assemblies part, the Work of Reformation (which hitherto, to the great grief of all the Godly, hath moved so slowly) should be any more retarded or interrupted; They have, according to the renewed desires of both Houses of Parliament, and their own former promises, nominated and elected Master Alexander Henderson, and Master George Gillespie, Ministers of God's Word, and John Lord Maitland, Ruling Elder, all of them Men much approved here, with Commission and Power to them, to repair unto the Assembly of Divines, and others of the Kirk of England, now sitting at Westminster, to propound, consult, treat and conclude with them, or with any Committees deputed by the Houses of Parliament (if it shall seem good to the Honourable Houses in their Wisdom to depute any for that end) in all such things as may conduce to the utter Extirpation of Popery, Prelacy, Herefie, Schism, Superstition and Idolatry, and for the settling of the so-much desired Union of this whole Island in one form of Church-Government, one Confession of Faith, one common Catechism, and one Directory for the Worship of God, according to the Instructions which they have received, or shall receive from time to time, with the Assemblies Power for that end. And as the General Assembly doth most gladly and affectionately receive, and fully trust the Committees and Divines sent hither, so do they hereby commend their aforenamed Commissioners, not only to the like Affection and Trust of that Assembly there, but also to the Favour and Protection of both Houses of Parliament.
And for the further satisfaction and encouragement of their Brethren of England, the whole Assembly in their own Name, and in the Name of all the particular Kirks of this Kingdom, whom they represent. Do hereby declare, That from their Zeal to the Glory of God, and Propagation of the Gospel, from their Affection to the Happiness of their Native King, and of the Kingdom of England, and from the sense of their own Interest in the common Dangers of Religion, Peace, and Liberty, they are most willing and ready to be United and Associated with their Brethren in a near League and solemn Covenant for the maintenance of the truly Reformed Religion against Popery and Prelacy, and against all Popish and Prelatical Corruptions in Doctrine, Discipline, Worship, or Church-Government, and for the settling and holding fast of Unity and Unformity betwixt the Kirks of this Island, and with the best Reformed Kirks beyond sea. Which Union and Covenant shall, with God's assistance, be seconded by their co-operating with their Brethren in the use of the best and most effectual means that may serve for so good ends. For the more speedy effectuating whereof, to the comfort and enlargement of their distressed Brethren, (whose hope deserred, may make their heart faint) the Whole Assembly, with great unanimity of Judgment, and expressions of much affection, have approved (for their part) such a Draught and Form of a Mutual League and Covenant betwixt the Kingdoms, as was the result of the joint Debates and Consulations of the Commissioners from both Houses, aissisted by the two Reverend Divines, and of the Committees deputed by the Convention of Estates of this Kingdom, and from the General Assembly, expecting and wishing the like approbation thereof, by the Right Honourable the Lords and Commons in Parliament, and by the Reverend Assembly there; that thereafter it may solemnly be sworn and subscribed in both Kingdoms, as the surest and straitest Obligation to make both stand and fall together in that Cause of Religion and Liberty.
As the Estates of this Kingdom have often professed in their former Declarations, the integrity of their intentions against the common Enemies of Religion and Liberty in both Kingdoms, and their great affection to their Brethren of England, by reason of so many and so near relations: so doubtless in this time of need, They will not fail to give real proof of what before they professed. A Friend loveth at all times, a Brother if born for adversity; neither shall the Assembly or their Commissoners be wanting in exhorting all others to their Duty, or in concurring so far as belongeth to their Place and Vocation, with the Estates now convened, in any lawful and possible course which may most conduce to the good of Religion and Reformation, the Honour and Happiness of the King's Majesty, the deliverance of their Brethren of England from their present calamitous condition, and to the perpetuating of a firts and happy Peace betwixt the Kingdoms.
A Declaration of Reasons for assisting the "Parliament of England against the Papists and Prelatical Army, by the General Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland.
The Controversie now in England being betwixt the Lord jesus and Antichrist with his followers, if we would not come under the Curse of Meroz, we should come out upon so clear a call, from the Representative Body of England, to the Representative Body of Scotland, and help the Lord against the Mighty; being assured that the help that we give to his Kirk, in such an exigent, is given to himself, and shall not want a blessed reward.
Secondly, There was an Act passed by the Convention of Estates, Anno 1585. conformed to the desire of the General Assembly 1583. for a common Band and Union betwixt the two Kingdoms, wherein the Estates found it necessary for their own safety, and the safety of Religion, not only to joyn all their Forces at home, but also to enter in a League, and Christian Confederation, with all Protestant Princes and Estates, against the bloody League at Trent; and do think that this defence of the Gospel, is the most lawful Cause that Christians can maintain and defend, especially this Union betwixt the two Kingdoms, against all attempts contrary to either of them, to be necessary security for both their Estates; and they conceive the same League to be offensive and defensive in matters of Religion, and do solemnly swear to confirm the whole Articles thereof in the next Parliament, and neither to spare their Lives nor Goods in the Quarrel, and maintenance thereof, both against Foreign Invasion, and Inteltune Insurrection of Papists within this Island; Conformed to which there followed, first a League betwixt the two Crowns, subscribed at Berwick, 1586. the same effect, and upon the fear and apprehension of the Spanish Armada, 1587, and 1588, the Confession of Faith was subscribed by all the Subjects of that Kingdom, together with the general Band therein, by Order of the King, Council and Convention of States, the Subjects did Swear to joyn and concur with the whole Forces of their Friends and Favourites, against whatsoever Foreign, or Intestine Powers of Papists and their Partners should arrive or rise, within that Land, or any part thereof, ready to defend or pursue them; and therefore the Cause being the same; the Parties being the same, and the danger being the same now, we are bound to perform now, what we promised them.
Thirdly, We stand obliged to England for old kindness to us, being in the same posture then, that they are in now for in the year 1556 and 1557. the Estates of this Land, finding the Reformation of Religion opposed by their own Princes with Arms and Violence, and themselves oppressed by the Popish Army, fought and obtained the assistance of an Army from England, upon the Conditions recorded in the History, whereby they expelled the French Army, made the Pacification at Leith, held the Parliament 1560. established the Religion. Therefore they got new assistance from England, to suppress the general Popish Faction, whereby they took in the Castle of Edinburgh from the Laird of Grange; and in that publick Printed Prayer, perflx'd to the Psalm Book, we solemnly promised never to forget their kindness againft the French, and if we call to mind the manifestation of the lawfulness of the Expedition into England, we stand obliged to them for their late kindness; for they not only refuse to levy Arms against us in the last Troubles, but also did mediate for a Treaty, did welcome and kindly entertain our Army for a year, did freely bestow upon us their Brotherly Assistance of thirty thousand pound, whereupon we acknowledged our thankfulness not to consist in Affection and Words at that time, but in the mutual kindness and real Declaration to be expected from the whole Kingdom of Scotland, in all time to come; besides Solemn Promises and Vows, repeated in our late Declaration and Information published to the World, wherein we assure them of our help, in their need, as in the Remonstrance of the States of Scotland, 1639. pag. 28. Remonstrance to the Parliament of England 1640. pag. 15, 16. Intentions of the Army of Scotland, near the end.
Fourthly, The common danger eminent to both Kirks and Kingdoms do invite us to help them; for as we have expressed in many Declarations, we and they fail in one Bottom, dwell in one House, are Members of one Body that according to their own Principles, if either of the two Nations, or Kirks, be ruinated the other cannot long subsist, if the Parliament of England be destroyed, and Popery be set up there, it is a leading case to this Kingdom and Kirk; for we have the same Friends and Foes, the same Cause, and most run the same hazard, and many years experience hath taught us, what influence Popery and Prelacy in England may have upon Scotland; for from thence came the Prelates, the Ceremonies, the Book of Common Prayers, Service-Book, and upon our refusal the bloody Sword came from thence; therefore we are to take England's conditions to Heart, as a common Cause, to put forth our helping Hand, if we tender Religion, Laws, and Liberties.
Fifthly, The common advantage redounding to both Kirk and Kingdoms, do perswade help; for hereby we have a fair opportunity to advance Uniformity in Discipline and Worship, which will prove the surest Bond of Union, and Bulwark to both: And it is most desired by the Godly, and most opposed by Papists. They have already laid the Foundation of a good Building, by casting out Prelacy, that great Idol, and they are now calling for our help to rear the Building, and put on the Cap-stone in God's own time, and also that Union will prove the greatest terrour abroad of both Kingdoms, and the greatest comfort and incouragement to the bleeding, down-born Kirks abroad, and may give the greatest blow to the Kingdom of Antichrist,
Sixthly, If we forsake England, we forsake our dearest Friends, who can best help us in case we be reduced to the like straits hereafter, by the common Adversary; for the distance and distressed Estates of our Protestant Kirks, make them unable to help us in this kind, and if we denude ourselves of the support of England, by suffering them to sink, we do not only betray their safety but our own, let us do herein as we would be done to: What course would we crave of them in case the Popish and Malignant Faction did prevail, by Murthers and Rapines, as in the days of the Queen Regent did ruine our Kirks and Kingdom? Certainly no Answer would be satisfactory but timely help.
Seventhly, If we suffer the Parliament of England to be cut off, we have lost our Peace with England; because after our disappointment through breach of the Declaration at Dunce, we resolved to seek not a present, but a durable Peace for ourselves and our Posterity, and the surest Mean we could pitch on, was to settle our demands by advice of the Parliament of England, as the best caution and warrant of our Peace; and particularly that Parliament hath undertaken upon Publick Faith to pursue and apprehend any of their Subjects that should break the Peace by invading this Kingdom; therefore Religion and Sense teaches us to see to the preservation of that Amity, which did obtain, and yet doth maintain our Religion and Liberties, against the Designs of our Common Enemies in England, Papists and Prelates; seeing we may remember that these Persons, who now bide in the Parliament, were the main Impediments of Subsidy, for levying War against us, and the privy Procurers of that Brotherly Assistance, and so are probably the Instruments that will most secure our Peace from any disturbance from that Kingdom: But if they be destroyed, and the Popish and Prelatical Faction, the Workers of our woe, do over-rule the Parliament, that being forced by Arms, we may expect War both from King and Parliament, which they will over-power, and may upon three Months warning, denounce War against us, whereunto they will not want pretences; and we have reason to fear that; seeing they know their disappointment to have come from this Kingdom; yea, they do construct all resisting of the King by Arms, to be Rebellion and soul Treason; yea, some of the Malignants at home are reported to have vented, that the King was not tied to keep what he had granted to us, because by calling and keeping of that Convention, we have first broken to him.
Eighthly, If we should desert them at this time, yet as Mordecai said to Esther, deliverance shall arise to them from elsewhere, but we and our Father's House may look for destruction; and who knoweth but we are restored to our Religion and Liberties, to a free Convention at this time, and made a Mirror of God's Mercy to all Nations and Kirks, that we may help our Brethren of England, powring out their Tears and Blood for a Reformation? Such an occasion to express love to Christ, and zeal for his Cause, was never offered to any Nation: Therefore as the two Tribes of Reuben and Gad, with the half of Manasseh, did not sit down and take their ease, but went over Jordan, armed before their Brethren, to possess them in the Land of Promise, so should we go before our Brethren, and help them to the Liberty of the Gospel, and casting out of the Canaanite.
Ninthly, That the only means for the procuring of a happy agreement betwixt the King and the Parliament, is by putting up of the Sword, and saving Christian Blood from being (bed, suppressing of Papists, and eftablishing Religion in his Dominions; for humble Supplications and Remonstrances reached out with naked Hands will not prevail with our Adversaries, who have invironed our King, and closed his Ears to the cry of his Subjects. But it will be objected, seeing our Religion and Liberties are established according to our own desires, by Act of Assembly and Parliament with his Majesty's consent; and seeing his Majesty's Declaration to the whole Kingdom, and Letter to every Nobleman and Burrough to give assurance for preservation of the same without altering, we have no interest nor hazard, however business go in England; but should keep ourselves in peace and quiet.
1. Answer, In all the proceedings of this business we have from time to time declared, That neither verbal Promises, nor fair Declarations for maintaining Religion and Liberty could secure us, because we have so often found facia verbis contraria, and that by the power and means of our Adversaries. As 'for Example, the Treaty at Dunce, when we for his Majesty's Honour confided to verbal Gracious Expressions of his Majesty's, for conditions of the Treaty; yet afterwards they were denied, and burnt by the Hands of the Hangman, and all reversed that then was condescended on, for our Religion and Liberty, and an Army levied against us. It was the Counsel of Monfieur de Thou to the Queen Regent at St. Andrews, for reversing our first Reformation, to grant our Predecessors in fair Promises and Declarations all that they craved, and when thereby they should be divided, to interpret these by herself, and to take order with the heads of the Opponers; and this policy was used by the King of France for the subverting of the Protestant Religion; for he fed the one half of them with fair promises of Freedoms and Privileges, until he had cut off the other half, as witnesseth Monfieur de Thou, 71, pag. 463.
2. As we have found by former experience, that the establishment of our first Reformation by an Act of Assembly and Parliament, could not secure us from the violent pressing of Innovations against both; and in the new Remonstrance, 1640. pag. 16. we have fully exprest, that no Assembly or Parliament, no rotten Cable nor flipping Anchor of Articles, whereunto we had fastned our hopes, can be any Road or Harbour of safety for us, so long as our Enemies fit at the Helm, and govern the King's Council, and Courses, and who makes the King's Majesty, by extrajudicial Declarations, to enerve and evacuate all that is done in Assembly and Parliament, and to interpret; Laws contrary to the advice of Judicators of Kirk and State: And of late our Mediation betwixt him and his Parliament was rejected, contrary to the advice and judgments of Commissioners of the Peace, the Counsel and hard Answer to the Commissioners of the Kirk, that it was contrary to any Article of the Treaty, and the Act of the General Assembly, and his stopping of our Commissioners to go to London, contrary to his own safe conduct.
3. If the Parliament of England that now is, be destroyed, who shall undertake for our safety? As the King's Declarations of his own Intentions cannot exceed his Person, or secure us at the hands of his Successors, so we may perceive in the late discovery of the Plots of the Scots, English, and Irisb Papists, that these Declarations can be no sufficient security against the surprizing of Papists and Malignants, if they be permitted to carry Arms within any of the Kingdoms.
For Answer, the Representative Body of the Kingdom now Convened, can best satisfie this Objection. Secondly, When God calls his People, and makes them willing, he gives them also strength, that through him they do valiantly. Thirdly, God hath helped us in all Enterprises for his Cause, and he will yet provide, in the Mount it shall be seen; we were but poor the last time we went to the Field in his Errand, and yet he provided for us beyond expectation; his Hand is not shortned that he cannot save; if the Lord call us, he will be with us; and if he be with us, we shall not want; we hope the wise Convention of States will see to the conditions, that the Kngdom receive as little detriment as as may be, only let us not think it strange if the best Works meet with the greatest Difficulties. Thirdly, It is objected, they will not embrace a Presbyterial Government in the Kirk, and so no hope of Uniformity. Answer, They have already put put Episcopal Government, Root and Branch, neither will they, nor do the Protestant Kirks know of any other but Presbyterial.
Secondly, Their zealous Predecessors having in the Days of Queen Elisabeth adventured upon many and heavy Sufferings for fetting up a Presbyterial Government, were born down with the Streams of the Times, and the Power of Prelacy; and if any zealous Man amongst them have their Scruples against Presbyterial Government, we trust the Lord will reveal the Truth unto them.
The aforesaid Model of a Covenant sent out of Scotland, being presented to the two Houses of Parliament in England, August 28, was by them, after some small Alterations, consented to, and by an Order of the Commons, dated Sept. 21, 1643, printed and published, and on the next day it was appointed to be taken publickly in St. Margaret's Church at Westminster by the House of Commons and the Assembly of Divines, and Philip Nye (who was then returned from Scotland) was ordered to make an Exhortation, Mr. John White to pray before, and Dr. George after the Exhortation; and Alexander Henderson, as one of the Commissioners from the Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland, made also a Speech; the manner of taking it was thus: the Covenant was read, and then notice was given, that each Person should immediately by swearing thereunto, worship the great Name of God, and testify so much outwardly, by lifting up their Hands; and then they went up into the Chancel, and there subscribed their Names in a Roll of Parchnient, in which this Covenant was fairly written.
But before it was tendred to be taken generally by the People, the two Houses ordered the Assembly of Divines to frame an Exhortation, to be read before the taking it, who having composed the same, it was approved by both Houses; which Exhortation and Covenant were as followeth.
An Exhortation to the taking of the solemn League and Covenant,
If the Power of Religion, or solid Reason; if Loyalty to the King, and Piety to their native Country, or Love to themselves, and natural Affection to their Posterity; if the Example of Men touch'd with a deep Sense of all these, or extraordinary Success from God thereupon, can awaken an embroiled bleeding Remnant to embrace the sovereign and only Means of their Recovery, there can be no doubt but this solemn League and Covenant will find, wheresoever it shall be tendred, a People ready to entertain it with all Chearfulness and Duty.
And were it not commended to the Kingdom, by the concurrent Encouragement of the honourable Houses of Parliament, the Assembly of Divines., the renowned City of London, Multitudes of other Persons of eminent Rank and Quality of this Nation, and the whole Body of Scotland, who have all willingly sworn and subscribed it, with rejoicing at the Oath, so graciously seconded from Heaven already, by blading the Counsels and breaking the Power of the Enemy more than ever, yet it goeth forth in its own Strength, with such convincing Evidence of Equity, Truth and Righteousness, as may raise in all (not wilfully ignorant or miserably seduced) inflamed Affections to join with their Brethren in this happy Bond, for putting an end to the present Miseries, and for saving both King and Kingdom from utter Ruin, now so strongly and openly laboured by the Popish Faction, and such as have been bewitch'd and besotted by that viperous and bloody Generation.
For what is there almost in this Covenant, which was not for Substance either expressed or manifestly included in that solemn Protestation of May 5 1641, wherein the whole Kingdom stands engaged until this day? The sinful Neglect whereof doth (as we may justly fear) open one Floodgate the more to let in all these Calamities upon the Kingdom, and cast upon it a necessity of renewing a Covenant, and of entring into this.
If it be said, the Extirpation of Prelacy, to wit, the whole Hierarchical Government (standing as yet by the known Laws of the Kingdom) is new and unwarrantable, this will appear to all impartial Understandings (tho' new) to be not only warrantable, but necessary, if they consider (to omit what some say, that this Government was never formally established by any Laws of this Kingdom at all) that the very Life and Soul thereof is already taken from it, by an Act passed this present Parliament, so as (like Jezebel's Carcase, of which no more was left but the Skull, the Feet, and the Palms of her Hands) nothing of Jurisdiction remains but what is precarious in them, and voluntary in those who submit to them; that their whole Government is at best but a Human Constitution, and such as is found and adjudged by both Houses of Parliament (in which the Judgment of the whole Kingdom is involved and declared) not only very prejudicial to the Civil State, but a great Hindrance also to the perfect Reformation of Religion; yes, who knows it not to be too much an Enemy thereto, and destructive to the Power of Godliness, and pure Administration of the Ordinances of Christ? which moved the Well-affected throughout this Kingdom long since to petition this Parliament (as had been desired before, even in the Reign or Q. Elisabeth and of King James) for a total Abolition of the same; nor is any Man hereby bound to offer any Violence to their Persons, but only in his Place and Calling to endeavour their Extirpation in a lawful way.
And as for those Clergymen who pretend that they (above all others) cannot covenant to extirpate that Government, because they have (as they say) taken a solemn Oath to obey the Bishops in licitis & honestis they can tell, if they please, that they that have sworn Obedience to the Laws of the Land, are not thereby prohibited from endeavouring by all lawful Means the Abolition of those Laws, when they prove inconvenient or mischievous; and if yet there should any Oath be found into which any Ministers or others have entred not warranted by the Laws of God and the Land, in this Case they must teach themselves and others, that such Oaths call for Repentance, not Pertinacy in them.
If it be pleaded that this Covenant crosseth the Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance, there can be nothing farther from Truth, for this Covenant binds all, and more strongly engageth them to preserve and defend the King's Majesty's Person and Authority, in the Preservation and Defence of the true Religion and Liberties of the Kingdoms.
That Scruple, that this is done without the King's Consent, will soon be removed, if it be remembred that the Protestation of the 5th of May before mentioned was in the same manner voted and executed by both Houses, and after (by Order of one House alone) sent abroad to all the Kingdom, his Majesty not excepting against it, or giving any Stop to the taking of it, albeit he was then resident in Person at Whitehall.
Thus Ezra and Nehemiah drew all the People into a Covenant without any special Commission from the Persian Monarchs (then their Sovereigns} so to do, albeit they were not free Subjects, but Vassals, and one of them the menial Servant of Artaxerxes, then by Conquest King of Judah also; nor hath this Doctrine or Practice been deemed seditious or unwarrantable by the Princes that have sat upon the English Throne, but justified and defended by Q. Elisabeth of blessed Memory, with the Expence of much Treasure and noble Blood in the united Provinces of the Netherlands, combined not only without, but against the unjust Violence of Philip of Spain. King James followed her Steps so far as to approve their Union, and enter into a League with them, as free States; which is continued by his Majesty now reigning to this day, who both by his Expedition for Relief of Rochel in France, and his strict Consederacy with the Prince of Orange and the States-General, notwithstanding all the Importunity of Spain to the contrary, hath set to his Seal, that all that had been done by his Royal Ancestors, in Maintenance of those who had so engaged and combined themselves, was just and warrantable.
And what had become of the Religion, Laws and Liberties of our Sister Nation of Scotland, had they not entred into such a solemn League and Covenant at the beginning of the late Troubles there? Which Course however it was at first, by the Popish and Prelatick Projectors, represented to his Majesty as an Offence of the highest nature, justly deserving Chastisement by the Fury of a puissant Army, yet when the Matter came afterwards in cool Blood to be debated, first by Commissioners of both Kingdoms, and then in open Parliament here (when all those of either House, who are now engag'd at Oxford, were present in Parliament, and gave their Votes therein) it was found, adjudged and declared by the King in Parliament, that our dear Brethren of Scotland had done nothing but what became loyal and obedient Subjects, and were thereupon by Act of Parliament publickly righted in all the Churches of this Kingdom, where they had been defamed.
Therefore however some Men hood-wink'd and blinded by the Artifices of those jesuitical Engineers, who have long conspired to sacrifice our Religion to the Idolatry of Rome, our Laws, Liberties and Persons to arbitrary Slavery, and our Estates to their insatiable Avarice, may possibly be detered and amused with high Threats and Declarations flying up and down on the Wings of the Royal Name and Countenance (now captivated and prostituted to serve all their Lusts) to proclaim all Rebels and Traitors who take this Covenant, yet let no faithful English Heart be afraid to join with our Brethren of all the three Kingdoms in this solemn League, as sometimes the Men of Israel (altho under another King) did with the Men of Judah at the Invitation of Hezekiah.
What tho' those Tongues, set on fire by Hell, do rail and threaten? that God who was pleased to clear up the Innocency of Mordecai and the Jews against all the malicious Aspersions of wicked Haman to his and their Sovereign, so as all his plotting, produced but this Effect, that when the King's Commandment and Decree drew near to be put in execution, and the Enemies of the Jews hoped to have Power over them, it was turned to the contrary, and the Jews had Rule over them that hated them, and laid Hands on such as sought their Hurt, so as no Man could withstand them; and that same God, who but even as Yesterday vouchsafed to disperse and scatter those dark Clouds and Fogs which overshadowed that loyal and religious Kingdom of Scotland, and to make their Righteousness to shine as clear as the Sun at Noon-day in the very Eyes of their greatest Enemies, will doubt-lesly stand by all those who with Singleness of Heart, and a due Sense of their own Sins, and a necessity of Reformation, shall now enter into an everlasting Covenant with the Lord, never to be forgotten, to put an end to all those unhappy and unnatural Breaches between the King and such as are faithful in the Land, causing their Righteousness and Praise to spring forth before all the Nations, to the Terror and Confusion of those Men of Blood, the Consederate Enemies of God and the King, who have long combined, and have now raked together the Dregs and Scum of many Kingdoms, to bury all the Glory, Honour and Liberty of this Nation in the eternal Grave of Dishonour and Destruction.
An Exhortation touching the taking of the solemn League and Covenant, and for satisfying of such Scruples as may arise in the taking of it, was this day read the first and second time, and by Vote upon the Question assented to, and ordered to be forthwith printed.
A solemn League and Covenant for Reformation and Defence of Religion, the Honour and Happiness of the King, the Peace and Safety of the three Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
We Noblemen, Barons, Knights, Gentlemen, Citizens, Burgesses, Ministers of the Gospel, and Commons of all sorts in the Kingdom of England, Scotland and Ireland, by the Providence of God living under one King, and being of one reformed Religion, having before our Eyes the Glory of God, and the Advancement of the Kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, the Honour and Happiness of the King's Majesty and his Posterity, and the true Publick Liberty, Safety and Peace of the Kingdoms, wherein every ones private Condition is included, and calling to mind the treacherous and bloody Plots, Conspiracies, Attempts and Practices of the Enemies of God against the true Religion and Professors thereof in all Places, especially in these three Kingdoms, ever since the Reformation of Religion, and now much their Rage, Power and Presumption are of late and at this time increased and exercised, whereof the deplorable Estate of the Church and Kingdom of Inland, the distressed Estate of the Church and Kingdom of England, and the dangerous Estate of the Church and Kingdom of Scotland, are present and publick Testimonies, we have (now at last) after other Means of Supplication, Remonstrance, Protections and Sufferings, for the Preservation of ourselves and our Religion from utter Ruin and Destruction, according to the commendable Practice of these Kingdoms in former Times, and the Example of God's People in other Nations, after mature Deliberation, resolved and determined to enter into a mutual and solemn League and Covenant, wherein we all subscribe, and each one of as for himself, with our Hands lifted up to the most high God, do swear,
I. That we shall sincerely, really and constantly, thro' the Grace of God, endeavour in our several Places and Callings the Preservarion of the reformed Religion in the Church of Scotland, in Doctrine, Worship, Discipline and Government, against our common Enemies, the Reformation or Religion, in the Kingdoms of England and Ireland, in Doctrine, Worship, Discipline and Government, according to the Word of God, and the Example of the best reformed Churches; and we shall endeavour to bring the Churches of God in the three Kingdoms to the nearest Conjunction and Uniformity in Religion, confessing of Faith, Form of Church-Government, Directory for Worship and Catechising, that we, and our Posterity after us, may, as Brethren live in Faith and Love, and the Lord may delight to dwell in the midst of us.
II. That we shall in like manner, without respect of persons, endeavour the Extirpation of Popery, Prelacy, (that is, Church-Government by Archbishops bishops, Bishops, their Chancellors and Commissaries, Deans, Deans and Chapters, Archdeacons, and all other Ecclesiastical Officers depending on that Hierarchy) Superstition, Herefy, Schism, Prosaneness, and whatsoever shall be found to be contrary to found Doctrine and the Power.of Godliness left we partake in other Mens Sins, and thereby be in danger to receive of their Plagues, and that the Lord may be one, and his Name one in the three Kingdoms.
III. We shall with the same Sincerity, Reality and Constancy, in our several Vocations, endeavour with our Estates and Lives mutually to preserve the Rights and Privileges of the Parliaments, and the Liberties of the Kingdoms, and to preserve and defend the King's Majesty's Person and Authority, in the Preservation and Defence of the true Religion and Liberties of the Kingdoms, that the World may bear Witness with our Consciences of our Loyalty, and that we have no Thoughts or Intentions to diminish his Majesty's just Power and Greatness.
IV. We shall also with all Faithfulness endeavour the Discovery of all such as have been or shall be Incendiaries, Malignants, or evil Instruments, by hindring the Reformation of "Religion, dividing the King from his People, or one of the Kingdoms from another, or making any Fashion or Parties amongst the People, contrary to the League and Covenant, that they may be brought to publick Trial, and receive condign Punishment, as the degree of their Offences shall require or deserve, or the supreme Judicatories of both Kingdoms refpectively, or others having Power from them for that effect, shall judge convenient.
V. And whereas the Happiness of a blessed Peace between these Kingdoms, denied in former Times to our Progenitors, is by the good Providence of God granted unto us, and hath been lately concluded and settled: by both Parliaments, we shall each one of us, according to our Places and Interest, endeavour that they may remain conjoined in a firm Peace and Union to all Posterity, and that Justice may be done upon the wilful Opposers thereof in manner expressed in the precedent Articles.
VI. We shall also, according to our Places and Callings, in this common Cause of Religion, Liberty, and Peace of the Kingdom, assist and defend all those that enter into this League and Covenant, in the maintaining and; pursuing thereof, and shall not suffer ourselves directly or indirectly, by whatsoever Combination, Persuasion, or Terror, to be divided and withdrawn from this blessed Union and Conjunction, whether to make Defection to the contrary Part, or give ourselves to a detestable Indifferency or Neutrality in this Cause, which so much concerneth the Glory of God, the Good of the Kingdoms, and the Honour of the King, but shall all the Days of our Lives zealously and constantly continue therein, against all Opposition, and promote the same according to our Power against all Lets and Impediments whatsoever, and what we are not able ourselves to suppress or overcome, we shall reveal and make known, that it may be timely prevented or removed; all which we shall do as in the Sight of God.
And because these Kingdoms are guilty of many Sins and Provocations against God, and his Son Jesus Crist, as is too manifest by our present Distresses and Dangers, the Fruits thereof, we profess and declare before God and the World our unseigned Desire to be humbled for our Sins, and for the Sins of these Kingdoms, especially that we have not as we ought valued the inestimable Benefit of the Gospel, that we have not labour'd for the Purity and Power thereof, and that we have not endeavour'd to receive Christ in our Hearts, nor to walk worthy of him in our Lives, which are the Causes of other Sins and Transgressions so much abounding amongst us, and our true and unseigned Purpose, Desire and Endeavour for ourselves, and all others under our Power and Charge, both in publick and in private, in all Duties we owe to God and Man, to amend our Lives, and each one to go before another in the Example, of a real Reformation, that the Lord may turn away his Wrath and heavy Indignation, and establish these Churches and Kingdoms in Truth and Peace; and this Covenant we make in the Presence of Almighty God, the Searcher of all Hearts, with a true Intention to perform the same, as we shall answer at that great Day, when the Secrets of all Hearts shall be disclosed, most humbly beseeching the Lord to strengthen us by his holy Spirit for this End, and to bless our Desires and Proceedings with such Success as may be a Deliverance and Safety to his People, and Encouragement to the Christian Churches groaning under, or in danger of the Yoke of Antichristian Tyranny, to join in the same or like Association and Covenant, to the Glory of God, the Enlargement of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, and the Peace and Tranquillity of Christian Kingdoms and Commonwealths.
- Will. Lenthally Speaker
- Beauhamp Saint-John
- Gilbert Germard
- Walter Earl
- James Cambell
- Thomas Cheeke
- Robert Nicholas
- Benjamin Rudyard
- Edward Master
- John White
- Anthony Stapley
- Dennis Bond
- Laurence Whitake
- Michael Noble
- Pere. Hoby
- Richard Barwis
- John Gurdon
- Robert Harley
- Francis Knollys
- John Pyne
- George Searle
- Henry Vane Senior
- Nevil Poole
- John Tonge
- Henry Herbert
- Thomas Sandis
- William Jesson
- Philip L. Herbert
- Thomas Barrington
- Martin Lumley
- John Trevor
- Francis Godolphin
- Thomas Arundel
- Edward Stephens
- Gilbert Pykering
- John Creve
- Edward Baynton
- William Cawley
- John Moyle
- Oliver Cromwell
- Henry Vane Junior
- William Cage
- Richard Ersey
- Philip L. Lisle
- William Heveningham
- Isaac Penington
- Richard Cresheld
- Thomas Pelham
- Thomas Parker
- John Leigh
- John Harris
- Augustin Skinner
- John Venn
- William Strickland
- John Franklin
- Samuel Browne
- Robert Scawen
- Roger Hill
- John Button
- John Meyrick
- Ambrose Browne
- Richard Wynn
- Edward Owner
- Charles Pym
- Charles L. Cranborne
- Ben. Weston
- Dudley North
- John Nut
- Jo. Corbet
- Roger Burgoyue
- Peter Temple
- Benjamin Valentine
- Thomas Walsingham
- Oliver Luke
- William Alenson
- Humphrey Salwey
- Richard Moore
- William Ashurst
- Thomas Moore
- Thomas Fountayne
- William Ellys
- Henry Shelley
- Richard Shuttleworth
- Henry Ludlow
- George Gallopp
- Robert Gallopp
- Arthur Haselrig
- Oliver Saint-John
- Thomas Grantham
- Francis Barneham
- William L. Fitzwilliams
- Edmund Punch
- Henry Mildmay
- Hugh Rogers
- Thomas Hatcher
- John Wray
- Simon D'Ewes
- Anthony Bedingfield
- John Ashe
- William L. Munson
- Martin Lister
- Robert Goodwyn
- Edward Thomas
- Henry Lucas
- Miles Corbet
- Philip Smith
- Cornelius Holland
- William Spurftowe
- John Lowry
- Peter Wintworth
- Henry Cholmely
- Philip Stapleton
- William Pierrepont
- Roger North
- Alexander Popham
- Thomas Hodges
- John Maynard
- Samuel Vassal
- Anthony Irby
- John Clotworthy
- John Broxalme
- Richard Jervoyse
- John Blakeston
- Walter Longe
- John Rolle
- Robert Jenner
- John Waddon
- William Masham
- John Lisle
- Edmund Fowell
- Edward Ashe
- Thomas Pury
- Richard Whitehead
- Richard Jenyns
- Humphry Tufton
- Thomas Dacres
- Thomas Erle
- John Downes
- John Goodwyn
- Francis Drake
- William Waller
- Samuel Luke
- Francis Buller
- Richard Harman
- George Buller
- Arthur Onslowe
- Richard Wynwood
- Robert Pye
- Henry L. Grey of Ruthin
- Richard Knighley
- John Pym
- Christopher Telverton
- Anthony Ntcoll
- Peter North
- Robert Reynolds
- Nathaniel Barnardiston
- Henry Heyman
- William Purefoy
- Valentine Walton
- Michael Oldesworth
- William Weler
- Hall Ravenscroft
- Thomas L Grey of Groby
- Thomas Middleton
- Edward Hnngerford
- Christopher Wrey
- Richard Lee
- Herbert Motley
- Thomas Lane
- Robert Cecil
- William Bell
- Thomas Some
- Herbottle Grimston
- Symon Snowe
- John Nash
- Herbottle Grimston
- Ralph Asheton
- Edward Ayshcoghe
- John Wilde
- John Trenchard
- Thomas Jervoyse
- Richard Browne
- William Playters
- Nathaniel Stephens
- Richard Rose
- Francis Rouse
- Gilbert Millington
- Walter Young
- John Browne
- John Hippisley
- Edward Poole
- Henry Pelham
- William Hay
- John Driden
- Nathaniel Fyennes
- William Lewis
- Giles Green
- William Lytton
- John Hervey
- Edward Dowce
- William Strode
- Edmund Prideaux
- Thomas Hoyle
- Edward Exton
- Francis Popham
- Zouch Tate
- John Curson
- Alexander Bence
- Squire Bence
- John Selden
- John Glynn
- Richard Onflowe
- John Coke
- Thomas L. Wenman
- Bulstrode Whitlock
- George Mountague
- Edward Partheriche
- Henry Campion
- William Whitaker
- Dentil Holies
- Edward Wingate
- James Fenys
- Poynings Moore
- Edward Bisse Junior
- William Jephson
- Edward Mountague
- Norton Knatchboll
- Thomas Eden
Whereas there is a printed Paper, entitled, A solemn League and Covenant for Reformation and Defence of Religion, the Honour and Happiness of the King, and the Peace and Safety of the three Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, pretended to be ordered by the Commons in Parliament on the 21st of September last to be printed and published; which Covenant, tho' it seems to make specious Expressions of Piety and Religion, is in truth nothing else but a traiterous and seditious Combination against us and the establish'd Religion and Laws of this Kingdom, in pursuance of a traiterous Design and Endeavour to bring in foreign Force to invade this Kingdom,-we do therefore straitly charge and command all our loving Subjects, of what Degree or Quality soever, upon their Allegiance, that they presume not to take the said seditious and traiterous Covenant; and we do likewise hereby forbid and inhibit all our Subjects to impose, administer or tender the said Covenant, as they and every of them will answer the contrary at the utmost and extremest Perils.
Hamilton, Roxburgh, and the rest of the Lords that adhered to the King in Scotland, seeing themselves out-voted, consulted of some means of Force, and thereupon, about the end of August, sent one Neal to the Marquis of Newcastle, to send them such Arms and Ammunition as could be spared out of the King's Magazines then in his Hands, and withal desiring him to seize on Berwick, at that time without a Garrison, that the same might serve them for a place to bring what Forces they could raise unto; but my Lord Newcastle sent word back, that for Arms or Ammunition he had none to spare; and as for Berwick, lie could not seize on it without hazarding the Ruin of himself and his Posterity, as being contrary to the late Treaty of the two Kingdoms ratified in Parliament; and about the middle of September the Parliament of England sent down some Ships to Berwick, and by the Concurrence of the Scots put into that Town a Garrison.
A Proclamation proclaimed throughout the Kingdom of Scotland, August 18, 1643, for all Persons from 16 to 60 Years old to appear in Arms.
Charles by the Grace of God King of Great-Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith: To our Lovits, Messengers or Sheriffs in that Part conjunctly and severally specially constitute, greeting:
Forasmeickle as the Estates of the Kingdom of Scotland presently convened, taking into their most serious Consideration the great and imminent Danger of the true Protestant reformed Religion, and of the Peace of thir our Kingdoms from Malignants and their Adherents, have, after mature Deliberation, thought expedient to enter into a solemn and mutual Covenant with our Brethren of the Kingdom of England, for the Defence of the true Protestant reformed Religion in the Kirk of Scotland, and the Reformation of Religion in the Kirk of England according to the Word of God, and the Example of the best reformed Kirks;
And such as may bring the Kirk of God in both Kingdoms to the nearest Conjunction and Uniformity in Religion and Church-Government. And siclicke to preserve and defend the Rights and Privileges of our Parliaments, and Liberties of our Kingdoms respective; and to preserve and defend our Person and Authority, in the Preservation of the said true Religion and Liberties of our said Kingdoms;
And to observe the Articles of the late Treaty and Peace betwixt the two Nations; and to assist and defend all that shall enter into this Covenant, in the maintaining and pursuing thereof, as the same more fully proports;
Which as it will be a Comfort and Encouragement to all Christians who fear God and love true Religion, to all good loyal Subjects who truly honour us, and to all true Patriots who tender the Liberty of their Country;
So doubtless it will exasperate and enrage the said Papists, Prelates, Malignants, and their Adherents, to practise and execute all the Mischief and Cruelty they can against Kirk and Kingdom, as they have done in our Kingdoms of England and Ireland.
For preventing thereof the Estates of this our Kingdom (according to the Practice of our Council, Convention of our Estates, and of our Parliaments in former Times of the like Exigence) have resolved to put this our said Kingdom with all possible Speed in a present Posture of Defence.
And for the better Safety and Security thereof have statute and ordained, and hereby statutes and ordains, that immediately after Publication hereof all the fencible Persons within this Our Kingdom of Scotland, betwixt sixty and fixteen Years of Age, of whatsoever Quality, Rank or Degree, shall provide themselves with forty days Provision, and with Ammunition, Arms, and other Warlike Provision of all forts in the most substantial manner, for Horse and Foot, with Tents, and all other Furnishing requisite.
Our Will is therefore, and we charge you straitly, and command, that incontinent thir our Letters seen, you pass to the Mercat-Cross at Edinburgh and several Boroughs of this our Kingdom, and Parish-Kirks thereof, and there by open Proclamation make Publication hereof, where-through none pretend Ignorance of the same.
And that you command and charge all and sundry our Subjects foresaid, being fencible Persons, betwixt sixty and sixteen Years, to provide themselves in manner foresaid, and to be in readiness to make their Rendezvouz thus armed at the Places to be appointed by our said Estates, or Committees having Power from them, within eight and forty Hours after they shall be lawfully warned from them to that effect, as they will testify their Affections to the true Protestant Religion, the Liberties of our Kingdoms, our own Honour, and the Peace and Safety of that their native Country, and under the Pain to be esteemed and punished as Enemies to Religion, us and our Kingdoms, and their whole Goods to be consiscate to the Use of the Publick.
Right trusty and right well-beloved Cousins and Counsellors, and trusty and well-beloved Counsellors, we greet you well. Whereas we were graciously pleased to condescend that this present Meeting in our Kingdom of Scotland of our Nobility there, and the Commissioners for Shires and Beroughs, should resolve and conclude of such particular Affairs as we specified and allowed to them for the Security and Good of that our Kingdom, our late Letters to them dated the 10thof June last. And forasmuch as we have, to our great Amazement, newly seen a Paper in Form of a Proclamation, Precept or Warrant, in our Royal Name, dated at Edinburg the 18th of August, subscribed, Per Actum Dominorum Conventionis, Arch. Primrose, Cler. Conven. being a Paper most impudently set forth without our Privity or any Authority from us, and tending to cast our beloved People of that our native Kingdom into the like and more bloody Combustions and rebellious Violation of their Religion and Allegiance to us, and the Laws of that our (hitherto) peaceful native Kingdom, as hath been here practised by the malicious Enemies of Peace and Government; we have therefore, upon good Deliberation, and out of our Princely and gracious Care of our People, and of the Tranquillity of that our native Kingdom (as it was so lately and Well settled by ourself) thought fit to declare, and we do hereby declare to you, that we utterly dislike and disallow it, forbidding all our Subjects to obey the same, and all other Papers published in our Name, which shall not immediately be warranted by us. And we do hereby will and command you forthwith openly to publish these our Letters, to let all our People understand our Pleasure herein. And lastly, our Pleasure and Command is, that you cause these our Letters to be forthwith recorded in the Books of Our Privy-Council of that our native Kingdom; for all which these our said Letters shall be your sufficient Warrants. Given at our Court at Oxford the 26th day of September, in the 19th Year of our Reign, 1643.
The Committee of Estates in Scotland, by their printed Act of the 22d of October, ordained the Covenant to be sworn and subscribed by all Subjects,. under the Pain of being punished as Enemies to Religion, his Majesty's Honour, and the Peace of these Kingdoms, and to have their Goods and Rents consiseated, and they not to enjoy any Benefit or Office within the Kingdom, and to be cited to the next Parliament as Enemies to Religion, King and Kingdom, and to receive what further Punishment his Majesty and the Parliament should inflict. About the end of October the said Committee of Estates summon'd all the Lords of the Council to appear the second of November to take the Covenant, which Duke Hamilton and some other Lords refusing, the said Committee, by another Act of the 17th of November, appointed all their Goods to be seized on, their Rents gathered up, and their Persons to be apprehended, with Power to kill them if they made Resistance. Hereupon Hamilton and his Brother Lanerick left Scotland, and came to the Court at Oxford, where (some ill Offices having been done them, by misrepresenting their Services, because they were unsuccessful) they were no sooner arriv'd, but, without being suffered to be admitted into the King's Presence, they were committed to Prison, and Hamilton kept a close Prisoner, and. very severely used, certain Articles being exhibited against him, to which he drew up a large and particular Answer (which you may read in Dr. Burnet's Memoirs of his Life, fol. 253.) but without ever being brought to any Hearing or Trial, he was sent first to Pendennis-Castle, and thence removed to the Castle of St. Michael's-Mount in Cornwall, where he continued a Prioner till the end of April 1646, when same of the Parliament's Forces brought that Castle to a Surrender, and so he obtained his Liberty; but his Brother Lanerick, to prevent such a tedious Durance, made his Escape at Oxford.
In the Interim the Treaty between the Parliament of England and the Scots, was carried on very smoothly, and Commissioners sent back to Scotland with the Articles of Accord, and 50000l. Advance-Money arrived at Edinburgh, Nov. 21. and on the 29th of the same Month the Treaty between them was fully closed, the Articles being as followeth.
Articles of the Treaty agreed upon betwixt the Commissioners of both Houses of the parliament of England, having Power and Commission from the said honourable Houses, and the Commissioners of the Convention of the Estates of the Kingdom of Scotland,
Whereas the two Houses of the Parliament of England, out of just and deep Sense of the great and imminent Danger of the true Protestant Religion, in regard of the great Forces of Papists, Prelates, Malignants, and their Adherents, raised and employed against the constant Professors thereof in England and Ireland, thought fit to send their Commissioners to the Kingdom of Scotland, to treat with the Convention of Estates and General Assembly there concerning such things as might tend to the Preservation of Religion, and the mutual Good of both Nations, and to that end to desire a more near and strict Union betwixt the two Kingdoms, and the Assistance of the Kingdom of Scotland, by a considerable Strength to be raised and sent by them into the Kingdom of England; and whereas upon a Consutation held betwixt the Commissioners of the Parliament of England and the Committees of the Convention of Estates and General Assembly, no Means was thought so expedient to accomplish and strengthen the Union, as for both Nations to enter into a colemn League and Covenant, and a Form thereof to be drawn and presented to the two Houses of Parliament of England, the Convention of Estates, and General Assembly of Scotland, which hath accordingly been done, and received their Approbation. And whereas the Particulars concerning the Assistance desired by the two Houses of the Parliament of England from their Brethren of Scotland were delivered in by the English Commissioners August 19 to the Convention of Estates, who did thereupon give Power to their Committee to consider and debate farther with the English Commissioners of what other Propositions might be added or concluded, whereby the Assistance desired might be made more effectual and beneficial; and in pursuance thereof these Propositions following were considered of, and debated by the Committee and Commissioners aforesaid, to be certified with all convenient Speed to the two Houses of the Parliament of England, and the Convention of Estates of Scotland, by their respective Committees and Commissioners, to be respectively taken into their Consideration, and preceded with as they shall find cause; which being accordingly done, and these ensuing Propositions approved, agreed and concluded of by the two Houses of the Parliament of England, and the Committee of the Estates of Scotland respectively, and Power by them given to their respective Committees and Commissioners to agree and conclude the same, as may appear by the Votes of both Houses, dated the first of November, and the Order of the Committee bearing date the, 17th of November; we the said; Commissioners and Committees, according to their Votes and Orders, do formally conclude and agree upon these Articles following, and in Confirmation thereof do mutually subscribe the same.
1. It is agreed and concluded, that the Covenant represented to the Convention of Estates and General Assembly of Soctland, and sent to both Houses of the Parliament of England, in the same Form as it is now returned from the two Houses of the Parliament of England to their Brethren of Scotland, and allowed by the Committee of Estates and Commissioners of the General Assembly, be sworn and subscribed by both Kingdoms, as a most near Tie and Conjunction between them, for their mutual Defence against the Papists and Prelatica! Faction, and their Adherents in both Kingdoms, and for pursuance of the Ends expressed in the said Covenant.
2. That an Army to this purpose shall be levied forthwith, consisting of 18000 Foot effective, and 2000 Horse, and 1000 Dragoons effective, with a suitable Train of Artillery, to be ready at some general Rendezvous near the Borders of England, to march into England for the Purposes aforesaid with all convenient Speed, the said Foot and Horse to be well and compleatly armed, and provided with Victuals and Pay for 40 days, and the said Train of Artillery to be fitted in all Points ready to march.
3. That the Army be commanded by a General appointed by the Estates of Scotland, and subject to such Resolutions and Directions as are and shall be agreed and concluded on mutually between the two Kingdoms, or by Committees appointed by them in that behalf, for pursuance of the Ends before mentioned.
4. That the Charge of trying, arming, and bringing the said Forces together furnished, as also the fitting the Train of Artillery in readiness to march, be computed and for down according to the same Rates as is the Kingdom of Scotland were to raise the said Army for themselves and their own Affairs; all which for the present is to be done by the Kingdom of Scotland upon Accompt, and the Accompt to be delivered to the Commissioners of the Kingdom of England, and when the Peace of the two Kingdoms is settled, the same to be repaid or satisfied to the Kingdom of Scotland.
5. That this Army be likewise paid as is the Kingdom of Scotland were to employ the same for their own occasion; and towards the defraying thereof (if not amounting to the full Months Pay) shall be Monthly allowed and paid the Sum of 30000l. Sterling by the Parliament of England out of the Estates and Revenues of the Papists, Prelates, Malignants, and their Adherents, or otherwise; and in case the said 30000l. Monthly, or any part thereof, be not paid at the time when it shall become due and payable, the Kingdom of England shall give the Publick Faith for the paying of the Remainder unpaid with all possible Speed, allowing the rate of 81.per Cent, for the time of the Performance thereof; and in case that notwithstanding the said Monthly Sum of 30000l. paid as aforesaid, the States and Kingdom of Scotland shall have just cause to demand farther Satisfaction of their Brethren of England, when the Peace of both Kingdoms is settled, for the Pains, Hazard and Charges they have undergone in the same, they shall by way of Brotherly Assistance have due Recompence made to them by the Kingdom of England, and that out of such Lands and Estates of the Papists, Prelates, Malignants, and their Adherents, as the two Houses of Parliament shall think fit, and for the assurance thereof the Publick Faith of the Kingdom of England shall be given them.
6. And to the end the said Army in manner aforesaid may be enabled and prepared to march, the Kingdom of England is to pay in ready Money to their Brethren of Scotland, or such as shall have Power from the Estates of that Kingdom, the Sum of 100000l. Sterling at Leith or Edinburg with all convenient Speed, by way of Advance before-hand, which is to be discounted back again to the Kingdom of England by the Kingdom of Scotland, upon the first Monthly Allowance which shall grow due to the Scottish Army, from the time they shall make their first entrance into the Kingdom of England.
7. That the Kingdom of Scotland, to manifest their Willingness to their utmost Ability to be helpful to their Brethren of England in this common Cause, will give the Publick Faith of the Kingdom of Scotland, to be jointly made use of with the Publick Faith of the Kingdom of England, for the present taking up 200000 l. Sterling in the Kingdom of England, or elsewhere, for the speedy procuring of the said 100000 l. Sterling as aforesaid, as also a considerable Sum for the satisfying in good Proportion the Arrears of the Scottish Army in Ireland.
8. That no Cessation, nor any Pacification or Agreement of Peace whatsoever, shall be made by either Kingdom, or the Armies of either Kingdom, without the mutual Advice and Consent of both Kingdoms, or their Committees in that behalf appointed, who are to have full Power for the same, in case the Houses of the Parliament of England or the Parliament or Convention of Estates of Scotland shall not fit.
9. That the Publick Faith of the Kingdom of Scotland shall be given to their Brethren of England, that neither their entrance into, nor their continuance in the Kingdom of England, shall be made use of to any other Ends than are expressed in the Covenant, and in the Articles of this Treaty, and that all Matters of difference that shall happen to arise between the Subjects of the two Nations, shall be resolved and determined by the mutual Advice and Consent of both Kingdoms, or by such Committees as for this purpose shall be by them appointed, with the same Power as in the precedent Article.
10. That in the same Manner, and upon the same Conditions, as the Kingdom of Scotland is now willing to aid and assist their Brethren of England, the Kingdom of England doth oblige themselves to aid and assist the Kingdom of Scotland, in the same or like Cases of Streights and Extremities.
11. Lastly, It is agreed and concluded, that during the time that the Scottish Army shall be employed as aforefaid for the Defence or the Kingdom of Scotland, there shall be fitted out as Men of War 8 Ships, whereof 6 shall be of Burthen betwixt 120 and 200 Ton, the other between 3 and 400 Ton, whereof 2 shall be in lieu of the 2 Ships appointed by the Irish Treaty, all which shall be maintained at the Charge of the Kingdom of England, to be employed for the Defence of the Coast of Sco land, under such Commanders as the Earl of Warwick for the time of his being Admiral shall nominate, with the Approbation of the Committees of both Kingdoms, which Commanders shall receive from the said Earl general Instructions, that they do from time to time observe the Directions of the Committees of both Kingdoms.
A short Declaration of the Kingdom of Scotland.
Altho' we have reason to believe that the bloody and barbarous Attempts of the Papists and their Faction, both in England and Ireland, and the manifold Oppressions and Miseries endured by those that stand well-affected to the Protestant Religion and their Country's Liberty, have made way in the Hearts of Men for the ready Entertainment of Assistance from their Brethren, whose earnest Desire it is, and whose utmost Endeavours it shall be to preserve and restore both to them, yet knowing how industrious the Malice of the Devil and his Instruments are in raising Prejudices and fomenting Jealousies betwixt them whose Hearts and Minds ought to be one, because their Happiness is the same, and particularly betwixt us and our Brethren of England, that by dividing us from each other they might destroy us both; and that this our second Expedition into England (which we doubt not but God will bless to the Advantage of that Nation, as he did our first to the Happiness of our own) instead of Wonder and Opposition, may find the chearful Concurrence of all those who together with us desire the Preservation and Reformation of Religion, the Honour and Happiness of the King, the Peace and Liberty of the Kingdoms, we thought fit to print this short, but free and ingenuous Declaration, of our Grounds and Intentions in this our present Undertaking, that so we may meet with none but such as we may either find peaceable or leave inexcusable.
Whereas therefore the greatest Questions that are like to arise in this Business may be reduced to these three Particulars, viz. the Justness of our Cause the Lawfulness of our Calling thereto, and the Faithfulness of our Carriages therein, we shall hereby endeavour to give Satisfaction in them all, and doubt not to do it, unless there remain some whose inveterate Malice hath produced in them a Resolution to be unsatisfied.
As for the Cause and Ground of this Undertaking, we are not ignorant with how much Earnestness the Sons of Slander and Perdition (whole Custom is to traduce those Proceedings which they know not how to disappoint) do endeavour to possess the Hearts of our Brethren that we are coming to fish in the troubled Waters of England, to seek and take our own Advantages in the midst of your Necessities; but suffer not your Ears, much less your Hearts, to be open to any such Delusions, whereof we trust your Eyes shall shortly witness the Falshood; for as hereafter we doubt not to appeal to our Carriages and your Conferences, besides your late Experience of our religious Observance of our former Declarations of this kind, so in the mean time give us leave to appeal to the great Searcher of Hearts, who knows, that had not the Love of Christ, requiring Christians to bear one anothers Burdens, and the Law of Nature challenging our utmost Care and Endeavour for the Prevention of our own Danger and Ruin, which an ordinary Understanding will easily see to be wrapt up in our Neighbours, and our Duty and Desire of rescuing the King from the Dangers wherein he is involved by the Company and pernicious Counsel of those who are Enemies to Religion, his Majesty's Happiness and Peace of his Dominions, called and compelled us to this Service, we could with far more Content and Satisfaction to ourselves have enjoyed with Quietness our dry Morsel, than entred into your Houses full of Sacrifices with Strife; which yet since we are required and necessicated to by that just Calling hereafter to be mentioned, we profess before God and the World, that our Thoughts and Hearts are clean and free from any other Intentions than those expressed in our solemn League and Covenant, in which we are confederate with England, viz. the Preservation and Reformation of Religion, the Honour and Happiness of the King, and the Peace and Liberties of the Kingdoms, all which we now apprehend to be deeply endanger'd by the Counsels and Confederacies of Papists, Prelates, Malignants, and their Adherents, so prevalent in England and Ireland; and we shall no otherwise desire a Blessing upon our Endeavours, than as they shall be directed to the Conservation and Establishment thereof.
And because it is not sufficient to be engaged in a good Cause unless by a good Calling, we do hereby farther declare, that tho the inseparable Interests of both Nations in their Religion and Liberties, which having the same common Enemies, must look to stand and fall together, might have given us sufficient Warrant to have endeavoured the Prevention of our own Ruin, by preserving our Friends and Brethren from Destruction; yet that we might be the more fully and formally obliged to this Christian Duty and Service, and so the Mouth of Slander and Malice be stopt, God hath so order'd things in his wise and just Providence, that the Parliament of England (who besides their Interest in the Preservation and Reformation of Religion, and the Defence of the Laws and Liberties of the Kingdom (to which out Help is required) have a particular Obligation upon this Nation (as we have formerly declared our Intentions published before our last Expedition for refusing to countenance or maintain a War against us in the Year 1640 have thought sit by their Commissioners enabled to that effect, to desire firm Union with us, and this just and necessary Assistance from us.
And whereas it is too obvious an Objection, that the King s Command or Consent being no Ingredient, our Calling thereby is rendred deficient; we answer, that tho' thro' the Injury of mischievous Counsels both his Person and Personal Commands are with-held from us, yet his Honour, his Happiness, Posterity, his Great Council, and the Welfare of his Kingdoms, call importunately to us for this timely interposing so that unless we can (which God forbid) blot out of our Thoughts the Sense of Piety and Religion towards God, of Honour and Duty toward our Sovereign, and of Gratitude toward the Parliament and Kingdom of England, we can in no wise resist our present Call to this Undertaking.
And lastly, for what concerns the Manner of the Pursuance of this just Cause and lawful Calling: Altho the many frustrate Petitions and Remonstrances from both Kingdoms presented to his Majesty have lest us only this way, which yet is not intended against his Majesty's Person, nor any of his good Subjects, but those Enemies of the King and Kingdoms, with whom no other Means can prevail, yet we shall diligently so order the Affairs of our Army, that all Insolencies, Rapins, Flunderings, and those other Calamities that usually attend upon War, may be prevented; and herein as with no small Content to ourselves, so with no less Satisfaction to you are we able to refer you to the Experience of our former Expedition (when our own Necessities drove us into England, as now yours do call us) to consider how little Damage was occasioned by our Means, how. little Disorder was committed by us in any place where we came, and we hereby promise the like Care and Diligence shall be renewed, and if possible doubled to that effect.
And that we may not be looked on with the Prejudice of Strangers, which we hope the first Union of this mutual Covenant will wear out, there is a Committee of your own Nation, the most of which are Parliament-Men, such to whom you have committed the Trust and Care of your Religion, Laws and Liberties, joined with us, without whose Concurrence nothing that concerns you is to be transacted. And to free you of all unjust Suspicion (which if your Minds are not ready to conceive, yet the malicious Mouths of our Adversaries and yours are ready to suggest) that notwithstanding this Declaration we have some sinister and secret Ends, which may prove prejudicial to your Rights and Happiness: Be it hereby made known unto you, that we have freely engaged ourselves by an Article of the late Treaty betwixt the Nations, to give the Publick Faith of the Kingdom of Scotland to the Kingdom of England, that neither our Entrance into nor Continuance in that Kingdom shall be made use of to any other Ends than expressed in the Covenant, and that Treaty subscribed to by the Commissioners of both Kingdoms, which we are resolved to the Honour of God and this Nation to keep inviolate.
And as our Friends and Brethren may look for Actions conformable to the Expressions of this Declaration, so must the Malignants and implacable Opposers of the Ends declared in our Covenant expect nothing but an impartial and vigorous Prosecution of the same; in which, if any Evil befal them, we are confident that the Judgment of wife and indifferent Men Will reduce-it to themselves, as the wilful Authors thereof.
And finally, we declare (against all false and artificial Relations) that we are so far from desiring Harm or Loss to any of our Brethren of England, that our sincere and real Intentions are not to add Fuel, nor bring Oil, but Water, to extinguish those lamentable Combustions and Fires, which we have with so much Duty and Love laboured to quench; that our taking of Arms is not to make War (if we be not necessitated) but to obtain a better grounded and a more durable Peace, for enjoying of our Religion and Liberties in all the three Kingdoms; and that the Wicked (who are the unworthy Authors of all our Troubles) being removed from our King, a right Understanding may be established betwixt his Majesty and his People. And as we have solemnly sworn to protect and defend all who shall enter in and adhere to this Covenant, so do we certainly expect that all our Brethren in England who are zealous for the true Protestant Religion, loyal to the King, and faithful for their Country, will join and concur with us in the most noble and just Ways of procuring these just Desires; which being obtained, we shall be most willing and ready to return to our native Country, esteeming it our greatest Happiness, that Truth with Peace may be established in all his Majesty's Dominions.
The Declaration of the Convention of Estate s of the Kingdom of Scotland, concerning the present Expedition into England.
It is now, we suppose, known to the Christian World, and will be known to after Ages, what have been the Dangers and Dislresses of this Kirk and Kingdom in their Religion and Liberties, what their Endeavours and Wrestlings have been for Deliverance, and how mercifully and marvellously the good Hand of God did settle their Religion and Peace, against the Devices, Attempts and Practices of Papists, Prelates and Malignants, who, had they not been given up to incurable Blindness and Hardness of Heart, would have seen and acknowledged the Hand of God working against them, and themselves fighting against God; but these Enemies of all Righteousness, full of all Subtilty and Mischicf, do not cease to pervert the right Ways of the Lord; their great Project and main Design against the reformed Religion and People of God is not alter'd, but continueth one and the same; their Fury and Malice is not abated, and their Plots and Policies are deeper, and more wicked than before; only finding their Fraud frustrated, and their Forces beaten back upon one side, they have with new Stratagems, fresh Resolutions, and greater Power, assaulted another part of the Wall, and have made the Breach so wide and large, that they have entred, and begun to roar in the midst of the Congregations of God's People, and are setting up their Ensigns for Signs, which, to the unspeakable Grief of all who are not both void of Grace and deprived of natural Affection, is to be seen this, day in miserable Ireland and distressed England, and unless it be prevented by their timous and speedy Deliverance, shall (we know not how soon) be seen and felt in this Kingdom, where, as the Enemies did begin, so shall they end this bloody, barbarous, and antichristian Tragedy, if the Author's be not interrupted and driven from the Stage, before they bring it to their intended Conclusion and hellish Applause.
It is we confess no small Comfort to this Kirk and Kingdom, that we have been willing and ready by all good Means from the beginning to quench this unnatural Fire; all who have had Place and publick Interest, the Lords of his Majesty's Privy-Council, the Commissioners for conserving the Peace, and the General Assembly of this Kirk, and their Commissioners, having with all Care and Faithfulness applied themselves from time to time to use all good Means, such as their humble Desires, their Supplications, Declarations and Remonstrances to his Majesty for a blessed Pacification; and after all these had proved ineffectual, Commissioners were sent to, represent how much this Kirk and Kingdom, from their Interest in the Preservation of their own Religion, the Safety of his Majesty's Person, and their near Relation to their Brethren of England, were concerned in the unhappy Differences betwixt his Majesty and the Houses of Parliament, and in all Humility and Tenderness to make Offer of their Mediation and National Intercession for removing them, in such a way as might most serve for his Majesty's Honour and the Good of his .People; but after long Attendance, much contrary to their Desires and Hopes, and to the Expectation of all his Majesty's good Subjects in both Kingdoms (so prevalent were the Counsels of the Popish, Prelatical, and Malignant Party, apprehending their own Troubles and Misery in the publick Peace and Happiness of the King and his People) the Offer of their humble Service and faithful Endeavours; was utterly refused and rejected, upon no other reason, but that they had no Warrant nor Capacity for such a Mediation, altho' authorized by a Commission from his Majesty and Parliament for that effect; and that the Intermixture of the Government of the Church of England with the Civil Government, was such a Mystery as could not be understood by them, altho it be true, which was then often replied, that in the eighth Demand of the Treaty of Peace, the Desire of Uniformity in Kirk-Government was kindly entertained, and received such an Answer, as hath been since a Door of Hope to this Kirk and Kingdom of obtaining their Desires; and altho the Houses of Parliament, who are best acquainted with the Constitution of that Kingdom, and whom it most concerneth, have passed their Bill for abolishing of Episcopal Government, not only as a great Impediment to the perfect Reformation and Growth of Religion (which in a Christian Kingdom is a sufficient Ground) but also as very prejudicial to the Civil State and Government.
The Commissioners having returned from Oxford without success, and the Miseries of Ireland, the Troubles of England, and the Dangers and Pressures of this Kingdom more and more increasing; the Lords of his Majesty's Council, the Commissioners for conserving the Peace, and the Commissioners for the Common Burthens, all intrusted with the Publick Affairs of the Kingdom respectively, found themselves pressed above their Place and Power, with difficulties, which required the Common Counsel, Consent and Resolution of the Estates of the Kingdom, and were necessitate according to the practice of former Times (his Majesty having denied a Parliament, being supplicated for that effect) to call a Convention of the Estates, that by their Wisdom they might consider the Common Duty, and provide for the Publick Safety of the Kingdom, in a time of such Extremity. No sooner did the Convention of Estates, which was met with more than ordinary frequency and alacrity, enter into publick Consultation, but the good Providence of God, still watching over this Country for good, did bring to their Hand a discovery of divers Treacherous Attempts, against the Kirk and Kingdom; as if the Convention had been called to receive Information of the Dangers, and to provide Remedies, for the safety of the Publick. Like as the Dangers discovered unto them were made publickly known, and with the Advice of the Commissioners of the General Assembly, the Remedies also were agreed upon and publish'd in Print.
Amongst these Remedies a Chief one was, to consider of the renewing of a League and Association with England, for defence of Religion, and the mutual Peace of the Kingdoms against the Common Enemy, and how far the same might be extended against Prelacy and Popish Ceremonies for Uniformity in Kirk-Government, and the External Worship of God, as is more fully expressed in the Remonstrance of the Remedies of the Dangers of Religion. But before the Convention of Estates had entred upon this grave consideration, Commissioners came from both Houses of the Parliament of England, warranted and authorized to propound their desires of the same Union and strait Conjunction of the two Nations, against Papists and Prelates, with their Adherents; and to consider with the Estates of this Kingdom, of such Articles or Propositions, as might make the Assistance and Union betwixt the two Nations, more beneficial and effectual for the Common Security of Religion and Liberty. Upon the manifestation of this concourse of the strong Inclinations and Desires of the Estates of both Kingdoms, with which the General Assembly, did most unanimously and heartily join their Desires, Counsels and Prayers, a Committee of the Convention of Estates, and a Committee of the General Assembly, were appointed to meet, with the Commissioners of the Houses of Parliament, for considering the best and readiest Ways, by which these common Desires and Conceptions might be ripened and brought forward toward Perfection, and (if it were possible) to Birth and Action, for the comfort of both Kingdoms, in Religion and Peace. These three Committees after some Meetings for Debate and Deliberation, did resolve in the end, That, according to the commendable practice of the two Kingdoms in former times of Distress and Danger, the Example of the People of God in other Nations, in the like case; and the late Example of the Kirk and Kingdom of Scotland, the best and most effectual Means for preserving Religion, and both Kingdoms, from utter Ruine and Destruction, and for procuring Peace, and all other Blessings, were, That both Kingdoms enter into a Solemn League and Covenant, to be Sworn and Subscribed by his Majesty's Subjects of all Degrees in both Kingdoms, who love the true Protestant, Reformed Religion, his Majesty's Honour and Safety, and their own Happiness: And therefore they did with common consent agree upon the first Lineaments and principal Parts of a Covenant, to be offered to the view, and to be considered by the Wisdom of the full Assembly of the Kirk, and Convention of Estates; which, how soon it was presented unto them, and read once and again in their Audience, did so affect their Hearts, that the Fire which had made them to melt in Tears at the solemnizing of the National Covenant of this Kingdom, did begin to burn again, and bring forth the Sparkles of the like Affection; and withal did fill them with Confidence and Hope, that the Lord, inclining the Hearts of the Houses of Parliament, and of the gracious and well-affected People of England, to join in this Covenant, they will thereby find an Answer from Heaven to all the Prayers, which they have offered up with strong Crying and Tears, a Deliverance from all their Sufferings and Fears, and the beginning of a new World of Joy and Peace, which the Lord will create for their comfort.
But we know on the other part, upon the Swearing and Subscribing of this Covenant by true Christians and Patriots, the Opposite and Malignant Party of Papists, Prelates, and others the Sons of Detection and Contention their Adherents, will rage and tumultuate more than ever before. And therefore, unless we will either betray our Religion, Liberties, and Laws and all that we and ours do possess, into their Hands, and suffer ourselves to be cut off and massacred by such Bloody and Barbarous Cruelty, as they have executed this time past in Ireland and England, there is a necessity of taking of Arms for mutual Defence, in the Cause of Religion, of the King's Honour, of the Liberty and Peace of the Kingdoms, and of every one of us in our own private Estate and Condition. In this case it is most necessary, that every one against all Doubting be perswaded in his Mind of the Lawfulness of his Undertaking, and of the Goodness of the Cause maintained by him, which is no other, than the good of Religion in England, and the Deliverance of our Brethren out of the depths of Affliction, the preservation of our own Religion, and of ourselves from the extremity of Misery, and the safety of our Native King, and his Kingdoms, from Destruction and Desolations. Any one of which, by all Law Divine and Humane, is too just cause of taking of Arms; how much more when all or them are joined in one? Whosoever withdraweth and hideth himself in such a Debate and Controversie, let him consider, whether he be not an Hater of his Brethren, against Christian and common Charity; an Hater of himself and his Posterity against the Law and Light of Nature; an Hater of the King and his Kingdoms, against Loyalty and common Duty; and an Hater of God against all Religion and Peace.
Concerning the first, The Question is not, nor need we dispute, whether we may propagate our Religion by Arms; but whether, according to our Power, we ought to assist our Brethren in England, who are calling for our help, and are shedding their Blood in defence of that Power, without which Religion can never be defended nor reformed, nor unity of Religion with us, and other reformed Kirks be attained: Who have in the Cause of Religion, and the like Exigence assisted us and other reformed Kirks; to whom, of old and of late, we have made Promises of the real Declarations of all Christian duty and thankfulness; and who, upon our Desires and their Endeavours for unity in Religion, have often warned us, that the Malignant Party would bend all their Invention and Forces to interrupt the Work, and to ruine and destroy them in the undertaking of it, which we fee this Day come to pass. The Question is no sooner rightly stated, but it is as soon resolved. The Lord save us from the Curse of Meroz, who came not to help the Lord, a help the Lord against the Mighty; when we look upon the Cause which they maintain, the Prayers, Tears, and Blood which they have poured forth, and the Insolencies and Blasphemies of the Enemies, we cannot doubt, but Enlargement and Deliverance shall arise unto England; but we have reason to fear, if we, upon so fair a Calling, fit still and hold our Peace, this Kirk and Kingdom shall perish by the hand of the same Enemy, and there shall be none to deliver us: And who knows, whether the Lord had granted us Mercy furnished us with Men of War, put Weapons in our Hands, and called this great Council of the Estates, for Warrant and Direction for such a time as this? God forbid, and be it far from us to fit down at ease (if we may promise to ourselves ease) on this side of Jordan, till our Brethren be possessed in the Liberties of the Kingdom of Christ.
Neither concerning the second, Is the Question (as our Enemies would make it) whether we shall enter into England, and lift Arms against our own King, who hath promised and done as much as may secure us in our Religion and Liberties; but whether against the Popish, Prelatical, and Malignant Party their Adherents, prevailing in England and Ireland, we be not bound to provide for our own preservation. Although it had not been often told as from England, and the Reformed Kirks in other places, we might of ourselves have known from our continual experience, ever since the times of our first Reformation, especially after the two Kingdoms have been unired under one Head and Monarch, from the Principles of our own Declarations, in the time of our late Troubles, and Dangers, from the vindictive disposition of the Enemies of this Kirk and Kingdom (which they conceive to be the Fountain whence have issued all these Evils) and from the grounds of common Reason, That we cannot long like Goshen, enjoy our Light, if Darkness shall cover the Face of other Reformed Kirks? That Judah cannot long continue in Liberty, if Israel be led away in Captivity, and that the condition of the one Kirk and Kingdom, whether in Religion and Peace, must be common to both? If England shall subdue the Enemies of Religion without that assistance which they call for from us at this time, What help can we expect from them in the Hour of our Temptation, which we have deserved, and the Lord may bring upon us when he will? God forbid, that we should give them cause to Laugh at our Calamity, and Mock when our Fear cometh; and if they shall be given over into the Hand of the Enemy (which God in his Mercy avert,) Will not the Enemy, strengthened with increase of Power, be the more insolent and unresistable? And will not the Power of England, turned into the Hands of Malignants, turn also Enemy against this Kirk and Kingdom, and upon such pretences as be already invented, and yet (they will alledge) according to the late Treaty of Peace, within three Months space, denounce a National War against us.
And concerning the third, the Question is not, whether we should presume to be Arbitrators in the matters now debated by Fire and Sword, betwixt his Majesty and the Houses of Parliament, which may seem to be Foreign and Extrinsical to this Nation, and wherein we may be conceived to have no interest; But whether our Mediation and Intercession, being rejected by the one side, upon hope of Victory, or suppose by both sides, upon confidence of their own Strength and several Successes, it be not our Duty, it being in our Power, to flop or prevent the effusion of Christian Blood? Or whether we ought not to endeavour to rescue our Native King, his Crown and Posterity, out of the midst of so many Dangers, and to preserve his People and Kingdom from ruine and destruction? If every private Man be bound in Duty to interpose himself as a Reconciler and Sequestrator betwixt his Neighbours, armed to their mutual Destruction? If the Son ought to hazard his own Life for the preservation of his Father and Brother at vaiance the one against another? Shall a Kingdom fit still and suffer their King and Neighbouring Kingdom to perish in an unnatural War? In the time of Animosity and Appetite of Revenge, such an interposing may be an irritation: But afterwards, when the Eyes of the Mind, no more Blood-run with Passion, do discern things aright, it shall be no grief, nor offence of Heart, but matter of thanksgiving to God, and to the Instruments which have kept them from shedding of Blood, and from Revenge.
The Covenant is now solemnly taken in England, and is countenanced there already from Heaven with marvellous success. The Proportions and Articles of the Treaty are with wonderful unanimity concluded in both Houses of Parliament, Cessation of Arms is agreed upon with the Irish Rebels, and they, notwithstanding all the barbarous and unparallel'd Cruelty exercised by them upon the Protestants and People of God in that Kingdom, honoured with the Title of his Majesty's Subjects: It is therefore now high time for all true-hearted Scottishmen, and good Patriots abroad, especially such as upon fair and plausible pretences have been formerly mistaken or seduced to take Arms against this Cause of God and Religion, timely to remember their National Covenant, and seriously to bethink themselves of the Duty, which, by so manifold Obligations, they owe to their Religion and Native Country in this time of so great Distress and Danger to both; left, despising or neglecting this our Warning and Intimation, they either perish by wilful persisting in their own ways against God, their Country, and Covenant; or come too late, and there be no Place left for Repentance. It is, also mod necessary for all the good People of all Ranks and Degrees within the Kingdom, to deny themselves and their own ease, or what Earthly thing is dearest unto them, to lift up their Eyes and behold the Work of God unto Which they are called; and with Heart and Hand to join in this so religious, so just, and so necessary Expedition, and which upon the Truth of God, our own late comfortable and never to be forgotten Experience, and the Prayers of the People of God, we may be assured, will, in the end, against all Difficulties and Opposition, be Crowned with such Success, as may be Honour to God, confusion to his presumptuous and incorrigible Enemies, propagation to the true Religion, and comfort to all the unfeigned Lovers of Truth and Peace, which against all Calumny and Contradiction hath been, is, and shall be the Sum of our Desires.
His Majesty's Declaration to all his Subjects of his Kingdom of Scotland: Upon occasion of a printed Paper, entitled, The Declaration of the Kingdom of Scotland, concerning the present Expedition into England, &c.
It is now, we suppose, known to the Christian World, and will be known to after-Ages, with what Princely Grace and Fatherly Indulgence we have demeaned Ourself to that our Native Kingdom of Scotland, since our first coming to the Crown; how, without insisting on those Actions and Circumstances which might have diverted our Inclination and Affection from them, we complied with that wonderful Freedom and Benignity with our Subjects there, that there was nothing within their own hearts desire towards a complete Happiness within that Kingdom, which we did not estate them in: And that no Accidents or Absence of ours might lessen and abate the continuance thereof, we granted them such unusual Immunities and Privileges, that we had reason to expect, as we had made them Objects of such excess of Bounty and Affection from us, that so they would make themselves Examples of eminent Gratitude and Duty to us: And that whensoever our Safety, Honour and Interest, (which they are so much oblig'd to defend, by their Duty of Allegiance, by the Laws of that Kingdom, by their many and often reiterated Oaths and Promises, and particularly the National Covenant) should be in danger, that they would as one man, obliged by the Laws of God and Man, apply themselves to our Succour and Defence; and therefore we cannot believe (howsoever the Subtilty and lndustry of some seditious, Persons, conscious of so much Disloyalty to us, that they cannot forgive themselves, endeavour to poyson the hearts and affections of that our People towards us, by false and malicious Misinformations) that our Native Kingdom will suffer itself to be so transported from its natural Duty and Allegiance, as must make it odious to the present, and infamous to all succeeding Ages.
When we were first driven from our City of Westminster by those Tumults (of which we have so oft complained, and which indeed were the Seed-plots of this desperate Rebellion, that hath now spread itself over the whole Kingdom) and forced to retire to our City of York for Safety, we took great care so to inform our Kingdom of Scotland of all particulars of our Condition, that they might not, through the esteem of the Name of two Houses of Parliament, (by whom the Injuries offered to us seemed to be done) be apt to misinterpret our Sufferings; of the which our Privy-Council of our Native Kingdom, being solemnly convened, was so sensible, that they directed the Lord Lowden Chancellor (whom they sent then into this our Kingdom) in their Names to desire the Houses of Parliament here, to leave no fair and good means unessayed to induce us to return to them, especially in the tender Care of our Royal Person, and of our Princely Greatness, and to testifie their tender and high Respect of our Person, by suppressing all tumultuous Ways, which might endanger or offend us; and that what they did for the Peace and Security of the Kingdom, might be done in such a fair and respective way, as might leave no occasion to any to alledge, that they were less tender and careful of our Princely Greatness and Majesty, than of their own Liberties. This being first performed, would afford just grounds to the Council of Scotland to become earnest and humble Suitors to us, That we, would be pleased to return to our Parliament, without which that Council would have small hope to persuade us to return. Which counsel of theirs, if it had been followed, had prevented all these Calamities which have since befallen this unhappy Kingdom; but instead thereof, our Towns and Navy were taken from us, and a desperate Army raised to destroy us; which we had reason to expect would rather have inflamed the hearts of our good Subjects of that Kingdom with Anger and Indignation against them, than united them in a League and Covenant of Disobedience and Undutifulness against us, who have omitted nothing on our part which can become a gracious King towards his People, or a loving Father towards his Children.
Shortly after our first Battel with the Rebels, we were informed, That the seditious persons who had raised and continued this Rebellion had the impudence, by some publick Declarations, not only to justifie their Treason to our Subjects of Scotland, but to invite and require the Assistance of that our Native Kingdom to their bringing in an Army into this: And thereupon (that nothing might be wanting on our part) in the month of December, we dispatched an Express to the Lords of our Privy-Council of that Kingdom, that they might not be surprized with any false Intelligence, to the weakning theit Duty and Inclination to our Service, and by our Letter (the which we again publish with this our Declaration) we took notice of that Overture made to them by thofe who stiled themselves, the two Houses of Parliament; and acquainted them at large what and how few those ill persons were, so far from being the two Houses, that they were not the Tenth part of the one, or the the Fifth part of the other: those few desperate seditious persons having, with the assistance of that rebellious City of London, driven the rest from that Council, because they would not concur with them in their Trayterous Designs; with all these particulars of their Insolency and Rebellion, and our Sufferings, that they could not but be satisfied of the truth of both; which then were so Satisfactory, that the same was immediately ordained to be Printed and Published. And therefore we cannot believe this Declaration, which denounceth War, and threatens a present Expedition unto this our Kingdom of England, in the behalf of those who by the known Laws of this Land are guilty of Rebellion and Treason, can proceed from the consent of that our native Kingdom, but is contrived by those, who, having from the beginning concurred and co-operated with the Promoters of the Rebellion here, desire to come in now, and be shaters in the Harvest and Spoil, though accompanied with the Confusion and Desolation of both Nations.
That, Declaration tells us, that our Kingdom of Scotland hath been ready by all good means from the beginning to quench this unnatural Fire; and that, to that purpose, application hath been made to us by our Council there, which proving ineffectual, Commissioners were sent from thence to us, to make offer of their Mediation and National Intercession, which after long attendance was utterly refused and rejected by us. We are not apt to suspect the Duty and Affection of that our native Kingdom, (which we have so highly merited) but we are confident, there are many seditious Persons within that Kingdom, who have been so far from using means to quench this unnatural Fire, that they always poured in Oyl, and administred Supplies for the inflaming it; and that if the Kindlers of it here had not from the beginning received assurance of Aid and Assistance from thence, it had either never been kindled in this Kingdom, or been so on extinguished. It is true, that about February or March last the Earl of Lowden and Mr. Henderson (persons very unlike to promote Peace) with two more, attended us as Commissioners from that Kingdom, and offered in the name of that our native Kingdom to interpose as Mediators, to compose the unhappy Differences here; declaring, That they conceived themselves intitled to such a power of Mediation by the late Act of Pacification: the which when we had carefully perused, with the Advice of our Privy-Council, and found that it gave them not the least Title or Capacity to that purpose; and finding, as well by their own expressions, as by their Commission and Instructions, that they did upon the matter taken upon them to be Umpires and Arbitrators of the Quarrel, and to perswade us to consent to the alteration of the Laws of the Kingdom, and to yield to the most unreasonable Proportions which had been made to us and to which neither our own Conscience, or the publick Interest of the Kingdom, would suffer us to consent, we refused to admit them in that capacity; well remembring the great Caution which had been used by themselves in the Preamble to the Act of Pacification, left that our native Kingdom might seem to acknowledge any dependency upon our Parliament of England, or make them Judges of them and their Laws, or any thing that might import the smallest prejudice to their Liberties: and therefore conceiving our good Subjefts of this Kingdom would be equally tender and sensible, if we should admit them as Medlers, Interposers, and Umpires for the alteration of the long and happily-established Government of this Kingdom, what passed between us and those Commissioners, the same being solemnly debated at our Council-board, (where there was neither Prelate nor Papist, though that Declaration presumes to impute our Resolution to such Advice), we have likewise herewith published to the World, in which the just Reasons will appear why we were not willing then to call a Parliament in Scotland, which was absolutely and solely in our Power to grant or refuse.
The Commissioners being returned from Oxford without success, (as that Declaration says), that is, without having perswaded us to do that which we could not, or ought not to do, it was thought fit by those who would not suffer themselves to be at Peace, whilst their Neighbours are in War, since we had refused to call a Parliament, which by the Law we might refuse (and for calling whereof there was no necessary Causes represented to us) to call a Convention of the Estates, which they have not the least lawful Power to do (that is, of themselves, without and against our consent, upon the matter, to summon a Parliament) and to that purpose issued out Warrants in our Name throughout the Kingdom, to summon such a Convention; which was no sooner met, than a Resolution was made, and a Covenant taken by force of Arms, without respect of persons, to make an alteration of the Law and Government of this Kingdom, without care or respect of their National Covenant, which obliges to defend our Person and Honour, not only in preservation of Religion, but in all Cases which may concern our Honour and Greatness, and not to attempt any thing that may tend to the diminution of our Greatness, and contrary to the Act of Pacification so solemnly made between the two Kingdoms, by which it is provided, That the Kingdom of Scotland shall not Denounce or make War against the Kingdom of England or Ireland, without Consent of the Parliament of Scotland, the same being undertaken for the Kingdom of England; and in case any of the Subjects of either of the Kingdoms shall rise in Arms, or make War against any other of the Kingdoms and Subjects thereof without Consent of the Parliament of that Kingdom whereof they are Subjects, or upon which they do depend; that they shall be held and reputed as Traytors to the States of which they are Snbjects. And both the Kingdoms in the Cases aforesaid are bound to concur in the repressing of those that shall happen to arise in Arms, or make War without the consent of their own Parliament. Whosoever then hath any sense of Piety and Religion, of the Account he must one day make for Perjury and Oath-breaking; whosoever values the Peace and Unity between the two Nations, and desires to preserve the Treaty of Pacification inviolable, for the Happiness and Security of both Kingdoms, must look upon the Authors of this Design of an Expedition into England, as the most desperate Incendiaries, which they are bound to bring to condign punishment. And whosoever shall suffer themselves to mislied by them into any Action of Undutifulness and Disloyalty, are not guilty of less than the breach of their National Covenant, and, as much as in them lies, have dissolved the Peace so deliberately and solemnly made between the two Kingdoms.
How vigilant and careful these men are like to be for our Safety, Honour, and Greatness, (terms so often used by them, and by which they so grofly impose upon our People) is by this time evident to the World. If to assault our Person with Rebellious Arms, to take away our Forts and Navy from us, to deny us our Negative Voice, be for our Safety, Honour, and Greatness, these Men have reason to proceed in their intended Expedition, and to assist those who have done all this. But their great Quarrel, they say, is for Religion, which they will needs suppose to be in danger in this Kingdom; where if it shall be suppressed, theirs in Scotland is like to be assaulted, of which the Cessation with the Rebels in Ireland gives them some occasion of fear. We find little (somewhat there is) in this Declaration of our favouring Papists: That scandal is so groundless, so without colour., that our Subject in Scotland (even the worst) can hardly be misled by it. They well know how readily we consented to all Laws proposed by them for securing the Religion of Scotland, and how religiously we have observed those Laws. 'T is the Prelacy they are troubled with, that is, the Government of the Church of England Established by Law; which tis no more in our power to alter, if we were so inclined to it, than to restore or set up Episcopacy in the Church of Scotland; the same being only to be done by Laws regularly and orderly digested. Neither can any man imagine, that the Religion of Scotland is more in danger by preserving the Discipline so long settled, and happily enjoyed in England, than the Peace and Liberty of that Kingdom is in danger by the Laws and Civil Customs of this, which so much differ from those of the other. If in truth there be any fear of Religion in these Men, we have often, and do again from our Soul profess to all the World, That no person alive, of what quality foever, ever took the Defence and Advancement of the True Reformed Protestant Religion more to heart than we have, and shall always do: And as we always concurred in any Proposition made to us concerning it, by our Houses of Parliament, during the time that those Councils were preserved within any bounds of Sobriety and Duty; so when it shall please God so far to restore Peace to this miserable Kingdom, that there may be such a Convention in Parliament, as is suitable to the Dignity and Freedom thereof, there shall be no Overture made to us for the Advancement and Propagation of the true Reformed Protestant Religion, to which we will not with great joy and gladness contribute our best and utmost Assistance.
Concerning the Cessation in Ireland, maliciously instanced in this Declaration as a Design upon Religion, we need say no more than we have done in a Discourse published on that Argument; by which, and the several Testimonies published from that Kingdom, it is evident to all the World, in what condition our Affairs stood there, and by whose default they were brought into such a condition, and how necessary this Cessation was, even to the being of that Kingdom. When that Rebellion first broke out, we were in our Kingdom of Scotland, which can bear us Witness how follicitous we were to prevent the growth thereof, both by preparing Remedies in that, and proposing Remedies to this Kingdom; which if they had been as seasonably applied, would have prevented much of that Blood and Desolation which hath been since the portion of that miserable Kingdom. What opinion our Subjects of Scotland had of our Affection and Care of that our People, appears by the expression in the Act of Council at Edinburg the 22d, of April, upon notice from us, of our Intention to go in Person into Ireland against the Rebels; Than which, that Act says, there could be no greater demonstration of Princely Care and Courage. Though at the same time, the two Houses here declared, That our Journey thither would make way to the execution of the bloody Design of the Papists, to root out and destroy the Reformed Religion. So different then was the Understanding, Duty and Language of those who are since reconciled by this New Covenant.
Having now said all this to satisfie such of that our native Kingdom, who by the Skill, Malice, and Industry of their Seducers, have been missed to a misunderstanding of us and our good Cause; and having used our utmost endeavours, and being still ready to give any other Testimony and Security can be devised to our good Subjects of both Kingdoms, that as we have been compelled for the Defence of our Person, our Children, and our Crown; for the Religion, Laws, and Liberties of this Kingdom, for the Maintenance of the Privileges and being of Parliament, (which we shall always hold in high value and estimation) so we shall use and employ these Arms to no other end, than the Security of all those, and shall never suffer ourself to be tempted by any Success or Victory which God shall bless us with, to infringe the Laws of this, or violate the Laws of our other Kingdom; we being ready to acknowledge, that the Aid and Supplies we have received, for the passing through the great Difficulties and Straights we were reduced to, have been principally from those persons whose Zeal and Affection to the Religion and Laws established, are too eminent to suffer themselves to be made Instruments of Tyranny and Injustice.
We must, in the behalf of our own Honour, and the publick Justice of that our native Kingdom, declared to all the world, That the calling the Convention of Estates, without our Warrant or Consent, was without any colour of Law or Right, and contrary to the Constitution and Fundamental Laws of that our Kingdom; and that all Proclamations, Summons and Warrants to that purpose; and all Acts, Edicts, and Resolutions thereby or thereupon, are and were actually null, void, and of none effect; and that our good Subjects of that Kingdom are in no degree bound or obliged thereby: Particularly, that the two Proclamations published in our Name; and given under our Signet at Edinburg (as is pretended) the one the 15th day of August last, for the raising a great Sum of Money for the Maintenance of an Army: The other the 18th of the same Month, To require all our Subjects within that our Kingdom, from Sixteen Years to Sixty, to be ready with Arms and all Warlike Provision, at forty eight hours warning, to march as they shall be directed: are both against our express Consent, and without any lawful Authority; and contain in them matters of Treason and Rebellion; and therefore we require all our loving Subject of that our native Kingdom, upon their Allegiance, and as they would avoid the heinous Crimes of Treason and Rebellion, that they yield no Obedience, or give no Countenance to the said Proclamations, or any other of the same nature published without our Consent.
And if after all this the Power of these mischievous Persons (whom the Conscience of their Guilt hurries on to Despair) proves so great as to persuade our Subjects of that Kingdom, undisturbed and unprovoked, as themselves consess, want only to throw away that blessed Calm and Peace which they now do, and may, is they please, always enjoy, and to invade this Kingdom, already infested with traiterous and rebellious Arms, they must not wonder is we leave no Means unattempted to suppress and punish such odious Ingratitude and Treason, since no Subject of that our native Kingdom can in this Quarrel engage himself against us without being a Hater of his Brethren, against christian and common Charity, a Hater of himself and his Posterity, against the Law and Light of his own Conscience; a Hater of the King and his Kingdom, against Loyalty and common Duty; and a Hater of God, against all Religion and Peace; and we doubt not but the Spirits of all true Englishmen will rise with that Anger and Indignation at this unheard of Insolence, where there is nothing pretended but a Resolution to give and impose new Laws upon them, that they will be united as one Man to oppose the Pride and Tyranny of this Invasion; and that they will easily conclude, that neither Conscience nor Brotherly Affection engages them from their own Peace and Quiet in this ungodly Errand, but a Hope and Resolution to make a Conquest by the help of their Civil Dissentions, and to inhabit their most fruitful and pleasant Places; for that the same Kindness will carry them out which brings them in, cannot be imagined by any sober Understanding; in a word, is the Sins of both Nations have prepared a Judgment from Heaven, that they are to be drowned and confounded in each others Blood, what Portion soever we shall have in the Calamity, God and Men will bear witness that we have not been wanting in our Duty to prevent all the following Misery and Desolation.
The Declaration of the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, joined in Arms for the Vindication and Defence of their Religion, Liberties, and Laws, against the Popish, Prelatical, and Malignant Party.
If either Christian Duty, which by reason of the light of the Gospel so clearly shining amongst us, might have been expected from the Professors of Religion; or if natural Affection, Which even in the Heathen and Infidels, ignorant of Christ, hath abounded toward their Native Country; or sincere Respect to his Majesty's Honour and Happiness, could have been found in the ways or hearts of our Common Enemies, the Enemies of Truth and Peace: If they had either feared God, or regarded Men, or yielded to our Importunities, we had not, after so many Petitions, Declarations and Remonstrances as have filled other Mens Ears and Hands, been put to this necessity of a new Declaration (which therefore must be more pathetick and pressing than any of the former;) nor, after so many Troubles and Sufferings of the Kingdom of Scotland, after the Desolation of the Kingdom of Ireland, and after so much Blood, and so many unnatural Tragedies in the Kingdom of England, had we been reduced to this present condition and joint-posture of Arms. The Lord, whose Counsels are a great depth, and who is righteous in all his ways, and holy in all his works, hath just cause of Controversy against us, and this whole Island: But who would have believed that our Religion, Liberties and Laws, which for so long a time have endured opposition and assaults of Foreign Power, envying our Happiness, would have been opposed, oppressed, and trod under-foot, by the Craft and Cruelty of our own Natives and Countrymen?
In this our Extremity, First of all we declare, That we place not our Confidence in our own Counsels and Strength; but our Confidence is in God Almighty, the Lord of Hosts, who will not leave nor forsake his People: It is his own Truth and Cause which we maintain with all the Reformed Churches, and which hath been witnessed and sealed by the Testimony, Sufferings, and Blood of so many Confessors and Martyrs against the Heresy, Superstition, and Tyranny of Antichrist: The Glory of his own Name, the Exaltation of the Kingdom of his Son, and the Preservation of his Church, and of this whole Island from utter Ruin and Devaluation, is our Aim, and the End we have before our Eyes: His Covenant have we in both Nations solemnly sworn and subscribed, which he would not have put in our Hearts to do, if he had been minded to destroy us. The many Prayers and Supplications which these many years past, but especially of late, have been offered up with Fasting and Humiliation, and with strong Crying and Tears, unto him that is able to deliver and save us, are a Seed which promise unto us a plentiful Harvest of Comfort and Happiness; and the Apostacy, Atheism, Idolatry, Blasphemies, Profaneness, Cruelty, Excess, open Mocking of all Godliness and Honesty, have filled the Cup of our Adversaries to the brim, and threaten their speedy and fearful Destruction, unless it be prevented by such extraordinary Repentance, as seemeth not yet to have entred into their Hearts.
Upon these, and the like grounds and considerations, being confident that this War wherein, both Nations, now firmly united, are so deeply engaged, is of God, we resolve with Courage and Constancy unto the end, to do our part; and the Lord, who hath stirred up our Spirits, displayed his Banner before us, and given the Alarm, do that which seemeth him good.
Secondly, Altho every Man is to hope for the principal Reward of his Service from God, who rewards every one according to his Works, yet we find our selves bound in Conscience and Equity to declare, That besides those who have the Publick Faith engaged to them for their Security, such as since the beginning have done valiantly, and dealt faithfully in this Cause, and as have chosen rather to suffer the spoiling of their Goods, than to assist the Enemy, or to take Arms against their Religion and Country, and shall continue constant in the same course of doing or suffering unto the end, shall be, according to their merits, taken into publick notice and consideration their Losses (so far as may be) repaired, and themselves honoured and rewarded by such means and ways, as we trust God in his Providence shall afford, and the Parliaments or Estates of the two Kingdoms respectively shall in their Wisdom, Justice and Thankfulness, judge most convenient: So that no man who hath been eminent in Action, or hath suffered any notable Loss for the Publick, shall be neglected or slighted; but one way or other shall be thankfully remembred, to his own Honour, and the Good of his Posterity.
Thirdly, Altho Neutrality and Indifferency in the time of the danger of Religion, be a thing detestable to God, who willeth all Christians earnestly to contend for the Truth, and such as have been Neutralists or Indifferent in the times of Civil Division and Danger of the Commonwealth, have been in all Nations severely punished, as pernicious and publick Enemies;, yet that the Consciences of all Men may be the more convinced, and all pretexts removed, we give now publick warning to such Persons to rest no longer upon their Neutrality, or to please themselves with the naughty and slothsul pretext of Indifferency; but that they address themselves speedily to take the Covenant, and join with all their Power in the defence of this Cause against the Common Enemy, and by their zeal and forwardness hereafter to make up what has been wanting thro their lukewarmness. This they will find to be their greatest Wisdom and Safety; otherwise we do declare them to be publick Enemies to their Religion and Country, and that they are to be censured and punished as professed Adversaries and Malignants.
Fourthly, Because a great many of the multitude of the People, upon ignorant Mistakings, false Informations, and Threats, or Compulsions, against, their wills and inclinations, have been induced or constrained to join in Arms with the Enemies against their Religion and Native Country; we do declare, that all common Soldiers, who, upon the humble acknowledgment of their former Errors, shall offer themselves willingly and speedily to take the Covenant, and shall join heartily and really in the Defence of this Cause, as becometh good Christians, and Lovers of their Country, shall be, freely accepted into the Covenant, and their former Error passed by, otherwise let them expect the Punishment of wilful Delinquents and Malignants.
Fifthly, Because some of the Scotish Nation, upon their own private respects, or upon specious pretences and fair persuasions, have joined themselves in Arms with the Popish, Prelatical, and malignant Party, against the Parliament and Kingdom of England; and not considering the nature of the Cause in which they have been engaged, nor the deep Interest of the Church and Kingdom of Scotland, upon which this War was to turn in the end, have been fighting against their own Religion and Native Kingdom: We to therefore again warn all such, of whatsoever quality, and in whatsoever place, speedily to withdraw themselves from that Faction, to confess their mistakes, and to join in the Covenant and Cause of God in both Kingdoms, before the first day of March next: otherwise we declare, in the behalf of the Kingdom of England, That they are to expect no favour, but are to be used as desperate Malignants; and we declare, in behalf of the Kingdom of Scotland, if they either continue in Arms after the aforesaid first day of March or withhold their help and assistance from their Native Country, in the time of Trouble and Danger, they are to be censured and punished as publick Enemies to their Religion and Country, perfidious transgressors of their National Covenant, and their Estates disposed of for the use of the Publick.
Sixthly, Because there are divers Noblemen, Knights, Gentlemen, Citizens, and others, who by forsaking or deserting the Parliament of England, and by joining themselves to the Enemies of Religion, his Majesty's Happiness, and Peace of the Kingdoms, have made the division greater, and the breaches wider betwixt the King and his parliament, and thereby, contrary to the duty of their places and callings, have been the cause of the shedding of much innocent Blood, of great Losses, and of many Miseries and Dangers to the Publick of both Kingdoms, and of .the sufferings of private Men in their Estates and Lives, and yet are not to be reckoned amongst the prime Authors of this unnatural War, nor amongst the malicious and desperate Enemies of their Religion and Country; We do declare, That all such, forsaking their former Opposition, returning to their Duty, and endeavouring the good of Religion, and the publick Peace, shall, as to their Lives, and Liberties of their Persons, be secured, and shall be received into favour. But to the end that a just difference may be made betwixt such Persons returning so late to their Duty, and those that never departed from it, they must expect, that toward the payment of the publick Debts, relieving the common Burdens of the Kingdoms, and repairing of particular Losses; all which, in a great part, have been contracted ad sustained by their default or procurement, their Estates in some proportions should be liable; and that as the Wisdom and Discretion of the Parliament, or of such as shall be authorised by them, who will be as careful to prevent their Ruin, as to punish their Delinquencies, shall find and judge to be necessary for that end. Wherein also, the time of their returning and offering themselves, the reality of their affections and intentions, and readiness to join in the Common Cause, A COVENANT, will be taken into special Consideration; and in case they persist in their opposition, and shall not return before the first day of March next, they are not to expect favour, but shall be punished as publick Enemies to their Religion and Country.
seventhly, Because Papists and Popish Recusants, according to the Principles of their Profession, have ever been plotting and contriving the change of Religion in this Island, and the Ruin of all the Professors thereof; and after the frustration of their Attempts, having waited upon such a time as this, have alienated the heart of the Ring's Majesty from his Protestant and Loyal Subjects, taken Arms against the Parliament and Kingdom, and by all their means and power have maintained a bloody and unnatural War, presuming in the end to have their execrable Superstition and Idolatry set up in the place of the true Reformed Religion, and the King and his Kingdoms to be brought under the Power of Tyranny, of the Pope: We do hereby declare, That all such Papists and Popish Recusants, who have been, now are, or shall be, actually in Arms, under the false pretence of Defending the King's Person and Authority, are to look for no favour, but to be punished as Traytors, and professed and intolerable Enemies of Religion and their Native Country. The same Declaration we also make against such Irish Rebels, whether Papists or others, who have come over from Ireland, and assisted in this War against the Parliament and Kingdom of England.
And Lastly, Because there are some few wicked and devilish spirits of both Kingdoms, who have kindled and somented the fire, of Division and War betwixt the King and his Parliament, or have misgoverned his Majesty's Counsels and Courses, to his own Dishonour, and to the Destruction of his loving and dutiful subjects, or have infused Malignancy in others, or have been restless and active Instruments of the Troubles and Miseries of his Majesty's Dominions: We do declare, concerning those who are or shall be sound by the supreme Judicatories of the Kingdoms respectively, or their Committees appointed for that effect, to be such, that as the Conscience of their own bad Deservings hath made them to despair of favour, and thereby incessantly to work more and more mischief against their Religion and Native Country; so are they to look for such Execution of Justice, as is due to Traitors and Enemies of Religion, of the King and his Kingdoms, for Terror and Example to others, in all times to come.
And it is further now declared, That the whole Estates, real and personal, movable, and Inheritance or those that shall not come in at the times before limited in the sixth Article, and of the Persons before excepted from Pardon, as of Papists in Arms, Irish Rebels, and those who shall be sound to come within the compass of the precedent Article, shall be forfeited and employed for paying the publick Debts, relieving the common Burdens of the Kingdoms, and repairing of particular Losses.
And this Declaration we make, not from any presumption or vain-glory in the strength of our Armies and Forces, but from the sense of that Duty which is required and expected from the high Places and publick Relations wherein we stand, and from the assurance we have of the assistance of God by whose Providence the Trust and Safety of these Kingdoms is put into our hands at this time: having, after long and grave consultation, resolved and decreed never to lay down Arms till Truth and Peace, by the Blessing of God, be settled in this Island upon a firm Foundation for the present and future Generations, which shall be esteemed of as an abundant Reward of all that we can do or suffer in this Cause.
The Declaration of several Lords and Gentlemen of Scotland, against the marching of the Scots Army into England.
We his Majesty's Loyal Subjects of the Scotish Nation, whose Names are under-written, having a right and faithful sense of the undeserved Sufferings of our gracious Sovereign, and of the sad Condition, at present, of all his Majesty's Dominions, thro the Disloyalty and Rebellion of a traiterous and most ungrateful Faction in both Kingdoms: And being, as becomes us, most particularly and most deeply afflicted, that any of our own Nation should have had, and still have, so great a hand in inducing and continuing these publick Calamities; as that for the treacherous and perfidious; practices of some our whole Nation is in danger of suffering the detestable imputation of partaking in this odious Rebellion: which misunderstanding is principally occasioned by the Power which those unnatural and disloyal persons have gotten, of countenancing their most treasonable Actions, with the Forms and Glosses of publick Authority: We being desirous not only to vindicate our selves, but, as far as in us lies, our Nation from that Infamy which some of our traiterous Countrymen have drawn upon themselves, and would gladly involve the whole in their Crime, have thought fit to express in this solemn Declaration, our Hatred and Detestation of the Rebellion in both Kingdoms, and of the present Invasion of this of England by those of our Nation, as also our Judgments of the late pretended Convention, the fource and fountain of those Treasons and Impieties. And we do hereby profess and declare, That we esteem the said pretended Convention to be a presumptuous, illegal, and traiterous Meeting, as being designed to excite Sedition and Rebellion in that Kingdom, and a most unjust Invasion of this. And as we do utterly disclaim and abhor the same, so we do in like manner all Committees, general and particular, flowing from the same, and all Acts, Ordinances and Decrees made and given therein; and particularly, that traiterous and damnable Covenant taken and imposed by the Rebels of both Kingdoms, which we heartily and unfeignedly detest, and shall never enter into, by Force, Persuasion, or any Respect whatsoever, as being a most impious Imposition upon Men's Consciences, to engage them, under a false pretence of Religion, in Treason and Rebellion against their Sovereign. And we do further renounce and detest any Authority, either of the Convention or Parliament, as to the levying of Arms, upon any colour whatsoever, without his Majesty's Consent. And we do sincerely profess, That we do esteem our Countrymens present taking Arms, and their invading this Realm of England to be an Act of High-Treason and Rebellion; and hold our selves obliged by Allegiance, and by the Act of Pacification, to withstand and oppose the same. Likeas we promise upon our Honours, every one of us, faithfully to employ our uttermost Powers and Abilities, both with Life and Fortunes, to supprels the said Rebels now in Arms, against his Majesty and his Crown of England. In which just Cause we do make the like Engagement firmly and constantly to adhere to one another, and to all his Majesty's faithful Subjects that shall join with us in that Endeavour, and in this Declaration of our Fidelity.
- 19 Caroli.
- D. Reay
- F. Aboyn
- Alexander Leslie
- Alexander Smyth
- William Flemyng
- Ro. Spotswood
- David Strgensons
- Thomas Ogilny
- Jo. Macbrayre
- Will. Lailland
- Jo. Innes
- Amos Innes
- Philip Nisbett
- Za. Gordon
- W. Morray
- John Houston
- Alexander Charties
- F. Cocheran.