Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 5, 1642-45. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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Of other Matters Military.
The setting out of Essex's and Waller's Army, 1644. The Occurrences between the King's army and Waller's, till the Skirmish at Cropedy-Bridge, June 29. 1644.
Having thus given the State of Affairs in the North, in a continued Series, we shall next take a View of those Actions which happened in the mean time in other Parts of the Kingdom, in this Year, 1644.
The Number and Charge of Essex's standing Army, appointed by Ordinance, March 26. 1644.
Which began with an Ordinance of the Lords and Commons, passed March 26. That their Army, under the immediate Command of the Earl of Essex, should consist of seven thousand five hundred Foot, besides Officers, (to be disposed into seven Regiments, whereof the General's to contain fifteen hundred Men, the rest a thousand a-piece, and every Regiment to be divided into eight Companies and no more) and three thousand Horse, besides Officers, in six Regiments, each consisting of five hundred Troopers, divided into six Troops; the Colonel's to have a hundred Troopers, and the other five Troops fourscore a-piece. And that for the maintaining of this Army and a suitable Train of Artillery, and other incident Charges, there should be monthly raised and paid, the Sum of thirty thousand five hundred and four Pounds out of the Excise, &c. In pursuance of which Ordinance, their General, the Earl of Essex, was busy in recruiting and regulating his Army accordingly, having his Head Quarters sometimes at Windsor, sometimes at St. Albans.
The Number and Charge of Waller's Army, raised in the South Association, appointed by Ordinance, March 30.
And by another Ordinance of the 30th of March, reciting, That whereas the associated Counties of Southampton, Sussex, Surry, and Kent, are raising three hundred Foot, twelve hundred Horse, and five hundred Dragoons, to be under the Command of Sir William Waller, Knight, Serjeant Major-General of all the Forces (under his Excellency the Earl of Essex, Lord General) raised and to be raised in the said Counties, a considerable part whereof, both Horse and Foot, are already raised. And whereas the said Counties have bought many Arms and Ammunition, and must buy more, and must be at great Charge in raising, maintaining, and recruiting the said Forces, making and erecting of Fortifications, Magazines, Courts of Guards, and other things requisite and necessary for the defence and Safety of the said Association, against the Invasions and Incursions of the Enemy; it is therefore ordained, That all the Moneys levy'd in Hampshire and Suffex, by virtue of the Ordinance for seizing and sequestring the Estates of Papists and Delinquents, and two Thirds of what shall be paid to the respective Treasurers of the said Counties, be by them employed towards maintaining the Forces, and defraying the Charges aforesaid. And also that for the said Purposes, there shall be weekly raised in the said four Counties, the Sum of two thousand six hundred thirty-eight Pounds one Shilling and Six-pence, by such proportions and in such manner as therein is mentioned, to be applied only to the service and maintenance of the Forces of the said Counties respectively.
The Lord Hopton designs to break into Sussex and Kent.
To interrupt and break the Strength of this Southern Association, the Lord Hoston and the Earl of Forth, the King's General, having drawn together an Army of thirteen or fourteen thousand Men, were got into Hampshire, with a design to advance into Sussex and Kent, where they were like to find many ready to join with them. To hinder which, Sir William Waller, with Sir Wiliam Balfore, Sir Michael Livesy of Kent, and a Brigade of Londoners under Major-General Brown, making in all ten thousand Men or upwards, marched that way: of which the King's Forces having intelligence, and that Waller intended for the Town of Alsford, the Lord Hopton, with a Party of Horse (leaving the rest of his Army to follow) marched from Winchester thither, and got into the Town before him; so that Waller was forced to take up his Quarters in the Villages.
Waller defeats Hopton at Cheriton-Down, near Alsford, March 29.
Thursday the 28th of March was spent in Skirmishes between Parties and in Councils of War, which were held in each Army, wherein it was resolved to fight the next day: And accordingly, on the 29th my Lord Hopton drawing out his Forces to Cheriton-Down, a sharp Battel was fought between them. The Field-word of both Armies happened at first to be the same, viz. God with Us; which by some Accident being made known to Waller, he changed it on his side to—Jesus help Us! The King's Forces for a while seemed to have the better of it, but were afterwards worsted and defeated, with very considerable Loss. The Lord John Stewart (Brother to the Duke of Richmond) and Sir John Smith both received here their mortal Wounds; and dying soon after, were buried at Oxford: There were also slain of the Royalists, Colonel Sandys, Colonel Manning, and Lieutenant-Colonel Scot; and Sir Edward Stowel, a Major-General, and Sir Henry Beard (a Colonel lately come out of Ireland) taken Prisoners. On the Parliament's side were slain Colonel Meldrum and Major Bosvile, and Colonel Thompson had his Foot shot off. The Lord Hopton managed his Forces Soldier-like, and with a Party of Horse kept facing the Enemy, and endeavoured as well as he could to secure his Rear. Being forced to quit Alsford, some of his Soldiers attempted to set fire on the Town, but it was soon quenched. Waller took two pieces of Ordnance, but missed the rest; for he supposing they had drawn off their Artillery towards Winchester, most of their Infantry flying that Way, directed thither all his Pursuit; whereas Hopton with his Horses and Carriages (it being in the Night) wheeled about through a little Lane, and so went unperceived to their Garison at Bajing-House; from whence on Sunday the 31st he went to Reading, and thence to Oxford. Those that retired to Winchester did not think fit to continue there, but leaving a few Soldiers to keep the Castle, hasted away towards Andover. Waller in the pursuit of them, coming to Winchester, found the Gates shut; but upon the first Summons the Mayor came and opened them, and presented him with the Keys; who not thinking it worth while to lose time in taking in the Castle, marched away after the Enemy towards Andover, which they quitted unto him; and Sir William Balfore coming thither with a Partyof Horse to take possession of it, and receiving notice that the Lady Hopton was about Newbery, sent out a Party and surprized her with two Coaches, twelve Coach Horses, and about two hundred Prisoners. Order was given to treat the Lady with the Respect due to her Quality; and she was quickly dismissed and convoy'd to Oxford, being permitted to take with her what Plate and Jewels properly belonged to her or her Attendants; but the rest was made prize of. Waller marching further West, sent a Party of Horse and Dragoons, who took the Town of Christ-Church, and therein Sir John Mills the Governour, Lieutenant-Colonel Goddard, Lieutenant-Colonel Paulet, Serjeant-Major Turney, and several other Gentlemen, Commissioners of Array, me there in Consultation to raise Forces for recruiting the Lord Hopton's Army; they also there took an hundred Horse, two hundred Foot, and above four hundred Arms, and relieved the Garisons of Lyme and Pool. And the London-Brigade on the 6th of April sat down before Walton, the Bishop of Winchester's House, which was then made a Garison for the King, and soon surrendred to them on Articles, that the Commanders and Officers might march out with their Horses and Swords, and the common Soldiers only with Staves in their hands.
The Lady Hopton taken; Christ-Church taken; Walton-House taken, Apr. 6.
Then Waller returning to Winchester, found the Gates shut against him, and his Entrance into the City refused; whereupon battering the Gates, he entered by Force, which occasioned great Damage to the Inhabitants, by the unruly Soldiers, who could not be restrained from plundering.
An ORDINANCE of Parliament.
Die Lunæ 1°. Aprilis, 1644,
An Ordinance for a Thanksgiving for this Victory.
The Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled, having certain Information of the great Mercy of our good God in the happy Success of the Forces under the Command of Sir William Waller and Sir William Balfore, on Friday last, the 29th of March, 1644. do in their. Acknowledgement of Goa's Mercy herein, order, That Tuesday the 9th of this Instant April, hall be solemnly kept as a publick Thanksgiving for the same throughout the Cities of London and Westminster, and Bills of Mortality. And that upon the Lord's-Day, which will be on the 14th of this Instant, publick Thanks be given in all other Churches and Chappels on the South-side of Trent, within the Power of the Parliament, unto the Lord of Hosts, that giveth all Victories, for this seasonable and extraordinary Blessing, whereby the Army under the Command of Sir Ralph Hopton was totally routed, with the Loss of very few of the Parliament's Forces. And all Ministers, in their respective Churches and Chappels, are hereby ordered and commanded to give notice hereof, and to exhort and excite their People to acknowledge and improve this great Blessing in a spiritual Way, that as this Mercy was bestowd in return of our Prayers and Humiliation upon the late solemn Fast, the Wednesday before this Victory, so God may have the sole Honour and Glory of it in our Prayers and Thanksgivings. And that the like Thanksgiving shall be made on the North-side of Trend fourteen Days after, which will be on the 28th Day of this Instant April.
An ORDER of Parliament
Die Lunæ 8 April.
Order that Ministers give notice the Houses will draw out all their Forces, &c.
It is this Day ordered by the Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled, that the Ministers within the several Parishes of London and Westminster, Lines of Communication, and Bills of Mortality, do tomorrow, being the Day of Thanksgiving for the great Victory over Sir Ralph Hopton's Forces, publish in their several Churches the Resolution taken by the Parliament, to draw all their Forces together, and pursue this Victory, and put it to a day, and fight with the Enemy, to put a speedy Issue, (by the Blessing of Almighty God) to these lingering Miseries, and to exhort the People to contribute to the uttermost for the sending forth what possible Strength can be had.
Another ORDER of Parliament.
Order that the London Committee may send out as many of the Trainbands and Auxiliaries as they think fit, to any Place of England.
It is this Day ordered by the Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled, that the Committee of the Militia of the City of London, shall have Power and is hereby authorized from time to time to command so many of the several Regiments of the Trained Bands, and of the Auxiliaries and Troops of Horse, or other Forces raised or to be raised under their Command, within the Cities of London and Westminster, Lines of Communication, and Parishes mentioned in the weekly Bills of Mortality, as to them shall seem convenient; to march under the Conduct of such Person or Persons as the said Committee of the Militia shall think fit, to lead and conduct them for the Defence of the Parliament, Cities of London and Westminster, and Parts adjacent, into any Parts or Places of the Kingdom of England and Dominion of Wales, to assist the Forces under the immediate Command of his Excellency the Earl of Essex, the Earl of Manchester, Sir William Waller, or any other Forces raised or to be raised for the Defence of the King and Parliament, by the Advice and Consent of both Houses of Parliament, or the Committee of both Kingdoms. And it is further ordained, That the said Committee of the Militia shall have power, and is hereby authorized to cause all or any of the said Forces, to march with their Colours to any Place or Places aforesaid, and nor to depart from the some without Licence from their Captains; and to impose reasonable Fines, or to imprison all Colonels, Lieutenant-Colonels, Serjeant-Majors, Captains, and other Officers and Soldiers whatsoever, under their Commands, whether Masters or Servants, as shall disobey the Commands or Directions of the said Committee of the Militia, from time to time, as they shall think fit; or otherwise to proceed against them according to the Course of War. And it is farther ordained by the said Lords and Commons, That the said Committee of the Militia shall have power, and is herely authorized to call back all such Forces as they shall appoint to imarch forth by virtue of this Ordinance, when they shall think fit. And it is further ordained, That such Forces as shall be sent forth as aforesaid, shall be paid by the Parliament, for the time that they shall continue abroad, according to the new Establishment of the Army, under the immediate Command of his Excellency the Earl of Essex. And the said Committee and all other Persons acting in the Premises, according to the Intent of the fair Ordinance, shall be saved harmless by Authority of Parliament.
The Thanksgiving-Day being kept on Tuesday the 9th of April, a Common-Hall was ordered to be called towards Evening; to whom repaired a Committee of Lords and Commons: and the following Speeches were made, to stir up the Citizens to contribute towards a speedy recruiting of the Armies.
SPEECHES TO THE CITIZENS AT GUILD-HALL, April 9. 1644.
To Advance Men and Money.
The Right Honourable The Earl of Warwick's SPEECH.
The Earl of Warwick's Speech.
My Lord and Gentlemen,
'Upon this happy Victory, that you have had, for which you have given God thanks this Day, the Parliament understands, that the King and your Enemies are presently drawing into the Field, and they are drawing all their Forces into the Field to come against you; and the Parliament, upon this, have thought fit to draw all their Forces into the Field, that (with God's Blessing upon them) they may make an end of these unhappy Distractions that are among us: and they hope, that as you have been very forward and active in this Cause of God and the publick Liberty, so you will not be wanting now in drawing yourselves into the Field, with all our Armies, to defend God's Cause and the publick Liberty. The rest, my Lord, I shall leave to some worthy Gentlemen of the House of Commons.'
Sir Henry Vane's Speech.
My Lord Mayor, and Worthy Aldermen, and the rest of the Gentlemen of the City of London;
Sir Henry Vane's Speech.
'The Houses of Parliament have seldom, in Matters of any great Importance, but been ready to communicate them to yourselves, as knowing how nearly you have interested yourselves with them in their publick Dangers, and for the publick Liberties of the Kingdom, and Preservation of Religion; at this "time, above all the rest, they have thought it necessary to acquaint you with a Resolution which they have taken, in regard that as they have had former Experiences of your ready Affections in all Cases of Exigency to assist them, and in them yourselves and the whole Kingdom; so they do not doubt but at this time they shall be prevented by your own Inclinations: considering, that what they have now in hand, is, if it can be possible, to put a speedy Issue to these unhappy, and to these lingering Distractions, that we have had thus many Years together. The Occasion of their Resolution is this: It having pleased God by the late Overthrow which he gave the Enemy by Sir William Waller's Forces, for to occasion the Enemy now to draw out all his Garisons, to endeavour to take the Field with all that Power he can make, and, if it be possible, to come suddenly upon those Forces that so lately routed them; the Parliament thought it Wisdom and Providence, for to give order for all their Forces on the South-side Trent, those under my Lord Manchester's Association, those likewise of the several Garisons that can be spared, those also of his Excellency my Lord General's Army, that at this time is in a hopeful Way of recruiting; and likewise, in the last place, those they might expect from your own ready Affections. They have known your Willingness, they have known your Watchfulness at all times, for to comply with their Occasions, and with the Necessities of the Commonwealth: at this time they doubt not but you will be the more encouraged to it, because (through the Blessing of God) it may put an Issue unto this War; at least it is that, as is in the Parliament's Desire, and will be in their Endeavours: They have therefore thought fit thus publickly to recommend this Business to you, to quicken your Affections, which are at all times very much stirred up for their Service; and they doubt not therefore will be to this. They desire you therefore, as knowing the several Ways that you have among yourselves, for Subscriptions, for Contributions, for setting out those that are of able Bodies, and of good Affections to the Cause; knowing how much that this City hath sent forth, and those Persons that have been an Honour to the City, in behaving themselves with that Gallantry, as that it may be truly said, That the Enemy doth apprehend no Forces like unto those that come out of this City; being Persons, that for Religion, for Faithfulness to the Cause, and for Publickness of Spirit to the Parliament, have ever shewed themselves as firm and as forward as any whatsoever: they do not doubt but you will shew yourselves also at this time also, and acquit yourselves like Men, which is that I am to recommend to you: There are others that I doubt not will follow, will do it with a great deal of more Exactness than I can do; but this is the Substance as I can remember."
His Excellency The Lord General's Speech.
The Earl of Essex's Speech.
My Lord, and Gentlemen;
"You have here understood by a noble Lord, my Lord Admiral, and this noble Gentleman of the House of Commons, the Desire of both Houses of Parliament: They have acquainted you too, what the King's Intention is, to draw all his Forces together, and what the Parliament doth intend in drawing all their Forces they can Southward, and what great Victory God hath given Sir William Balfore and Sir William Waller; so I am only to take this Opportunity to give you all Acknowledgments and Thanks for those great Aids that I have had always to go along with me; for I must needs acknowledge, that most of the things that have been done by me, especially the Business at Gloucester, have been done by your Helps: I should desire the like still, and what shall come to me, I shall use with Good Respects, and venture my Life with them; and I should have been very glad that my Army had been in that Case, that I might not have needed to take any of you from your own Houses, knowing how much Expence you have been at already, both in your Estates and Blood, in the Service of Religion and this Cause: but whatsoever Forces you please to draw out, I shall venture my Life with them, and be ready to give a quick end to this Cause.
To be at their Rendevouz the 19th of this Month, about Ailsbury.
The Right Honourable The Earl of Pembroke's Speech.
The Earl of Pembroke's Speech.
"I Am a very ill Speaker, but I thank God I am a very dutiful Subject to God, and to the Kingdom, and in this Cause; though I am an ill Orator, yet I have a good Heart, and I cannot be silent in such a Cause as this is. I shall not need to trouble you with the Effects of the Cause, because so many of my Lords and Gentlemen have opened it; but I shall not forget, in the Name of both Houses, to give you many Thanks, both my Lord Mayor and all the City, for all the Love and Affection you have shewed, not only now, but heretofore, and above all that ever any of your Ancestors did. For though the City of London have often shewed themselves with abundance of Love to the Kingdom, yet they have never gained so much Honour as in these times: for I must needs say, that, under God, it is the Love and Fidelity of this City hath saved all; and therefore I may desire you for your own Honours, that you would so second it now in these times, that God hath given you so fair an Opportunity for it; I think you have little to do but to go on in it: and you see what Accidents had been like to fall out (as my Lord-General told you) for want of recruiting his Army heretofore. I speak not this to shew that it is any Fault of yours; but let us not lose this Opportunity: and let those Experiences make us know how to help our Failings hereafter: for (as my Lord-General hath told you) if my Lord-General's Army had been ready, we might have put an end to this Business; but I doubt not but your Care, and your Love, and your Fidelity will make that Issue, that will quit the Kingdom of all these Villains, that have been the Cause of all this."
Colonel Hollis his Speech.
My Lord Mayor, and Citizens of this Famous City, which have done so Famous Things for Religion, for the Parliament, for the whole Kingdom.
Denzil Hollis his Speech.
"Truly there need not many Words to encourage you; your own Affections prevent all that can be said. You have been sufficiently told the Occasion of this Meeting with you by these Committees, which are sent from the two Houses of Parliament. Your own Wisdoms do sufficiently inform you of the Necessity of doing that which is now desired of you by these Lords here, and these Gentlemen that have spoken before. It hath pleased God to give us a very great Advantage by that happy Success which God gave to the Endeavours of that brave Gentleman Sir William Balfore, and that other Gallant Gentleman Sir William Waller. It behoves us to improve this Occasion; and it hath been the Wisdom of all States, as it is the Duty of all Christians, to meet God's Blessings, and to go along with them: but truly, besides this, there lies a Necessity upon you too; for there is as great a Wisdom to meet the Enemy, and to prevent him in his Designs: He is now drawing and assembling all his Forces together; and therefore you are not only invited unto it by such Reasons as Wisdom may suggest unto you, but by such forcible Arguments as Necessity imposes on you: this is necessary for you to do for your Preservation. My Lord-General (who hath spoken to you) hath told you how ready and how willing he is to engage himself, to adventure his Person, his Life, his Fortunes, all that he hath, with you: he had Experience of your Fidelity before, and hath received the Fruits of it several times; and that makes him (I am sure) the more chearfully offer himself to you again: And we all know your Affections to him to be such, as you will not suffer him to go into the Field, but as is suitable to the General of the Forces raised by the Parliament, for the Defence of Religion, and the publick Liberty. If his Army had been recruited, this had not been needful unto you at this time; for then he would have been willing to have spared you. He knows how much it concerns the Wealth and Trade of this City, that you should keep at home, to follow your Occasions here; and that your Purses (as they have always been) should have been open to supply the Wants of the Army, he would have spared your Persons: but now the Parliament throw themselves upon your Affections, and desire you to offer yourselves as One Man: for it is to no purpose to go by little and little; it is but as a little Water thrown on the Fire, that doth but enrage it, and will not quench it: But now, if all will join their Purses, their Persons, and their Prayers together, I doubt not but we shall (through God's Blessing) see an end of these miserable and distracted Times: and the Lord put it into your Hearts to do that which is fit for you to do; which we know you will do."
Mr. Recorder's Speech.
"I Am commanded by these Lords and Gentlemen (that are come from both Houses of Parliament, to present what already they have spoken) to add one Word more. First, You have had notice of the great Blessing that God Almighty hath been pleased to bestow on us by the late Victory; and you have now the Experience of the Care of both Houses of Parliament, to ascribe that Blessing unto God Almighty, by setting apart this Day for to give him Thanks for it: And they have thought it a Day of Opportunity, when we all join in Prayer and Thanksgiving unto God Almighty, that we should now again meet at this time to improve that Blessing: and therefore it hath been set out unto you, that you would be pleased, in pursuance of what both Houses of Parliament have resolved, and my Lord-General, to draw all the Forces that they can get together, unto a general Rendevouz about Ailesbury; the nineteenth of this Month all the Forces have Directions to draw together: And now they do apply themselves unto you, (having had experience of your great Affections, and God having wrought so much by the Forces that you have sent abroad) to desire that you would now at this time (which we hope will give an Issue to all our Troubles) shew your Affections, by sending out as many Forces as you can, to join in this Work, to make a speedy end of it: Only I shall add this Word to it, My Lord-General is recruiting his Army, both Houses of Parliament have put him in a way, and now he desires your Assistance and Concurrence, only to help him with the Bodies of Men, that every Man in his particular Work may do what he can, that that Army may be raised as shortly as possibly may be: There shall be no want in both Houses of Parliament, or my Lord-General; and they are all confident there shall be no want in you. And that is that they have commanded me to add; and God put it into your Hearts to do what shall be best unto him."
The King's Preparations.
The King was very intent upon providing Forces, and adjusting his Affairs for this Summer's Campaign; and as one means to augment his Numbers, had set forth the ensuing Proclamation.
By the KING,
A PROCLAMATION, commanding all his Majesty's Subjects and Servants, that have any Office, Place, or Fees, of his Gift or Grant, forthwith to give Attendance upon his Person.
Proclamation for all the King's Servants, &c. to attend his Person before the 20th of April, 1644.
Whereas by a Statute in the 11th Year of our Royal Progenitor, King Henry VII. all our Subjects (other than those that are excepted in that Act) having any Offices, Fees, or Annuities of our Gift or Grant (besides their common Allegiance) are bound under the Penalty of losing and forfeiting their Office, Fees, and Annuities, to give their Attendance upon us, when we shall fortune to go in the Wars in our own Person, for Defence of our Realm, or against Rebels, for the subduing and suppressing of them. And whereas divers of our Subjects that have Offices, Fees, or Annuities of our Gift and Grant, and divers of our menial Servants, who by their Places and Offices ought at all times to give their Attendance upon our Person, have neglected their Attendance in the time of this Rebellion, when we have engaged in the War in our own Person; some upon pretence of Leave, or Dispensation from us, and some upon other Pretences; which we shall no longer permit, as well in regard of our Honour as our Safety, being resolv'd to go in Person for the subduing and repressing of the Rebels in Arms against us. We have therefore thought fit to publish this our Proclamation, and do hereby command and require all our Subjects and Servants whatsoever, that have any Offices, Places, or Annuities from us, or of our Gift or Grant (other than such as are in present Service or Employment in our Armies, or are otherwise employed in our special Service by our immediate Command) forthwith to repair to our Cout at Oxford, and give their Attendance upon our Person there with all convenient Speed, and at farthest before the 20th Day of April next coming, any Leave, or Dispensation, or Pretence of Licence from us, or any other Pretence or Excuse what soever notwithstanding: letting them hereby know, That in case they shall fail in their Attendance at the Day before prefixed, contrary to our Commands published in this our Proclamation, or shall not afterwards continue their Service and Attendance upon us, according to their Duties, they shall incur our just Displeasure, and we shall hold their Fees and Annuities as void and determined, and dispose of their Places and Offices to others, as lost and forfeited by their Absence. And we do hereby revoke and recall all Licences, Leave, or Dispensations for Absence formerly granted and obtained.—Given the 22d Day of March in the 19th Year of our Reign, 1643.
Likewise to furnish his Garison at Oxford with Provisions, and streighten the Parliament's Forces when they should advance that way, his Majesty set forth a Proclamation in these Words.
By the KING,
A PROCLAMATION for the better Preservation of the Country and the Garison at Oxford, and securing of their Corn and ther Provisions of Victuals and Food for Men and Horse.
King's Proclamation for the Country to bring in their Corn and Hoy to Oxford, on pain of having it burnt, April 15. 1644.
Whereas by our Proclamation of the 29th of March now last past, we invited our loving Subjects of Oxford and Berks, and other Counties adjacent, who are Owners of Corn, and Grain, and other Victuals, in a greater proportion than is necessary for their own private Families, that for their own Benefit, to secure the same against the sudden Incursion and Violence of the Rebels, and for the better furnishing of our Garison at Oxford against a time of need, they should speedily bring the same into this City, and there store it up in such Places as themselves should provide; or as we in our Care by our Commissioners, to whom they are to resort, have there provided for them: where the Owners thereof by themselves, or such as they should nominate and trust, should keep the same; and fromthence, as the true Owners thereof, should issue the same, to furnish the Markets from time to time, for their best Advantage.
Since which time, we find that the Inhabitants of these Places not being so sensible of their own Good as we expected they would have been, have been very negligent in applying themselves to our Desires, but do expose themselves, and that Part of their Estates to that Danger which may fall upon them, we know not how soon. WE therefore, by the Advice of the Lords and Gentlemen, Members of the two Houses of Parliament now assembled at Oxford, do admonish all our loving Subjects whom it may concern, that within five Days now next ensuing, at the farthest, for such as live within seven Miles from this Town, and for such as dwell farther off, within eight Days after the Date hereof, they bring, or cause to be brought into this City of Oxford, all such Corn of all forts, ready threshed, or in the Senate, and all such other Victuals serving for the Food of Men or Horse, which they can spare, here to be stored up by themselves, or sold at and for reasonable Prices for ready Money: And also that they bring in hither all such Hay and Straw as they have, and may spare, here to be sold to us, and to the Nobility and Gentry here residing, for ready Money, at reasonable Prices.
And we, by the Advice aforesaid, do further let them know, and do hereby declare, that if they fail herein, upon what Pretence soever, we shall esteem them as Persons dissaffected to us and to our Service, and as the Course of War, and the Necessity thereof requireth, upon the Approach of the Rebels, who are Enemies to us and them, we must, and will be our own Soldiers, fetch so much thereof away as we can, for the Provision of our own Army, and the rest consume and destroy by Fire, rather than suffer the same to fall as a Prey into their hands, who will thereby be the more enabled to annoy us and our good Subjects: Of all which we expect a strict Performance, and will require a severe Account. And all Horses, Carts, and Carriages, which are employed for this Service, shall have free Passage in their going and coming, and not be taken for any other Service.
Given at our Court at Oxford, this 15th Day of April, in the 20th Year of our Reign.
A DECLARATION of the Lords and Commons in Parliament, concerning his Majesty's late Proclamation, and the Resolution of both Houses thereupon.
Die Lunæ, 22 Apr. 1644.
The two Houses Declaration, touching the foregoing Proclamation, April 22, 1644.
The Lords and Commons, assembled in the Parliament of England, do observe, That the same Counsels now predominate at Oxford, which have contrived and effected the Destruction of Ireland by Fire and Sword, do farther labour to bring the like Desolation upon this Kingdom; and in pursuance thereof, have dared to publish this unparallel'd Paper in the Form of a Proclamation, threatning Destruction by Fire and Sword, under the Title of preserving the Country: The Lords and Commons do thereupon declare, That they will use their hearty Endeavours, with the hazard of their Lives and Fortunes, to prevent these Miseries, whereof they are most sensible; and have taken order, that considerable Forces shall speedily advance for the Defence and Protection of the People; wherein they desire the Assistance of their Countrymen, and humbly pray to God for his Blessing.
Jo. Browne, Cler. Parliamentorum.
The State of the King's Affairs, about April, 1644; The Queen leaves Oxford April 17. 1644. and goes into the West.
The coming in of the Scots, and especially the Defeat of Bellasis at Selby, April 11. whereby Fairfax was grown formidable, and Newcastle (who before held the Scots in play) necessitated to retreat, and soon after shut up in York, (as we have already recounted) did much incommode his Majesty's Affairs in the North; and the late Blow given to Hopton at Alsford, March 29. had somewhat broken his Measures in the South. The Eastern Counties were associated for the Parliament, so that the King's greatest Interest and Hopes at present, seem'd to lie in the West, where Prince Maurice lay with a considerable Army before Lyme; and the Cornish and Welsh being for the most part devoted to his Majesty's Service, there was no doubt but large Levies might be made amongst them to recruit his Armies. It was therefore thought fit, that her Majesty should retire that way for the Security of her Person; who took her leave of Oxford, April 17. his Majesty, the Prince, and the Duke of York, with a great Number of Lords and Gentry, bringing her Majesty the first Day's Journey, and a sufficient Guard waiting on her the rest of the way to Exeter; for being with Child, she designed to lie in there, as a Place like to prove more peaceable, and fit for her in such a Condition, than Oxford.
The Recess of the Lords and Commons assembled at Oxford, April 16. to meet again October 8.
The Day before her Majesty departed, the Assembly of Lords and Commons at Oxford (whose Proceedings you have before in a particular Chapter) broke up, and betook themselves to their several Countries and Charges, to promote his Majesty's Service; who in his Speech to them at that time, especially recommended it to them, to be very careful in expediting Supplies of Money on the Privy-Seals which they had advised, and to use their best Diligence for the pressing of Men, and encouraging of Volunteers. They were appointed to meet again the 8th of October following.
By the KING,
A PROCLAMATION, for the further Restraint of Profane Swearing and Cursing, and the better observing of Prayer and Preaching in his Majesty's Armies, and the City of Oxford, and all other Parts of the Kingdom.
King's Proclamation against Swearing, 18 April, 1644.
Whereas by our Proclamation, dated the thirteenth Day of June last-past, we did strictly charge and command all the respective Officers of our Army, to cause all our Military Orders against Blasphemy, Oaths, and other scandalous Actions against the Honour and Service of God, to be duly and severely put in Execution; which our Command, if it had been well observed, and the Laws of our Realm, touching those Offences, duly executed, (as in Duty to God and us they ought to have been) there had not been that Liberty taken by those of our Army, and other Persons in the Kingdom, of dishonouring the Sacred Majesty of God, by horrible Oaths and Execrations, to the high Provocation of God's Wrath against themselves and his whole Nation: We therefore, out of our tender Care of the Honour of God, (to whose Glory we shall ever devote our Crown) and in token of our Hatred and Detestation of this monstrous Impiety, do by this our Proclamation strictly charge all Commanders and Officers of our Army, and of all our Garison-Towns, to see that all our Military Orders for the repressing of profane Swearing and Cursing by Soldiers, be duly and severely executed for the time to come, and exemplary Punishment done upon Offenders therein, to the Terror of others; which that they may know is by us expected at their hands, We do hereby require all Commanders and Officers in our Armies and Garison-Towns, and all who do, or shall attend us in our Court, to be vertuous Examples in their own Persons, to all Soldiers and others, by abstaining from all such Profanations, as they desire the Blessing of God upon us, upon themselves, and the whole Land; which if they shall neglect to perform, we do hereby declare, That all such Persons in our Court, Armies, or Garison-Towns, as shall appear to us to be notorious Offenders in this kind, we will in some publick way set a Character of Disgrace upon them, that they may appear to the whole World to be offensive both to God and us. And we do farther hereby strictly charge and command all Justices of Peace, Bailiffs, and Head-Officers in all Cities and Towns Corporate within the same, that they cause the Statute made in the One and Twentieth Year of the Reign of One late Father of Blessed Memory, for the Prevention and Reformation of Profane Swearing and Cursing, to be put in due Execution; and that the Forfeiture of Twelve Pence for every Offence be levied according to that Statute, andparticularly in our City of Oxford, where our Court now is: wherein We strictly charge and require the Mayor, and Justices of Peace of our said City (of whom We will require a strict Account) to take especial Care of the Punishment of all Offenders in that kind; and that Children and others, of whom the Penaltyof Twelve Pence cannot be levied or had, be whipped, or set three Hours in the Stocks, according to the Form of that Statute. And for the future Prevention of these and the like Offences, so opposite to the Glory of God, by planting his true Fear in the Hearts of all Men, We do lastly charge and command, That Divine Service and Sermons (according to the Doctrine and Liturgy of the Church of England, established by Law) by duly and constantly used in all our Armies and Garison-Towns, and all Churches and Chappels throughout this Realm. All these our Commands we require forthwith to be printed and published at the Head of every Regiment of our Army, and in all Our Garison-Towns, and in all Parish-Churches within this our Realm.
Given at Our Court at Oxford, the Eighteenth Day of April, 1644.
GOD Save the King.
The King quits Reading, and flights the Works, May 14.
The King's Forces quartered at Oxford, Reading, Marlborough, &c. and upon notice of the Parliament's Army being ready to take the Field, his Majesty resolved to draw what Men could be spared out of his Garisons, and to quit such Places as were not tenable, or of importance, thereby to strengthen his Army. In pursuance whereof, on Tuesday, May the 14th, his Majesty came in Person to Reading, and mustered the Foot-Soldiers there, and some others that attended him from Oxford, making in all about Two Thousand. After which his Majesty signified to the Townsmen, "That whereas the Rebels were upon their March, and would, in all probability, endeavour to take in that Town; he therefore thought fit to desert it, and had ordered his Soldiers to slight the Fortifications, and advised such of his good Subjects, as were willing to be freed from the Rebels Power, to remove their Provisions and Goods to Oxford, where they should be protected from Violence." Accordingly the Works were demolished, the Forces drew out the next day to Causham, and his Majesty returned to Oxford; and on Thursday, May 16. Sir Ralph Hopton mustered his Forces near Newberry, where he had five thousand Horse and Foot, and others of his Majesty's Troops lay at Witney, about seven miles from Oxford.
The Parliament's Rendevouz deferred.
The Parliament had appointed a General Rendevouz of their Forces on the 19th of April (being Good-Friday) near Ailesbury; but for want of Money, and by reason of other Accidents, were not able to take the Field so soon.
Ordinance for sending Trainbands and Auxiliaries to Essex and Waller, May 9.
On the 9th of May they passed an Ordinance, That the Regiment of Trained-Bands, raised in the Tower-Hamlets; the Regiment of Auxiliaries, raised in and about Westminster; and those of the Borough of Southwark, consisting in all of four thousand two hundred Men, should march with all necessary Provisions of Arms, Ordinance, Ammunition, and Carriages to Sir William Waller: And three other Regiments of Auxiliaries, raised in London and the Liberties, consisting of four thousand two hundred Men, to march to the Earl of Essex, and according to his Directions; and that all such Forces, in the Expeditions aforesaid, during their being abroad, shall be paid by the Parliament.
Essex sets out from London, May 14.
General Essex, on the 14th of May, set out of London early in the morning, and went to his Army at Beaconsfield, and on the 16th to Wickham, where he received the following Letters from Oxford.
The Marquiss of Hertford's LETTER to the Earl of Essex.
Marquiss of Hertford's Letter, desiring a safe Conduct for the Prince's Furniture into Cornwall, May 15.
His Majesty being pleased, that the Prince shall now sue forth his Livery for the Dutchy of Cornwall; and having appointed him for some time to reside there: I am commanded by his Highness to desire a Pass from your Lordship, for such Furniture, and other Utensils for his House as shall be necessary; the which, if your Lordship shall grant, an Officer of the Wardrobe shall attend your Lordship with the Particulars: And I am likewise to desire you, that this other Letter may be delivered to Sir David Cunningham, and that he may have Leave to send hither the Particulars mentioned therein. This being all I have in Command, I rest,
Your Lordship's most Affectionate Brother,
and Humble Servant,
To the Right Honourable the Earl of Essex.
The Earl of Berkshire's LETTER to Sir David Cunningham.
Letter to Sir David Cunningham about the Prince's Livery.
Sir David Cunningham,
His Majesty being pleased that the Prince shall now sue forth his Livery for the Dutchy of Cornwal, towards which it is convenient that former Precedets to that purpose be viewed; I am commanded by his Highness to write to you, that you send down Mr. Major, or some other Trusty Messenger, with the Transcript of the last Livery granted of the Dutchy to his Majesty when he was Prince, and the Charter of Liberties, if any were then granted, with the Copy of the Commission for his Highness's Revenue, which you are to do with all possible speed, I rest,
Your Loving Friend,
Oxford, 15 May, 1644.
The Earl of Forth's LETTER to the Earl of Essex.
Letter to Essex for a Pass for Madam Crosts.
I am an earnest Suitor to your Lordship in the behalf of a very warthy Lady, Mrs. Elizabeth Crofts, one of the Maids of Honour to the Queen's Maisty, who for Recovering ofher Health is very desirous to repair to London; and for that Purpose I entreat your Lordship may be pleased to grant her a Pass for herself, three Women and two Men, a Coach and six Horses, and one Saddle-Horse, with their Necessaries; which I shall take as a great Favour done unto
Your Lordship's Humble Servant,
May 16. 1641.
These Passes denied by the two Houses.
Essex, before he returned any Answer to these Letters, thought fit to communicate them to the Two Houses, who at a Conference agreed not to grant any such Safe-Conducts, as apprehending that the Prince's Design of going into Cornwall might be to raise Forces there; and order'd a Letter to be writ to the General, signifying their Sense therein, with thanks to him for his Care, and desiring that in these and the like Cases he grant no Safe-Conducts for any from Oxford, without their Consent: and so Jealous they were at this Time, that they also pass'd the following Order.
An ORDER of Parliament.
Die Mercurii 15° Maii, 1644.
An Order for removing Recusants, Cavaliers Wives, and suspicious Persons, May 15, 2644.
It is this Day ordered by the Commons Assembled in Parliament, That Directions be given to the Lord Mayor, Court of Aldermen, Common-Council, and the Committee of the Militia, to take some special and strict Course for the removal of all suspicious Persons, all such as have lately come from Oxford or any other of the King's Quarters, Recusants, the Wives of Recusants, and the Wives of such Persons as are in Arms against the Parliament, out of the Cities of London and Westminster, the Suburbs, the Inns of Court and Chancery, and all other Places within the Line of Communication, and to take some Course to prevent the Return of them, or the coming in of any other; and likewise to take Order that all the Forces of the Cities of London and Westminster, Suburbs and Line of Communication, may be put in a Posture ready to march at two Hours warning: And that they will give Order that good Watches by faithful and good Men may be kept at all the Guards, and upon all the Avenues to the City. The like Directions, mutatis mutandis, to the Committees of the several and respective Counties. They are further required, that if upon the search after suspicious Persons they shall meet with ay Soldiers, that they take course that they may be sent to their Colours, to be proceeded with according to their Demerits and the usual Course of War.
Waller goes to his Army, May 15; The Parliament get possession of Abingdon, May 25; Capt. Temple beats up Quarters at Iship.
The 15th of May Sir William Waller went down to his Army, which was that day mustered at Farnham, consisting of eight Regiments of Horse, and as many of Foot, being in all between Nine and Ten Thousand, with twenty four Guns great and small, many Leather-Guns, and sixty Waggons for Baggage and Ammunition. The 21st Essex was at Henley, and the 23d at Reading: The 25th the Lord Roberts Field-Marshal, with a considerable Party of Horse and Foot marched towards Abingdon; where the King's Forces, who were there quartered, quitted that Town, and marched away with their Artillery and Magazine towards Oxford: but part of them, under the Lord Hopton, passed by that City towards Islip, in the way to Worcester; and one Captain Temple, with a Party of Horse, was sent forth by Sir Samuel Luke (Governor of Newport-pannel for the Parliament) to observe their Motion, but not to engage them: He being too forward to be in Action, fell upon three Troops quartered at Islip, six miles from Oxford, and took about fifty of their Horses, a Captain, and seventeen other Prisoners, eight Bails of Serges, and some Money; yet though he had such Luck, he was questioned by a Committee of War for not obeying Orders, but in respect of his Services got off.
May the 26th General Essex came to Abingdon, and there caused Proclamation to be made throughout his Army, as followeth.
Robert Earl of Essex, &c. Captain-General of the Army employed for the Defence of the Protestant Religion, King, Parliament, and Kingdom.
Essex forbids Plundering on pain of Death, May 26.
Whereas these Countries have been very much afficted and oppressed by the Enemy, and we are now come to relieve them of their hard Bondage, it is therefore my express Will and Pleasure, and I do hereby strictly charge and command all Officers and Soldiers of Horse, Foot, and Dragoons, belonging to the Army under my Command, that they, and every of them, do forthwith, after Proclamation hereof made, forbear (notwithstanding any Pretence whatsoever) to plunder or spoil any of the Goods of the Inhabitants of these Countries, or offer any Violence, or other Prejudice unto them, upon pain of Death without Mercy. Given under my Hand and Seal this 26th of May, 1644.
Essex faces Oxford, May 29.
Whilst the General lay at Abingdon, Waller with his Army came into the neighbouring Villages, and marched afterwards in the Rear of him. On Tuesday, the 28th of May, Essex advanced to Sawford, within two or three miles of Oxford, and the next morning drew up his Army on Bullington-Green, not above a mile from that City, and faced it without Opposition, and that Night marched to Islip. The Body of the King's Army was then at Woodstock, Kidlington, Bladen, Wolvercote, and the adjacent Villages, whose Horse in the Night gave Essex an Alarm, and a small Skirmish happened between them, and in the mean time they drew their Ordnance and Carriages nearer Oxford.
Lyme in great Districts.
On the 30th of May some Letters, intercepted by the Parliament's Forces in Somersetshire, were brought to the Committee of both Kingdoms; whereby they understood what a dangerous Condition the Town of Lyme was in, and how much the Royalists esteem'd of that Place, so as to account the keeping or loss of a great part of the West to depend on their taking or being repulsed from thence: whereupon Sir John Bampfield and Mr. Nichols were ordered to go to his Excellency and Sir William Waller, to acquaint them therewith, and of the Necessity that Lyme stood in, that they may be speedily relieved.
Essex gains the Pass at Ainsflow-Bridge; And Waller at Newbridge.
On Friday Night, May 31. Essex sent out a Party of his own Forces of the London Auxiliaries, to obtain the Passage over Ainslow-Bridge, between Islip and Woodstock, which was guarded by a Party of the King's Forces: Some Bickerings happened between them that Night, but about four a Clock next morning they began to skirmish very fiercely, and so continued several Hours; and then a Party of Skippon's came up and renewed the Dispute: But the Royalists stoutly maintained their Post, and cut off the Bridge, and kept the Pass all that day; but the next day, being Sunday, June the 2d, they were forced to quit it. In this Action, on the Parliament's side, was slain Captain Dean, one of the Auxiliaries; and Colonel Cunningham had his Arm shot off with a Cannon-Bullet; with which he was so little daunted, that he held up the other, and said, I have one Arm yet left to fight for the Parliament: but he died soon after. Lieutenant-Colonel Lloyd and Serjeant-Major Mathews were wounded, and above forty private Soldiers killed. The same day Waller forced his way at Newbridge, which was maintained against him by a Party of Musqueteers; but he got some of his Men over in the Boats called Punts, at a little distance from the Bridge, who coming suddenly upon them, killed and took Prisoners most of them, and so clearly obtained the Passage; but were forced to lie three days there to repair the Bridge, and make it fit for the Passage of their Carriages. In the mean time, concerning his Majesty's Proceedings, we must be beholding to Mercurius Aulicus, printed in those days at Oxford; who gives this Account.
King at Wood-stick, Sunday June 2; The King goes from Oxford, June 3.
"Monday, June 3. Yesterday in the Afternoon his Majesty went to Woodstock, where his Horse were quartered, to see if all things were in readiness; and having supt, and hunted in his Park there, returned to his Foot-Army, which were quartered at and about Wolvercote, amongst whom he lay in his Coach all Night, and the next morning gave Command for his Forces on the Charwel to come up to his Army, and all together to march close to the Walls of Oxford, there to attend his further pleasure, and about six of the Clock in the morning came back to Christ-Church; where having put all things in Order for his Departure (for he knew his Person was the Game which was most principally aimed at by those mighty Hunters) commanded a great Body of Foot to march towards Abingdon, the better to amuse the Rebels, and make them look after him the wrong way: And the same Night, about nine of the Clock, his Majesty, accompanied with Prince Charles, and divers Lords and Gentlemen, besides the Gentlemen of his Troop, and his menial Servants, went out of Oxford, and came the next morning to Northlye, where he drew up his Army, consisting (as the Rebels certified to their Friends in London) of three thousand Foot, four thousand Horse, twelve Drakes, and about sixty or seventy Carriages. But whether they hit right or not, most sure it is, that his Majesty left a Party of his Foot, a new-rais'd Regiment of Horse, under the Command of the Earl of Peterborough, and all his great Ordnance (besides the Garison and Ordnance of the Place) for Defence thereof; leaving behind the Duke of York, and almost all the Lords of the Privy Council, and giving Order for the Prayers and Sermons to be kept up constantly, both on Sundays and Tuesdays, as if himself were present in his Royal Person. The King having eaten and refresh'd himself in the Morning, June the 4th, at Mr. Parret's House in Northlye, where he drew up his Army, went forwards in the Afternoon to Burton on the Water, a Village between Burford and Stow on the Wold, where he and the Prince lodged at Dr. Temple's, one of the Prince's Chaplains; on the 5th march'd to the Town of Evesham (out of which he took with him the whole Garison, Ordnance and Ammunition, and slighted the Works) and on Thursday the 6th, to the City of Worcester, where he was joyfully received with all significant Expressi ns of Love and Duty."
King flights Evesham; Arrives at Worcester, June the 6th.
Debatewhether Essex or Waller should go into the West; Agreed that Essex shall march into the West, and Waller attend his Majesty's Motions; Bafina-House and Greenland-House blockt up.
Essex having Intelligence of the King's departure from Oxford, presently gave Command to all his Forces to march to Woodstock, and came on the 5th of June to Chipping-Norton; and the same Day Waller advanc'd from Witney to Burford and so on that Night to Stow on the Wold: for about this time General Essex having the greater Ordnance and heavier Carriages, concluded it fit that he should march down into the West for the Relief of Lyme, Plymouth, &c. and that Sir William Waller should attend the King's Motions; whereas the Committee of both Kingdoms were inclinable to take other Measures. Whereupon the Matter being debated in the House of Commons, June the 11th it was Voted, That the Lord General should be desired to draw his Forces from towards Salisbury (near which he was now advanced) back again towards Oxford, and only send a Party (as was before ordered) to relieve Lyme, and that Sir William Waller should march into the West, and that the Pursuit of the King's Forces that lately went from Oxford should be left to the Lord General: And this was the rather thought fit, because by a former Ordinance Provision was made for the maintaining of Sir William Waller's Army in the West, and not where he then was. But the next Week the General giving Reasons for the Necessity of his March, and considering that both Armies were already so far advanc'd the contrary Ways, that they could not be recall'd without great obstruction to Affairs, these Resolves were set aside, and it was determined by the two Houses that Essex should proceed in his Expedition into the West, and Waller to attend the King's Marches as they had respectively undertaken. But because the Royalists had two Garisons that much obstructed the Trade of London, that is to say, Greenland-House, situate on the Bank of the River of Thames, hard by Henley, and Basing-House; the Parliament thought it necessary to blockade these two, for preventing their Excursions: and therefore Colonel Norton, with a Regiment of Horse and Foot, drew up about the latter, and several Troops of Horse and some Foot were quartered near the former.
And the more effectually to reduce these, and other the King's Garisons, whilst Essex and Waller were employ'd, one to relieve the West, and the other to follow the Army wherein the King was in Person as aforesaid, the Two Houses on the 7th of June sent a Committee into London, where at a Common-Council it was agreed, to send out a Brigade of Horse, and another of Foot, under Colonel Brown, to be join'd with what Forces could be raised in the adjacent Counties; and thereupon next Day there passed the following Ordinance.
An ORDINANCE of Parliament.
An Ordinance constituting Brown Major-General of all Forces for reducing of Oxford, &c. and in the Counties of Oxford, Berks and Bucks, June 8.
The Lords and Commons, assembled in Parliament, do hereby constitute and appoint Serjeant-Major-General Richard Brown to be Serjeant-Major-General of all the Forces raised, or to be raised, and employed by Authority of Parliament, for the reducing of the City of Oxford, the Town and Castle of Wallingford, the Fort of Greenland-House, and the Town and Castle of Banbury; as also Serjeant-Major-General of the Forces of the Counties of Oxon, Berks, and Buckingham, and of the Forces of the said City of Oxford, to serve for the Defence of the King, Parliament, and Kingdom for this present Expedition: And do hereby will and require the said Serjeant-Major-General Richard Brown, to take the said Forces into his Charge as Serjeant-Major-General, and to make his present Repair unto the said Counties: Giving him hereby Power and Authority to command, lead, and conduct the same into any Part of the said Counties, or Ports adjacent: Or (in the Absence of the Earl of Essex, Lord-General) as Serjeant-Major-General, to do any other Act or Thing, as he in his Judgment shall think fit, for the Defence and Security thereof; and also to draw forth of the said Counties such well-affected Soldiers, as will follow him for the Service aforesaid; and also to secure the several Forts, Castles, and Towns within the said Counties, for the Safety of King, Parliament, and Kingdom, as aforesaid, and Preservation of the aforesaid Counties and Parts adjacent from Spoil and Rapine. And the said Lords and Commons do hereby likewise authorize the said Serjeant-Major-General Richard Brown, to nominate and appoint all such Officers, as shall be by him thought requisite for the better Conduct of the said Forces, and diligently to exercise the said Forces in Arms, as also to call together and assemble A Council of War, to consist of twelve Colonels, or other Officers, or more, as he, in his Discretion, shall think fit, none to be under the Degree of Captains: And do constitute and appoint him President of the said Council, to examine upon Oath all such Witnesses as he shall find necessary for the clearing of the Truth in Cases which shall depend before him; and to hear and determine all and every Crimes and Offences to be committed or done by any Officer or Soldier under his Command, by virtue of this Ordinance; and to punish and execute Justice upon them, and all Enemies, which shall be under his power, as he, in his Judgment, by the Advice of such Council of War, according to the Rules of Martial Law, published by his Excellency the Earl of Essex, Lord-General of the Forces for the King and Parliament, shall think fit. And to do any other thing whatsoever, as to him shall seem requisite, for the infesting and destroying of the Enemy in those Parts, and reducing the said City of Oxford, Town and Castle of Wallingford, the Town and Castle of Banbury, the Fortof Greenland-House, and Parts adjacent: Commanding all Officers and Soldiers of the said Forces to obey him as their Serjeant-Major-General for the Service above-mentioned, according to his Commission given him. And the said Serjeant-Major General Richard Brown is likewise from time to time to observe and follow such Orders and Directions as he shall receive from both Houses of Parliament, the Committee of both Kingdoms, and the Earl of Essex Lord-General, or any of them: And the Lord-General is hereby desired to grant a Commission according to the Tenor of this Ordinance.
Brown to have 4200 Men out of London.
And on the 18th they made another Ordinance for sending out three Regiments of Auxiliaries, raised within London and its Liberties, consisting of four thousand two hundred Men, and such other Forces, Horse or Foot, as the Committee of the Militia for London should think fit, under the Command of the said Major-General Brown, for the Service aforesaid.
Brown marches out of London, June 20.
And accordingly on the 20th of June he marched out of London with three Regiments of Auxiliaries; namely, the Red, under the Command of Colonel Harsnet; the Blue, under Colonel Pindar; and the White, under Colonel Shepherd.
But we must for a while leave him on his March, and also General Essex advancing into the West, and first attend the Motions of his Majesty, and the opposite Army under Sir William Waller.
The King (as you have heard) advancing from Oxford with speedy Marches, came to Worcester on the 6th of June.
Waller takes Shudely-Castle, June 9.
Waller, on the 5th of that Month, came to Stow in the Wold in Glocesiershire, quartered there the 6th and 7th; and on Saturday, the 8th, marching towards Winchcomb, faced Shudely-Castle, drew off a commanded Party to attack it, and play'd upon it with his great Ordnance, which that Evening happened to kill the Gunner of the Castle; which discouraging those within, the next morning they surrendred at Discretion. There were taken Sir William Morton a Lawyer, High-Sheriff of Glocestershire, and Governor of that Castle for his Majesty; Lieutenant-Colonel Sawyer, Major Ouldham, Major Lloyd, five Captains, two hundred and fifty Common Soldiers, three Pieces of Ordnance, with Store of Ammunition and Provision, and a hundred Quarters of Grain. Here Waller staid till Monday the 10th, and then marched to Evesham, where he quartered the 11th and 12th.
The Skirmish between the Lord Wilmot and the Earl of Denbigh, at Dudley-Castle, June 11.
His Majesty was still at Worcester, and understanding that the Earl of Denbigh, assisted by Colonel Mitton and Sir Thomas Middleton, had for some time besieged Dudley-Castle in Staffordshire, on Tuesday, the 11th of June, sent the Lord Wilmot, with the Earl of Northampton's, and the Earl of Cleaveland's Brigades of Horse, and a thousand Foot, to raise that Siege, and relieve the Castle: But they were not able to effect either; for the Earl, upon notice of their Approach, sent out a Forlorn Hope, commanded by Colonel Mitton, Governor of Wem, whom Wilmot charged with such Fury, that they were all like to be cut off, and several Officers advised Denbigh not to venture out to their Relief, but rather, for their own Preservation, to keep their Trenches, and there with advantage expect the Enemy; but Denbigs resolved to hazard all to help his Friends, drew out his Forces, and led them on in Person, giving so smart a Charge, as not only rescued his Forlorn, but oblig'd the King's Party to retreat without performing their Errand, and with some Loss. On Denbigh's side Captain Glover was slain, and several Common Soldiers; others wounded, and about half a score taken Prisoners. Waller hearing that Denbigh was thus engaged, sent a Party of Horse from Evesham to his Assistance, but the King's Forces were returned before they came up.
The K. goes to Bewdley.
On June the 12th his Majesty marched with his Army from Worcester to Bewdly, where he staid two days; which occasioned Waller to march on the 13th to Bromesgrove, and quartered some of his Horse at Kidderminster, within two miles of his Majesty.
The King unexpectedly returns towards Oxford, 15 June; King rendevouzes near Woodstock, June 21.
Waller had the Advantage, if not in Numbers, yet in respect he had a full proportion of Pikes and Ordnance, both which the King wanted; besides Waller was in expectation to have the Forces under the Command of Colonel Massie, the Earl of Denbigh, Sir Thomas Middleton, Sir William Brereton, Colonel Mitton and Major Rigby, out of Glocester, Staffordshire, &c. join with him, which would have made a very formidable Army; wherefore his Majesty took up Resolutions to return to Oxford, and in pursuance thereof on Saturday the 15th gave Order to some Troops of Horse to shew themselves along the Severn towards Bridge-North, as if he meant to march directly to Shrewsbury; whereupon Waller presently dislodg'd, and made all the haste he could to get before him: But his Majesty suddenly turn'd back with his Foot, and came before Night to Worcester, whither his Horse soon after followed, leaving Waller two days march behind. The next day being Sunday, June 16th, the King marched through Eversham (whence he took some of their Magistrates along with him Prisoners, for having express'd too much kindness to the Parliament's Army, when lately quarter'd there) and that Night quarter'd at Broadway, and next day at Burford, within twelve Miles of Oxford, whither he dispatch'd his Commands to have Ordnance, Arms and Ammunition brought to him, together with as many of the Tertia that was there left behind as could conveniently be spared, to encrease his Army, to meet with Accomodations. On Tuesday the 18th he came to Witney, and quarter'd his Horse in Villages near and upon the Banks of the River of Thames, from Newbridge unto Lethlade, a Town in Glocestershire; where having staid three Nights, on the 21st of June he held a General Rendevouz at Campsfield near Woodstock, and quartered that Night at Blechington, and next day advanced to Buckingham, whence his Troops made several Incursions into the neighbouring Parts, as Beaford, Dunstable, Laiton, &c. and harass'd the Country, which much alarm'd the Associated Counties, into which it was believ'd the King design'd further to advance.
But Waller made all the speed he could to oblige the King to return; for being on the 15th of June got to a Place call'd Wordst), near Dudley-Castle, having receiv'd advice that his Majesty was march'd towards Oxford, he on Monday the 17th came to Saltwicke, the 18th quarter'd near the Town Percial, but to prevent his coming into it, the Inhabitants resolved to pull down their great Stone-Bridge, in doing whereof after they had demolish'd three Arches, the rest suddenly tumbled down, whereby about threescore of the Workmen were either knock'd o'the head or drowned. Thence on the 19th he march'd to Tewxlury (not long before taken for the Parliament by Colonel Massle) and on Friday, June the 21st, lay near Glocester, where he was recruited with two hundred and seventy Musqueteers, and a Company of Dragoons, and a hundred Musqueteers from Malmsbury, (all that Massie could spare) and so marched by Stow, June the 24th, to Shipson upon Stower, and so towards Banbury and Chipping-Norton.
Waller worsted at Cropedy-Bridge, June 29th.
The King being advertis'd of Waller's Advance, on the 26th march'd from Buckingham to Brackley, and next day to Culworth, lodging that Night at Sir Samuel Danver's House: The same Night Waller quartered at Hanwell, and understanding the King's Army to be so near, on the 28th of June drew his Forces into Battalia on the Foot of Crouch-Hill, about half a Mile Westward of Banbury, and the King's Army faced them all that day, but the River Charwell was between them: The next morning being Saturday, June 29th, Waller was again in Battalia, till perceiving that his Majesty drew off, and marched towards Daintry, leaving a Guard of Dragoons at Cropery-Bridge, which was to pass over Charwell, between the two Armies; Waller thereupon commanded Lieutenant-General Middleton with two Regiments of Horse and some Companies of Foot to fall upon their Rear, who soon beat off that Guard at the Bridge, and marching over, charged the King's Forces, supposing it to be their Rear: but the Horse having pursued them a while, found a greater Party of the King's yet behind them, that had got between the Bridge and those Foot which came over with them, and taken several Pieces of Ordnance that were brought over the Bridge, and not sufficiently guarded; so that they could not make their way back without great loss and difficulty, but at last they effected it, the Bridge being made good and secured for their Retreat by the Regiments of the Tower-Hamlets. The Service was very hot whilst it lasted: On the King's side were slain two Kentish Knights, Sir William Boteler and Sir William Clark, the Lord Wilmot wounded, and one taken Prisoner, but rescued again by Sir Frederick Cornwellis and Mr. Robert Howard, (who for the same was afterwards Knighted.) On the Parliament's Party Colonel Weems a Scotch General of the Artillery was taken Prisoner, as also Lieutenant-Colonel Baker (of Sir William's own Regiment) Lieutenant-Colonel Baynes and several other Officers; Colonel Middleton was dismounted among the King's Forces, of whom one taking him for a Commander of theirs, mounted him again, and bid him make haste and kill a Roundhead; so he escaped. Waller lost five Drakes, a Minion, several Leather Guns of Weems's Invention and Making, and some Colours. The Royalists gave out that they kill'd one hundred and fifty on the place, and besides Officers took Nine-score and eight common Soldiers, and five Gunners, and that themselves lost but the said two Knights, and at most fourteen common Soldiers: The Parliamentarians related that they kell'd a hundred, and took sixty Prisoners, and acknowledg'd on their side but twenty-three killed and a hundred taken Prisoners.
The King's Army draws off.
Waller after his Forces were got back over the Bridge, maintain'd it, and kept his Men drawn up, and both Armies faced one another the rest of that day, and the Cannons plaid on each side; in the Night they alarm'd each other, but little Execution done, and in the Morning the King's Army was drawn off, and Waller marched over Cropedy-Bridge, and so on Tuesday the 2d of July to Tocester, where Major-General Brown met them, but marched with them only till Thursday towards Northampton, and then marched away to the Siege of Greenland-House, and on the 11th of July the Regiments of London Auxiliaries that went forth with Waller, May the 12th, came home again to the City.