Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 6, 1645-47. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1722.
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PREFACE To the Fourth Part of Historical Collections.
The good Reception that Mr. Rushworth's former Volumes met with, gives the Publishers ground to think that these two last will fare no worse; his Method is the same, his Materials as good, and the like continued Thread of Impartiality runs through the whole. The Period of Time, of which these Two Volumes contain the History, was one of the most remarkable for Transactions Ecclesiastical, Civil and Military, that ever this Nation saw; and the account of those Transactions here exhibited, is more large, more particular, and more authentick, than any thing on that Subject which hath yet appeared in publick. Our Author tells us in the beginning of this Fourth Part, "That the province he had undertaken, was to consign to Posterity overt-acts, without either judging of their qualities, or diving after the secret Reasons of them, in assigning which, Authors many times relate their own Conceits, rather than the true Motives which induced the Actors to such Revolutions. Therefore we are not to wonder, nor to look upon our selves as disappointed when we find him thus sparing of his Reflections and Conjectures. This want (if it may be properly call'd by that name in an impartial Historian) is sufficiently made up by our Author's diligence in collecting the publick Papers and Debates on all sides, and his faithfulness in giving true Transcripts of them. As this is the fairest way of conveying History to Posterity, it is also one of the best helps a Reader can have, either to make just Reflections, or to dive into the Causes of action.
As to the Nature of the following Collections, they consist not only of many valuable things printed in those times, that are now only to be found in the Closets of the curious, but also of many important Papers that were never hitherto published, which Mr. Rushworth's Post, as Secretary to Sir Thomas Fairfax, gave him the opportunity of having and inserting in his Collections. Besides such Papers, there are many remarkable Circumstances, relating to Battels and Sieges, that the publick know little or nothing of, which are here related at large. The like is to be said as to many Debates in the Armies, Parliament, Treaties, and other publick Transactions in the three Nations; of which our Author many times gives us the accounts of both Parties, from persons who moved in the highest Spheres, and had the greatest concern in the things related.
The diligence of our Author is demonstrable from the bulk of his Collections, and the multitude of things that are hardly to be found any where else; his faithfulness and integrity, are sufficiently apparent, by the concurring testimonies of the Memorials of others, which have been published about the affairs of those times: And whoever will give himself the trouble to peruse what Mr. May hath writ in his History of the Long Parliament, Mr. Whitlock and the Lord Hollis in their Memoirs, will find the most material Transactions as related in this Collection to be vouch'd by them, the two last having had a large share in many of the most important affairs they write of. And tho' the Lord Hollis, his Memoirs appear to some to have more of the nature of a Philippick, and declamation, full of resentments against some persons and things, than of an Historical Relation of matters, yet they are the more to be valued, in regard they give great light into many considerable actions; that noble Lord making such a figure then, and being employ'd in the management of the greatest affairs of the times, could not but be well inform'd, and have Opportunities of knowing and discovering most of the secret Springs of Resolutions and Actions; besides falling in with those of the moderate Party, who in all Controversies are generally most in the Right, and fittest to be relyed upon, cannot be so liable to be suspected of Partiality as the high-flown Cavalier, or hot-headed Cromwellian. His Lordship was for reforming Abuses, and restraining Arbitrary Power, not for overturning the old English Constitution, which made him an Enemy to those who followed the contrary Extreams, and provok'd him to make such smart and severe Reflections upon them, and their bold and unjustifiable Deviations from their Engagements and their Duty, which, being a Man of Honour, Spirit and Integrity, he could not brook. Upon this Account it may justly be said, that the best way to arrive at a true Knowledge of the History of that Period, is to joyn the Lord Hollis's Memoirs with these last two Volumes of Rushworth's Collections: The latter giving a just View of the Actions of those Times, and the former the secret Causes and Springs of them.
We come now to give a more particular Account of the following Volumes, and a short View of that Thread of History which runs through the whole Work, which is not so obvious to every Eye, because a Multiplicity of Papers, Debates, Resolutions, Letters, &c. interrupt, or at least perplex the Series, by diverting the Thoughts and Attention of ordinary Readers. This was judged so much the more necessary, because the Defect could not be supply'd by an Alphabetical Table, which only directs to Particulars without any order of Time.
The FIRST VOLUME Commences with the Accomplishment of the Design of new-modelling the Army, and of passing of The Self-denying Ordinance. This quite alter'd the Scene, and put the Administration of Military Affairs into new Hands. In Process of Time it brought forth likewise a new-modelling of the Parliament, and at last their total Dissolution. The standing Army, which from time to time they were induced by specious Reasons to continue, became their Masters at long run, and were nothing so tender of invading the Privileges of Parliament, as the Houses were of disbanding them; the Result whereof was the Subversion of the Government. The Debates in Parliament about new-modelling the Army, are entertaining and useful; the State of the King's Affairs and his Strength, as also that of the Parliament at that time, make the great Changes that afterwards happen'd so much the more observable. Cromwell's dexterous Management to bring this Design about, and to baffle that of his Adversaries, who were for laying him aside, and prosecuting him as an Incendiary, is here distinctly related. This is so much the more remarkable, that the Lord General, the Earl of Essex, the Commissioners of Scotland, and many others, did clearly foresee, and as plainly foretel, that he would overturn all the Measures then on foot to settle the Peace and Quiet of the Nations, and yet they had not Interest nor Credit enough to prevail against him in Parliament or Army. This gives us likewise a Discovery of one of the original Causes of Oliver's Hatred to the Scotish Nation, under which they afterward smarted so severely; and by comparing this Transaction with the Lord Hollis's Account of it, we shall find that the Destruction of the king and Government was the principal thing intended by this New Model. This appears plain from the Earl of Manchester's Accusation lodged against Cromwell in the House of Lords, which the Lord Hollis refers to as an undeniable Voucher, because Oliver himself had imparted it to the Earl when he took him to be one of his own Party.
In the Second Chapter we have an Account of the Actions betwixt his Majesty's Forces and the new-modell'd Army, from the Beginning of the Year 1645, till after the Battel of Naseby, wherein our Author, tho' of the contrary Side, does King Charles I. Justice, and fairly owns that he there acted the Part of a Gallant General, both for Courage and Conduct. Here also, as in other Places, our Author entertains the Reader With the several Relations of that Battel, from both the General Officers, and the Committee attending the Army. There is one remarkable Instance he gives us of General Fairfax's Modesty in refusing to open the King's Letters that were taken after the Fight, but that Cromwell and Ireton press'd him to it. The way how those Letters came to be taken, is no less observable. One of the Scout-Master-General's Spies, being sent by him to Oxford, to acquaint Secretary Nicholas, that the Parliament Army would rise from before that City such a Day, the Secretary who thought the Fellow came of his own accord, sent him with the Account of their being actually gone, to General Goring, who commanded for the King about Taunton. The General received him kindly, and thinking him a fit and trusty Messenger, press'd him to carry that Packet to the King. The Fellow seem'd unwilling to undertake it (tho' nothing could have fallen out more suitable to his Design,) for by this means he had an Opportunity of bringing them to General Fairfax. This single Misfortune proved fatal to his Majesty's Interest, for had those Letters been sent by a faithful Hand, they would have arrived in time to have prevented the Battel; for General Goring by strong Arguments, advised the King to keep on the Defensive till he joyn'd him, which he intended speedily to have don. This was not the only Inconvenience that attended the Miscarriage of those Letters, for they quicken'd General Fairfax in his Resolutions of taking Leicester, and of marching to the Relief of Taunton. Here you have likewise the Account of the Westerly Club-men and what past betwixt the General and them.
The Third Chapter contains the remarkable and tedious Siege of Bristol, with all the Circumstances relating thereunto, and the Particulars of the long Treaty betwixt Prince Rupert and the General, and the Consequence of the Surrender of it; his Defence of his Conduct there, and the King's Approbation of the same, against the Insinuations of some of the Royalists, who were dissatisfied with the Prince's Management; you have there also Cromwell's Account of his taking Basing-House; the General's Account of his Actions in the West, taking of Dartmouth, intercepting a Packet of Letters of great Importance from the Queen; of his Victory over the Lord Hopton at Torrington, which proved so fatal to the King's Affairs in those Parts; and the Treaty concluded with the said Lord, for disbanding the Remainder of his Army, which put an End to the King's Interest in the West. At the same time a Packet was intercepted from Ireland, the publishing whereof proved very prejudicial to the king's Affairs.
In the Fourth Chapter we have an Account of his Majesty's Marches after the Battel of Naseby, the Proceedings of the Scots Army in England, and other Military Transactions to the end of the Year 1645. The most remarkable of them are, his Majesty's being defeated by Major General Poyntz near Chester, the Surrender of Carlisle to the Scots, by Sir Thomas Glenham, the Surrender of Pontefract and Scarborough Castles to the Parliament, and the Siege of Hereford by the Scots, and why they raised the Siege under General Leven's Hand. This Misfortune was laid hold on as a plausible Ground of quarrelling with them, by those who were Enemies to them and their Cause, in Parliament and elsewhere; of which a particular Account is given by our Author in this Place. Here is also an Account of the king's sending the Lord Digby with a considerable Body of Horse to assist the Earl of Montrose in Scotland, who had obtained several Victories over the Parliament Forces there; and of defeating the Lord Digby by Sir John Brown the Scots Governor of Carlisle, as also of the total Defeat given to Montrose at Philiphaugh not long after, which gave the last fatal Blow to the King's Affairs la Scotland; here we have some intercepted Letters of Lord Digby to Sir Edward Hide and Lord Jermin, and one from the King to Prince Rupert, which set the Business of the Lord Digby's Intentions towards Scotland, with the Condition of the King's Affairs, and his Resolutions at that time in a clear Light. The next considerable thing that offers, is the surprising of Hereford by a Stratagem, and the taking of West-Chester on Terms, by the Parliament-Forces commanded by Sir William Brereton; after this comes the Defeat of the Lord Astley near Stow, which was the only standing Force the King had left him in England; this we have an Account of by Colonel Morgan, who commanded in chief for the Parliament at that time in those Parts.
The Fifth Chapter gives us an Account of the most remarkable Parliamentary, and Civil Occurrences of the Year1645. One of those that deserves to be notic'd is the Lord Savill's Accusation in Parliament against Mr. Hollis, (afterwards Lord Hollis) and Mr. Whitlock, as having had private Intrigues with the King, contrary to the Trust reposed in them by the Parliament, when they were sent to Treat with the King at Oxford; of which they were cleared by both Houses. This is so much the more remarkable, because the Lord Hollis in his Memoirs charges Cromwell and Mr. St. John, as the Contrivers of this Accusation. We have here the Declaration of Parliament to the States of Holland, concerning their Ambassadours Extraordinary, whom they charge with indirect Dealings, and misrepresenting their Proceedings to the States, of which the Parliament gives them a true Account, and complain of the said Ambassadours for making themselves Judges of the Propositions treated upon with the King, when they had heard only one Side. It is observable, that in this Declaration to the States, the Parliament takes notice of Endeavours that had been used by the Court, to engage both Armies against the Parliament by large Promises, and that the Scots Army in particular had rejected the great Offers of the Court with Disdain, tho' at the same time Cromwell and his Party did all they could (as is observed by the Lord Hollis) to render the Scots suspected of falling in with the King contrary to their Engagement to the Parliament of England.
After this our Author gives us a second Declaration of Parliament, concerning their Proceedings with the Dutch Ambassadours, and complains of Damages done to Shipping and Trade by both Nations. Here we have also the Proceedings in the House about Ecclesiastical Matters, and his Majesty's Proclamations in Opposition thereunto; as also the Votes of the House for sending Proposals of Peace to the King, and of Treating no more with him by Commissioners, and the King's repeated Messages desiring a Personal Treaty, with their Reasons against it, and his Majesty's Answers.
The Sixth Chapter treats of Affairs relating to Scotland, where we have an Account of Montrose's Exploits, and his total Defeat at last; of a Remonstrance sent the King by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, wherein they deal very freely and plainly with him, and of Letters from the Parliament and General Assembly of Scotland to the Parliament of England and the Assembly of Divines, their pressing the fulfilling of Treaties, and Settlement of Religion.
The Seventh Chapter treats of Irish Occurrences, and of Affairs relating thereunto in the Year 1645, particularly of the Defeat of the Rebels in Ulster by Sir Robert Hamilton, and the killing of the Popish Arch-bishop of Tuam, whose Papers being seiz'd, they discovered his Correspondence at Rome and Paris, and the Articles agreed upon by the Earl of Glanmorgan, and the chief of the Irish Rebels, whereof our Author gives us a Copy at large. This is so much the more observable, because that Earl pretended the King's Authority, and was committed on that Account by the Lord Digby. We have here likewise a Copy of that Paper which the Earl call'd his Majesty's Authority, and a Letter from him to the King, wherein he promises his Majesty Ten thousand Men.
The Eighth Chapter contains Civil and Military Transactions from the Beginning of the Year 1646, till the Kings coming to the Scots Army, and some Passages depending thereupon. The first thing is the severe Vote past in Parliament upon a Rumour, that the King intended to come privately to London. The next is the Parliamentary Debates with the Commissioners of Scotland, about the Propositions to be sent to the King. The Papers delivered in by the Scots on that head, incensed the Houses to that Degree, that they ordered the Preface before them, written by another Hand, to be burnt by the Hangman; and issued out a Declaration of their Intentions to maintain the fundamental Government. Here we have an Account of the Surrender of Bridgewater, Exeter and Barnstable to the Parliament; of the King's Letter to the Marquess of Ormond, about his going to the Scotch Army, and his Reasons for so doing. Of the Parliament's Votes, making it Death and Confiscation for any Person to conceal the King; also their Votes upon hearing he was come to the Scotch Army; The Scotch General's Letter to the Parliament concerning it, declaring the Surprise of the Army at it, and that there had been no Treaty betwixt his Majesty and them in order thereunto. We have likewise the Declaration of the Scotch Commissioners, in Behalf of their Nation to the same purpose, wherein they give Reasons to prove the Falshood of what is alledged concerning the same, from the King's Letter to the Marquess of Ormond. After this we have the King's Message from the Scots Army to the Parliament of England.
The Ninth Chapter, gives an account of the Siege and Surrender of Oxford, the Surrender of Banbury, Worcester, Wallingford, Ragland-Castle, Pendennis, and the taking of Conway. With many material Circumstances relating thereunto.
The Tenth Chapter gives the Transactions after his Majesty's being at Newcastle, betwixt him and the two Houses and the Scots. Here we have the Marquess of Argyle's Speech to both Houses, upon the Consent of the Scots to the Propositions of Peace; the Desires of the Scots concerning their Armies in England and Ireland, and that all Armies be disbanded; the Declaration of the Scots Army as to their Integrity; their Petition to the King, and his Majesty's Answer; his Majesty's Letter to the Marquess of Ormond, to Treat no more with the Irish Rebels; the Votes of the Commons, that there was no further need of the Scots Army; Letters from the General Assembly of Scotland to the Parliament of England, to the City of London, and to the Assembly of Divines. Next the Proposals of Peace to his Majesty from both Houses, the King's Answer to their Demands; Namely, that he should surrender to them the Garrisons in Ireland; the Parliament's rejecting of the French King's Offers of Mediation betwixt the King and them: The carrying off the Princess Henrietta to France. The Lord Chancellour of Scotland's Speech to the King, about the Propositions of Peace, and his Majesty's Answer to the saia Propositions.
The Eleventh Chapter acquaints us with the Transactions with the Scots, concerning the Removal of their Forces out of England, the Disposal of his Majesty's Person, and other intervening Occurrences to the bringing of the King to Holmby-House. Here we have the Scots Papers to the Parliament upon those Heads, their Account of the Arrears due to their Army, the Exceptions made to their Accompts, the Debates upon't, and the Agreement at last concluded upon. This Transaction deserves particular notice, because it was the Subject. of many differing Reflections, and the Occasion of many Invectives against the Scotish Nation, of whose Integrity and Reputation in the whole Management and Conduct of that Affair, there seems to need no greater Proof, than what is evident by these Papers, and what the Lord Hollis says in their Vindication, Who charges Cromwell and his Faction with being the Authors of much Injustice, Treachery, and Disingenuity towards the Scots, and Promoters of all those Slanders that were raised against them, and the Occasion of the Country's suffering so much by their Army, which was forc'd to take Free-quarter, and levy Contributions, because the Provisions and Money that they ought to have had by Agreement, were by means of that Faction fraudulently detain'd from them. The Design of the Party in treating the Scots thus, was, that they should either disband and go home, or to provoke the Country to rise and fall upon them, that so the Nations might have been engaged in a War against one another, and all Possibility of Accommodation with the King frustrated; all this is to be seen at large in the Lord Hollis's Memoirs, page 66, &c. The next remarkable thing in this Chapter, is the Debates betwixt the Parliament and the Scots, about disposing of the King's Person; the Papers Pro and Con are inserted; there you have the Arguments made use of by the Scots Commissioners, to perswade the King to sign the Propositions of Peace sent him by the Parliament; His Majesty's Answers; The Letter to the Duke of Hamilton; The Votes of the House upon the Scots Papers; The several Speeches of the Lord Chancellour of Scotland, to the Committee of both Houses upon that Head; The seizing of the Scots Papers at the Press by order of both Houses; The Answer of the Commons to those Papers; Speeches on that Subject; The Ordinance of both Houses for selling the Bishops Lands, and the Conditions on which the Scots were to leave England. Our Author is very particular on this head, and makes it evident, that the Four hundred thousand Pounds agreed to be paid the Scots for their Arrears, had no Relation at all to any Bargain or Agreement about the Disposal of the King's Person, as hath been asserted by some ignorant and mistaken Persons, but only that upon Payment of one Half of that Sum, they should deliver up the Garrisons they had in England and march home; and for the Payment of the other Half, they should have the publick Faith of the Nation. Mr. Rushworth assures us, that hitherto nothing was agreed upon touching the Disposal of the King's Person, but that it was concluded on as the Commons had Voted before; that the same should be no Hinderance to the marching away of the Scots Army. This, with what the Lord Hollis says in his Memoirs, page 67, &c. sets that great Transaction in a clear Light, where he says expressly, That the Boutefeus had one Hope left, which was to quarrel at last about the Person of the King, believing the Scots would certainly have taken his Majesty with them into Scotland; this they knew had been Ground sufficient, and would have engaged all England against them, giving a Confirmation to all the Jealousies formerly raised, and occasion'd a thousand more, and had certainly more advantaged the Design of those who thirsted after the Destruction of the King first, the Scots next, and then all such as desired Peace within this Kingdom, and had made them a smoother way to their damnable ends; the altering of the Government, and bringing in a Confusion both in Church and State, than any thing that could have happen'd. And a little further he adds. "But the Wisdom of the Scotish Nation foresaw the Inconveniencies which must have necessarily followed, had they been positive at that time; how they had play'd their Enemies Game to their own Ruin, and even Ruin to his Majesty; therefore they made for him the best Conditions they could, that is, for the Safety and Honour of his Person, and to avoid greater Mischiefs, were necessitated to leave him in England, and so march away; which they did in Feb. 1646. Then afterwards he says, "This gave such a Reputation to them, and to those that appear'd for them, (that is, so far for them, as to endeavour the doing of them Right, and prevent the Practices of those who sought all means of doing them Wrong) and gave such a Blow to the other violent Party, so broke their Power, and lessen'd their Authority in Parliament, as it made way for obtaining those Resolutions which were presently taken for disbanding Sir Thomas Fairfax's Army.
There is another Author that had great Opportunities of knowing many of the Intrigues of those Times, who gives further Light in this Matter, and plainly discovers how the King was imposed upon by Cromwell and the Army, and deluded into an obstinate Refusal of complying with the Proposals of the Parliament, and the Desires of the Scots whilst he was with them at Newcastle; that is Col. Joseph Bamfeild, in his Apology Published An. 1685, who, page 16, &c. says, "That Cromwell, Ireton, and their Party, imposed a Belief upon some of the greatest and best of the King's Friends, that the Army would restore him upon his rejecting the Parliament's Propositions, &c. And that they might possess his Majesty with the same Opinion, they conniv'd at the Escape of a Clergy-man, (who by the Circumstances must be Mr. Hudson) out of the Tower, who had Credit with the King, and was an irreconcileable Enemy to the Presbyterians and Scots; This Clergyman having Instructions from some of the greatest and wisest of the King's Friends, that were imposed upon by Oliver, as before-mention'd, came secretly to his Majesty at Newcastle, prevail'd with him to reject the Parliament's Proposals, and possess'd his Majesty with Hopes of being restored by the Army; Which makes it Evident, that he was delivered by the Scots to the Committee. of the Parliament of England, by the underhand Procurement of the King himself and his Friends, without the Scots knowing any thing of those secret Managements betwixt the King and the Army. Col. Bamfeild was so sensible of the Cheat contrived by Oliver and his Party, in this Matter, that he acquainted the Marquess of Hartford, one of his Majesty's chief Friends, with it; but the Marquess himself was so far deluded by Oliver's false Promises, that he advised Col. Bamfeild to forbear opposing it, and told him he was suspected by the Clergy to favour the Presbyterians more than the King, &c. So that all the Colonel could say in his own Vindication, or for the King's Safety, was to no Purpose. But to return to our Author; the other remarkable things in this Chapter, are the Parliament of Scotland's Instructions resolved on, to their Commissioners; The Solemn and Seasonable Warning of their general Assembly which occasioned an Alteration in those Instructions, the King's Message to both Houses, and the Commissioners of Scotland for a Personal Treaty; The Votes of both Houses about the King; Their appointing Commissioners to receive him from the Scots; His Majesty's Queries to the Scots Commissioners upon that head, with their Answers; The Parliament of Scotland's Letter to the Parliament of England about delivering his Majesty, and the Declaration of the Kingdom of Scotland, shewing on what Terms their Army received his Majesty, and for what Reasons, and on what Terms they delivered him to the. Commissioners of the Parliament of England: The Reasons for their delivering him, were his not giving a satisfactory Answer to their Propositions, their earnest Desire to keep a good Understanding betwixt the two kingdoms, to prevent new Troubles within the same, to satisfy the Desire of his Majesty, of the two Houses of Parliament in England, and of the Parliament of Scotland, for his Residence in some of his Houses, near the Parliament of England; the Terms on which they deliver'd him, were that he should go to HolmbyHouse, or some other of his Majesty's Houses as should be thought fit; there to remain till he give Satisfaction to both Kingdoms in the Propositions of Peace, and that in the mean time there be no Harm, Prejudice, Injury or Violence done to the Royal Person of the King; that there be no Change of Government, other than hath been those three years past, and that his Posterity be no ways prejudic'd in their lawful Succession. To this the Kingdom of Scotland added some other Desires, as to which we have the Parliament of England's Answer, with the Account of the delivering of the King, and the marching of the Scots Army out of the Kingdom.
The Twelfth Chapter gives us the State of Affairs in Ireland, during the Year 1646, in which we have an Account of the Defeat given by the Irish Rebels, to a Party of the Scots Army in the North of Ireland, commanded by Major General Munroe, whose Letter with the Account of the Action is laid before us, as also an Account of a Victory obtain'd by a Party of the Scots over the Irish in Connaught, The next thing is the Marquess of Ormond's Negotiation and Proclamation of Peace with the Irish Rebels, and the Articles agreed on with them after a long Treaty. This is so much the more observable, that such advantageous Conditions were so easily granted to the Irish Papists in that Kingdom, when his Majesty made so much Difficulty to agree to the Propositions of Peace, presented to him from the Parliament of England and Scotland; and that the Irish Popish Bishops and their Clergy congratulated the Marquess of Ormond, upon the Conclusion of that Peace, while at the same time, they endeavoured to incense him against the Protestant Party, as deserving no Share of his Favour. The next thing is the Lord Digby's Letter, inviting the Lord Inchequeen to come over to the King's Interest, with his Answer; wherein the Earl complains of the Peace made with the Irish Rebels, as destructive to the Protestant Religion and the King's Interest: The Popish Layety were pleased with this Peace, but most of the Clergy disliked it, excommunicated those who were for't, and, the Pope's Nuncio at the head of them, declared War against the Marquess of Ormond about it. The Marquess came afterwards to a Treaty with the Parliament of England, which after a great deal of time spent about it had no Success: Our Author gives the whole Proceedings of the Treaty at large.
The Thirteenth Chapter contains the Proceedings of Parliament from April 1. to May 1. 1647. They took Order for the Civil and Military Government of Ireland, and to raise Money for their Relief; Col. Hammond and Pride are question'd for seditious Petitions in the Army against Disbanding, and order General Fairfax to discharge and hinder those Petitions (fn. 1). About this time the Earl of Antrim and some of the Irish Rebels, the Earl of Huntley and others of them were defeated in Scotland. Then an account is given of several Petitions from the Country for disbanding the Army, and the Orders of the House upon them, and accordingly they Vote what Forces should be continued, and what not; they order Col. Boswell to be taken into Custody, for delivering a Packet of Letters from France to the King at Holmby. Commissioners are sent to the Army, to propose that a part of them should go for Ireland, but most of'em refused, and others insisted on high Conditions: The House resolve on disbanding the Army, which they petition against, appoint some of their own Number to give an account of their Affairs to the Parliament, and grow more and more insolent and mutinous. Commissioners were afterwards sent down to pacify the Army, and to acquaint them that they should have Money paid, their Accompts adjusted, and an Indemnity granted before they were disbanded.
The Fourteenth Chapter gives us an Account of the Proceedings in Parliament from May to June, 1647. The Officers of the Army are ordered to return to their Commands on severe Penalties; some Suspicions were about this time spread abroad, as if the Army design'd to comply with the King: A Petition presented from some Citizens directed To the Commons, as the Supream Authority of Parliament, was disliked by the House: A Brief was appointed for the Relief of poor Protestants fled from Ireland. False Intelligence was spread abroad concerning the Army, by a Servant belonging to the Duke of Buckingham. The Scots Forces were ordered to leave Ireland. The House ordered an Additional Pay to the Soldiers, before disbanding of the Englilh Army: The King sends a Message from Holmby to both Houses, signifying that he had waited long for the Propositions, and had prepared an Answer to them. Conferences were continued at SaffronWalden, betwixt the Commissioners of Parliament and those of the Army, who chose common Troopers for Agitators to represent their Grievances to the General Officers, who were to contract them. The Lord Inchequeen was successful in Ireland against the Rebels; The King's Letter in Answer to the Propositions sent him, was read in the House. Upon Advice from the Commissioners of the Stubbornness of the Army, the House Voted that all the Forces that would not go for Ireland should be disbanded, except Garrisons. Another Petition from some Citizens, calling the House the Supream Authority, was ordered to be burnt. Upon the King's Desire to come nearer London, the House of Lords Voted his coming to Oatlands. The Houses pass'd an Ordinance for Indemnity to the Army. A Letter was intercepted from Mr. Ashburnham to the King, advising him to forbear coming to an absolute Agreement with the Parliament, and putting him in Hopes of an Army of Fifty thousand Foreigners: Farther Orders were made about disbanding of the Army, which did not please the Soldiers; several Debates follow betwixt the Parliament and the Army on that head.
The Fifteenth Chapter contains the Proceedings in Parliament from June to July, 1647. where we have the Debates betwixt them and the Army continued; The Army's Refusal to disband, and the carrying away of the King from Holmby by a Party commanded by Cornet Joyce, formerly a Taylor. Our Author is very particular in all those Debates and Transactions; and of what pass'd betwixt the Commissioners of Parliament that attended the King, and the Party that took him from Holmby-House, and the Army's Reasons for doing so: The General's Account of it to the Parliament. "But the Lord Hollis in his Memoirs, and Col. Bamfeild in his Apology, charge Oliver directly with contriving it; the latter gives great Light into that matter, and a very distinct Account of what he himself did to prevent it, by acquainting the King with it, and endeavouring to effect his Escape, but found it unpracticable: He discovers likewise the fraudulent Promises of Oliver and his Party to the King; their Proposals for restoring him to his Throne on easier Terms than those demanded by the Parliament, with which his Majesty and his Friends being deceived, they concar'd with Oliver and the Army to prevent and frustrate all the "Endeavours of Parliament and City, to compel the Army to disband, and to restore his Majesty to the Exercise of his Government on solid Foundations.
But to return to our Author, who in the next place gives us a Representation of the Dissatisfactions of the Army, in Relation to the Parliament's Order for disbanding them. The Solemn Engagement of the Army the Day before Joyce seiz'd the King, and a frantick Narrative, call'd A True Impartial Narration concerning the Army's Preservation of the King, the Author whereof seems to be the first who published in Print that malicious Lye against the Scots, as if they had sold the King. Then we have an Account of Petitions from several Counties against disbanding the Army, which the Lord Hollis imputes also to Oliver's Contrivance. The rest is taken up in farther Debates betwixt the Houses and the Army about disbanding, and the Force put upon them by the Army, in making them recal their Orders and Declarations, &c. concerning the Forces, the Militia of London, and raising Troops for the Defence of themselves and the City; their disobeying the Orders of Parliament and Desires of the City, that they should come no nearer London than Twenty Miles; after this they proceed to higher Degrees of Insolence, in demanding the Parliament to be purg'd and new-modell'd, and contrary to their former Declarations, as the Lord Hollis observes, they bring in a Charge against the Eleven Members, and demand they should be discharged from sitting in the House; then the Debates betwixt the House and them on that head, and about the King's coming no nearer London than the Army, concluding with a Treaty betwixt the Parliament and the Army.
The Sixteenth Chapter contains the Proceedings in Parliament from July 5. to August 1. 1647. It begins with the Treaty betwixt the Parliament and the Army, and the continued Disobedience of the latter. The King desires to see his Children, which was granted; with all the Circumstances relating thereunto. Petitions of contrary Tendencies were at this Time promoted, and presented to the House from different Parties and Interests of London Apprentices. The Business of the Eleven Members was again debated, and at last they desire Leave to withdraw, which was granted them. Petitions and Engagements were form'd in the City against the Army, who forc'd the House and City to declare against such Practices, tho' they had Voted the King should come to the City, and ordered Forces to be raised, and the Train'd Bands to be arm'd, &c. About the same time there was a Treaty on Foot betwixt the Commissioners of Scotland and the Parliament, for setling what still remain'd to be done, but it came to no effect. This Volume concludes with an Account of the General's Advance with his Army towards London, contrary to their former Declarations; what followed thereupon is related at large in the last Volums of this Work.
The SECOND VOLUME begins with the year 1647, and comes down to the Death of King Charles I. in An. 1648. The First Chapter of this Volume is the Seventeenth in Number; and gives Account of Transactions betwixt the Parliament and Army, with the Papers relating thereunto at large, which gives us a clear View of the Pretensions on both Sides, and a plain Demonstration, that no Authority is able to withstand the Design of a standing Army, under the Conduct of a Crafty General. We have an Account here, of the Army's March to London, and their obliging both Parliament and City to recal their former Declarations against it: The King thought fit to disown his having any hand in what had been done in the City against the Army, and that part of the Parliament that adhered to them, which joyn'd to Col. Bamfeild's Account of this Transaction, shews how his Majesty was trick'd into this by the Army, to the irrecoverable Loss of his Interest, and Life at last. The Army having thus trod under foot the Laws of England, did the like as to the Laws of Nations, and by Violence forc'd the Scots Commissioners to go from his Majesty's Quarters, without suffering them to speak to the King, which the Earl of Lauderdale one of their Number protested against, but to no purpose, tho' the Commissioners that attended the King from the Parliament of England, told the Soldiers what might be the dangerous Consequence of such a Practice. The Army march'd up to London, and brought those Members of both Houses along with them, that had retired to them upon their Approach. Our Author gives us the Engagement sign'd by those Lords and Commons, the Declaration of the Army, the General's Letter to the City, &c. and an Account how the Parliament and Army flattered one another at this Juncture, how the General was brought to both Houses in great State, and the Votes that ensu'd upon't, declaring all to be void that the Parliament had done during the Absence of those Members. Massey and Poyntz that were to have commanded the City forces, &c. against the Army, were forc'd to retire, and left a Declaration behind them, which our Author exhibits. In the next place he gives us an Account of the Proceedings in Scotland, and Duke Hamilton's Engagement to relieve the King, to vindicate the Members of Parliament unjustly impeach'd, and to settle the Presbyterian Government according to the Covenant. About this Time Col. Jones obtain'd a Victory over the Rebels in. Ireland: Sir John Cheesely, Secretary to the Scots Commissioners, was stop'd at Newcastle, of which, Complaint being made to the Parliament, they ordered him to be released. The Army remonstrates for purging the House, and Enquiry is made after those that were to command the Forces design'd to oppose them, and several Members of both Houses question'd for countenancing that Affair.
The Eighteenth Chapter contains Proceedings in Parliament, from Sept. 6. to Octob. 2. 1647. The most remarkable of which, was the Concurrence of the Scots Commissioners to the Propositions of Peace sent to the King; The Desire of the Parliament of England that the Scotch Forces in Ireland should be recall'd from thence; The Proceedings against several Lords, Sir John Maynard and others on an Accusation that they had design'd to have raised a new War; The regulating of the City Militia; The King's Answer to the Propositions; Petitions for farther purging the House; Debates upon Information from Ireland, that the Lord Inchequeen and the Scots design'd to joyn against the Army in England; The Army makes a new Declaration to the House concerning their Pay, and Matters of Government; The Houses Voted the King's Answer a flat Denial; They imprison the Lord Mayor, and many other Persons on account of the Force put upon the House by Tumults, and ordered some of them to be Prosecuted for High-Treason. The Army move to have their Arrears' levy'd on the City by way of Distress.
The Nineteenth Chapter contains the Proceedings in Parliament to the end of October, 1647. They were now about the establishing the Army in England and Ireland, and setling the Government of the Church by Presbytery; The Army would not suffer the Duke of Richmond, and others whom the King sent for as Privy Councellors to advise with, to stay about him; They press for their Pay and Arrears. The Agitators of Cromwell's and other Regiments in the Army, presented a Paper to the General about this time, wherein they speak very high, and declar'd. they would part with their Lives sooner than their Liberties. Col. Jones is successful in Ireland; Commissioners from Scotland attend his Majesty at Hampton-Court; The States of Scotland resolve to keep up their Army, because of the Dangers that threaten Religion, the King's Person, and the Union and Peace of the Nations; The Houses Debate the Propositions to be sent to the King.
The Twentieth Chapter contains the Proceedings of Parliament, and other remarkable Occurrences in November 1647, namely, Debates about providing the Army in Ireland; farther Papers from the Dissenting Agitators of the Army in England; Their Agreement together at last, and bold Declaration to the Parliament, concerning the time they should sit, and the manner of Elections, &c. The Alteration they demanded to be made in the Propositions to be sent to the King: The Scots Commissioners in Name of the Kingdom of Scotland, demand that a personal Treaty be had with the King, and that he may not be carry'd about by the Army, but have Leave to come to London with Honour and Safety. Col, Jone's farther Success in Ireland; The Agitators present a Petition, to the Commons, whom they call The Supreme Authority of the Nation; this the Commons Vote to be Subversive of the Government; The King makes his Escape from Hampton-Court, and leaves a Letter behind him for the Parliament.
[Col. Bamfeild in his Apology charges this upon Oliver and his Party as their Contrivance, which his Majesty's Letter makes very probable, considering that he insists too much upon Satisfaction to the Army.]
The House Votes it Death and Confiscation for any Man to detain his Majesty, and not deliver him to the Parliament; Col. Hammond sends a Letter to the Lords, acquainting them that his Majesty was come to the Isle of Wight, and put himself under his Protection. The Parliament takes care that his Majesty should be provided for, and dissolves his Houshold; The Army continues mutinous; His Majesty sends a Letter to both Houses, desiring a personal Treaty; then follows the Account of Col. Hammond's Letters to the Parliament about the King; the rest is taken up about the Propositions to be sent to his Majesty; the Demands of the Army; the Lord Inchequeen's Victory in Ireland, and intercepting of Letters from the Lord Digby to the Lord Taaf, which discover some Intrigues at Court.
The Twenty first Chapter contains the Proceedings in Parliament from December 6. to January 1. and other Occurrences during that time; the chief of which, is a mutinous Representation from the Army to the Parliament, Reflecting upon their Proceedings; a Letter from the King to the Parliament, urging a personal Treaty; The Discovery of a new Plot against the Parliament; The Declaration of the Scots Commissioners against sending the four Bills to the King; The Answer of both Houses to the said Declaration, and their ordering that the Printer of it he committed; Mr. Saltmarsh his Prophecy against the Army, and his Death soon after; the Dissent of the Scots Commissioners against the four Bills presented to the King, and a meeting in the Isle of Wight for his Rescue.
The Twenty second Chapter gives an Account of Proceedings in Parliament, &c. during the Month of January, 1647. The Parliament being new purged according to the Desire of the Army, they quickly come to an Agreement, and Votes pass that no more Addresses should be made to the King, nor no more Messages received from him; and in the mean time his Majesty is strictly guarded in Carisbrook-Castle. They order such Papers as had been taken during the War, and tending to justifie the Proceedings of the Parliament should be printed, particularly a Warrant in his Majesty's own Hand, for diverting the Ships design'd for the Relief of Rochel; The Army publishes a Declaration, to adhere to the Parliament in their Proceedings concerning the King, and for setling the Kingdom, without and against him, which was approved by Parliament; Ten of the Eleven Members, and Seven Lords are ordered to be proceeded against by Impeachment of High-Treason.
The Twenty third Chapter contains the Proceedings during the Month of February, 1647. The Counties ordered to be divided into Classical Presbyteries; General Fairfax ordered thirty Persons to attend his Majesty as Servants, and no more to be allow'd; an Ordinance against Stage-Plays past; The Number of the Army setled, with the Alterations made in the Settlement; The Parliament's Declaration, why no farther Addresses are to be made to his Majesty.
The Twenty fourth Chapter contains the Proceedings during the latter end of February and March, 1647. The most remarkable whereof is, the Declaration in Answer to the Papers of the Scots Commissioners, upon the Question, Whether the Kingdom of Scotland have an Interest in the Matter of our Propositions or Bills, containing our Desires for a Foundation of Peace, &c. The Lord Inchequeen's further Success in Ireland. The Proceedings of the Parliament of Scotland with Relation to the Affairs of England; The Lord Inchequeen's Officers and Soldiers much discontented and straiten'd in Ireland; Tumults in Pembrokeshire for the King.
The Twenty fifth Chapter contains Proceedings in Parliament during the Month of April, 1648. Proceedings of the General Assembly in Scotland, against a War with England. Col. Poyer's Proceedings against the Parliament in Pembrokeshire; A dangerous Tumult in London, suppress'd by the Soldiers in the Meuse; The Lord Inchequeen revolts from the Parliament, and is. declared Rebel; The Report of the said Revolt, and the Causes thereof; The Answer of the Committee of Danger in Scotland, to the Commissioners of the Parliament of England; The Duke of York makes his Escape beyond Sea; Farther Opposition of the Ministers of Scotland to the War with England, and the Answer of the contrary Party, to their Objections. A Design of the Army discover'd to disarm and plunder London, fearing the City would joyn with the Scots; The Petition of the City, and Proceedings of the House upon't; The House Votes, that the Government should still be by King, Lords and Commons.
The Twenty sixth Chapter contains the Proceedings in May 1648. wherein we find the Parliament Forces defeated in Wales; The King's Party carry all in the Parliament of Scotland; Berwick surprised by the, English Cavaliers; The Demands of the Parliament of Scotland from the Parliament of England in Behalf of the King, and against the. Army; Petition from the Grand Jury of Essex for a Treaty with the King; Tumults in Colchester; The Parliament's Declaring they will adhere to the Covenant, and joyn with the Scots in the Propositions sent to the King at Hampton-Court; Risings in South Wales for the King; Carlisle taken by the King's Party; Langdale's raising of Forces for the King; Col. Horton's defeating the King Party in Wales; The Commissioners of the Church of Scotland's Declaration against a War with England; Tumults for the King in several Parts of England; The Design of the Cavaliers against the City discovered; Proceedings of the City and Parliament thereupon; Debates in Parliament about Treating with the King; Chepstow-Castle retaken from the Cavaliers; The Revolt of the Ship against Col. Rainsborow, and the Earl of Warwick desired to command them; Risings in Kent and Cornwall for the King suppress'd; Opposition made to the raising of Forces in Scotland.
The Twenty seventh Chapter gives us the Proceedings of June, viz. A large Account of the Risings in Kent, and the Defeat given the Cavaliers there; Three Bills to be presented to his Majesty, Ordered to be sent to the Parliament of Scotland for their Concurrence; The Eleven impeach'd Commoners, the impeach'd Aldermen and Lords Discharged by the Parliament. The Lord Goring after his being defeated in Kent, passes the River at Greenwich, and marches with the Remainder of his Forces into Essex, he is declared Rebel, and Indemnity offered those that joyn'd him, upon laying down their Arms; Pontefract-Castle surprised by the Cavaliers; Town and Castle of Denby taken by the Parliament Forces; Dover-Castle relieved; The Sufferings of Jersey by the Cavaliers; The Cavaliers routed in North-Wales; Proceedings against the Lord Goring, and the Remainders of the Cavaliers in Essex; Eighty. Gentlemen surprised that design'd to be a Guard to the Prince of Wales; The Committee of Essex surprised and seiz'd by the Lord Goring, and, carry'd to Colchester; The Particulars of the Siege and Surrender of Colchester; are related in this and the following Chapters. Langdale's Forces defeated in the North; Great Distractions in Scotland. The Parliament of England Vote all such as take Arms against them Traitors by the II of Rich. II. and I. of Hen. IV. The City of London petition for a personal Treaty with the King.
In the Twenty eighth Chapter we have the Occurrences of July, 1648. viz. Debates in Parliament about a personal Treaty with the King; Cavaliers in the North defeated and, Prisoners taken, being Commanded by Sir Richard Tempest; Duke of Buckingham, Earls of Holland and Peterborrow, &c. with 500 Horse, make an Insurrection near Kingston upon Thames, to bring the King to the Parliaments, in order to the setling of Peace; The Pontefract Cavaliers, and those under the said Lords are routed; Conference betwixt the Houses and City about treating with the King; Total Defeat of the Royalists under the Earl of Holland, &c. Duke Hamilton advances into England with the Scots Army; The Prince of Wales sails from Callis to Holland, Pembroke Town and Castle surrender'd to Cromwell; The Commons adhere to their Votes, that the King sign the Propositions before the personal Treaty; New Petitions from the City, &c. or a personal Treaty Those that invited, or assist Duke Hamilton declared Traitors; The Retreat of the Parliament Forces before Duke Hamilton; The Lords and Commons differ about Treating with the King; The Prince of Wales withsome Ships appear on the Coast near Yarmouth; both Houses agree to treat with the King at Carisbrook-Castle; The Prince of Wales's Declaration.
The Twenty ninth Chapter contains the Occurrences in August. The Prince of Wales takes some Merchant Ships in the Downes; Offers to release them for 20000 /. All that joyn'd or adhere to the Prince, declared Rebels; A Petition from the Common Council of the City, desiring the King may be freed from his Restraint, that Hostilities may cease, Church Government be setled, and Ireland relieved; The King's Answer to the Votes of the House for a personal Treaty at Newport; The Prince's Letter to the Town of Yarmouth; The King's Letter to the House concerning the Treaty; Men landed by the Prince defeated; Proceedings in Parliament concerning the Treaty with the King; Prince Charles invited into Scotland by the Committee of Estates; Commons refuse to joyn with the Lords, in inviting the Scots to treat with the King, but promise safe Conduct to such as the King invites; The Defeat of Duke Hamilton and his Army by Cromwell, with his Letter concerning it; The Duke and others of Note taken afterward. After this Defeat, the remaining Part of the Money due to the Scots Army according to Agreement at Newcastle, is paid to the English Navy, &c. tho' it was ordered to be paid to the Scots before; Colchester surrender'd; and Proceedings thereupon; The King accepts the Treaty.
The Thirtieth Chapter gives the Occurrences of October, 1648. The Earl of Warwick pursues the Prince, and the revolted Ships that retired, into Holland: Petition to the Commons from many People in London against a Treaty, containing insolent Demands in point of Government. Munroe and the Scots Cavaliers obliged retreat home. The Marquess of Argyle in Arms against the Cavaliers in Scotland; The Earl of Leven makes the Committee of Estates to fly from Edenborough. The Treaty begun with the King, and Proceedings in't. Munroe attacks Argyle contrary to Articles; Cromwell enters Scotland; his Declaration why; Monk's Success against the Scots in Ireland; A Plot to Murder Eighty Members that opposed the Treaty, and to Stab the General.
The Thirty first Chapter gives the Occurrences of October; where we have a Letter from the King to both Houses, that he will confirm Presbytery, &c. for three years; The Commons dislike the Message; Berwick surrender'd; Proceedings with the King about Religion; Cromwell's Proceedings in Scotland; Petitions to the General from several Regiments about Government, with insolent Demands; The Kings Answer to the Parliament's Propositions; Farther Account of Scots Affairs; The King's Message about Episcopacy, Voted unsatisfactory; Letter from the Committee of Estates in Scotland to the Parliament of England, desiring a fair Correspondence; More Petitions from the Army against the King and his Party. Ormond is for concluding a Peace with the Rebels in Ireland.
The Thirty second Chapter gives us the Proceedings of November, 1648. The King's Message about Ireland, Voted unsatisfactory; His farther Condescension about Prelacy and the Common-prayer, &c. Voted unsatisfactory; His coming to London with Freedom Voted; The Army's Remonstrance to the Parliament against the King; Debates with the King about the Church; some of the revolted, Ships return to the Admiral. The Army secures the King in the Isle of Wight; The Parliament dissatisfied therewith; The Army's Declaration and March towards London; Col. Cook's Narrative of the King's being carried to Hurst-Castle, and Deliberations thereupon.
The Thirty third Chapter gives the Occurrences of December; The Parliament Vote the carrying of the King to Hurst-Castle was without their Advice or Consent; the Army makes new Remonstrances to the Parliament, and seize on many Members; Proposes new Models of Government; Forces the Houses to recall all they had done about a Treaty with the King, and particularly, that his Majesty's Concessions were sufficient Grounds for setling the Peace of the Kingdom; The Fleet concurs with the Army's Remonstrance; Petitions from several Parts of the Country, that the King be brought to Justice; The King brought to Windsor; the Council of War forbids all Ceremonies to be used to the King.
The Thirty fourth and last Chapter gives the Proceedings of January, 1648. The Commons order an High-Court of Justice for trying the King; The Lords disagree to it, whereupon the Commons declare themselves the Supream Power; Scots Committee of Estates desire the King may not be try'd without Advice of their Nation; The Scotch Parliament dissents from the Parliament of England, as to the Tryal of the King; The Commisssioners appointed for trying the King; The Particulars of the Tryal; The Scots enter their Dissent about it; The particular. Evidences against the King; His Majesty's Defences; The Sentence against him; His last Speech, Execution and Funeral; The Order of the Commons against proclaiming any of King Charles's Issue.