Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 6, 1645-47. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1722.
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Chap. III. The Proceedings of Fairfax's Army, amp;c.
A council of War called.
The Parliament being thus become Masters of Bristol, on Saturday, Sept.13. a Council of War was called in their Army to advise whether they should march presently for the Relief of Plimouth, and further Parts of the West, or to clear those Garrisons that did interpose between the West and London; which latter was very necessary, for that if those Garrisons were not reduced, they would hinder Correspondency between London and the Army except at high Rates, of very excessive Trouble and Charge to the Army by Convoys upon every occasion. But it was resolved for the present to attempt only the taking in of Berkley and the Devizes, as those that were the nearest, deferring the rest to further Opportunities. Colonel Rainsborough for that purpose was Commanded to march with a Brigade (consisting of Major Gen. Skippon's, Col. Herbert's and Lieut. Col. Pride's Regiments,) for the taking in of Berkley Castle (already blocked up by Horse) the only Garrison considerable left in the County of Gloucester, interrupting the Passage between that City and Bristol Lieut. Gen. Cromwell was designed by the General with another Brigade (consisting of Col. Montague's, Col. Pickering's, Sir Hardress Waller's and Col. Hammond's Regiments) for the taking in of the Devizes and Laicock-House.
Wednesday, Sept. 17. General Fairfax marched to Bath, and rested there four or five Days, for the better Recovery of his Health, having been much wearied out, and spent with the Fatigues he endured at Bristol-Siege.
Lieut Gen Cromwell set down before the Devizes
During which time Cromwell sat down before the Castle of the Devizes, which commanded the County of Wilts, and was situate in the Road of Traffick between the West and London; a Place of great Strength, having been an old Fortification, raised on a huge Mount of Earth; the Governour Sir Charles Lloyd, a stout Gentleman, and a good Engineer, had added to the Strength of its natural Situation what Art could do; having cut out of the main Earth several Works commanding one another, and so strong that no Cannon could pierce them; besides that, being Pallizado'd and Stockado'd in most Places, it was a matter of extream Difficulty to storm it: Cromwell having conveniently planted his Cannon and Mortar-pieces, on Sunday at One of the Clock he sent in to Summon the Castle.
The Governour sent forth Word, That the King his Master put him in Trust, and he desired ten Days time to send to him; in the mean time he would keep it for the King. Cromwell in Reply wished him not to let slip such an Opportunity: But if he were otherwise resolved, gave leave to send forth his Lady, and such other Gentlewomen as were in the Castle; adding that none were more fitting to keep strong Holds, Forts and Castles, than the Parliament for the use of the King.
The Governour Capitulates.
But all that the Governour returned was, Win it and wear it, Upon Receipt of which Answer, Cromwell having put all things in readiness for a Storm, gave Command to the Cannoaiers presently to give fire, and also to play the Mortar-pieces; which was accordingly done, and some of the Granadoes breaking in the midst of the Castle (being open above) killed several of their Men, and much endangered the Blowing up of the Magazine; which so startled them, on Monday about Eight of the Clock in the Morning, the Governour sent forth for a Parley, and about Eleven of the Clock Cromwell them in these Propositions following.
Conditions of Surrender.
- 1. That all Commanders and Gentlemen should march to any Garrison the King had within thirty Miles, with their Horse and Arms: And that all private Soldiers should march away leaving their Arms behind them, but to go to the same Garrisons the Commanders marched to.
- 2. That all Gentlemen should have Liberty to go to their own Homes or beyond the Seas.
- 3. That all Soldiers that have been formerly in the Parliament's Service, mould be delivered up to the Lieut. Gen. and all Soldiers that would take up Arms in the Parliament's Service should be entertained.
The Devizes Surrender'd, Sept. 23.
To these Propositions a speedy Answer was desired, that so they might march away by Four of the Clock in the Afternoon. The Governour seeing no other Remedy, agreed to them all, (saving in point of Time) and delivered up the Castle on the Morrow at Ten of the Clock, at which time they marched out. The Governour and his Officers with their Arms, and his Foot without Arms, having the Liberty of Three Carriages, and a safe Convoy to Worcester. The Number of Soldiers that marched out were about 400. In the Castle was found a very plentiful Magazine of Victuals, good Store of Ammunition, and two Pieces of Ordnance.
Col. Pickering sent to reduce Laicock-House the same day.
No sooner was the Devizes gained, but the same Day Col. Pickering with his own and two Regiments more, was Commanded to Laicock-House, a Garrison of the King's kept by Col. Bovile, who considering that neither Bristol nor the Devizes were able to hold out against such Force, did easily resolve, that A poor House was much less able (though in truth there were good Works about it) therefore upon the first Summons, he came to Conditions of Surrender, and had Honourable Terms granted him: Upon which he march'd out the next Day towards Exeter, viz. Himself, his Officers and Soldiers, with their Arms and Baggage.
Berkley-Castle-Stormed by Col. Rainsborough; Berkley-Castle Surrender'd, Sept. 26.
The same Day Col. Rainsborough with his Forces before Berkley-Castle Storm'd the Out-works and the Church, which were the main Strength of the Castle, with Scaling Ladders, performing the Service with so much Resolution, as quickly made them Masters of the Place; wherein were taken ninety Prisoners, besides forty put to the Sword, amongst whom were a Major and a Captain. This was such a terror and discouragement to those within the Castle, to see the Execution done upon theirs in the Church and Out-works, that the Governour Sir Charles Lucas perceiving the planting of their Ordnance against him upon his own Works (which were newly lost, whereby they had a great Advantage to play into the Castle) sounded a Parley, which was yielded to, and Commissioners sent out to Treat, and the Castle was Surrender'd upon these Articles. The Soldiers to march out without Arms; the Governour Sir Charles Lucas with Three Horses and Arms, and not above Fifty Pound in Money, every Field-Officer with Two Horses, and but Five Pound in Money; Foot-Captains with Swords, but no Horses the Soldiers with not above Five Shillings apiece.
There march'd out of this Castle about 500 Horse and Foot, who left in it Eleven Pieces of Ordnance, Provision of Victuals for Six Months (afterwards sold for a good Value, for the Use of the Soldiery.) On the Besiegers-side were lost in that Service one Captain, and divers common Soldiers, and many wounded. Col. Herbert as he led on his Men to storm, was shot through the Hat, but without further Hurt.
On Sept. 26. Fairfax having call'd a Council of War, wherein it was resolved to march with the Main Body of the Army into the West, sent away his Lieut. Gen. Cromwell with the before-mention'd Brigade (consisting of Four Regiments of Foot, and Three Regiments of Horse) to attempt the taking in of the Garrisons of Winchester and Basing-House, which would otherwise interrupt the Entercourse between London and Fairfax's Army.
Accordingly Cromwell advanced to Winchester, and took it upon Articles. Touching the manner of which he gave this following Account to the General.
Lieut. Gen. Cromwell's Letter of the taking of Winchester.
I am come to Winchester on the Lord's-Day, being the Twenty-eighth of September, with Col. Pickering, commanding his own, Col. Montague's, and Sir Hardress Waller's Regiments. After some Dispute with the Governour, we enter'd the Town, I summoned the Castle, but was denied; whereupon we fell to prepare our Batteries, which we could not perfect, some of our Guns being out of order, until Friday following; Our Battery was Six Guns, which being finished, after once firing of them round, I sent him a second Summons for a Treaty, which they refused; whereupon we went on with our Work, and made a Breach in the Wall, near the Black Tower, which after about 200 Shot, we thought Stormable, and purposed on Monday Morn to attempt it. On Sunday about Ten of the Clock, the Governour beat a Parley, desiring to Treat: I agreed: unto it, and sent Col. Hammond and Maj. Harrison in to him, who agreed unto these inclosed Articles.
The Castle was well Manned, with 680 Horse and Foot, there being near 200 Gentlemen Officers, and their Servants; well Victualled, with 1500 Weight of Cheese, very great Store of Wheat and Beer, near Twenty Barrels of Powder, Seven Pieces of Cannon, the Works were exceeding good and strong. It is very likely it would have cost much Blood to have gained it by Storm: This is repeated to you, that God may have all the Praise, for it is all his due. Sir, I rest,
Your Most Humble Servant,
Articles agreed upon the Fifth of October 1645, between the Right Honourable William Viscount Ogle, Governour of the Garrison of the Castle of Winton, of the one part, and Col. Robert Hammond, and Major Thomas Harrison, on the Behalf of Lieutenant General Oliver Cromwell of the other Party, for the Surrender of the said Castle.
- 1. That the Lord Ogle shall deliver up the Castle of Winchester with all the Arms, Ordnance, Ammunition, Provision, and all Function of War whatsoever, without any Imbezelment, Waft or Spoil unto that Officer or Officers as shall be thereunto appointed by the said Lieut General to Morrow being Monday the Sixth of October, by Three of the Clock in the Afternoon.
- 2. That the said Lord Ogle shall have his own Colours, and One hundred fix'd Arms for his Guard, and One hundred Men to carry them.
- 3. That the Lord Ogle, and all the Officers in Commission, shall march out of the said Castle with their own Horse and Arms, and their own proper Goods, unto Woodstock, whither they shall be safely Conveyed.
- 4. That there shall be allowed to the Lord Ogle and his Officers Six Carriages for the Transporting of their Goods aforesaid.
- 5. That all Officers, Gentlemen, Clergymen, and Inhabitants of the City of Winchester, and all Officers within the Guards, desiring it, may be at their own time free from all Violence and Injury of the Parliament's Forces.
- 6. That the Lord Ogle shall give sufficient Hostages for the Performance of the Articles here Constituted on their Part to be performed, as for the safe Return of the Convoy.
Provisions found there, viz.
- Seven Pieces of Ordinance
- Seventeen Barrels of Powder
- Two Thousand Weight of Musquet-Bullet
- Eight hundred Weight of Match
- Thirty eight Hogsheads of Beef and Pork
- Fifteen thousand Weight of Cheese
- Eight hundred Pound of Butter.
- One hundred and forty Quarters of Wheat and Meal.
- Three Hogsheads of French Wine.
- Ten Quarters of Salt.
- Twenty Bushels of Oatmeal.
- Seventy Dozen of Candles.
- Thirty Load of Wood.
- Forty Quarters of Charcoal.
- Thirty Bushels of Seacoal.
- Fourteen Sheep.
- Four Quarters of fresh Beef.
- Seven thousand Weight of Bisket.
- One hundred and twelve Hogsheads of Strong Beer.
The Castle was Manned with 700 Men, divers of them Reformadoes; the Chief Men there were Visc. Ogle the Governour, Sir John Pawlet an Old Soldier, Sir W. Courtney, and Col. Bennet, also Dr. Curle the Bishop of Winchester, who was safely convey'd to me.
A Complaint being made by some of the Garrison for Injuries they had sustained at their marching forth of Winchester, by being Plundered, contrary to the Articles, by some of the Parliament's Troopers; the matter was inquired into, and the Troopers that did it were apprehended and tryed by a Council of War, and condemned to die, and after Lots cast for their Lives (being Six of them; he whose Lot it was, was Executed. And the other Five were sent with a Convoy to Oxford, with a full Account of this Proceeding to Sir Tho. Glemham His Majesty's Governour there, to be delivered over as Prisoners, and to be put to death, or otherwise punished as he should think fit. Which Justice was so well resented, that Sir Thomas Glemham returned the Prisoners back again, with an Acknowledgment of the Lieut. General's Civility in being so tender of Breach of Articles.
From Win'on Cromwell advanc'd to Basing, the House of my Lord Marquis of Winchester, which he having strongly Fortified kept Garrison therein himself for His Majesty, and had already withstood several Sieges, and always beat off the Enemy, or forced them to rise with Loss: The Marquis declaring, That if the King had no more Ground in England, but Basing-House, he would adventure as he did, and hold it out to the utmost Extremity; insomuch, That this House was called by the King's Party Loyalty The Works were many, the Line of Circumvallation above a Mile in Compass. The old House had stood some Hundreds of Years, but the new one surpassed in State and Beauty, and either of them were fit for a Royal Place.
Cromwell knew the Resolution of this Garrison, and therefore whatever it cost him resolved to storm it, wherein he succeeded, and became Master of it on Tuesday the 14th of October, which was thus related by him in his Letter to the Speaker
Cromwell's Letter giving an account of the Storming and taking of Basing-House.
I Thank God I can give you a good Account of Basing: After our Batteries placed, we settled the several Posts forthe Storm: Col. D'Albier was to be on the North side next the Grange; Col. Pickering on his Lefthand, and Sir Hardress Waller's, and Col. Montague's Regiments next him. We stormed this Morning, after Six of the Clock; the Signal for falling on, was the firing four of our Cannon, which being done, our Men fell on with great Resolution and Cheerfulness; we took the two Houses without any considerable Loss to our selves: Col. Pickering stormed the New House, passed through and got the Gate of the Old House; whereupon they summoned a Parley, which our Men would not hear; in the mean time Col. Montague's, and Sir Hardress Waller's Regiments assaulted the strongest Works where the Enemy kept his Court of Guard, which with great Resolution they recovered, beating the Enemy from a whole Culverin, and from that Work, which having done, they drew their Ladders after them, and got over another Work, and the House-Wall before they could enter. In this Sir Hardress Waller performing his Duty with Honour and Diligence, was shot in the Arm, but not dangerously. We have had little Loss; many of the Enemy our Men put to the Sword, and some Officers of Quality; most of the rest we have Prisoners, among which the Marquis, and Sir Robert Peak, with divers other Officers, whom I have ordered to be sent to you: We have-taken about Ten Pieces of Ordnance, much Ammunition, and our Soldiers a good Encouragement.
I humbly offer to have this Place slighted for these Reasons: It will ask 800 Men to Man it; it is no Frontier, the Country is poor about it, the Place exceedingly ruin'd by our Batteries and Mortar-Pieces, and a Fire which fell upon the Place since our taking it. If you please to take the Garrison of Farnham, some out of Chichester, and a good Part of the Foot which are here under D'Albier, and make a strong Quarter at Newbery, with three or four Troops of Horse; I dare be confident it would not only be a Curb to Denington, but a Security and Frontier to all those Parts, and by lying there, will make the Trade more secure between Bristol and London for all Carriages; and I believe the Gentry of Sussex and Hampshire will with more cheerfulness contribute to maintain a Garrison on the Frontier than in their Bowels, which will have less Safety in it. Sir, I hope not to delay, but march towards the West to Morrow, and to be as diligent as I may in my Expedition thither. I must speak my Judgment to you, that if you intend to have your Work carried on, Recruits of Foot must be had, and a Course taken to pay your Army; else believe me, Sir, it may not be able to answer the Work you have for it to do.
I intreated Col. Hammond to wait upon you, who was taken by a Mistake whilst we lay before this Garrison, whom God safely delivered to us, to our great Joy, but to his Loss of almost all he had, which the Enemy took from him.
The Lord grant that these Mercies may be acknowledg'd with all thankfulness: God exceedingly abounds in his Goodness to us, and will not be weary, until Righteousness and Peace meet, and that he hath brought forth a Glorious Work for the Happiness of this poor Kingdom; wherein desire to serve God and you, with a faithful Heart,
Your Most Humble Servant,
Basingstoke, Octob. 14. 1645.
Langford-House Surender'd to Cromwell, Oct. 8th.
From Basing, Cromwell march'd to Langford-House (near Salisburry) and facing the same with Part of his Brigade, sent in a Summons, and the Governour considering that Winchester and Basing had not been able to resist that Force, and how much less he could hope to withstand them, yielded to Surrender upon Articles, that the Commanders in chief should march away with Horse and Arms, the Gentlemen therein not exceeding Fourteen, with Swords and Pistols, and the private Soldiers without Arms; and the Goods in the said House to be delivered to the several Owners within two Days upon Demand.
The General marches to Warminster.
In the mean time General Fairfax on Saturday, Sept. 27. marched to Warminster, and there made an Halt for two or three Days, till Col. Rainsborough from the taking of Berkley-Castle might come up to him. On the 30th the Army advanc'd to Shaftsbury, being so out of Money that they were all forced to take free Quarter, and so on by continual Marches to Chard, whence on Wednesday, Octob. the 8th, Fairfax went to Lyme to see the State of that Garrison, where he staid all Night. On the 11th of that Month the Money which had been so long expected from London, arrived at the Head-Quarters at Chard, and the same Night the Army was paid, having been ever since the taking of Bristol without Pay.
On Monday, Octob. 13. Part of Fairfax's Army being advanced to Axminster (and the Lord Goring with near 1500 Horse being come on this side the River Ex, as far as Poltimore.) In the Night his Lordship, the Lord Wentworth, the Lord Miller, and a strong Party of Cavalry passing through Hunnington, came on to Blackdown, fell into Fairfax's Quarters, and took Prisoners about forty Foot, and twenty Dragoons. The next Night Fairfax's Horse, and most of his Foot lay in the Field about Hunnington, fearing the like Surprize, or that the Lord Goring should attempt to break through them to joyn with the King, but on the 15th understanding the Lord Goring was marched over the River Ex, Fairfax caused Part of his Army to be Quartered along that River, at Broadnixe, Silverton, and Columb-John, within three or four Miles of Exeter, to prevent his Return, and with the rest of the Army marched to Tiverton, where Major-General Massey with his Horse, and Col. Welden's Brigade had been to block it up.
Tiverton Castle taken by Fairfax, Oct. 19th.; Treachery remarkably punish'd.
On Saturday, Oct. 18. The Batteries were raised, and the next Day after Forenoon Sermon, a Council of War being called, it was resolv'd to storm (the season of the year not admitting loss of time) but whilst they were consulting the manner how to order the Attack, the Ordnance playing hard against the works and Castle, Round-shot happen'd to break the Chain of the Draw-Bridge, whereby the Bridge fell down, and immediately the Soldiers spying that Advantage,
without waiting for Orders, possess'd themselves of the Bridge, enter'd the Works, and made themselves Masters, first of the Churchyard, and soon after of both the Church and the Castle. Col. Sir Gilbert Talbot the Governour, who had made as brave a Defence as was possible in such a Juncture, being taken Prisoner with about 200 more, amongst whom was one Major George Sadler, who formerly served the Parliament, but deserted them, and betook himself to the King's Party, but had lately made several private Overtures if he might be pardoned, which being rejected, and he now taken, was called before a Council of War, and condemned to suffer Death for his former Desertion, who to save his Life broke Prison (after Sentence) and fled to Exeter, but there was again by the Royal Party tried by a Council of War, for endeavouring to betray their Cause after he had undertaken it, being charged to have treacherously quitted his Posts in this Action at Tiverton, and for the same was adjudged to die, and executed accordingly.
In the next Place, Fairfax's Army resolved to try their Fortunes on the City of Exeter, where his Majesty had a strong Garrison; for though they had a great mind to relieve Plimouth, which at the same time was Besieged by the Royal Party, yet finding their Army much weaken'd and tir'd, it was not thought fit to advance thither, and leave such a Force as there was in Exeter behind them: Therefore on Monday, Octob. 20. Fairfax marched to Silverton, thence to Newton Siers, and on the 23d came to a Rendezvous at the Beacon, within three Miles of Exeter, and made his Head Quarters that Night at Crediton, where he received Intelligence that the Lord Goring with a considerable Party of Horse was gone out of Exeter towards Okehampton, and soon after to Tavestock.
On the 28th of October, it was concluded at a Council of War, to make several Garrisons, first on the East-side of Exeter, as at Bishops-Clyffe, Stoak and Poultimore, which being once finish'd, a few Men might keep them, and cut off Provisions from the City that way, and then the whole Army might be at Liberty to go on the other side of the Town to do the like there afterwards. In pursuance whereof Garrisons were form'd accordingly on the East-side of the River Ex, and the General with the Train of Artillery repair to St. Mary Autree, making that his Head-Quarters, where he continued till the second of December, but in the mean time by Reason of the Season, and want of Accommodations, abundance of his Army, especially the Foot, were sick, and many died, seldom less than seven, eight or nine in a Day in the Town of Autree, and amongst the rest Col. Pickering died, and some other Officers. The Royal Party had notice of this Consumption of Fairfax's Army, and his Highness the Prince of Wales was not wanting in his Industry to raise Forces in Cornwall and Devon; and to draw together the Forces from their Quarters before Plimouth, and some Foot from Dartmouth and Barnstaple, which together with the Recruits brought in by Sir Richard Greenvile, made a formidable Body, consisting in all of eight or nine thousand Horse and Foot, and were Quarter'd about Tavestock, Okehampton, &c intending to oblige Fairfax to rise from the East-side of Exeter. Who having Intelligence of their Preparations and Advance, and having now pretty well settled his Garrisons on that side, ordered several Regiments of his Foot to remove beyond the River to Crediton, a Place better situated for Air, who shortly after made an Attempt on Pouldrum House, where the King had a Garrison; but after hard Service, they were forc'd to quit that Design, and Retreat.
Royalists Quarters at Bovey-Tracy Beaten up, Jan. 9. 1645.
On December 26. Fairfax had further Advertisement from Plimouth, and confirm'd by several of his Spies, that the King's Forces were advancing towards him, most of their Horse being come to Okehampton; which quicken'd him into Thoughts of marching to meet them, and drew up his Horse and some Foot at Cadbury-Hill, and in the mean time made Provisions for a continued March; having in his Thoughts the Garrison of Dartmouth, by Carriages on Horse-back, those Parts admitting no other. On Jan. the 8th, all things being in Readiness, the Horse and Foot set forwards to Crediton; but to amuse the King's Forces, as if the Army had bent towards Okehampton, Sir Hardress Waller with two Regiments march'd to Bow, and had a Skirmish with some Horse and Dragoons there Quarter'd, and took some Prisoners, whilst at the same time a Brigade of Horse and Foot Commanded by Cromwell, advanced that Night to Crediton, and the next Day (tho' very cold and much Snow on the Ground) came to Bovey-Tracy, where Part of the Lord Wentworth's Brigade then lay, whom they surprizing thus unexpectedly, took between three and four hundred Horses, but most of the Men through the Darkness of the Night got away, except one Major, and some few other Officers, and about fifty Common Troopers, who were taken Prisoners, and seven Colours left behind. On the 10th Fairfax advanced to Ashburton, and the next Day to Totness, and whilst he prepared to attack Dartmouth, sent out strong Parties of Horse after the King's Forces towards Tavestock, whom they apprehending to be the Van of the whole Army, which they supposed to be following, hasten'd their March, quitted the Siege before Plimouth, leaving their Forts undemolish'd, with Seven Pieces of Ordnance, and Four Barrels of Powder, which at that Season of the Year, and in those ways, they could not carry off, and so pass'd the River Tamar into Cornwall.
Dartmouth Stormed and taken by Fairfax, Jan. 18th. 1645.
Dartmouth having return'd a resolute Negative Answer to the Summons sent in, it was resolved to storm the Town; and whilst Provisions were making for that Purpose, Capt. Batten a Commander at Sea for the Parliament, came before the Haven with a Squadron of Ships (being sent for by Fairfax) to assist by Sea, and keep any Ships from going out of the Harbour, whilst it was Storm'd by Land, who also Landed 200 of his Seamen, who had their Post allotted them on Shore, and did great Service in the Storm, which began on Sunday, Jan. 18. about Eleven a Clock at Night. The Assailants Word given was, God with us, and the Signal of the Soldiers, their Shirts out before and behind. They went on with so much Fury and Resolution, that after the Town had discharged once, before they could get ready a second, they were got under their Cannon, and quickly possess'd them, and turn'd them on the Town, for they had no great Pieces of their own there, the Way and Weather not admitting any to be drawn to that Place, where there were near an Hundred Pieces mounted against them. The Particulars of this Action were related by General Fairfax, as followeth in a Letter to the House of Peers.
Fairfax's Letter to the House of Peers concerning the taking of Dartmouth, Jan. 20. 1645.
After my coming to Totness, the Enemy rising in great disorder from their Siege at Plimouth, leaving their Guns and some Ammunition behind them, I considered with those about me of attempting upon Dartmouth; and it being concluded affirmatively, I caused Two Regiments of Foot to march to Ditsam, and Two to Stoke-Fleming, being on the West-side of Dart-River. I having Summoned the place before, resolv'd upon Sunday Night to attempt it by Storm, which was agreed to be done in three Places; the first Post was on the West-Gate by Colonel Hammond; on the North-end of the Town by Lieut. Col. Pride; and on Tunstall Church and Works by Fortescue: The time resolved upon was in the Evening; our Men fell on with great Resolution, to whom Col. Lambert's Regiment was a Reserve, and to Alarm the Enemy elsewhere, Col. Hammond enter'd the West-Gate, where Four Guns where planted, and Two upon the Mill-Pool, upon his Flank, (the Enemy firing his Great Guns but once): His Men that had the Forlorn Hope did very Gallantly (as indeed they did all) and went freely on, and beat off the Enemy, and possessed one Fort after another, viz. Mount Flagon, the West Gate, Paradice Fort, and beat off the Main Guard, where were taken Four Lieut. Colonels; and so possessed the Town, from the WestGate to Little Dartmouth. In the interim Lieut. Col Pride attempted the North-part of the Town, called Harness, where beating off the Enemy, he enter'd, and took about Eighty Prisoners in it, and by it possessed all the North-part of the Town, unto the Draw-Bridge, which divided the North-part from the rest of the Town, where Col. Hammond's Men, and his met. Col. Fortescue with his Men attempted Tunstal-Church, which was very well Manned with above a Hundred Men, and having in it Ten Guns; his Men after some dispute, with good Resolution enter'd the place and possessed it. So that by this time the Enemy was beaten out of all, except the Great Fort on the East-side of the River called Kingsworth Fort, and the Castle, with the Fort that lay over the Castle, at the Mouth of the Harbour, called Gallants-Bower; to which last, the Governour and the Earl of Newport, and as many as escaped us, fled. After they were forced from their Strengths out of the Town; the Governour coming back from the Castle, to see in what posture the Town was, had a remarkable shot, as he was in the Boat; a Musquet shot was made at the Boat, which pierced the Boat, and both the Thighs of one that sat next to him, and about three Inches into his own Thigh; whereupon he Retreated to the Castle. Our Dragoons with two Companies of our Firelocks, and some Seamen, were only to alarm Kingsworth-Fort, wherein was Sir Henry Cary with his Regiment, having in it Twelve Guns, and Twelve Barrels of Powder, and convenient proportion of Ammunition. This was a very strong Fort, with about four good Bulwarks, strong enough to make a troublesome Resistance: But the Enemy came willingly to Terms; and to save time, I willingly condescended to let Sir Henry Cary march away with the rest, leaving the Arms, Ordnance, Ammunition, with all Provisions in the Fort, to me, and all engaging themselves never to take up Arms more against the Parliament; which was accordingly performed. Next Morning, being thus Master of all, but the Castle and Gallants- Bower, I Summoned that; the Governour was willing to listen unto me, but I held him to those Terms, upon which after some dispute he yielded, which was to deliver himself and all Officers and Soldiers, upon Quarter. He sent me out Col Seymour, and Mr. Denham for Hostages, with whom came out the Earl of Newport, and all was this day performed accordingly. In this Fort and Castle were Eleven Guns with proportion of Ammunition and Provisions. We have taken in the Harbour Two Men of War; one belonging to the Governour of Barnstaple, with Twelve Guns, Burthen 200 Tuns; the other belonging to Newcastle, formerly Capt. Johnson's, of ten Guns.
In the Town 103 Pieces of Ordnance, and about 600 Prisoners, and 100 Horse, with good proportion of Arms and Ammunition, one exact particular whereof I am not able to give your Lordships at present.
There being many of the Town-Soldiers in Plimouth, and some Officers, and understanding that that Town hath Two thousand five hundred in Garrison, besides Townsmen, I have sent thither for Five hundred Foot for this place, who quickly will encrease to more; and to this I desire your approbation; for having found more Work to do, I hold it not fit to weaken my Army, especially considering the Recruits designed by you, I doubt, will be too long before they come.
I have given your Lordships a brief account of this Service, which I desire may be accounted a sweet Mercy of God, in a fitting season, and only ascribed to him, who (truly) did direct and act it, and made all the preparation to it, both in the ordering our hearts, and giving health to the Army, who labour'd two Months ago extremely of Sickness, but is now in good disposition generally as to Health. I can say, I find it to be in the hearts of all here in all integrity to serve you; and that it is so, is still the Mercy of God; for surely the Success of your Affairs only depends upon the ordering of a Gracious Providence, which is no less visible in your Councils, (which we Congratulate) than amongst us; that being the common root and spring of all, and which can and will carry you through the greatest difficulties, and us in serving you, until God hath finished his own Work: Wherein to profess the Obligation and readiness of my self, and the Army, by the same good hand of God is all the undertaking of
Your Lordships most Humble Servant,
Darthmouth, Jan. 20th 1645.
Prisoners taken at Dartmouth.
Sir Hugh Pollard Governour, the Earl of Newport; Col. Seymour, Four Lieutenant Colonels, Two Majors, Fifteen Captains, Fourteen Lieutenants, Nine Ensigns, and one Cornet, besides many Country Gentlemen, Ministers, and Inferior Officers.
All the Common Soldiers being betwixt 800 and 1000, were set at liberty to repair to their Dwellings. Ordnance about 120 mounted; and two Men of War in the Harbour, and soon after a French Vessel coming from the Queen struck in there, presuming that Town still in the King's hands, and so was made Prize; they had on Board a Packet of Letters from her Majesty, which as soon as they perceived their mistake they slung into the Sea, but a Boat being sent out to seek it, the same was retriev'd, and several Letters of Importance thereby Intercepted.
On Monday the 19th, Sir Henry Cary who commanded one of the Forts, being after the loss of the Town, necessitated to Parley, and having obtained as Honourable Conditions as in such a Case could be expected, marched out with all his Officers and Soldiers, leaving the Ordnance, Ammunition, &c. behind them therein.
Tuesday the 20th, the Guns were cleared. The General went aboard Capt. Batten's Ship, where he was Nobly Entertain'd. All the Cornish Men that were Prisoners, were set at liberty, and had Two Shillings a Man to carry them home, the better to oblige and win the Affections of that County. Also Commissioners were appointed to dispose of the Prize-goods taken in the Town, towards the Reparation of such in the Town as had adhered to the Parliament, and were damnified by the Storm, who had the greatest part of those Goods distributed amongst them.
Pouldram Castle Surrender'd, Jan. 25
And now Fairfax having gain'd these advantages by this Diversion, draws back his Army again towards Exeter, and having Issued out Warrants to four Hundreds, for the Country to make their Appearance at Totness on Jan. 24. They came in thither in all to the Number of about 3000, out of whom a Regiment was raised under Col. Fowel; which being done, and Pouldram Castle Surrender'd to Col. Hammond, who was sent to attack the same, wherein he found five Barrels of Powder with proportionate Match and Bullet, and four Pieces of Ordnance; On the 27th a Summons with an offer of Conditions was sent in to the City of Exeter, whereunto the next day an Answer was returned, that they could not in Honour Surrender upon the Terms offered, whilst they were in no worse Condition, and had such probable hopes of Relief from the Prince: To which a Reply was sent; and indeed little besides these Papers past at that time between them, save only that the Parliamentarians now Blockt up the City on the West-side also, by setling Guards and Quarters at Affington, Barley-House, and Reymouth-House within a Mile of the City, and a Garrison kept at Pouldram, and some Foot under the Command of Col. Shapcoat, lay before the Fort at Exmouth, so that Exeter was compleatly straitned and Blockaded on all sides, and the Command in chief of all these Forces conferred on Sir Hardress Waller, whilst General Fairfax with the rest of his Army was once more forc'd to march off, to meet the Lord Hopton, who (in the absence of the Lord Goring, who was gone into France to sollicite Aid, or on some other Service for his Majesty) being made Commander in Chief under the Prince, and having been Reinforced with New Levies in Cornwall, had used Extraordinary Expedition, marching in one day from Siratton to Torrington (which is eighteen long miles) with near four thousand Horse, and three thousand Foot, expecting there 1000 Horse and Foot more to joyn them from Barnstaple, and having with them great store of Cattel, Sheep, Salt and other Provisions for the Relief of Exeter.
To oppose them, Fairfax on the 10th of February march'd from Chidley to Crediton, where waiting till Supply of Money, and some other Forces came up to him, he advanced on the 14th to Chimley and from thence to Torrington, where a smart Engagement happened. The Account of which as it was given to the House of Commons in a Letter from General Fairfax ran thus.
To the Honourable William Lenthal, Esq; Speaker of the Honourable House of Commons.
Fairfax's Letter concerning the Fight at Torrington.
Plymouth being set free, and Dartmouth taken, I sent Col. Hammond with part of the Foot to possess part of the Houses near Exeter, for the Blocking of it upon the West-side of the River, as formerly I had done on the East, and lay with the rest of the Army, so as to Countenance both that work, and the raising of some Forces in the Southams to lie about Totness for the securing of that Country, and to keep the Enemy from coming on that side of Devonshire again, when the Army should remove to the other; these two things with the continual foul Weather at that time, and the absence of Col. Cook with so many of the Horse, occasioned my stay thereabouts above a Fortnight, in which time the Houses being competently Fortified, and the Forces raising in the Southams in good forwardness, I drew the Army up towards Credition, with purpose to advance into the North of Devonshire also, either by the taking of Branstaple, or by Blocking of it up, and raising a Force in that well affected corner to keep it in, so as having all clear, or made fast behind me, I might the better follow the remaining Field-force of the Enemy into Cornwall. And to continue the Blocking up of Exeter on the Westside, I left Sir Hardress Waller with Three Regiments of Foot, and one of Horse of this Army, and advanced with Five Regiments of Horse, and Seven Regiments of Foot, and Five Troops of Dragoons, the rest of the Horse and Dragoons being absent with Col Cook in Dorsetshire, but then sent for to come up, when I was resolved upon my Advance this way. The Enemy at the same time advanced out of Cornwall with all the Foot to Torrington, about which their Horse did lie before, and began to Fortify the Town; their Intentions therein, as we conceived, and do since further find, where by advantage of this place and their Garrison of Barnstaple so near it, to make this part of Devonshire more surely theirs, and more difficult for us to come into, and lying so much the nearer to Exeter (against which they supposed this Army wholly engaged) to take their best advantages from hence; and from Chimley, which they meant also to have possessed, to relieve Exeter on the North-side, or disturb us in the Siege. And it is probable they might have a further purpose in their Posture here, to secure the Landing of Irish or Welsh Supplies so much the forwarder towards the East.
On Saturday last, I advanced from Crediton to Chimley, where by many Prisoners I was informed, that the Lord Hopton had hereabouts Four thousand Horse, and Three thousand Foot; We believed them to be about Two thousand Foot or upwards, and Three thousand Horse; the extream foulness of Weather that day and the next, occasioned me not to advance from about Chimley for the next Night, save only one Foot-Quarter, and an Horse-Guard advanced to Rings-Ash, three miles towards the Enemy, to secure a Rendezvous so much the nearer to them; for the day following I understood by the best Intelligence, that the Enemy was resolved to make good their Station, and set their rest upon it to fight us there if we would come up to them; and truly Men in their condition could not hope (all things considered) to have more for it, their Horse for number superior to what I brought up with me; their Foot, as I find since, nor much inferior; and if they could with all their Force make good this Town, and put us to lie in the Field, there being no Villages near it that could shelter the Army, the wet Weather continuing, which was then most likely, would have forced us to draw back and make our Fire-Arms little useful, either for Assault or Defence. And besides, we were like for matter of Provisions to be forced to draw off first, they having both by their posture, with the plentiful Country of Cornwall behind them, and a River at their backs, securing also a good part of Devonshire unto them, and by their Strength of Horse, much advantage for longer Subsistence than we. And we by the barrenness of the place where we must have lain before them, especially for Horsemeat, their Garrison of Barnstaple lying partly behind us, their Horse more numerous than ours, which might with stronger Parties cut off our Supplies, had little possibility to subsist long before them. These Considerations we had in our Eye to discourage us from going on, as I believe they had to encourage them to stand; yet on the other side, finding that by reason of the barrenness and long exhausting of our Quarters behind us, we could neither keep our Horse so close together as to lie safe so near the Enemy, nor indeed find Subsistence for the Army, either where we were, or in any other Quarters more backward, where we could lie so as to secure the Siege of Exeter from Relief; and upon all Considerations conceiving the Affairs of the Kingdom did require us, and God by all did call us to make a present Attempt upon the Enemy: We resolved to go on, to try what God would do for us, and trust him for Weather, Subsistence, and all things.
Accordingly on Monday Morning I drew out the Army to an early Rendezvous at Rings-Ash, within six miles of the Enemy; the Weather still continued very wet, and so by all signs was like to hold till we were advanced from the Rendezvous. But suddenly when we were upon the march, beyond all expectation it began to be fair and dry, and so continued whereas we had scarce seen one fair blast for many days before. The Enemy (as we understood by the way) had all their Horse drawn together about Torrington, and with their Foot prepared to defend the Town which they had Fortified with good Barricadoes with Earth cast up at every Avenue, and a competent Line patch'd up round about it, their Horse standing by to Flank the same, and some within to scowre the Streets. Our Forlorn-Hope had order to advance to Stephenson-Park, about a mile from the Town, and there to stay for the drawing up of the Army, there being no other place fit for that purpose nearer to the Town on that side we came on. But when we came near. we understood that the Enemy had with Two hundred Dragoons possess'd the House in the Park and were Fortifying it, being of it self very strong, but upon our nearer approach, the Dragoons quitted the House, and our Forlorn-Hope falling on them, took many Prisoners; and pursuing them near the Town were engaged so far as that they could not well draw back to the Park, which occasioned the sending up of stronger Parties to make them good where they were, or beating them off; and at last, there being some fear that the Enemy would draw about them and hem them in, Col. Hammond was sent up with three Regiments of Foot, being his own, Col Harlow's and mine, and some more Horse, to lie for Reserves unto them; by which time the Night was grown on, so that it was not thought fit, unless the Enemy appear'd to be drawing away, to attempt any thing further upon the Town till Morning, in regard none of us knew the Ground, nor the advantages or disadvantages of it; but about Nine of the Clock, there being some apprehension of the Enemy's drawing away, by reason of their drawing back some Out-Guards, small Parties were sent out towards the Town's end to make a certain discovery, which going very near their Works, before the Enemy made any firing, but being at last entertained with a great Volley of Shot, and thereupon supposed to be engaged, stronger Parties were sent up to relieve them, and after them the Three Regiments went up for Reserves, till at last they fell on in earnest; after very hot Firings our Men coming up to the Barricadoes and Line, the Dispute continued long at Push of Pike, and with Butt-ends of Muskets, till at last it pleased God to make the Enemy fly from their Works, and give our Men the Entrance. After which our Men were twice repulsed by their Horse, and almost all driven out again, but Col. Hammond with some other Officers and a few Soldiers, made a stop at the Barricadoes, and so making good their Re-entrance, rallied their Men and went on again; Major Stephens with their Forlorn-Hope of Horse coming seasonably up to second them, the Enemies Foot ran several ways, most of them leaving their Arms, but most of their Officers with the assistance of Horse, made good their own Retreat out of the Town towards the Bridge, and taking the advantage of straight Passages, to make often stands against our Men, gave time for many of their Foot to get over the Bridge; their Horse without the Town, after some attemps at other Avenues to have broken in again upon us, being repulsed, at last went all away over another Bridge, and at several other Passes of the River, and all fell West-ward; the Ground where their Horse had stood, and the Bridge they went over lying so beyond the Town, as our Horse could not come at them, but through the Town, which by reason of strait Passages through several Barricadoes was very tedious, by means whereof, and by reason of continued straight Lanes the Enemy had to Retreat by after they were over the River, as also by the advantage of the Night, and by their perfect knowledge of the Country, and our ignorance therein, our Horse could do little Execution upon the pursuit; but Parties being sent out several ways to follow them as those disadvantages would admit, did the best they could, brought back many Prisoners and Horses; we took many Prisoners in the Town, who being put into the Church where the Enemies Magazine lay of above Fourscore Barrels of Powder, as is reported, besides other Ammunition, either purposely by some desperate Prisoner, or casually by some Soldier, the Powder was fired, whereby the Church was quite blown up, the Prisoners and most of our Men that Guarded them were killed, and overwhelmed in the Ruins, the Houses of the Town shaken and shattered, and our Men all the Town over much endangered by the Stones, Timber, and Lead, which with the Blast were carried up very high and scattered in great abundance all the Town over, and beyond; yet it pleased God that few of our Men were slain or hurt thereby, save those in the Church; only our loss of Men otherwise, was small in this Service, though many Wounded, it being a hotter Service than any Storm this Army hath before been upon, wherein God gave our Men great Resolution; and Col. Hammond especially, and other Officers Engaged with him, behaved themselves with much Resolution, Courage and Diligence recovering the Ground after their Men were quite repulsed. Of Prisoners taken in this Service about Two hundred were blown up, Two hundred have taken up Arms with us, and about Two hundred more Common Soldiers remain Prisoners, besides many Officers, Gentlemen, and Servants; not many slain, but their Foot so dispersed, as that of about Three thousand, which the most credible Persons affirm they had there, and we find by a List taken among the Lord Hopton's Papers, themselves did account the more, we cannot hear of above Four hundred that they carried off with them into Cornwall whither their Horse also are gone; being much broken and dispersed as well as their Foot.
By the Considerations and Circumstances in this Business which I have here touched upon, you will perceive whose hand it was that led us to it, and gave such success in it; and truly there were many more evident appearances of the good hand of God therein than I can set forth let all the Honour be to him alone for ever, being desirous, as God shall see it good, and further enable me, to improve the advantage of this success to the uttermost.
The next day having sent some Regiments of Horse and Foot to advance unto Quarters up towards Holsworthy, to set the Enemy more home unto Cornwall and with more terror upon them, I sent also one Regiment of Foot with some Horse, back towards Branstaple to possess the Earl of Bath's House at North-Tavistock, about a mile from Barnstaple, on this side the River, whereby the Garrison will be easily kept in on this side, and I shall try what will be done upon it other ways, whilst the Army takes a little rest hereabouts, which the unseasonable Marches, miserable Quarters, and hard Duty both Horse and Foot for many days have been put unto, do necessarily require. But I conceive that as soon as the Army can be fitted for the purpose, it would be best to follow the Enemy home, and throughly into Cornwall; the breaking of that Body of Horse that's left there being the likeliest means to prevent or discourage the Landing of any Foreign Forces in these Parts, or the raising of any more out of Cornwall; in order to which I must earnestly recommend to your care two things especially, the one to provide by the disposal of your Forces in the Midland Parts, that by Excursions from Oxford hitherward, I may not be diverted from prosecution of the Work in Cornwall to send again that way, nor the Sieges of Exeter and Barnstaple disturbed, when I am Engaged further West: The other, that Money may be speeded, if any ways possible, but for a Month or six Wheks to enable the Horse as well as Foot to pay Quarters in Cornwall, whereby the oppositions that People might make would in all likelihood be taken off, and their Affections or good Opinions gained, to make them helpful to us against their present Oppressors. There came unto me this day a young Man from Truro, who certifieth me, that Sir Walter Dudley came very lately from France, to let those about the Prince know, that if there were an absolute necessity, they could bring over their Men, with a fair Wind from France to be here by the middle of the next Month; expressing that they had near 8000 Foot, and 2000 Horse in readiness, and Three Months Pay provided for them, besides Ten thousand Pound in Bullion daily expected, a Mint being ready to Coyn the same, but yet intimated a conveniency in the giving a little more time for their coming over; whereupon Sir John Culpepper was to go in all haste to France upon Friday last, as is supposed on purpose either to hasten all, or a good part of those Forces over. I think it will be very good that as much Shipping as may be obtained be hasten'd into those Parts. I shall upon this Information, and the good Success God hath been pleased to give us, so dispose of the Army, as may most effectually conduce to a speedy and thorough Settlement of these Western Parts of the Kingdom; therefore I desire you again to have a special care, that the Forces about Oxford be not permitted to Range into these Parts, when the Army is like to be Engaged so far West, lest it occasion the division of our Forces, and hinder the Accomplishment of that we desire to effect. I remain
Your Most Humble Servant,
Great Torrington, Feb. 19. 1645.
Here were taken Lieut. Col. Wood, Eight Captains, Commissary Boney, Six Lieutenants, One Cornet, Three Ensigns, One Chirurgeon, Four Serjeants, Two and fifty Troopers, One hundred twenty-seven Gentlemen, and about Two hundred Common Soldiers; in all, Four hundred thirty and three. Near Three thousand Arms broken and whole; most of the Ammunition Blown up in the Church, Eight Colours brought in, whereof one was the Lord Hopton's own, with this Motto,
I will strive to serve my Sovereign King.
There were slain Major Threave, Captain Fry, and some other Officers, Two hundred Soldiers or thereabouts, and as many more Blown up in the Church, several Persons of Quality Wounded, between Four and five hundred Pound in Money taken in my Lord Hopton's Quarters, and much other Plunder.
This unexpected Blow whereby most of their Foot, were scatter'd, prov'd of very ill consequence to his Majesty's Affairs in those Parts; for Fairfax by sending out forthwith Parties of Horse after them kept them in continual Alarms, and Glean'd up many Prisoners, so that they chose to Retreat into Cornwall, where the Prince's Regiment of about 800 Horse, and some other Cornish Horse having Joyn'd them, they made up a Body of about 5000 Horse, and a Thousand Foot, who kept Guards on the other side the River Tamar.
A Council of War, and their Resolution to march into Cornwall.
On Saturday, Febr. 21. at a Council of War held in Fairfax's Army, it was unanimously resolved to march into Cornwall, and on the 23d they began to march with the Van from Torrington to Holsworthy, and Col. Butler with a Party of Horse, and 400 Dragoons was Commanded before to force his Passage over the River Tamar, who accordingly performed the same, and about Stratton beat up the Quarters of Major General Webb, took 400 Horses, and Eighty Prisoners, and possess'd himself of that Town.
On the 25th Fairfax march'd to Lanceston, and after a short Dispute (Col. Basset being there with 500 Foot of Col. Tremayne's, and some Horse) obtained the same for his Quarters that Night, and continued there two or three days. In the mean time a Treaty was concluded with the Governour of Mount Edgcomb (a place of great Strength and Consideration) whereby it was agreed to be Surrendered. The first of March Fairfax Quarter'd his Army all Night in the Field about a Village call'd St. Blisland, and the same Night the Lord Hopton quitted Bodmin, Retreating further West; towards which Fairfax advanced the next Morning, and sent out a Party of Horse and Foot to secure Warebridge, to hinder the Lord Hopton's Forces of that Passage in cafe they intended to break through Eastward; as likewise other Guards were Commanded to Padstow, left they should there get over the River, and to encourage the Townsmen, who seeing now the Parliamentarians Masters of the Field, began to stand upon their Guard, and refuse the Royalists Entrance into their Town.
Prince Charles goes to Scilly.
About this time his Highness the Prince of Wales, seeing it impossible at that Juncture to make Head with any success against Fairfax's numerous Forces, that his Person might not fall into their hands, exposed himself rather to the mercy of the Sea, Embarking with several Lords and Gentlemen his Attendants, and safely arrived in Scilly. In the mean time the Lord Hopton kept his Head-Quarters at Truro, but his main Guard of Horse at Castle O Denisse, and the rest of his Troops Quarter'd about St. Columb, Grampound, and Tregni, they wanted not thoughts nor courage to force their passage with their Swords in their hands through the Enemy; but the same to their calmer Judgments appeared impracticable without exposing themselves to certain destruction, wherein 'tis like they considered the loss that would accrue to his Majesty more than their own Lives; for Fairfax had disposed of Guards of Horse and Foot into all the Passes from the North to the South-Sea, and the Country were enjoined to Barracade up the Lanes, and keep Men upon the Fords.
A Ship taken coming from Waterford in Ireland, where several Letters were found.
Besides, at this time an Accident happen'd of ill consequence to the King's Party; a Ship came into Padstow from Ireland, not doubting but to have been welcomely receiv'd; whereas on the contrary the Towns People endeavour'd to seize her, and with the help of some Parliament Dragoons Boarded her, and put most of the Men to the Sword. But the Captain, one Allen of Waterford had his Life spared to the intent to make use of his Confession. The Pacquet Letters they brought were thrown over board, but found floating on the Water, and were carried to Fairfax, amongst which were Letters from the Earl of Glamorgan, mentioning that some Thousands of Men were ready to be Transported from Ireland, and 4000 more should be ready by the first of May. Also Letters from the Lord Digby, giving a Narrative of his Proceedings against the Earl of Glamorgan, &c. (Which Letters fee at large herein afterwards, in the Chapter of Affairs in Ireland during; this year 1645, whereunto they properly belong.) Now these Letters being shew'd and read unto the People of the Country who were Summon'd in to appear on the Downs by Bodmin, the same made great Impressions on them, so that above a Thousand of them express'd much willingness to assist in the Blocking up of all Passages, and ways to prevent the Royal Cavalry from breaking through. To whom Fairfax sent this following Summons directed to the Lord Hopton, their Commander in chief.
Fairfax's Summons to the Lord Hopton.
Through the Goodness of God to his People, and his just hand against their Enemies, your Forces being reduced to such Condition, as (to my sense) the good hand of God continuing with us, wherein alone we trust, they are not like either to have subsistence or shelter long where they are, or to escape thence, nor if they could, have they whither to go to have better. I have thought good, for prevention of more Bloodshed, or of further hardship or extremity to any, but such whose hearts God shall harden to their own Destruction, to send you this Summons, for yourself and them to lay down Arms, and withal a tender of such Conditions (upon a present Surrender and Engagement, never to bear Arms against the Parliament) as may be better than any thing they can rationally expect by further standing out.
Propositions sent to Lord Hopton.
First therefore to the Soldiery in General, English and Foreigners, I shall grant Liberty either to go beyond Sea, or to their Homes in England, as they please; and to such English as shall chuse to live at Home, my Protection for the Liberty of their Persons, and for the Immunity of their Estates from all Plunder or violence of Soldiers, and all to go their ways with what they have, saving Horses and Arms. But for Officers in Commission and Gentlemen of Quality, I shall allow them to go with Horses for themselves, and one Servant or more, suitable to their Quality, and with Armsbesitting Gentlemen in a condition of Peace; and such Officers as would go beyond Sea for other Service, to take with them their Arms, and full number of Horses answerable to their Offices.
To all Troopers and inferior sort of Horse-Officers bringing in and delivering up of their Horses and Arms, Twenty Shillings a Man in lieu of their Horses to carry them home: To English Gentlemen of considerable Estates, my Pass, and Recommendation to the Parliament for their moderate Composition.
Lastly, For yourself (besides what is before implied to you in common with others, you may be assured of such Mediation to the Parliament on your behalf,) both from myself and others, as for one whom (for Personal worth, and many Vertues, but especially for your care of, and moderation towards the Country,) we honour and esteem above any other of your Party, whose Error (supposing you more swayed with Principles of Honour and Conscience than others) we most pity, and whose happiness (so far as consistent with the publick welfare) we should delight in more than in your least suffering.
These things (not from any need or other ends than Humane and Christian) having offered, I leave to your Consideration and theirs whom they concern; desiring your and their speedy Resolution, which I wish may be such as shall be most for the Honour of God, the Peace and Welfare of this poor Kingdom, and for your and their good, so far as may stand therewith.
And having herein discharged, (as I conceive) the duty of an honest Man, a Soldier and a Christian; If God shall see it good to let your Hearts be harden'd against your own Peace, I shall, (though with some regret for that Ill that shall ensue to any, yet with cheerfulness and rejoycing at the righteous judgment of God) pursue my Charge and Trust for the Publick in another way, not doubting of the same Presence and Blessing which God hath hitherto vouchsafed in the same Cause to the weak Endeavours of
Your Humble Servant,
March 5. 1645.
This Letter was sent on the 6th of March, and on the 7th Fairfax advanced four miles from Bodmin towards St. Collombe, and that Night sent out Col. Rich with a Thousand Horse and Dragoons to beat up their Quarters, which he did near St. Collombe, forcing the Out-Guards up to the Main-Guard, which consisting of about 600, most of them his Highness's the Prince of Wales's Life Guard, and brave Gentlemen, then Commanded by Major Pert, a proper stout Gallant Man, who drew out to meet them, and gave a most brisk home-Charge, the Major himself Charging quite through the first Division, but being shot was taken Prisoner, (and afterwards died of his Wounds) upon which his Troops retired in disorder, and were pursued two or three miles by Quarter-Master General Fincher, who led the Van, wherein many were Slain and Wounded, near an hundred taken Prisoners, and about 300 Horses taken, their Riders deserting them to facilitate their Escape. And the next Day Fairfax marched further to other Quarters at St. Stephen's, St. Blase, &c. within six or seven miles of Truro. And that Day my Lord Hopton return'd the following Answer to the Letter before recited.
The Lord Hopton's Answer.
I Received yours bearing Date the Fifth of this Month, wherein I must acknowledge much kindness from you, and a very Christian Consideration of sparing Blood. But one thing there is, I am confident you have too much Honour to expect from me, which is, that to avoid any danger, or to enjoy any worldly advantage, I will renounce my Master's House, to whom I am both a sworn Subject, and a sworn Servant; that I must profess I am resolved to undergo all Fortunes with him, and if there shall be cause, to suffer any thing, rather than in the least point to taint my Honour in that particular; and I hope there is not a Man of any Consideration in this Army under my Command, that is not so resolved; yet in all honest and honourable ways, to procure the Peace of this Kingdom, and the sparing of Christian Blood, I take God to witness I am and still have been most desirous. And I hear from good hands, that our Gracious Sovereign is at present so far advanced in a Treaty with the Parliament, asthat he hath promised to pass four of their Bills proposed, whereof the intrusting of the Militia for Seven years, in hands agreed between them, is one. I desire you to deal freely with me in that particular, for if that be so, it will spare the labour of further Treaty, being for my part ready to obey whatsoever his Majesty shall agree to. God hath indeed of late humbled us with many ill Successes, which I acknowledge as a very certain evidence of his just Judgment against us for our Personal crimes; yet give me leave to say, your present Prosperity cannot be so certain an Evidence of his being altogether pleased with you. It is true, we are reduced to a lower condition than we have been in, yet have we a Gallant Body of Horse, that being preserved to a general accord, may be for good use against our Common Enemies; and being otherwise prest, I may say it without vanity, want not a Resolution, at least, to fell ourselves at a dear rate against any odds. Your Propositions, though they be not wholly consented to, yet if a general accord, much more desirable, be not in a likely forwardness to prevent them, I shall be willing that Eight Commanders of ours, with Three Country Gentlemen, give a meeting as soon as you please, to any equal number of yours, at any indifferent place to consult of this great Business, and to conclude of some Propositions that may be Reasonable and Honourable for both parts; wherein I hope God will so bless our clear Intentions, as may produce a probable inducement to a General Peace, according to the unfeigned desire of your Servant,
March 8. 1645.
The next Day Fairfax sent this Reply:
Fairfax's Reply March the 9th.
I Should most truly and freely inform your Lordship the best I could, in any thing that might lead you to a right understanding of things, in order to the Peace of the Kingdom; or the real good of yourself, and those with you, so far as may stand with my Trust and Duty to the Publick, to what I conceive your more certain knowledge of that your desire to be informed in concerning the King's Offers to the Parliament; and amongst them one concerning the Militia. Something to the Purpose, as you say you have heard; but the just certainty what his last Overtures are, or how far they are advanced to a general Accord, I cannot at present certify. I do not hear they have proceeded so far as to a Treaty; and I believe that as the Parliament may be discouraged from the way of Treaty by former Experiences of the fruitlesness thereof, and the ill Use the same hath been designed or driven unto, viz, only to gain Advantages for War, without real intentions for Peace, so the late Overtures that way are the less like to be successful, by reason of the clear and certain Discoveries the Parliament have had, That his Majesty at the same time was and is labouring by Agents in all Parts to draw in Foreign Forces, and especially that the Earl of Glamorgan by Commission from his Majesty, had concluded a Peace with the Irish Rebels, on Terms extreamly dishonourable and prejudicial, upon the only Condition of sending over Force under the Command of that Lord, to invade England; whereof I presume you cannot but have heard. And though his Majesty did in a Letter to the Parliament, disavow any such Agreement, and pretended he had given Order to the Lord Digby for the Attainting and Impeaching the Earl of Glamorgan of High Treason for what he had done therein; yet by late Discoveries to the Parliament, and especially by Letters intercepted the other Day at Padstow, from the Lord Digby, the Earl of Glamorgan, and others, to Secretary Nicholas, yourself, Sir Edward Hide, the Lord Culpeper, and others, it is most clear and evident, that the Arresting of the Earl of Glamorgan was only for a present Colour to salve Reputation with the People, and continue their Delusion till Designs were ripe for Execution; for the same Peace is fully concluded with the Rebels, the King to have the Aid conditioned upon the same Agreement, and the Earl of Glamorgan at Liberty again, and to Command that Force in Chief.
Now for the Overture of a Meeting to Treat further about the Propositions I sent, though I know nothing material that I can add or alter, except in Circumstances, yet I shall not refuse or decline such a Meeting, or ought else that probably tends to the saving of Blood, or further Misery to any; Provided the Meeting be speedily, and number of Persons not to exceed Four or Five. But, my Lord, when you consider what I have before related concerning Foreign Supplies, which I have Reason to think you know and believe; you see what Cause I have to be jealous of Advantages sought by Delays, and not to intermit any time, or omit any Opportunity to prosecute the Service I have in hand. And that there may be no colour of your expecting that Forbearance on my part, which you offer on yours, I do the more hasten back my Resolution to you. In pursuance whereof, I do not despise, nor shall I insult upon your present Condition. I question not, nor yet shall I hope, be much moved with the Resolution of your Men. I presume not on former Successes, nor present Advantage in fleshly Power, but desire to trust in God alone, whose favour and blessing to this Army above others, I do not account in what is past, or expect in future, to be for any precedence in merit or goodness of ours, whereby we should be more pleasing to him than others, but from his own free Grace and Goodness towards his People, whose Welfare with the common good of the Kingdom, we seek and desire with all faithfulness and integrity to pursue. And so committing the Issue of all to his good Pleasure, I remain your humble Servant,
March 9. 1645.
A Treaty began, March 10.
Moreover, Fairfax commanded some of the Regiment to advance this day to Tregny, and the next day the Army advanced two several ways, part following to Tregny (the Head- Quarter that Night) another part of it to Probus, and those Parts. Whereupon the Lord Hopton seeing his Men were so startled at the advance of the Enemy, sent that Night about Twelve of the Clock, for a Treaty, naming the Place, Tresillian Bridge. The Trumpet was return'd about Three in the Morning, that the General did hearken to a Treaty, and would appoint Commissioners to meet at the Place proposed by the Lord Hopton. Hereupon Commissioners on both sides were nominated to meet at Nine the next Day, (being Tuesday Morning March the 10th)but the General being unwilling to lose time, gave Orders for a March; accordingly the Army that Tuesday advanced by break of Day, and marched to a Rendezvous within two miles of Truro, by Ten of the Clock, where the Lord Hopton's Trumpeter brought a safe Conduct for the Commissioners, and they having received the like, a Cessation was agreed to, but withal a Message was sent to the Lord Hopton from the General, that he intended to quarter his Army at Truro and St. Allen that Night, which he thought fit to give him Notice of, that none of his Forces might be left in the Town. This much disrelished the Lord Hopton, and his Commissioners that he sent, had much Reluctancy against it. And so at last Fairfax upon Conference, was content to let them have St. Ellen for their Quarter, reserving still Truro (the Prime Quarter) to himself.
Wednesday the 11 th the Commissioners on both sides met again, but could not make any great Progress into the Treaty; the Cessation was continued for a Day longer; about one hundred and twenty Musquetiers came in this Day with their Arms and Colours flying, being of Colonel Trevanian's Regiment, also divers Colonels, Knights and Gentlemen of Quality sent to Fairfax, making known their Desires, to be received into the Protection of the Parliament; which so disheartned Col. Trevanian then with his Regiment at Perin that late that Evening he also sent, desiring he might be included in the Treaty with the Lord Hopton, and have the same Conditions that other Officers were to have. These things operated with the Government of St. Mawes Castle, a principal Fort that had a great command of the Haven at Falmouth, that he likewise sent to be received into the like Terms. And although the Governour of Pendennis sent to command him to come into the Castle of Pendennis, he refused and persisted in his former Desire; whereupon the General sent him Conditions, with a Summons; which were accepted, and he ageeed to Surrender.
By Twelve of the Clock this Night, all the material Points of treaty were concluded, matters of Circumstances only remained which yet were do necessary to be concluded, in order to the perfecting of the Treaty, that the next Day was allowed (and the Cessation continued) for the finishing therein. When the Treaty was fully ended, and Hostages appointed, the same Day St. Mayes Castle was surrendred, and Thirteen pieces of Ordnance in it, (whereof Two Great Brass-pieces of about Four thousand Weight a piece) and Foot were sent to possess it.
The Treaty being thus ended, those that seemed most discontented were the Common Troopers that were to be Dismounted, who therefore to mend their Conditions, had changed away their best Horses, for advantage before the Disbanding.
Saturday was appointed to be the Day of Disbanding, which yet of very necessity was put off till the next Day; and now all things being agreed, the Commissioners of both sides supt this Night with the General.
The next Day the French Regiment under the Command of Monsieur Lapland, which was to be the first Disbanded, was brought to the Place appointed. Their Horses were very poor, they having before by private Contracts, put off the best of them. These were about Three hundred, Dismounted, but they having made their Markets before, most of their Horses were turned back upon their Hands, as not worth the Twenty Shillings an Horse, which they were to receive according to the Agreement. In the space of five Days more the Work was finished, viz. on Monday Two Brigades of Horse. On Tuesday the 17th, the Two Brigades of the Lord Cleveland's and Major General Webb's. Wednesday ths 18th, part of the Lord Wentworth's, Col. Bovile's Brigade, Lord Hopton's Life-Guard, and Sir Richard Greenvile's Life-Guard. Thursday Two Brigades more, of which the Lord Goring's was one, and the Prince's Life-Guard. Friday the 20th, the Two last Troops of all the Cornish Horse were Disbanded. The number of Brigades in all that were Disbanded, were Nine, viz. the French Brigade, consisting of Three Regiments. The Lord Wentworth's Brigade, consisting of Four Regiments. Sir James Smith's Brigade, consisting of Three Regiments. The Lord Cleveland's Brigade, consisting of Four Regiments. Major General Webb's of Three Regiments. The Lord Hopton's Brigade, Commanded by Col. Bovile's. The Lord Goring's Brigade, of Five Regiments. The Prince's Life-Guard, consisting of Nine Troops, being Seven hundred Men, well Armed. And Sir Richard Greenvile's Reformadoes.
But of this whole Action, see the Account given by Fairfax himself.
To the Honourable William Lenthall Esq; Speaker of the Honourable House of Commons.
Fairfax's Letter to the Speaker.
WHILST I lay at Bodmin, for the necessary Refreshment of the Army, and to block up the Passages from Bodmin to the North and South Sea; I sent a Summons with Propositions to Sr. Ralph Hopton, and the Army under his Command, (a true Copy whereof I have here inclosed) being encouraged thereunto by some of the Enemies Officers and Soldiers, who came in to me, and informed me of their Inclinableness to Conditions, hoping thereby either to bring them to such Terms as should be to your Advantage, or would distract and weaken them; and withal understanding by the intercepted Letters I sent you, that an Irish Infantry was ready to be Shipt for England; I thought fit to try all means which in Probability might break their Body of Cavalry upon the Place. When I had dispatched these Propositions to the Enemy, I advanced upon Monday with all the Army from Bodmin towards Truro, being then the Enemy's Head-Quarters; and to Tregny, where I quartered that Night. Sr. Ralph Hopton sent a Trumpeter to me with a Letter, desiring to have Commissioners appointed on both sides to meet at Tresillian Bridge the next Day, with Power to treat and conclude; which I assented to: The Treaty accordingly began, the Commissioners meeting about four a Clock in the Afternoon; and I, in the mean time, advancing the Quarters of the Army to Truro and Saint Allen. After some time spent between the Commissioners, this Agreement was made, a Copy whereof I have here also inclosed; and in Execution thereof, this Day we began to disband the French Brigade under Colonel Lapland; to morrow we proceed with Three other Brigades, they having Nine in all; and shall endeavour to shorten this Work as much as may be. Truly, SIR, this must needs be acknowledged for an Admirable Mercy from the same gracious hand of Providence that has hitherto gone along with you, that so considerable a Force as this should be so baffled; first, at Torrington, and afterwards should put themselves as it were into a Net, whereby they were necessitated to take Terms to the utter ruine of so great a Body of Cavalry; which according to all our Information, and the Confession of our Enemies, was not less at the time of the Treaty than Four or Five thousand Horse. The Articles of Agreement will speak the Mercy, and needs no Comment; yet, I hope, I may make this Observation upon them: That thereby not only so great a Body of Cavalry is broken, but so many, both Officers and Soldiers, disobliged from taking Arms against you, and this at such a Season when a Foreign Aid so ready as the Earl of Glamorgan's Letters sent up formerly (and now sent you) speak at large; the timely freeing of us from other Services that remain, with Discouragement put upon the Enemies Garrisons in these Parts, which we hope will cause them the more speedily to come in, we trust will be good Consequences of this Work: Its the Desire of us all, the Praise of all may be returned to God to whom it is only due. The Reputation of this hath already produced a Surrender of St. Mawes Castle, wherein we found about Thirteen Guns, and good Proportion of Ammunition; which Place gives you a better Interest in Falmouth Harbour than the Enemy hath: for by the Advantage hereof you may bring in Shipping without Hazard, which they cannot. It hath also occasioned the coming in of between Three hundred and Four hundred Foot of the Enemies with their Arms to me; and given the Countries such heart against them, that in Peryn (a Town formerly not very well affected) and in St. Ive they stand upon their Guards against the Enemy: For further Particulars concerning this Business, I refer you to Master Peters, who (since he came into this County where he was Born) hath very much furthered the Service in the bringing of the Country in so freely to the Protection of the Parliament. I remain
Your Most Humble Servant,
Truro, March 14. 1645.
The Articles on which the Lord Hopton's Forces were disbanded, March 14th.
Articles of Agreement concluded betwixt Commissary General Ireton, Colonel John Lambert,, Colonel John St. Aubin, Commissary General Stane, Captain Edward Herle, and Richard Deane Comptroller of the Ordnance; Commissioners appointed on the Behalf of his Excellency Sr. Thomas Fairfax Knight, General of the Parliaments Army, on the one Part; and Colonel Charles Goring Colonel Marcus Trevor, Colonel Thomas Panton, Colonel Jordan Bovill, Sr. Richard Prideaux Knight, and Major, Goteer; Commissioners appointed on the Behalf of the Right Honourable the Lord Hopton, General of his Majesty's Army, on the other Part; as followeth:
I. It is concluded and agreed, that no Person in the Lord Hopton's Army, not formerly by Name Excepted by the Parliament from Pardon, shall be excluded from the Privilege of this Treaty; either as being a Foreigner, or for having formerly served the Parliament; but shall equally have the Benefit of what shall, upon this Treaty, be granted to other Persons of that Quality that they are of in the Army: And for any Persons by Name Excepted by the Parliament, they shall have present Liberty (if they desire it) to go beyond Seas, with like Recommendation and Equipage as other of like Quality: Or if they desire to live at home in England, to make their Addresses to the Parliament, for that, or other purpose, they shall have leave and reasonable Time so to do, and the General's Protection to live quietly and at Liberty, in any Place they shall nominate and chuse within the Parliament's Quarters, until they have received the Parliament's Resolution; and if the Parliament shall not think fit to grant such their Desires, they shall then have Leave and Passes to go beyond Sea, as before; or to any of the King's Armies or Garrisons, as they shall think fit.
II. That the Army and Forces under the Command of the Lord Hopton shall, within Six days after the date hereof, be wholly disbanded and discharged, by the Lord Hopton, and the General Officers, Colonels and other Officers under his Command; according to the several charges in manner hereafter expressed.
III. That all Common Troopers, Corporals of Horse, Farriers and Sadlers, that are mounted, being of, or belonging to the Forces under the Command of the Right Honourable the Lord Hopton, shall bring in and deliver up their Horses with their Bridles and Saddles, and all their Arms unto his Excellency Sr. Thomas Fairfax, or unto whom he shall appoint to receive them in Manner, Time, and Place, as is hereafter expressed: Provided that all Corporals, and such Common Troopers as shall appear Gentlemen of worth, and such other Troopers as shall go beyond sea, shall be allowed to keep and carry away with them their Swords.
IV. That upon Performance hereof they shall receive Twenty Shillings a Man or keep their Horses; and shall have their Passes to go to their homes in England, or beyond Sea, with their Bag and Baggage, which they shall have leave to carry with them or dispose of them as they please: and those to whom: Swords are allowed, as before, to pass with their Swords.
V. That the Commission Officers of Horse under the Lord Hopton, for their several Troops respectively, shall cause the said Horses and Arms to be duly delivered in without Changes, Spoiling, or Embezilement among themselves, according to the effect of the First Article before going.
VI. That this being performed, all the said Commission Officers of Horse in present command, and all Trumpeters belonging to them, shall have liberty to go away, either to their own Homes in England, or beyond the Seas, with their Bag and Baggage. And also they shall have such number of Horses and Equipage, as is hereafter allowed, according to their several qualities: That is to say,
First, For those that shall chuse to go beyond the Seas, the full number of Horses and Fire-Arms, if they have so many of their own.
- To Trumpeters one Horse apiece, and their Trumpets.
- The Quarter-Masters two Horses, and one Case of Pistols.
- To Cornets three Horses, and two Case of Pistols.
- To Lieutenants Four Horses, and three Case of Pistols.
- To Captains, Majors and Lieutenant Colonels fix Horses, and four Case of Pistols.
- To Colonels Eight Horses, and six Case of Pistols.
- To the Adjutant General six Horses and four Case of Pistols.
- To the other Adjutants of Brigades, three Horses apiece, and one Case of Pistols.
- To the Scout-Master General six Horses, and two Case of Pistols.
- To the Quarter- Master General six Horses, and two Case of Pistols.
- To the Marshal-General four Horses, and one Case of Pistols.
- To the Deputy Quarter-Master General two Horses.
- To the Deputy Scout-Master one Horse.
- To the Major-General twelve Horses, and six Case of Pistols.
- To the Commissary-General of Horse-Provisions, three Horses and a Case of Pistols.
- To the Commissary-General of Victuals, three Horses, and one Case of Pistols.
- To the Chirurgeon-General three Horses.
- To Quarter- Masters of Brigades three Horses, and one Case of Pistols.
- To Chirurgeons of Regiments, two Horses.
- To all these, except Chirurgeons, their defensive Arms, and Swords for themselves and their Servants, and to every Field-Officer one Carabine, and Chirurgeons their Swords.
Secondly, Those that shall chuse to abide in England with the General Sir Thomas Fairfax his Protection, and to live at home, shall have their Proportions as followeth.
- To Trumpeters one Horse a piece, and their Trumpets.
- To Quarter-Masters one Horse apiece.
- To Cornet's and Lieutenants two Horses apiece, and one Case of Pistols.
- To Majors four Horses apiece, and one Case of Pistols.
- To Lieutenant Colonels five Horses apiece, and one Case of Pistols.
- To Colonels six Horses apiece, and two Cases of Pistols.
- To the Major-General ten Horses, and three Case of Pistols.
- To the Adjutant-General six Horses, one Case of Pistols.
- To the Adjutant of Brigades one Horse apiece, and one Case of Pistols.
- To the Quarter-Master General six Horses, one Case of Pistols.
- To the Marshal-General three Horses, one Case of Pistols.
- To the Deputy Quarter-Master General, two Horses.
- To the Scout-Master General four Horses, one Case of Pistols.
All these to have Swords for themselves and their Servants.
- To the Commissary of Horse-Provision, two Horses, and a Case of Pistols.
- To the Commissary of Victuals, two Horses, a Case of Pistols.
- To the Deputy Scout-Master, one Horse.
- To the Quarter-Master of Brigades, two Horses.
- To the Chirurgeon-General, two Horses.
- To Chirurgeons of Regiments, one Horse.
- To Chaplains two Horses.
All these, except Chaplains, to have Swords for themselves and their Servants.
VII. That the precedent Articles concerning the Surrender of Troopers Horses, and being performed, if any Officer in command that chuseth to live at home, shall appear to have more Horses of his own than what he is before allowed by the last precedent Article, the Commissioners of Sir Thomas Fairfax his part, will recommend it to his Excellency's favour, that they may enjoy the benefit of such Horses of their own, to the same number as Officers of like quality that are to go beyond the Seas.
VII. That of the Reformado Officers that chuse to live at home in England, Reformado Quarter-Masters shall have the same Conditions as Corporals in Command; Cornets and Lieutenants shall go away with one Horse apiece. Captains, Majors and Lieutenant Colonels with two Horses apiece, and Colonels with three Horses apiece, if they have so many of their own, and one Case of Pistols. Those Reformadoes that desire to go beyond Seas, to have half the proportion of Horses and Arms allowed in that Case to Officers of like quality in present Command, if they have them of their own, all of them to go with Swords, Bag and Baggage, or dispose thereof at pleasure.
IX. That all Gentlemen of Quality in Arms, or not in Arms, but living under the Protection of the said Army, shall have Liberty either to go to their own Houses, or beyond the Seas, with Bag and Baggage, and Equipage, according to their several Qualities, as followeth.
That is to say, a Knight with four Horses, three Servants, one Case of Pistols, and their Swords.
An Esquire with three Horses, two Servants, one Case of Pistols, and their Swords.
A Gentleman with two Horses, one Servant, one Case of Pistols, and their Swords.
A Gentleman of lowest Rank, with one Horse for himself, and a Sword.
Scholars and Clergy-men to have one Horse at the least, or more, according to their different degrees, at the General's discretion.
X. That to all those who according to the Effect of the Articles shall chuse to go beyond the Seas, Passes shall be granted from the General Sir Thomas Fairfax accordingly; and to those who being English shall chuse to live at Home, Passes for that purpose, and Protections for the Liberty of their Persons, and also for the Freedom of their Estates from all Plunder and violence of Soldiers; and that such Gentlemen, or others that have considerable Estates, may have the General's Letter of Recommendation to the Parliament (is desired) for their moderate Composition.
XI. That after the Performance of these Articles so far as to Disbanding and delivering up of what is to be delivered, all Officers and Soldiers that shall according to these Articles, chuse to go beyond the Seas, shall have sufficient Quarters assigned them by Sir Tho. Fairfax near convenient Ports for their Transportation: And that they shall have Twenty Eight Days allowed to stay in England, from the Day of their several Disbanding, and that the charge of Quartering their Horses be discharged by themselves after the first fourteen Days for the time of their further stay. That the General will appoint Men to take care that Shipping shall be provided for Transporting their Persons, Arms, Bag and Baggage, they paying the accustomed Rates.
XII. That a certain number of Officers of the Lord Hopton's Army, not exceeding forty, upon the Lord Hopton's Commissioners request, shall be permitted to have Passes for themselves, and their Servants, Horses and Necessaries to go to Oxford: Provided, that their Servants exceed not the number of two, their Horses three, to every one respectively.
XIII. That the Lord Hopton shall be allowed for his own Use, all his Horses: Provided they exceed not the Number of forty; and Arms for himself and twelve Men. And that the Lord Wentworth shall have all his Horses: Provided they exceed not five and twenty, and Arms for himself and eight Men, and Places assigned them for conveniency of Quarters.
XIV. That such English Men as shall chuse to abide in England at their Homes, and all Foreigners of the said Army shall engage themselves by Promise, in such Form as is herewith agreed on; not to bear Arms any more against the Parliament of England, nor to Act: any thing wilfully prejudicial to the Parliament's Affairs, without first rendring themselves Prisoners to the Parliament: And likewise all such English as shall chuse to go beyond Sea, shall engage themselves in the like Promise for three Years next ensuing the Date hereof, or otherwise shall Lose the Benefit of these Articles; Excepting the Lord Hopton and the Lord Wentworth, and the Number of Officers allowed to go to Oxford in the Twelfth Article before going, who are by the Intention of these Articles left free from such Engagement.
XV. That all Horses, Arms and Furniture of War, belonging to, or in the hands of any Person in the said Army, not allowed in the precedent or subsequent Articles to be carried away, shall be delivered up to such Persons and such Places near Truro, or Sr. Thomas Fairfax his Head Quarters, as his Excellency shall appoint, within Six Days after the Date hereof without Spoil or Embezilement, at the Care as well of the General Officers of the said Army, and all Commanders in their several Charges, as by the Persons themselves to whom such Arms or Furniture of War do belong, or in whose Custody they were.
XVI. That whosoever shall after the Conclusion of this Treaty, purposely break, spoil, or embezzle any of the Arms, Horses, or Furniture agreed and concluded to be delivered up in this Treaty, shall forfeit the Benefit due to him by any Article in the Treaty. And if any of the said Army, after the Conclusion of this Treaty, shall Plunder or wilfully do any Violence unto any Inhabitants of the Country, he shall give Satisfaction unto the Persons so wronged, or lose the Benefit of the Treaty; and that the Commissioners of both Parties, or any Three of them, whereof one or more to be of Sr. Thomas Fairfax his Party, and one or more to be of the Lord Hopton's, shall have Power to hear and determine all such Cases accordingly.
XVII. That the said Army and Horses, under the Command of the Lord Hopton, from the time of the Conclusion of this Treaty, until the time of their drawing out to be disbanded, as in the ensuing Articles, shall be Quartered in such Places Westward from Truro as Sr. Thomas Fairfax shall appoint, which shall be large enough for their Accommodation; and that the Cessation of Arms, and of all Acts of Hostility betwixt the two Armies, shall continue unto the Time of the compleat disbanding of the Lord Hopton's Army.
XVIII. That for the Disbanding of the said Forces, and Delivering up of Horses, Arms, &c. in Performance of the precedent Articles, every Brigade and Regiment under the Lord Hopton's Command, shall by their Respective Commanders be drawn out into such Places of Rendevouz, within two Miles of Truro, or Sr. Thomas Fairfax his Head Quarters, and upon such Days as Sir Thomas Fairfax shall for them jointly or severally appoint, Notice of the same being given to his Excellency in writing Sixteen Hours before-hand, under the Commissioners of the Lord Hopton's Part, or any of them; two or more of whom shall for that End and other Purposes, continue at Sr. Thomas Fairfax his Head Quarters, until the disbanding be finish'd: and that the Quarter-Master General, or Adjutant of the Lord Hopton's, with one Horseman from every Brigade, shall also be there with them, and that none of the said Brigades or Regiment shall be drawn out of their Quarters (which shall be assigned to them as before) otherwise than upon, and according to, such Notice from Sir Thomas Fairfax as before, except to and for their ordinary Guards.
XIX. That to, or before the drawing out of the several Brigades or Regiments to such Rendevouz, as before, the Chief Commanders of them respectively shall deliver, unto whom Sir Thomas Fairfax shall appoint, a true and perfect List of the Regiments and Troops in the several Brigades, and of all Officers and Soldiers in their several Troops, expresssing by Name which of them do chuse to go beyond Sea, and which do go to live at home, as also who are Reformadoes, and in what degree of Command they have served: and that, at the same Time and Places, the Horses, Arms and Furniture, by virtue of the Precedent Articles, to be delivered up accordingly; and all the Officers and Soldiers disbanded, and discharged, and there shall receive their Passes, with Warrants for Quarters by the way for one Night in a place, and be conveyed towards their several Homes, as far as Chard, if they go so far, or unto Quarters assigned them for their Transportation, according to the precedent Articles.
That for a further performance of these Articles, two Colonels of each Army shall be mutually delivered and kept as Hostages.