Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 6, 1645-47. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1722.
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Chap. X. Civil Transactions after his Majesty's being at Newcastle, between him and the Two Houses, and the Scots: With the Propositions tender'd to him there; and his Majesty's Answer thereunto, &c.
The Two Houses being now possess'd of the Strength of the Kingdom, were busy in compleating their Propositions for Peace, which they designed to send to his Majesty, and which had been retarded by the Disagreement of the Scots Commissioners; but now at last they thought fit to concur therein, expressing their Consent in the following Paper; which was delivered with this following Speech of the Marquess of Argyle, together with some other Papers; which for fuller Satisfaction we shall give you in the same order as they were then delivered.
My Lords and Gentlemen,
Though I have had the Honour to be named by the Kingdom of Scotland in all the Commissions which had relation to this Kingdom since the beginning of this War, yet I never had the happiness to be with your Lordships till now; wherein I reverence God's Providence, that he hath brought me hither at such an opportunity, when I may boldly say, it is in the power of the Two Kingdoms, yea, I may say in your Lordships power, to make us both happy, it you make good use of this occasion, by setling Religion, the Peace and Union of these Kingdoms. The work of Reformation in these Kingdoms is so great a work, as no Age nor History can parallel since Christ's days; for no one Nation had ever such a Reformation set forth unto them, much less Three Kingdoms: So that this Generation may truly think themselves happy if they can be instrumental in it. And as the Work is very great, so it cannot be expected but it must have great and powerful Enemies not only Flesh and Blood, which hate to be reformed, but Principalities and Powers, the Rulers of the darkness of this world, and spiritual wickednesses in high places. As the dangers are great, we must look the better to our duties; and the best way to perform these, is to keep us by the Rules which are to be found in our National Covenant, principally the Word of God, and in its own Place, the Example of the best Reform'd Churches. And in our way we must beware of some Rocks, which are temptations both upon the right and left hand, so that we must hold the middle Path. Upon the one part we would take heed not to settle lawless Liberty in Religion, whereby instead of Uniformity we should set up a thousand Heresies and Schisms, which is directly contrary and destructive to our Covenant. Upon the other part, we are to look that we persecute not Piety and peaceable men, who cannot through scruple of Conscience come up in all things to the common Rule: But that they may have such a forbearance as may be according to the Word of God, may consist with the Covenant, and not be destructive to the Rule it self, nor to the Peace of the Church and Kingdom; wherein I will insist no further, either to wrong your Lordships Patience or Judgments, who, I doubt not, will be very careful to do every thing according to our Covenant.
As to the other point, concerning the Peace and Union of the Kingdoms, I know it is that which all profess they desire; I hope it is that all do aim at; sure I am, it is that which all men ought to study and endeavour. And I think it not a miss to remember your Lordships of some former Experiences, as an Argument to move us to be wife for the future. If the Kingdom of England in the 1640 year of God, then sitting in Parliament, had concurred as they were desired, against the Kingdom of Scotland, no question we had been brought to many difficulties, which blessed be God was by the Wisdom of the Honourable Houses prevented. So likewise, when this Kingdom was in difficulties, if the Kingdom of Scotland had not willingly, yea chearfully sacrificed their Peace to concur with this Kingdom, Your Lordships all know what might have been the danger. Therefore let us hold fast that Union which is so happily established betwixt us; and let nothing make us again two, who are so many ways one; all of one Language, in one Island, all under one King, one in Religion, yea one in Covenant; so that in effect, we differ in nothing but in the Name (and so do Brethren,) which I wish were also removed, that we might be altogether one, if the Two Kingdoms shall think fit: For I dare say, not the greatest Kingdom in the Earth can prejudice both, so much as one of them may do the other.
I will forbear at this time to speak of the many Jealousies I hear are suggested; for as I do not love them, so I delight not to mention them. Only one I cannot forbear to speak of, As if the Kingdom of Scotland were too much affected with the King's Interest. I will not deny but the Kingdom of Scotland, by reason of the Reign of many Kings his Progenitors, overthem, hath a Natural Affection to his Majesty, whereby they wish he may be rather Reformed than Ruined: Yet experience may tell, that Personal Regard to him hath never made them forget that common Rule, The Safety of the People is the Supreme Law. So likewise their love to Monarchy makes them very desirous, that it may be rather regulated than destroyed: Which I hope I need not to mention further to your Lordships, who, I trust, are of the same mind.
I know likewise there are many jealousies and unjust Aspersions cast upon the Scotish Armies in England and Ireland: I can (if it were needful) presently produce Heads of a Declaration intended by the Army in England, for vindicating themselves from such Injuries, and shewing the clearness of their Resolution and Integrity both in the Cause, and towards this Kingdom; wherein their Undertakings, and coming in at such a Season of the Year, their hard Sufferings, and constant Endeavours since, may be sufficient Testimonies. Therefore I am the more bold to desire your Lordships, That so long as they stay in England (which I wish may be for a short time) they may be supplied with some Moneys, and their Quarters enlarged, left their lying in too narrow Quarters make the burthen insupportable to that exhausted Corner of the Country where they now remain, and so beget Outcries against them, when they are not enabled to discharge their Quarters, as other Armies within the Kingdom.
As for the Army in Ireland, I have been an Eye-witness to their Sufferings, and so may speak of it likewise upon certain knowledge, That never men have Suffered greater hardships, who might have been provided for: They have lived many times upon a few Beans measured out to them by number, and never had any other Drink but Water: And when they were in some better condition, they had but an Irish Peck of rough Oats for a whole Week: And now at their best Condition, when they are quarter'd upon the Country (which is able to entertain them only for a very short time) they have only an Irish Peck of Oatmeal, or a Shilling, in the Ten days, both for Meat and Drink. Therefore, according to the many desires given in to the Honourable Houses for that end, I humbly intreat that your Lordships will take care to provide for them, so long as it is thought fit they remain in that Kingdom
For a renewed Testimony of our earnest desires to comply with the Honourable Houses for setling the Peace of these Kingdoms, so much longed for, we do return unto your Lordships the Propositions of Peace (which we received on Tuesday last) with our Content thereunto, wishing they may be hasted to his Majesty, who hath so often called for them. And I likewise offer to your Lordships the Copy of his Majesty's Letter to my L Ormond, discharging him from any further medling in any Treaty with the Rebels in Ireland, I hope in order to his Majesty's further condescending to the setling of that Proportion concerning Ireland, and the rest of the Propositions now to be sent unto him. Another Paper there is, which concerns the supplying of the Scotish Armies in England and Ireland, and the perfecting of the Accounts between the Kingdoms, together with a Letter from Gen. Major Monroe, to the Committee of Estates of the Kingdom of Scotland, concerning the State of Affairs in Ireland. All which when your Lordships have consider'd, I trust ye will take such course therein, as may Satisfy our just desires, may put an end to our present Troubles, and settle these Kingdoms in a happy Peace.
It is above a Twelvemonth sithence we did earnestly press the sending of Proportions to the King for a safe and well-grounded Peace. in answer whereunto, the Honourable Houses were pleased to acquaint us, That they had resolved Proportions should be sent to his Majesty, but did intend to make some Alterations in the former Propositions; and after Eight or Nine Months deliberation, we received from the Honourable Houses some of those Proportions: And tho we did find therein very material Additions, Alterations, and Omissions, which for their great Importance, and the interest of the Kingdom of Scotland therein, might very well have required the delay of an Answer until the Estates of that Kingdom had been consulted; yet so unwilling were we to retard the means of Peace, that in a Fortnights time we returned an Answer upon the whole Propositions: And the Houses of Parliament not resting satisfied therewith, in less than ten days we prepared a further Answer, wherein we did very much comply with the Desires of the Honourable Houses, especially in the matter of the setling of the Militia of England and Ireland, and in other things did shew our readiness to hear or propose such Expedients as might determine our Differences: So that in a whole Years time the Propositions have not remained in our hands the space of Four Weeks (which we only mention to clear our Proceedings from Mistakes and Aspersions.) And the Houses having now, after Two Months further deliberation, delivered unto us, upon the 23d of this Instant June, all the Propositions they intend to send to the King at this time, we do without any delay return such an Answer and Resolution thereupon, as will be to the present and future Generations one undeniable Testimony (besides many others) of the Integrity and Faithfulness of the Kingdom of Scotland, in their solemn League and Covenant, of their love to Peace, and earnest desire to satisfy their Brethren of England in these things which concern the Good and Government of this Kingdom Being further resolved, touching the Kingdom of Scotland, That as nothing of single or sole Concernment to that Nation did engage them in this War. so nothing of that nature shall continue the same. Altho' these Propositions new to be sent, do much differ from the Propositions formerly agreed upon by the Parliaments of both Kingdoms, and the most material Additions, Omissions and Alterations, are in such particulars as concern the joint Interest and mutual Confidence and Conjunction of both Kingdoms, which were, as we conceive, much better provided for and strengthned by the former Propositions than by these: Altho' the particular Propositions presented by us, concerning the Kingdom of Scotland, are not yet agreed unto by the Houses of Parliament, as was offered in their Paper of the 10th of April: Altho' divers Propositions of joint concernment be now superseded, and the sending of them delayed to a more convenient time, as is expressed in the Votes of both Houses the 26th of March: And altho' (which is to us more than all the rest) those Ordinances of Parliament unto which the Fifth and Sixth Propositions do relate (and were therefore communicated unto us, upon our desire to see what the Houses had already agreed upon concerning Religion) do not contain the Establishment of such a Reformation of Religion, and Uniformity as was expected, and was the chief end of our Engagement in this War. And as all these Ordinances put together, come short of what was wished, so there are some Particulars which we conceive to be inconsistent with the Word of God, and the Example of the best-Reformed Churches, and therefore cannot in our Consciences consent unto them; which Particulars were expressed to both Houses in the Remonstrance of the Commissioners of the Church of Scotland, of the date, March 26. 1646. Yet nevertheless we do so earnestly desire, and so highly value the easing of the heavy Pressures under which both Kingdoms groan, and the bringing of this bloody lasting War to a speedy and happy end; considering withal, that not only the Book of Common-Prayer, and the Prelatical Government are abolished, and a common Directory of Worship established in both Kingdoms, but that likewise the Ordinances aforementioned to contain divers parts of a positive Reformation and Uniformity in Church-Government, unto which we formerly gave our Consent in our Answer upon the whole Propositions of Peace of the 20th of April; and for so happy beginnings, and so good a foundation laid for the future, we heartily thank God, and do acknowledge the Zeal, Piety, and Wisdom of the Honourable Houses therein; remembring also that these Ordinances do not contain the whole Model of Church-Government; and that the Houses have been pleased to express, [That it cannot be expected that a perfect Rule in every particular should be setled all at once, but that there will be need of Supplements and Additions, and haply of Alterations in some things, as Experience shall bring to light the necessity thereof.]
Upon these Considerations, as we do chearfully consent to many material parts of these Propositions, so we resolve to make no Lett, but to give way to the sending of such other Particulars therein contained, with which we are unsatisfied in the matter, for the Reasons formerly represented to both Houses; of which some still stand in force, though others of them be taken away by the new Expedients. It being always understood, that our not dissenting from, nor opposing of the sending of the Propositions as they now stand, shall be no prejudice nor impediment to all or any one of the Articles of the Solemn League and Covenant, especially to the first Articles, concerning the preservation of the Reformed Religion in the Church of Scotland, Doctrine Worship, Discipline, and Government, against our common Enemies; the Reformation of Religion in the Kingdoms of England and Ireland in Doctrine, Worship, Discipline, and Government, according to the Word of God, and Example of the best Reformed Churches; and the bringing of the Churches of God in the Three Kingdoms, to the nearest Conjunction and Uniformity in Religion, Confession of Faith, Form of Church-Government Directory for Worship, and Catechising; which things both Kingdoms are by Covenant obliged sincerely and really to endeavour; and that not for a time, but constantly; so that neither of the Kingdoms can be loosed or acquitted from the most strict and solemn Obligation of their continued and constant endeavouring these good Ends, so far as any of them is not yet obtained: It being also understood, that our concurrence to the sending of the Propositions, shall be without prejudice to any Agreement or Treaty between the Kingdoms, and shall not infringe any Engagement made to the Kingdom of Scotland, nor be any hindrance to our insisting upon the other Propositions already made known to the Houses: And it being understood that it is not our Judgment, that every Particular and Circumstance of these Propositions is of so great Importance to these Kingdoms, as Peace and War should depend thereupon. Upon these Grounds (which we make known only for clearing our Consciences, and for discharging our selves in the Trust put upon us without the least Thought of retarding the so much long'd-for Peace) we condescend and agree that the Propositions as they are now resolved upon, be in the Name of both Kingdoms presented to the King; whose Heart we beseech the Lord wholly to incline to the Counsels of Truth and Peace.
Having so often represented by Papers, and now by Word to the Honourable Houses, the extreme Necessities of our Armies in England and Ireland, we shall not trouble them with unnecessary Repetition, but only mention those Desires which require their very speedy Consideration.
1. We desire, That for easing the Country of their great Pressures, and preventing many dangerous Inconveniences, the Quarters of the Scotish Army in the North of this Kingdom may be enlarged, and a considerable Supply of Money dispatched unto them.
3. That the 5000 Arms long since promised, and in an Ordinance of both Houses of the 26th of August, 1645. referred to the care of the Committee at Haberdass-Hall, may be speedily provided; and that the Honourable Houses will be sed to grant Power to that Committee, to contract and make Payment, as well as to treat for furnishing of these Arms; by reason of which defect in the Ordinance, the sending of these Arms hath been hitherto retarded.
4. That to prevent the further Invasion of the Kingdom of Scotland by the Irish Rebels, Ships may be presently sent to attend the Coasts betwixt Scotland and Ireland; and the Commanders of these Ships authorised with such Instructions as are agreeable to the Treaties between the Kingdoms.
5. That the Honourable Houses will be pleased to send Commissioners to join with the Committee of Estates, residing with the Scotish Army, who may be Witnesses, as of their other Proceedings, so of their earnest Desires and real Endeavours with the King, for giving speedy and full Satisfaction to both Kingdoms. And it is also our earnest Request, That these Commissioners may have Power to treat and agree with the Committee of Estates concerning the stating of the Accounts, and setling any differences that may arise thereupon. And further to treat and agree upon Overtures, estimated Mediums, or Expedients for the speedy setling thereof (which we are confident may be done in a very few days) and either finally to conclude them, or represent them to both Houses; whereby with all possible expedition, upon the setling of the Propositions and Accounts, such course may be taken, as all Armies may be disbanded, the Kingdoms eased of their heavy Pressures and insupportable Burthens, that so all things being setled in a Brotherly way, we and our Posterity may after so unhappy and troublesome a War, enjoy a quiet and blessed Peace.
Right Trusty, &c. Having long with much Grief looked upon the sad Condition our Kingdom of Ireland hath been in these divers Years through the wicked and desperate Rebellion there, and the bloody Effects have ensued thereupon; for the setling whereof we would have wholly applied our selves, if the Differences betwixt us and our Subjects here had not diverted and withdrawn us: And not having been able by Force (for that respect) to reduce them, we were necessitated, for the present Safety of our Protestant Subjects there to give you Power and Authority to treat with them upon such pious, honourable, and safe Grounds, as the Good of that our Kingdom did then require. But for many Reasons, too long for a Letter, we think fit to require you to proceed no further in Treaty with the Rebels, nor to engage us upon any Conditions with them after fight hereof. And having formerly found such real Proofs of your ready Obedience to our Commands, we doubt not of your Care in this, wherein our Service and the Good of our Protestant Subjects in Ireland is so much concerned. From Newcastle, the 11th of June, 1646.
To his Excellency the Earl of Leven; The Petition of all the Officers and Soldiers under your Excellency's Command.
That whereas the whole Officers and Soldiers of this Army under your Excellency's Command, out of their Zeal to the Reformation of Religion, their tender Care to preserve and confirm the mutual Amity and Confidence of both Kingdoms, and their earnest desires to vindicate their Honour from Reproaches and Aspersions lying upon them, have thought it necessary to emit a Declaration of their Constancy and Integrity in the pursuance of the ends of the Covenant; and likewise to supplicate his Majesty, That he would be pleased to comply with the just desires of his Parliaments, and take some speedy course to put an end to our lasting Miseries, by setling of Truth and Peace.
May it therefore please your Excellency to represent our Desires in this behalf to the Honourable Committee; and that we humbly conceive, the Uprightness of our Intentions herein (having nothing before our eyes, but the Good of Religion, his Majesty's Happiness, and the Peace of these Kingdoms) will procure a favourable Acceptance of our Endeavours.
The many Calamiticsand heavy Pressures, the sad Affliction lying upon these Kingdoms this time past, and the great Estusion of Christian Blood, occasioned by the continuance of this unnatural War, having so deeply wounded us; and being earnestly desirous to give some evident Testimony of our Piety to God, Loyalty to our Sovereign, and Love to these Kingdoms; that the Constancy of our Affection to this Cause, our Zeal to the Reformation of Religion, and his Majesty's Person and Authority in defence thereof, and our firm Resolutions to pursue the Ends express'd in our Solemn League and Covenant, may appear to the World we have thought it necessary in this Juncture of time, when all means are essayed by the Enemies of Truth and Peace to disparage our proceedings, by rendring suspected our best Actions and Endeavours, to the begetting of Misunderstanding, and weakning the Union between the two Kingdoms, to declare and make known, That as we have entred into a Solemn League and Covenant, with our hands lifted up to the most High God, with real Intentions to promote the Ends thereof, so we do resolve, God willing, constantly to adhere to the whole Heads and Articles of the same, and for no earthly Tentation, for no Fear or Hope, to fall away and violate our Sacred Oath.
We do likewise profess, That nothing hath been with greater Care and Faithfulness endeavoured by us, than to preserve the happy Union and Brotherly Correspondence between the Kingdoms, as a principal Mean of Happiness to both and shall continue in the same Care to avoid every thing that may tend to the Infringment thereof, with a special regard and tenderness to the Interests of both Kingdoms: For the strengthning of which Union, and removing every thing that might obstruct the same As hitherto we have had no Compliance, nor kept Correspondence with known Enemies and Malignants, So will we never hereafter give Countenance or Encouragement to any person disaffected to the Parliaments of either Kingdom.
And that the Integrity of our Intentions, and the Uprightness of our Desires may be the more manifest, we do declare, That we abhor all publick and private ways, contrary to the Covenant, and destructive to the Happiness of both Kingdoms: We disclaim all dealing with those that are Instruments of these unhappy Troubles and Impediments of Peace and with all such persons who will not use all Means and Endeavours, and contribute their best Counsels and Advice for hasting an End to our lasting Miseries, and procuring a sure and well-grounded Peace; and in particular, we do abominate and detest that execrable Rebellion of James Grahame, utterly abjuring all manner of Conjunction with him and his Confederates, and with all other known Enemies, or declared Traytors to either Kingdom, notwithstanding of any Insinuations to the contrary, express'd in some Letters, as it is said, by his Majesty to the Earl of Ormond in Ireland: For we have none but single Intentions, and unfeigned Desires of Peace, renouncing all Communion with whatsoever Designs and Practices contrived in the dark to the prejudice of Religion, and Tranquility of these Kingdoms, the only Principles by which we move.
And as we came into this Kingdom at the earnest desires of our Brethren, to assist them in the time of their great Extremity, in the pursuance of the National Covenant, not for any mercenary Ends, nor to enrich our selves, as is falsly and calumniously charged upon us by those that wish not well unto us nor our Cause; so shall we be most willing to depart and return home in Peace, with the same Chearfulness and Affection that we had when we came in: Nor shall the matter of Money, or want of just Recompence for the Service performed, and Hardship sustained, be to us an Armament of our stay: But leaving the Consideration of these things to the Wisdom and Discretion of both Parliaments, we shall so far deny our selves, as no, to suffer any private Respects of our own to retard the Advancement of this Cause, or prejudge the publick Work of both Kingdoms.
We cannot conceal, but must acknowledge how sensible we are, and have always been, of the many Complaints presented to the Parliament of England against this Army, and the heavy Calumnies and Aspersions lying upon 1 us for having committed Insolencies, and oppressed the People by taking Free I Quarter; offering our selves most willing and ready, that whosoever amongst us us have by their Misdemeanors, Miscarriages, or inordinate way of walking, scandalized the Cause for which we have taken our Lives in our hand, or endeavoured to beget a Misunderstanding, or foment Jealousies between the Kingdoms, we shall strive to discover all such, and labour to bring them to publick Trial and condign Punishment: Not doubting, but as we are zealous to vindicate our Honour and Reputation from all Reproaches, so the Parliament will likewise be pleased to have such favourable Construction of our Proceedings, as not willingly to harbour any Thoughts which may lessen their Respects to us, and which are not suitable to the constant Tenor of our Carriage and Profession. And we shall likewise desire, That the manifold Necessities and pressing Wants to which we were many times reduced, may not be forgotten; and that the ways and means appointed for our Supply, neither answered the Expectation of the Honourable Houses of Parliament nor, satisfied our Necessities; so that for want of Moneys we could not always discharge our Quarters: Yet do we most freely declare our willingness to allow of whatsoever hath been taken up by us; and for that effect we desire the Accounts of the Army to be adjusted with the several and respective Counties, that whatever can be justly charged upon us, may be discounted off any Sums that shall be resting us in Arrear. And if we knew any thing else that could serve to remove all Jealousies and Misunderstandings, and beget a more full Confidence of our Uprightness, we should with the same readiness apply our selves to all the ways that might conduce thereunto.
But because his Majesty's sudden and unexpected coming into this Army doth minister new occasion to us to give some demonstration of our Constancy; though we hope his Majesty came with real Intentions to satisfy the just desires of his Parliaments, and compose all those differences; yet left it should bring in question the Clearness and Integrity of our ways, whereof your Consciences do bear us witness, and all our Actions shall be publick and real Testimonies; we do protest, that his presence with us hath not begotten any Alteration in our minds in the least measure to estrange us from the ways of our Covenant, or alienate our Resolutions from going on zealously, constantly and unanimously, to set forward the Ends therein express'd, endeavouring (so far as lieth in our power) to improve that Providence of his coming to us, to the publick Good and Happiness of both Kingdoms. And as it is our earnest desire that his Majesty would no more suffer himself to be involved in the Counsels whereof he has had so sad experience, to the endangering of his Person, Posterity, and Kingdoms; so do we exceedingly wish, that he would comply with the Counsels of his Parliaments, to the Satisfaction of his good People. And we shall be careful that nothing proceed from us, which may give occasion to his Majesty to entertain any secret Confidence That this Army will give Assistance for advancing other ends than such as are agreeable to our Covenant, conducing to the Good of Religion, the Happiness of the King and his Posterity, and Safety of the Kingdoms.
The Petition of the Earl of Leven, Lord General, the General Officers, Colonels, and Captains, &c. of the Scotish Army, presented to his Majesty at Newcastle.
We your Majesty's Loyal Subjects and Faithful Servants, the Lord General, the General Officers, the Colonels and Captains in the Scotish Army, now in the Kingdom of England, from the deep sense of the bleeding Condition of these Kingdoms, so heavy prest with sad Afflictions, through the unhappy Differences between your Majesty and your Subjects, from the true Affection and Zeal to the Reformation of Religion, and your Majesty's Person and Authority in defence thereof; and in the pursuance of that sacred Oath which we have taken, with our hands lifted up to the most High God, Do make our humble Address, and tender this earnest Petition to your Majesty in our name, and in the name of all the Inferior Commanders and Soldiers under our Charge, That your Majesty in your Wisdom and Goodness may be pleased to take a speedy course for setling of Religion and Church Government in this Kingdom, according to the Word of God, and Example of of the best Reformed Churches, and bringing the Churches of the Three Kingdoms to the nearest Conjunction and Uniformity; and for establishing the Privileges and Liberties of your Kingdoms, according to the desires of your good People. We may not conceal our unfeigned Grief, for that your Majesty hath not yet been pleased to authorize and sign the Covenant, which we are confident would bring Honour to God, Happiness to your self and Posterity, and indear your Majesty (above measure) to all your faithful and Loyal Subjects: In the just defence whereof, as many of them have already lost their lives, so are we ready to sacrifice ours.
We must also pray your Majesty to companionate the distressed Condition of your Kingdoms, groaning under the heavy Pressures of manifold Calamities, occasioned by the Continuance of this unnatural War; and to comply with the Counsels of your Parliament; that all Differences being happily composed, and the Armies in both Kingdoms disbanded, we may return home in Peace, or be disposed of otherwise by your Majesty, with the Advice of your Parliaments, which may be most for your Majesty's Honour and Service, and the Prosperity of these Kingdoms.
I am in his Name to return this Answer to the Petition presented to him by the Lord General, the General Officers, the Colonels, and other Officers and Soldiers of the Scotish Army, That his Majesty came into the Scotish Army with full intent of settling an happy Peace in these his Kingdoms, and to satisfy the just desires of his good Subjects; and likewise to comply with his Parliaments in all things which shall be for the Good of Religion, and the Happiness of his Subjects, which he will always prefer to all Worldly Interests: And whensoever it shall please God so to bless his Majesty's Endeavours, as to settle an happy Peace in these his Dominions, his Majesty will be very solicitous to find out some means of honourable Employment for so many Gallant Men as are employed in this Army.
One Morgan, alias Powel, of the Order of St. Benedict, convicted the last Term at the Kings-Bench Bar of having received Orders beyond the Seas in the Church of Rome, and afterwards coming into England contrary to Law, was drawn, hang'd, and quarter'd at Tyburn.
In order to the Safety of the Parliament and City, it is ordered by the Commons in Parliament assembled, That all such persons, of what Degree or Quality soever, Officers, Soldiers and others, as come out of Oxford, Commons or any other of the King's Garisons, while they remain within the Cities of chose that London and Westminster and Lines of Communication, shall not go Armed, or keep any Arms in their Lodgings or Houses; and after Nine of the Clock at Night not to be out of their Lodgings. That all persons, of what Degree or Quality soever, comprized within the Articles of Oxon, Exon, and all other Garisons, that are already come to the Cities of London and Westminster, and Places within the Lines of Communication, shall before Tuesday next, being the 9th of this Instant July, repair to Guildhall London, and shall there, in presence of any Three of the Committee of the Militia of London, produce their Passes, and shall according to the Articles engage themselves by Promise not to bear Arms against the Parliament, nor wilfully to do any Act prejudicial to their Affairs, so long as they remain in their Quarters. And that all persons, of what Degree or Quality soever, comprized within any of the said Articles, as shall hereafter come within the said Cities and Lines of Communication, shall within Four days after their coming, repair to Guildhall, London, and shall there likewise produce their Passes, and make the like Engagements. And whoever shall neglect or refuse to observe this Order, or do any thing contrary to the said Articles, shall forfeit the Benefit of the said Articles. And this to be Printed, and Published by Sound of Trumpet, or Beat of Drum: And the Committee of the Militia of London is desired to take care that it be Publish'd accordingly.
The Commons voted, That this Kingdom hath no further need of the Scotch Army; and that the Kingdom is unable to pay them longer: And that a Letter should be sent from both Houses to the Commissioners of Scotland, to desire them to withdraw their Army into Scotland.
The Report of the great things which the Lord has done for your Honours, has gone forth into many Lands, and it becometh us least of any either to smother or extenuate the same: We desire to be enlarged in the Admiration of the Power and Mercy of God the Author, and to diminish nothing of that Praise that is due unto you as Instruments. When the Lord set your Honours upon the Bench of Judgment, both the Kirk and Commonwealth of England were afflicted with intestine and bosom Evils; the Cure whereof could not but be very difficult, because they were not only many, but for the most: part universal and deeply rooted, shelter'd under the shadow of Custom and Law, and supported with all the Wisdom and Strength of the Malignant and Prelatical Party; who rather chused to involve the Land in an unnatural and bloody War, than to sail of their ambitious and treacherous Designs against Religion, the Privileges of Parliament, and the Laws and Liberties of the Kingdom. Neither hath that miserable Crew been wanting unto their own Ends, but for many years together hath desperately pursued their Resolutions in Arms; and was likely to have prevailed, if the Lord had not put himself in the breach, and furnished you with much Patience, Wisdom, Courage, and Constancy, in the midst of many Difficulties and Distresses, and at last with so glorious and triumphing a Success, that the Enemy hath fallen every where before you, and there is none left to appear against you. These I things, as they be the matter of our Refreshment, and of your Glory, so do they lay a strong Obligation upon your Honours to walk humbly with your God, and to improve the Power he has put into your Hands, for the Advancement of the Kingdom of his Son, and bringing forth the Head-Stone of his House. The slow progress of the Work of God has always been the matter of our Sorrow; which is now increased, by the multiplication of the Spirits of Error and Delusion, that drown many Souls in Perdition, and so strengthen themselves, that they shall afterward be laboured against with more Pains than Success, if a speedy and effectual Remedy be not provided. And therefore, as the Servants of the Living God, who not only send up our Supplications daily for you, but have hazarded our selves in your defence, we do earnestly beseech your Honours in the Bowels of Jesus Christ, to give unto him the Glory that is due unto his Name, by a timous establishing all his Ordinances in the full Integrity and Power thereof, according to the League and Covenant. As long as the Assembly of Divines was in debate, and an Enemy in the Fields, we conceive that these might be probable grounds of delay, which being now removed out of the way, we do promise our selves through your Wisdom, Faithfulness, and Zeal, the perfecting of that which was the main ground of our Engagement, and a chief matter of Consolation unto us in all our sad and heavy Sufferings from the hand of a most cruel Enemy. We know that there is a Generation of Men who retard the work of Uniformity, and foment Jealousies betwixt the Nations, studying if it were possible, to break our bonds asunder: But we trust that he that sitteth in the Heavens will laugh, and that the Lord will have them in derision; that he shall speak to them in his Wrath, and vex them in his fore Displeasure; and notwithstanding of all that they can do, set his King upon his holy Hill of Zion, and make these Nations happy in the sweet Fruits of Unity in Truth and Peace. The Searcher of hearts knows we desire to hold fast the band of our Covenant as sacred and inviolable, being perswaded that the breach of so solemn a Tye could not but hasten down upon our heads a Curse and Vengeance from the Righteous Judge of the World, and involve these Kingdoms in further Calamities than they have yet seen. And we abhor to entertain any other Thoughts of you: Nay, we are confident that your Honours will seriously endeavour the Prosecution of all these Ends designed in the Covenant, and the bringing these Nations unto the nearest Conjunction both in Judgment and Affection, especially in those things that concern Religion; which without all controversy is the readiest and surest way of attaining and securing the Peace and Prosperity of both Kingdoms.
Your late and seasonable Testimony given to the Truth of the Gospel, and your Affection to the Peace of the Kingdoms, manifested in your humble Remonstrance and Petition to the Honourable Houses of Parliament, hath so revived the remembrance of your former Faith and Zeal, and proclaimed you the worthy Seed of so Noble Ancestors in that famous City, as we cannot but acknowledge with all Thankfulness the Grace of God bestowed on you, and stir you up to take notice, how since you were precious in the Lord's sight, you have been ever Honourable. The Lord hath ever loved you, given Men for you, and People for your life: What an honour was it in the days of old, when the Fire of the Lord was in Zion, and his Furnace in your Jerusalem (even in Queen Mary's days) that there were found in you men that loved not their lives unto the death! What a glory in after times, when Satan had his Throne, and Antichrist his Seat in the midst of you, that there were still found not a few that kept their Garments clean! But the, greatest Praise of the good Hand of God upon you hath been in this, That amidst the many Mists of Error and Heresy, which have risen from the bottomless Pit, to bespot the Face and darken the Glory of the Church, while the Bride is a making ready for the Lamb, you have held the Truth, and most piously endeavoured the setling of Christ upon his Throne. We need not remember how zealous you have been in the Cause of God, nor how you have laid cut your selves and Estates in the maintenance thereof, nor how many acknowledgments of the same you have had from the Honourable Houses, nor how precious a remembrance will be had of you in After-Ages, for your selling of all to buy the Pearl of Price: We only at this time do admire, and in the inward of our hearts do bless the Lord for your right and deep apprehensions of the great and important matters of Christ in his Royal Crown and of the Kingdoms in their Union, while the Lord maketh offer to bring our Ship (so much afflicted and tossed with Tempest) to the safe Harbour of Truth and Peace. Right memorable is your Zeal against Sects and Sectaries; your Care of Reformation according to the Word of God, and the Example of the best Reformed Churches; your earnest endeavouring and Noble Adventures for preserving of the Rights and Privileges of Parliament, and Liberties of the Kingdom, together with his Majesty's just Power and Greatness and your high Profession, that it is not in the Power of any Human Authority to discharge or absolve you from adhering unto that our so solemnly sworn League and Covenant, or to enforce upon you any Sense contrary to the Letter of the same: Besides your other good Services done to the Lord and to us, in strengthning the hands of the Reverend Assembly of Divines, and of our Commissioners, in their asserting of the Government of Christ (which the more it be tried, will be ever found the more precious Truth) and vindicating of the same from the usurpation of man, and contempt of the wicked. These all as they are so many Testimonies of your Piety, Loyalty, and undaunted Resolution to stand for Christ; so are they, and shall ever be, so many Obligations upon us your Brethren, to esteem highly of you in the Lord, and to bear you on our Breasts before him Night and Day, and to contribute our best Endeavours, and to improve all Opportunities for your Encouragement. And now we beseech you in the Lord, Honourable and Wellbeloved, go on in this your Strength, and in the Power of his Might, who hath honoured you to be faithful. Stand fast in the Liberty wherewith Christ hath made you free; and in pursuance of this Truth we are confident you will never cease to study the Peace and nearer Conjunction of the Kingdoms; knowing that a Threefoold Cord is not easily broken. Now the Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God even our Father, which hath loved and honoured you, and given you everlasting Consolation and good Hope through Gracer, comfort your Hearts, and stablish you in every good word and work.
Much Honoured, and Right Reverend,
Amongst other Fruits of this our precious Liberty, after such Dissipation by Sword and Pestilence to meet again, we account it not the least, to have the opportunity of making a publick Declaration of our earnest Affection to all our dear Brethren of that Nation, and especially to your selves of the Reverend Assembly at Westminster. When we were lately in a very low Condition, we may say that our own Sufferings and Fears, altho' imbitter'd with the Sense of the Lord's displeasure against our Lukewarmness and Unfaithfulness, did not so take up our heart, but that room was left to congratulate with the Lord's People there in all their Successes, and to condole with them, in all their Dangers: And if at any time any here hath seemed to be more jealous than Godly Jealousy would allow, we know not how it can be imputed to any thing else, but to the vehemency of ardent Affection, and impatient desire to have our Brethren there and Us joined nearer to Christ, and to one another, in all his Ordinances, and especially in Presbyterial Government, so well warranted by the Word, and approved by experience of our own and other Reformed Churches; wherein your long and unwearied Endeavours have been blessed with a large Increase, which yet have proved a Seed unto a further and more glorious expected Harvest. There could not be wished by mortal men a fairer Opportunity than is cast in your Lap, being invited and charged by so high an Authority to give so free and publick a Testimony of those Truths which formerly many of the Lord's precious ones by Tongue and Pen, by Tears and Blood, have more privately asserted. The smallest of Christ's Truths (if it be lawful to call any of them small)is of; greater moment than all the other Businesses that ever have been debated since the beginning of the World to this day: But the highest of Honours and heaviest of Burthens is put upon you, To declare out of the Sacred Records of Divine Truth, what is the Prerogative of the Crown, and Extent of the Scepter of Jesus Christ; what Bounds are to be set between him ruling in his House, and Powers established by God on Earth; how and by whom his House is to be governed, and by what ways a Restraint is to be put on those who would pervert his Truth, and subvert the Faith of many. No doubt Mountains of Oppositions arise, and Gulphs of Difficulties open up themselves in this your way; but you have found it is God that girdeth you with Strength, and maketh your way perfect and plain before you; who hath delivered, and doth deliver, and will yet deliver. We need not put you in mind, that as there lieth at this time a strict Tye on all, so in a special manner both you and we are ingaged to interpose our selves between God and these Kingdoms, between the Two Nations, between the King and the People, for the averting of deserved Wrath, for continuing and increasing a well-grounded Union, by procuring, so far as in us lieth, a right setling of Religion and Church-Government; that when we shall sleep with our Fathers, the Posterity here and abroad may be reaping the Fruits of our Labours.
We are fully assured of your constant and sedulous promoting of this blessed Work, and of the Lord's assisting and carrying you on therein and are confident, that your late Experience, and present Sense of the great Danger and fearful Confusion flowing from the Rise and Growth of Sects and Sectaries not suppressed, hath stirred up in your Hearts most fervent desires and careful endeavours for remedying of the same; wherein we exhort you to continue and abound, knowing that your Labours shall not be in vain in the Lord: To whose Rich Grace we commend you, and the Work in your hands.
The Proportions for Peace being fully agreed upon by both Houses, and the Scots Commissioners, a Committee was this day appointed to examine the said Proportions, newly Engrossed, by the Original Copy, and then signed by the Clerks of both Houses, and the Commissioners for Scotland, and then to deliver them to the Parliament's Commissioners, who were to carry them to the King. All which being accordingly dispatch'd, the said Commissioners the next morning did set forwards with the said Proportions towards Newcastle; Mr. Marshal the Minister being order'd by the Commons to attend them as their Chaplain.
Die Sabbathi, 11. July, 1646.
The Propositions of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, for a safe and well-grounded Peace: Sent to his Majesty at Newcastle, by the Right Honourable the Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, the Earl of Suffolk, Members of the House of Peers; and Sir Walter Erle, Sir John Hipisly, Knts, Robert Good wyn, Luke Robinson, Esqs; Members of the House of Commons.
May it please your Majesty,
We the Lords and Commons assembled in the Parliament of England, in the Name and on the behalf of the Kingdom of England and Ireland; and the Commissioners of the Parliament of Scotland in the Name and on the behalf of the Kingdom of Scotland, Do humbly present unto your Majesty the humble Desires and Propositions for a safe and well-grounded Peace, agreed upon by the Parliaments of both Kingdoms respectively, unto which we do pray your Majesty's Assent: And that they, and all such Bills as shall be tendered to your Majesty in pursuance of them, or any of them, may be established and enacted for Statutes and Acts of Parliament, by your Majesty's Royal Assent, in the Parliament of both Kingdoms respectively.
1. Whereas both Houses of the Parliament of England have been necessitated to undertake a War in their just and lawful Defence; and afterwards both Kingdoms of England and Scotland joined in Solemn League and Covenant, were engaged to prosecute the same;
That by Act or Parliament in each Kingdom respectively, all Oaths, Declarations, and Proclamations heretofore had, or hereafter to be had against both or either of the Houses of Parliament of England, the Parliaments of the Kingdom of Scotland, and the late Convention of Estates in Scotland, or the Committees flowing from the Parliament or Convention in Scotland, or their Ordinances and Proceedings, or against any for adhering unto them, or for doing or executing any Office, Place, or Charge, by any Authority derived from them; and all Judgments, Indictments, Outlawries, Attainders, and In-quisitions in any the said Causes; and all Grants thereupon had or made, or to be made or had, be declared null, suppressed, and forbidden: And that this be publickly intimated in all Parish-Churches within his Majesty's Dominions, and all other places needful.
2. That his Majesty, according to the laudable Example of his Royal Father of happy Memory, may be pleased to Swear and Sign the late Solemn League and Covenant: And that an Act of Parliament be passed in both Kingdoms respectively, for enjoining the taking thereof by all the Subjects of the Three Kingdoms; and the Ordinances concerning the manner of taking the same in both Kingdoms, be confirmed by Acts of Parliament respectively, with such Penalties as by mutual Advice of both Kingdoms shall be agreed upon.
3. That a Bill be passed for the utter abolishing and taking away of all Archbishops, Bishops, their Chancellors and Commissaries, Deans and Sub Deans, Deans and Chapters, Archdeacons, Canons and Prebendaries, and all Chaunters, Chancellors, Treasurers, Sub-Treasurers, Succentors and Sacrifts, and all Vicars Choriland Choristers, old Vicars and new Vicars of any Cathedral or Collegiate Church, and all other Under-Officers, out of the Church of England, and Dominion of Wales, and out of the Church of Ireland; with such Alterations concerning the Estates of Prelates, as shall agree with the Articles of the late Treaty, of the date at Edinburgh, 29. November, 1643. and joint Declaration of both Kingdoms.
5. That Reformation of Religion according to the Covenant, be settled by Act of Parliament, in such manner as both Houses have agreed, or shall agree upon after Consultation had with the Assembly of Divines.
6. Forasmuch as both Kingdoms are mutually obliged by the same Covenant to endeavour the nearest Conjunction and Uniformity in matters of Religion, according to the Covenant, as after Consultation had with the Divines of both Kingdoms assembled, is or shall be jointly agreed upon by both Houses of Parliament of England, and by the Church and Kingdom of Scotland, be confirmed by Acts of Parliament of both Kingdoms respectively.
7. That for the more effectual disabling Jesuits, Priests, Papists, and Popish Recusants from disturbing the State, and deluding the Laws; and for the better discovering and speedy Conviction of Recusants, an Oath be established by Act of Parliament, to be administred to them, wherein they shall abjure and renounce the Pope's Supremacy, the Doctrine of Transubstantiation, Purgatory, worshipping of the consecrated Host, Crucifixes and Images, and all other Popish Superstitions and Errors: And refusing the said Oath, being tender'd in such manner as shall be appointed by the said Act, to be a sufficient Conviction of Recusancy.
9. An Act for the true Levy of the Penalties against them; which Penalties to be levied and disposed in such manner as both Houses shall agree on; wherein to be provided, that his Majesty shall have no loss.
10. That an Act be passed in Parliament, whereby the Practices of Papists against the State may be prevented, and the Laws against them duly executed, and a stricter Course taken to prevent the saying or hearing of Mass in the Court, or any other part of this Kingdom.
And to such Act or Acts for raising of Moneys for the Payment and Satisfaction of the Publick Debts and Damages of the Kingdom, and other Publick Uses, as shall hereafter be agreed on by both Houses of Parliament: And that if the King doth not give his Assent thereunto, then it being done by both Houses of Parliament, the same shall be as valid to all Intents and Purposes, as if the Royal Assent had been given thereunto.
And that his Majesty give Assurance of his consenting in the Parliament of Scotland, to an Act acknowledging and ratifying the Acts of the Convention of Estates of Scotland, called by the Council and Conserves of the Peace, and the Commissioners for the common Burthens, and assembled the 22d of June, 1643. and several times continued since, and of the Parliament of that Kingdom since convened.
13. That the Lords and Commons in the Parliament of England assembled, shall during the space of Twenty Years, from the First of July, 1646. Arm, Train, and Discipline, or cause to be armed, trained, and disciplined, all the Forces of the Kingdoms of England and Ireland, and Dominion of Wales, the Isles of Guernsey and Jersey, and the Town of Berwick upon Tweed, already raised both for Sea and Land Service; and shall arm, train, and discipline, or cause to be raised, levied, armed trained, and disciplined, any other Forces for Land and Sea Service, in the Kingdoms, Dominions, and Places aforesaid, as in their Judgments they shall from time to time, during the said space of Twenty Years, think fit and appoint: And that neither the King, his Heirs or Successors, nor any other but such as shall act by the Authority or Approbation of the said Lords and Commons, shall during the said space of Twenty Years exercise any of the Powers aforesaid.
That Moneys be raised and levied for the Maintenance and Use of the said Forces for Land Service, and of the Navy and Forces for Sea-Service, in such fort and by such ways and means as the said Lords and Commons shall from time to time, during the said space of Twenty Years, think fit and appoint, and not otherwise. That all the said Forces both for Land and Sea Service, so raised or levied, or to be raised or levied; and also the Admiralty and Navy shall from time to time, during the said space of Twenty Years, be employed, managed, ordered and disposed by the said Lords and Commons, in such fort and by such ways and means as they shall think fit and appoint, and not otherwise. And the said Lords and Commons, during the said space of Twenty Years, shall have Power.
1. To suppress all Forces raised or to be raised, without Authority and Consent of the said Lords and Commons, to the Disturbance of the Publick Peace of the Kingdoms of England and Ireland, and Dominion of Wales, the Isles of Guernsey and Jersey, and the Town of Berwick upon Tweed, or any of them.
2. To suppress any Foreign Forces who shall invade or endeavour to invade the Kingdoms of England and Ireland, Dominion of Wales, the Isles of Guernsey and Jersey, and the Town of Berwick upon Tweed, or any of them.
3. To conjoin such Forces of the Kingdom of England with the Forces of the Kingdom of Scotland, as the said Lords and Commons shall from time to time, during the said space of Twenty Years, judge fit and necessary; to resist all Foreign Invasions, and to suppress any Forces raised or to be raised against or within either of the said Kingdoms, to the disturbance of the Publick Peace of the said Kingdoms, or any of them, by any Authority under the Great Seal, or other Warrant whatsoever, without Consent of the said Lords and Commons of the Parliament of England, and the Parliament, or the Estates of the Parliament of Scotland respectively. And that no Forces of either Kingdom shall go into or continue in the other Kingdom, without the Advice and Desire of the said Lords and Commons of the Parliament of England, and the Parliament of the Kingdom of Scotland, or such as shall be by them appointed for that purpose. And that after the Expiration of the said Twenty Years, neither the King, his Heirs or Successors, or any Person or Persons, by colour or pretence of any Commission, Power, Deputation, or Authority, to be derived from the King, his Heirs or Successors, or any of them, shall raise, arm, train, discipline, employ, order, manage, disband, or dispose of any of the Forces by Sea or Land, of the Kingdoms of England and Ireland, the Dominion of Wales, Isles of Guernsey and Jersey, and the Town of Berwick upon Tweed: Nor exercise any of the said Powers or Authorities in the precedent Articles mentioned and expressed to be during the said space of Twenty Years, in the said Lords and Commons: Nor do any Act or Thing concerning the Execution of the said Powers or Authorities, or any of them, without the Consent of the said Lords and Commons first had and obtained. That after the Expiration of the said Twenty Years, in all Cases wherein the Lords and Commons shall declare the Safety of the Kingdom to be concerned, and shall thereupon pass any Bill or Bills, for the raising, arming, disciplining, employing, managing, ordering, or disposing of the Forces by Sea or Land, of the Kingdoms of England and Ireland, the Dominion of Wales, Isles of Guernsey and Jersey, and the Town of Berwick upon Tweed, or of any part of the said Forces, or concerning the Admiralty and Navy, or concerning the levying of Moneys for the raising, maintenance, or use of the said Forces for Land Service, or of the Navy, and Forces for Sea Service, or of any part of them: And if that the Royal Assent to such Bill or Bills shall not be given in the House of Peers within such time after the passing thereof by both Houses of Parliament, as the said House shall judge fit and convenient, That then such Bill or Bills so passed by the said Lords and Commons as aforesaid, and to which the Royal Assent shall not be given as is herein before expressed, shall nevertheless after Declaration of the said Lords and Commons made in that behalf, have the force and strength of an Act or Acts of Parliament, and shall be as valid to all intents and purposes, as if the Royal Assent had been given thereunto.
Provided, That nothing herein before contained, shall extend to the taking away of the ordinary Legal Power of Sheriffs, Justices of Peace, Mayors, Bayliffs, Coroners, Constables, Headboroughs, or other Officers of Justice, not being Military Officers, concerning the Administration of Justice, so as neither the said Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace, Mayors Bayliffs, Coroners, Constables, Headboroughs, and other Officers, nor any of them, do levy, conduct, employ, or command any Forces whatsoever, by colour or pretence of any Commission of Array, or extraordinary Command from his Majesty, his Heirs or Successors, without the Consent of the said Lords and Commons.
And if any persons shall be gathered and assembled together in Warlike manner or otherwise, to the Number of Thirty Persons, and shall not forthwith disband themselves, being required thereto by the said Lords and Commons, or Command from them or any of them, especially authorized for that purpose, then such person or persons not so disbanding themselves, shall be guilty and incur the pains of High-Treason, being first declared guilty of such Offence by the said Lords and Commons; any Commission under the Great Seal, or other Warrant to the contrary notwithstanding. And he or they that shall offend herein, to be incapable of any Pardon from his Majesty, his Heirs or Successors, and their Estates shall be disposed as the said Lords and Commons shall think fit, and not otherwise.
Provided, That the City of London shall have and enjoy all their Rights, Liberties, and Franchises, Customs and Usages, in the raising and employing the Forces of that City, for the defence thereof, in full and ample manner, to all intents and purposes, as they have or might have used or enjoyed the same, at anytime before the making of the said Act or Proposition; to the end that City may be fully assured it is not the intention of the Parliament to take from them any Privileges or Immunities in raising or disposing of their Forces, which they have or might have used or enjoyed heretofore.
14. That by Act of Parliament, all Peers made since the day that Edward Lord Littleton, then Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, deserted the Parliament, and that the said Great Seal was surreptitiously conveyed away from the Parliament, being the 21st day of May, 1642. and who shall be hereafter made, shall not Sit or Vote in the Parliament of England, without Consent of both Houses of Parliament. And that all Honour and Title conferred on any without Consent of both Houses of Parliament, since the 20th of May, 1642. being the day that both Houses declared, That the King, seduced by Evil Counsel, intended to raise War against the Parliament, be declared null and void.
15. That an Act be passed in the Parliaments of both Houses respectively, for Confirmation of the Treaties passed betwixt the Two Kingdoms;(viz.) The Large Treaty; the late Treaty for the coming of the Scots Army into England, and the setling of the Garison of Berwick, of the 29th of November, 1643. and the Treaty between Ireland, or the 6th of August, 1642. for the bringing of 10000 Scots into the Province. of Ulster in Ireland; with all other Ordinances and Proceedings passed betwixt the Two Kingdoms, and whereunto they are obliged by the aforesaid Treaties.
And that Algernoon Earl of Northumberland, John Earl of Rutland, Philip Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, Robert Earl of Essex, Theophilus Earl of Lincoln, James Earl of Suffolk, Robert Earl of Warwick, Edward Earl of Manchester, Henry Earl of Stanford, Francis Lord Dacres, Philip Lord Wharton, Francis Lord Willougbby, Dudly Lord North, John Lord Hunsdon, William Lord Gray, Edward Lord Howard of Escrick, Thomas Lord Bruce, Fe; dinando Lord Fairfax, Mr. Nathanael Fines, Sir William Armin, Sir Fhilip Stapleton, Sir Henry Vane Senior, Mr. William Pierpoint, Sir Edward Aiscough, Sir William Strickland, Sir Arthur Haslerig, Sir John, Fenwick Sir William Brereton, Sir Thomas Widdrington, Mr. John Toll, Mr. Gilbert Millington, Sir William Constable, Sir John Wray, Sir Henry Vane Junior, Mr. Henry Darley, Oliver St. John, Esq; his Majesty's Solicitor General, Sir Denzil Hollis, Mr. Alexander Rigby, Mr. Cornelius Hol and, Mr. Samuel Vassel, Mr. Peregrine Pelham, JuhnGlyn, Esq, Recorder of London, Mr. Henry Martin, Mr. Alderman Hoyle, Mr. John Blackistion, Mr. Serjeant Wilde, Mr. Richard Barron, Sir Anthony Irby, Mr. Ashhurst, Mr. Billingham, and Mr. Tolson, Members of both Houses of the Parliament of England, shall be the Commissioners for the Kingdom of England, for Conservation of the Peace between the Two Kingdoms; to act according to the Powers in that behalf expressed in the Articles of the Large Treaty, and not otherwise.
16. That an Act be passed in the Parliaments of both Kingdoms respectively, for establishing the joint Declaration of both Kingdoms, bearing date the 30th of January, 1645. in England, and 1644. in Scotland; with the Qualifications ensuing:
1st Qualification. That the Persons who shall expect no Pardon, be only these following, Rupert and Maurice Count Palatines of the Rhine, James Earl of Derby, John-Earl of Bristol, William Earl of Newcaslte, Francis Lord Cottington, George Lord Digby, Matthew Wren Bishop of Ely, Sir Robert Heath Knt. Dr. Bramball Bishop of Derry, Sir William Widdrington, Col. George Goring, Henry Jermin Esq, Sir Ralph Hopton, Sir John Biron, Sir Francis Doddington, Sir Franc is Strangeways, Mr. Endimion Porter, Sir George Radcliff, Sir Marmaduke Langdale, Henry Vaughan Esq; now called Sir Henry Vaughan, Sir Francis Windebank, Sir Richard Greenvill, Mr. Edward Hide, now called Sir Edward Hide, Sit John Marley, Sir Nicholas Cole, Sir Thomas Riddill Junior, Sir John Culpepper, Mr. Richard Lloyd, called Sir Richard Lloyd, Mt. David Jenkins, Sir George Strode, George Carteret Esq; now called Sir George Carteret, Sir Charles Dallison Knt. Richard Lane Esq; now called Sir Richard Lane, Sir Edward Nicholas, John Ashburnbam, Esq Sir Edward Herbert, Knt. Attorney-General, Earl of Traqnaire, Lord Harris, Lord Ray, George Gourdon, sometime Marquiss of Huntly, James Graham, sometime Earl of Montross, Robert Maxwel late Earl of Nithsdale, Robert Dalyel, sometime Earl of Carnewarth, James Gourdon, sometime Viscount of Aboyne, Lodowick Linsey, sometime Earl of Crawford, James Ogley, sometime Earl of Airby, James Ogley, sometime Lord Ogley, Patrick Ruthen, sometime Earl of Forth, James King, sometime Lord Itham, Alester Macdonald, Irwin Younger of Drunim, Gordon Younger of Gight, Lesly of Auchentoul, Col. John Cockram, Graham of Gorthie, Mr. John Maxwell, sometime pretended Bishop of Ross: And all such others as being; processed by the Estates for Treason, shall be condemned before the Act of Oblivion passed.
2d Qualification. All Papists and Popish Recusants, Who have been, now are, or shall be actually in Arms, or voluntarily assisting against the Parliament or Estates of either Kingdom; and by Name, The Marquiss of Winton, Earl of Worcester, Edward Lord Herbert of Ragland, Son to the Earl of Worcester, Lord Brudenell Caryl Mollineux Esq; Lord Arundel of Warder, Sir Francis Howard, Sir John Winter, Sir Charles Smith, Sir John Preston, Sir Bazil Brooke, Lord And ley Earl of Castlehaven in the Kingdom of Ireland, William Sheldon of Beely Esq; Sir Henry Bedding field.
3d Qualification. All Persons who have had any hand in the plotting, designing, or assisting the Rebellion of Ireland, except such Persons who have only assisted the said Rebellion, have rendered themselves, or come in to the Parliament of England.
4th Qualification. That Humphrey Bennet Esq; Sir Edward Ford, Sir John Penruddock, Sir George Vaughan, Sir John Weld, Sir Robert Lee, Sir John Pate, John Ackland, Edmund Windham Esq; Sir John Fitzherbert, Sir Edward Lawrence, Sir Ralph Dutton, Henry Lingen Esq; Sir William Russel of Worcestershire, Thomas Lee of Adlington Esq; Sir John Girlington, Sir Paul Neale, Sir William Thorold, Sir Edward Hussey, Sir Thomas Liddell Senior, Sir Philip Musgrave, Sir John Digby of Nottinghamshire, Sir Henry Fletcher, Sir Richard Mynshall, Lawrence Halsteed, John Denham Esq; Sir Edmund Fortescue, Peter Sainthil Esq; Sir Thomas Tildsley, Sir Henry Griffith, Michael W. harton Esq; Sir Henry Spiller, Mr. George Benyon, now called Sir George Benyon, Sir Edward Walgrave, Sir Robert Owseley, Sir John Many, Lord Cholmley, Sir Thomas Acton, Sir Lewis Dives, Sir Peter Osborne, Samuel Thomton, Esq; Sir John Lucas, John Blaney Esq; Sir Thomas Chedle, Sir Nicholas Kemish, Hugh Lloyd Esq; Sir Nicholas Crispe, Sir Peter Ricaut.
And all such of the Scotish Nation as have concurred in the Votes at Oxford, against the Kingdom of Scotland and their Proceedings, or have sworn or subscribed the Declaration against the Convention and Covenant; and all such as have assisted the Rebellion in the North, or the Invasion in the South of the said Kingdom of Scotland, or the late Invasion made there by the Irish, and their Adherents, be removed from his Majesty's Councils; and be restrained from coming within the Verge of the Court; and that they may not without the Advice and Consent of both Houses of the Parliament of England, or the Estates in the Parliament of Scotland respectively, bear any Office, or have any Employment concerning the State or Common-wealth: And in case any of them should offend therein, to be guilty of High Treason, and incapable of any Pardon from his Majesty, and their Estates to be disposed of as both Houses of the Parliament of England, or the Estates of the Parliament in Scotland respectively shall think fit: And that one full Third Part upon full Value of the Estates of the Persons aforesaid, made incapable of Employment as aforesaid, be employed for the Payment of the Publick Debts and Damages according to the Declaration.
1st Branch. That the late Members, or any who pretended themselves late Members of either Houses of Parliament, who have not only deserted the Parliament, but have also sat in the Unlawful Assembly at Oxford, called or pretended by some to be a Parliament, and voted both Kingdoms Traytors, and have not voluntarily rendered themselves before the last of October, 1644. be removed from his Majesty's Councils, and be restrained from coming within the Verge of the Court; and that they may not, without Advice and Consent of both Kingdoms, bear any Office, or have any Employment concerning the State or Common-wealth. And in case any of them shall offend therein, to be guilty of High-Treason, and be incapable of any Pardon by his Majesty; and their Estates to be disposed as both Houses of Parliament in England, or the Estates of the Parliament of Scotland respectively shall think fit.
2d Branch. That the late Members, or any who pretended themselves Members of either House of Parliament, who have sat in the Unlawful Assembly at Oxford, called or pretended by some to be a Parliament, and have not voluntarily rendred themselves before the last of October, 1644. be removed from his Majesty's Councils, and restrained from coming within the Verge of the Court; and that they may not without the Advice and Consent of both Houses of Parliament, bear any Office, or have any Employment concerning the State or Common-wealth. And in case any of them shall offend therein, to be guilty of High-Treason, and incapable of any Pardon from his Majesty, and their Estates to be disposed of as both Houses of the Parliament of England shall think fit.
3d Branch. That the late Members, or any who pretended themselves Members of either House of Parliament, who have deserted the Parliament, and adhered to the Enemies thereof, and have not rendered themselves before the last of October, 1644. be removed from his Majesty's Councils, and be restrained from coming within the Verge of the Court; and that they may not without the Advice and Consent of both Houses of Parliament, bear any Office, or have any Employment concerning the State or Common-wealth. And in case any of them shall offend therein, to be guilty of High Treason, and incapable of any Pardon from his Majesty, and their Estates to be disposed as both Houses of Parliament in England shall think fit.
5th Qualification That all Judges and Officers towards the Law, Common or Civil, who have deserted the Parliament, and adhered to the Enemies thereof, be incapable of any Place of judicature, or Office towards the Law, Common or Civil. And that all Serjeants, Counsellors, and Attorneys, Doctors, Advocates, and Proctors of the Law, Common or Civil, either in publick or private and shall not be capable of any Perferment or Employment in the Commonwealth, without the Advice and Consent of both Houses of Parliament. And that no Bishop or Clergyman, no Master or Fellow of any College or Hall in either of the Universities, or elsewhere; or any Master of School or Hospital, or any Ecclesiastical Person, who hath deserted the Parliament, and adhered to the Enemies thereof, shall hold or enjoy, or be capable of any Preferment or Employment in Church or Commonwealth: But all their said several Preferments, Places or Promotions, shall be utterly void, as if they were naturally dead: Nor shall they otherwise use their Function of the Ministry, without Advice and Consent of both Houses of Parliament: Provided, That no Lapse shall incur by this Vacancy, until Six Months past after notice thereof.
6th Qualification. That all persons who have been actually in Arms against the Parliament, or have counselled or voluntarily assisted the Enemies thereof, are disabled to be Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace, Mayors, or other Head-Officers of any City or Corporation, Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer, or to fit or serve as Members or Assistants in either of the Houses of Parliament, or to have any Military Employments in this Kingdom, without the Consent of both Houses of Parliament.
8th Qualification. The Estates of those persons excepted in the first Three precedent Qualifications, and the Estates of Edward Lord Littleton, and of William Laud, late Archbishop of Canterbury, to pay publick Debts and Damages.
9th Qualification. 1st Branch. That Two full parts in Three, to be divided of all the Estates of the Members of either House of Parliament, who have not only deserted the Parliament, but have also voted both Kingdoms Traytors, and have not rendred themselves before the first of December, 1645. shall be taken and employed for the Payment of the publick Debts and Damages of the Kingdom.
2d Branch. That Two full parts in Three to be divided of the Estates of such late Members of either House of Parliament, as sat in the Unlawful Assembly at Oxford, and shall not have rendred themselves before the first of December, 1645. shall be taken and employed for the payment of the publick Debts and Damages of the Kingdom.
3d Branch. That one full Moiety of the Estates of such persons, late Members of either of the Houses of Parliament, who have deserted the Parliament, and adhered to the Enemies thereof, and shall not have rendered themselves before the first of December, 1645. shall be taken and employed for the Payment of the publick Debts and Damages of the Kingdom.
10th Qualification. That a full Third part of the Value of the Estates of all Judges and Officers towards the Law, Common or Civil and of all Serjeants, Counsellors, and Attorneys, Doctors, Advocates, and Proctors of the Law, Common or Civil; and of all Bishops, Clergymen, Masters and Fellows of any College or Hall in either of the Universities, or elsewhere; and of all Masters and Hospitals, and of Ecclesiastical persons, who have deserted the Parliament, and adhered to the Enemies thereof, and have not rendered themselves before the first of December, 1645. shall be taken and employed for the payment of publick Debts and Damages of the Kingdom.
That a full Sixth part on the Value of Three States of the persons excepted in the Sixth Qualification, concerning such as have been actually in Arms against the Parliament, or have counselled or voluntarily assisted the Enemies thereof, and are disabled according to the said Qualification, to be taken and employed for the payment of the publick Debts and Damages of the Kingdom.
11th Qualification. That the Persons and Estates of all Common Soldiers and others of the Kingdom of England, who in Lands or Goods be not worth Two Hundred Pounds Sterling, and the Persons and Estates of all Common Soldiers and others of the Kingdom of Scotland, who in his Lands or Goods be not worth One Hundred Founds Sterling, be at liberty and discharged.
That an Act be pass'd, whereby the Debts of the Kingdom and the Persons of Delinquents, and the Value of their Estates may be known: And which Act shall appoint in what manner the Confiscations and Proportions before-mentioned, may be levied and applied to the discharge of the said Engagements.
12. That an Act of Parliament be passed, to declare and make void the Cessation of Ireland, and all Treaties and Conclusions of Peace, or any Articles thereupon with the Rebels, without Consent of both Houses of Parliament: And to settle the prosecution of the Wars of Ireland, as both Houses of the Parliament of England have agreed, or shall agree upon, after Consultation had with the Assembly of Divines here.
That the Deputy, or Chief Governor, or other Governors of Ireland, and the Presidents of the several Provinces of that Kingdom, be nominated by both the Houses of the Parliament of England; or in the Intervals of Parliament, by such Committees of both Houses of Parliament, as both Houses of the Parliament of England shall nominate and appoint for that purpose. And that the Chancellor, or Lord Keeper, Lord Treasurer, Commissioners of the Great Seal, or Treasury, Lord Warden of the Cinque-Ports, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Dutchy, Secretaries of State, Master of the Rolls, Judges of both Benches, and Barons of the Exchequer, of the Kingdoms of England and Ireland, and the Vice-Treasurer, and Treasurer at War, of the Kingdom of Ireland, be nominated by both Houses of the Parliament of England, to continue Quam diu se benè gesserint; and in the Intervals of Parliament, by the aforementioned Committees; to be approved or disallowed by both Houses at their next fitting.
The like for the Kingdom of Scotland, concerning the Nomination of the Lords of the Privy-Council, Lords of Session and Exchequer, Officers of State, and Justice-General, in such manner as the Estates of Parliament there shall think fit.
13. That the Militia of the City of London, and Liberties thereof, may be in the ordering and Government of the Lord-Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons in Council assembled, or such as they shall from time to time appoint, (whereof the Lord-Mayor and Sheriffs for the time being, to be Three,) to be employed and directed from time to time, in such manner as shall be agreed on and appointed by both Houses of Parliament.
That no Citizen of the City of London, and any of the Forces of the said City, should be drawn forth, or compelled to go out of the said City, Liberties thereof, for Military Service, without their own free Consent.
That the Tower of London may be in the Government of the City of London, and the Chief Officer and Governor thereof, from time to time, be nominated and removable by the Common-Council. And for prevention of inconveniencies which may happen by the long Intermission of Common-Councils, it is desired that there may be an Act, That all By-Laws and Ordinances already made, or hereafter to be made by the Lord-Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons in Common-Council assembled, touching the calling, continuing, directing and regulating the said Common-Councils, be as effectual in Law to all intents and purposes, as if the same were particularly enacted by the Authority of Parliament. And that the Lord-Mayor, Aldermen and Commons in Common-Council, may add to, or repeal the said Ordinances from time to time, as they shall see cause.
That such other Proportions as shall be made for the City, for their further Safety, Welfare, and Government, and shall be approved of by both Houses of Parliament, may be granted and confirmed by Act of Parliament.
14. That all Grants, Commissioners, Presentations, Writs, Processes, Proceedings, and other things passed under the Great Seal of England, in the Custody of the Lords and others Commissioners appointed by both Houses of Parliament for the Custody thereof, and by Act of Parliament with the Royal Assent, shall be declared and enacted to be of like Force and Effect to all intents and purposes, as the same or like Grants, Commissions, Presentations, Writs, Processes, Proceedings, and other things under any Great Seal of England in any time heretofore were or have been: And that for time to come, the said Great Seal, now remaining in custody of the said Commissioners continue and be used for the great Seal of England. And that all Grants Commissions and Presentations, Writs, Processes, Proceedings, and other things whatsoever, passed under or by Authority of any other Great Seal since the 22d day of May Anno Dom. 1642. or hereafter to be passed, be invalid, and of no effect to all intents and purposes. Except such Writs, Process and Commissions, as being passed under any other Great Seal than the said Great Seal in the custody of the Commissioners aforesaid, on or after the said 22d of May, and before the 28th day of November, Anno Dom. 1643. were afterwards proceeded, upon, returned into, or put in use in any of the King's Courts at Westminster; and except the Grant to Mr. Justice Bacon to be one of the Justices of the King's-Bench; and except all Acts and Proceedings by virtue of any such Commissions of Goal-Delivery, Assize, and Nisi prius, or Oyer and Terminer, passed under any Great Seal than the Seal aforesaid, in the Custody of the said Commissioners, before the first of October, 1642.
And that all Grants of Offices, Lands, Tenements, or Hereditaments, made or passed under the Great Seal of Ireland, unto any Person or Persons, Bodies Politick or Corporate, since the Cessation made in Ireland the 15th day of September, 1643. shall be null and void. And that all Honours and Titles conferr'd upon any person or persons in the said Kingdom of Ireland, since the said Cessation, shall be null and void.
Whilst the said Commissioners with these Proportions were on their Journey, Sir Peter Killigrew, whom the Two Houses had sent to his Majesty with a Letter, desiring that he would give Order to the Marquess of Ormond to surrender up Dublin, and all other Garisons in Ireland, to the use of the Parliament, returned with his Majesty's Answer as followeth.
His Majesty having considered the Letter of the 6th Instant, sent to him from the Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled, thinks fit to return this Answer, That as none can be more deeply affected than his Majesty with the past and present Calamities of his Kingdom of Ireland, nor is so nearly concerned in the Preservation of his Majesty's Protestant Subjects there, so he will be most ready to apply all future Remedies for their Deliverance: And as to the particulars of delivering forthwith of the City and Castle of Dublin, the Town of Drogheda, and all other Garisons in that Kingdom which are held by his Majesty's Authority, into the hands of such as the Parliament shall appoint; his Majesty being most willing that all those places may be so disposed, as they may be best secured from the Rebels, and serve most for the Safety of his good Subjects, doth again earnestly press, the Propositions so long expected, for the Peace of that and his other Kingdoms, may be hastned to him, expecting that they will contain the readiest: means, not only of preserving those places which are already in his power, but likewise of reducing the rest of that Kingdom possessed by the Rebels, to his Obedience: And as his Majesty knows not a more speedy and effectual way for attaining those Ends, by removing all differences betwixt his Majesty and the Two Houses of Parliament; so nothing will be more easily endeavoured by his Majesty, than that a solid and lasting Peace be forthwith established.
Monsieur Belciure, Ambassador Extraordinary from the Crown of France, being lately arrived, had this day Audience in both Houses, being received in great State: The Substance of what he delivered, was, That he had in Command from the Queen Regent and the King of France, to interpose and endeavour a good Reconciliation and Composure of the Differences between his Majesty of Great Britain, and the Parliament of England; but understanding in what forwardness they were, and that Propositions were already dispatch'd to his Majesty, he had no more to do at present with the Parliament, but to take his Leave of them, and to desire their Pass to go unto the King, and to the States of Scotland.
Which Business being taken into Consideration by the House of Commons, July 22. a Letter was agreed upon in Answer to the said Ambassador, to this effect: That they took in very good part, and received with all Thankfulness, the good Affections and Intentions of the French Crown to these Kingdoms, and his willingness to see these Troubles over; for ending whereof, they have done their utmost, and shall still continue so to do: But they could not agree, That any Foreign State interpose in the present remaining Differences; nor that his Majesty of France in particular, by his present Extraordinary Ambassador, should so do. But for the Pass desired, they did agree to it, That the said Ambassador pass freely without any Interruption or Disturbance, and be used with all Respect and Civility, according to his Quality.
Whereunto the Lords concurred, and the Pass was signed by the Speakers of both Houses: And understanding that the said Ambassador had taken his Journey from London the Night before, towards the King, without the Answer or Pass from the Houses, the same was sent Post after him, by Sir Peter Killigrew.
His Highness the Duke of York came to London from Oxford, being met by the Earl of Northumberland, and some other Lords, and divers Gentlemen who conducted him to St. James's, where the Earl of Northumberland discharged all his Oxford Retinue and Servants that came along with him, and appointed others to attend him.
The same day the Two Houses had notice, That the Young Princess Henrietta, who was taken at the Surrender of Exeter, was privately convey'd away on the Friday before, by the Countess of Dalkeith, from Oatlands, divers of the Gentlewomen that attended her, being left behind, and not knowing of her Removal (so discreetly it was manag'd) till they received the following Letter without date from the said Countess, who retreated with her Fair Charge into France to the Queen.
You are witness with what patience I have expected the pleasure of the Parliament; I have found it impossible to obtain any Justice to her Highness, or Favour to my self or any of you; I was no longer able to keep her, which was the Cause I have been forced to take this upon me: Be pleased to repair to his Majesty all of you, or as many of you as think fit; I then am sure you will enjoy the Blessing of serving her Highness. which believe me is heartily wish'd by me. It will be a great mark of your Faithfulness and Kindness to your Mistress, to conceal her being gone, as long as you can; and it will make your past Service now consider'd, and that to come more acceptable. And trust me, your divulging of it will be of no Advantage to you. Thus you may do it; seeming to expect her the day following after the Receit of this Letter; and then cause to deliver this other to Mr. Marshall, after you have read it, and tell him, which is Truth, That I have removed her Highness to a better Air, whither you may, if you will, follow her. All her Wearing Cloaths, Woollen or Linnen, you may distribute amongst you: The little Plate the hath, Mrs Case will have a care of: Her other things are to be continued with Mr. Marshall. I am so confident you will behave your selves kindly and faithfully to your Mistress, that you may yet more oblige me to be what you shall always find me; which is to you all,
The Commissioners from the Parliament with the Propositions, arrived at Newcastle on Thursday July 23. and had notice that Night, That it was his Majesty's pleasure they should attend him the next day in the Afternoon. Accordingly, about Two of the Clock, they, and the Earls of Argyle and Lowden, as Commissioners for Scotland, went in their Coaches to the Court: The King came forth into a large Chamber, which was made use of for the Chamber of Presence, and there stood at the end of a Table until the Commissioners came, and each of them kiss'd his Majesty's Hand, as likewise did Mr. Marshall the Minister: Then the King will'd them to follow him into another Room; where the Earl of Pembroke acquainted his Majesty, That they had brought Propositions from the Parliament, and were humbly to desire his Answer; and so desired Mr. Goodwin to read the Propositions: But first the King demanded if they had any Power to Treat? To which they answering, No; his Majesty replied, Then, saving the Honour of the Business, an honest Trumpeter might have done as much. Then Mr. Goodwin read the Propositions; to which his Majesty hearkened attentively, and when he had done, said, Gentlemen, I hope you do not expect a very speedy Answer, because the Business is of high Concernment: The Earl of Pembroke answered, That they were limited not to stay above Ten Days after their coming to that Town, and must then return: His Majesty replied, That he would dispatch them in convenient time; and so for the present dismiss'd them. On the Sunday following, Mr. Marshal preached in the Forenoon before his Majesty, taking for his Text that of Isaiah 32. 17. And the work of Righteousness shall be Peace, and the effect of Righteousness, quietness and assurance for ever.
The Commissioners several times attended his Majesty during their stay there, and pressed him to agree to the Propositions: And amongst the rest, the Lord Lowden, Chancellor of Scotland, made this following Speech.
Your Majesty was pleased on Monday last to call the Lords of your Council of Scotland, and Committee, to acquaint them with the Propositions, and told them before you would deliver your Answer, you would make the same known to them: The time assigned to the Commissioners stay is so short; and the Consequence of your Majesty's Answer of so great Importance, either for the Preservation or Ruine of your Crown and Kingdoms, as we could not be answerable to God, nor to that Trust reposed in us, unless we represent to your Majesty how necessary it is that your Majesty assent to the Propositions, as the Condition of Affairs now stand in so great extremity; and that the danger and loss of your Refusal will be remediless, and bring on a sudden Ruin and Destruction.
The Differences betwixt your Majesty and your Parliament (which no Man knoweth better than your Majesty's self) are grown to such a height, that after many bloody Battels, the Parliament having your Majesty, all the Forts, Garisons, and Strong-holds in their hands, having your Majesty's Revenue, Excise, Assessments, Sequestrations, and the Authority to raise all the Men and Money in the Kingdom; and having, after many Victories and great Successes, a strong Army on Foot, are now in such a posture for Strength and Power, they are in a capacity to do what they will both in Church and State. And some are so afraid, and others so unwilling to submit themselves to your Majesty's Government, that they desire not you, nor any of your Race, longer to reign over them: But the People are so wearied of the War, and great burthens they do groan under, are so 10th to have Monarchical Government destroyed, that they dare not attempt to cast it totally off, till once they send Propositions of Peace to your Majesty, left the People (without whose concurrence they are not able to carry on their design) should fall from them: But after so great War and Trouble, that they may have a perfect Security from Opposition and Arbitrary Power, they have resolved upon the Propositions which are tendered to your Majesty, as that without which the Kingdom and your People cannot be in Safety, and that there cannot be a firm Peace upon any other Terms.
Your Majesty's Friends in the Houses, and the Commissioners from Scotland, (after much wrestling) did consent to the sending of those Propositions, or to be rated the Hinderers of Peace, or otherwise to send no Propositions at all.
And now, Sir, if your Majesty (as God forbid) shall refuse to assent to the Propositions, you will lose all your Friends in the Houses, lose the City, and all the Country; and all England will join against you as one Man: They will process and depose you, and set up another Government; they will charge us to deliver your Majesty to them, and to render their Garisons, and remove our Armies out of England; and upon your Majesty's Refusal of the Propositions, both Kingdoms will be constrained for their mutual Safety, to agree and settle Religion and Peace without you; which (to our unspeakable grief) will ruin your Majesty and your Posterity, if Your Majesty refuse our faithful Advice (who desire nothing on earth more than the preservation of your Majesty's Royal Throne.) And if your Majesty lose England by your Wilfulness, you will not be permitted to come and reign in Scotland.
Sir, we have laid our hands upon our hearts; we have asked Counsel and Direction from God, and have had our most serious thoughts upon the Remedy, but can find no other to save your Crown and Kingdoms, than your Majesty's assenting to the Propositions, and dares not say but they are higher in some things, (if it were in our Power and Option to remedy) than we approved of: But when we see no other means for curing the distempers of the Kingdoms, and closing the Breach between your Majesty and your Parliament our most humble and safe Advice is, your Majesty will be graciously pleased to assent to them, as the only way to establish your Throne; because your Majesty shall be thereby received again in your Parliament, with the Applause and Acclamations of your People; by your Royal Presence all Friends will be strengthened, and all Enemies (who fear nothing so much as the granting the Propositions) will be weakned; your Majesty will have a fit Opportunity hereafter to offer such Propositions as you and your Parliament in Wisdom shall think fit for your Crown and Kingdom; the Armies will be disbanded, and your People finding the sweet Fruit of a peaceable Government, you will gain their Hearts and Affections, and that will be your Majesty's Strength and Glory, and will recover all that you have lost in this Time of Tempest and of Trouble.
And if it please God to incline your Royal Heart to this Advice of your humble and faithful Servants, who next to the Honour and Service of God, esteem nothing more precious than the Safety of your Person and Crown, our Actions shall make it appear, That we esteem no hazard too great for your Majesty's Safety; and that we are willing to sacrifice our Lives and Fortunes for establishing your Throne and just Right.
But his Majesty did not think this Importunity sufficient to prevail upon his Consent; and return'd his Royal Answer touching the said Propositions, in a Paper delivered to the said Commissioners, August the 1st, in these Words:
The Propositions tender'd to his Majesty by the Commissioners from the Lords and Commons assembled in the Parliament of England at Westminster, and the Commissioners of the Parliament of Scotland, (to which the Houses of Parliament have taken twice so many Months for deliberation as they have assigned Days for his Majesty's Answer) do import so great Alterations in Government both in the Church and Kingdom, as it is very difficult to return a particular and positive Answer, before a full debate, wherein these Propositions, and the necessary Explanation, true Sense and Reasons thereof, be rightly weighed and understood; and that his Majesty upon a full view of the whole Propositions, may know what is best, as well as what is taken away and changed. In all which he finds (upon discourse with the said Commissioners that they are so bound up from any capacity either to give Reasons for the Demands they bring, or to give ear to such Desires as his Majesty is to propound, as it is impossible for him to give such a present Judgment of, and Answer to these Propositions, whereby he can answer to God that a safe and well-grounded Peace will ensue (which is evident to all the World can never be, unless the just Power of the Crown, as well as the Freedom and Propriety of the Subject, with the just Liberty and Privileges of the Parliament, be likewise settled:) To which end his Majesty desires and proposeth to come to London, or any of his Houses thereabouts, upon the Publick Faith and Security of the Two Houses of Parliament, and the Scotch Commissioners, That he shall be there with Freedom, Honour, and Safety: whereby his Personal Presence he may not only raise a mutual Confidence betwixt him and his People, but also have these Doubts cleared, and these Difficulties explained unto him, which he now conceives to be destructive to his just Regal Power, if he shall give a full Consent to these Propositions, as they now stand.
As like wise, that he may make known to them such his reasonable Demands as he is most assured will be very much conducible to that Peace which all good Men desire and pray for, by the setling of. Religion, the just Privileges of Parliament, with the Freedom and Propriety of the Subject: And his Majesty assures them, That as he can never condescend unto what is absolutely destructive to that just Power which by the Laws of God and the Land he is born unto; so he will chearfully grant and give his Assent unto all such Bills, at the desire of his Two Houses, or reasonable demands for Scotland which shall be really for the Good and Peace of his People, not having regard to his own particular (much less of any body's else) in respect of the Happiness of these Kingdoms. Wherefore his Majesty conjures them as Christians as Subjects, and as Men who desire to leave a good Name behind them that they will so receive and make use of this Answer, that all Issues of Blood may be stopped, and these unhappy Distractions peaceably setled.
With this Answer, the Commissioners having taken leave of his Majesty, on Sunday, Aug. 2. began their Journey for London, and came thither on Monday Aug. 10. and on the 12th reported their Proceedings, and his Majesty's Answer to the House of Commons, and had the Thanks of that House.
About this time Mr. Henderson a Scotch Minister, came to Newcastle, and much important his Majesty to pass the Propositions: But his Majesty affirming that he could not in Conscience consent to several things therein, especially to the Change of Church-Government from the Ancient Order of Episcopacy, several Papers pass'd between his Majesty and the said Henderson; which shew his Majesty's great Abilities in those Controversies, being at a time when he could not have the Assistance of any of his Chaplains. Which Papers being extant in his Majesty's Works, we thereunto refer the Reader. The said Mr. Henderson returning from Newcastle to Edinburgh, was there taken sick, and died about the End of August, much lamented by those of his Party; being indeed a Person of great Learning and Abilities, and more Moderation than many of them.