Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 7, 1647-48. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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The House this day, according to former Order, resumed the Debate of yesterday, concerning the not insisting upon the three Bills sent into Scotland, and the Vote reported from the Committee, That His Majesty should come within Ten Miles of London to some of His Courts: And it being a Business of that Concernment, the House Ordered a further Debate of this Business to be on Monday next. And because there should be a full House at the Debate of a Business of so great Concernment; They Ordered, 'That all the Members that are in Town, be required to attend the House on that day.
The House received a Letter this day from the Lord General, giving House an Account of Affairs before Colchester, the Sum whereof you have before: The House Ordered, 'That Four Members of the Committee of the Army, the Members of the House of Commons of the Counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Hertfordshire, Cambridge, and Essex, being joined with them, should go down to the Army, and issue out their Warrants, and take Care, That that part of the Army before Colchester may be supplied with Moneys out of the Assessments of Essex, and the adjacent Counties; and that they have the same Power there as when they sit here, in order to the receiving and issuing out Moneys.
Letters this day from the Leagure before Cochester, inform as followeth: "This day we have been very quiet, not one Man nor Horse of the Enemy's appearing out of their Works; our Men have secured Greenstead Church, and the Pass from the Hithe, so that now both the East and North Passages are so stopp'd, that they can make no Incursion into Tendering Hundred, or any part, for Provision. The Work near the Alms-Houses, begun the other Night, is now almost fimished; they Graft so high, that they are forced to make use of Ladders for the perfecting thereof. Our Purdues lie so near the Enemy, as to hear them. discourse, drink Healths, &c. Some of our Musqueteers go so near the Town, towards the head Gate, that the Enemy's Musqueteers fired out of the Windows upon them: The Enemy this day opened three of their Sally-Ports, and left only Head-Gate block'd up; which, as is conceived, is in relation to an Escape.
This day His Excellency sent in a Letter, signifying, "That the Parliament being sensible of their seizing of Sir William Massam and others of the Committee, not being Prisoners of War, had sent down the Lord Capel's Son, with others, that lie might be sent in Exchange for Sir William Massam. His Excellency therewith sent Two Assidavits upon Oath; by which it appeared, That by the Earl of Norwich and the Officers Directions, the Soldiers had chewed Bullets, and cast with Sand, delivered out of the Stores, (whence they usually received Ammunition) which being a thing contrary to the Law of Arms, he required the like might be for born for the future, or to expect what will follow.
To that concerning the Lord Capel's Son, this Evening his Lordship made a particular Answer; That he conceived it inhumane, and that if all the Committee had been offered for him, he would have disdained the Motion; and that he joyed to see any of his, (if no other way) yet by their Sufferings, to pay that Duty they owe to the King and known Laws of the Kingdom. To that concerning Bullets, the Generals return'd Answer, denying any such Command or Practice; but for rough cast Slugs, they were the best they could send on the sudden.
This day Major Rolfe, by Order of the Lords, was removed from his Lodging in London, where he lay very ill of a great Distemper in Body; and was carried in a Horse-litter, guarded by a Company of Trained-bands, to the Gatehouse at Westminster. Before he was removed, he sent a Letter to the Lords by two Chirurgeons attending him, which was as followeth.
Being informed, That this honourable House hath passed an Order for my Commitment, and knowing my self (I speak in the presence of God who searcbeth all hearts) to be so perfectly clear and innocent of that foul and horrid Crime charged upon me, that I abhor the very Thoughts both of it, and also of concealing my self from your Lordships; earnestly desiring an Opportunity of appearing, for vindication of my Innocency in this Matter, or whatever else Malice in wicked Men can lay against me; Resting fully assured, That whatsoever Award I may find at the hands of Men, I shall enjoy the happiness of an up right and peaceable Conscience with the same God.
I should still have attended your Lordships pleasure, had not that Distemper of Body, (which was before upon me) by its growth necessitated me to apply my self unto the use of Means; whereby I am at present so disabled, that without apparent danger, I cannot now wait upon your Lordships; the Truth whereof these Bearers my Chirurgeons can testifie. Thus craving your Lordships favourable Construction of my present Condition, with acceptance of these Lines, I rest,
This day the House of Commons, according to former Order, resumed the grand Debate, Concerning a personal Treaty to be had with His Majesty; and whether the Three Bills sent into Scotland should be insisted upon before the Treaty. The Debate hereupon held very long this day; and at last it was resolved, "That the Three Bills, viz. The first for settling the Presbiterial Government for three Years; The Second for recalling all His Majesty's Declarations and Proclamations against the Parliament; The Third for settling the Militia in the hands of the Parliament, should be drawn up, and sent as Propositions: To which His Majesty is to give his Approbation, by subscribing his hand before a Treaty; and to give Assurance to pass them into Acts, so soon as he shall come to London and fit in Parliament.
The House was informed, how that the Royal Party in and about London have been, and are very active, in private listing of Soldiers, and raising of Horse and Arms, as was somewhat more publickly discovered yesterday in Loathbury, where they were listing: And upon notice, the chief Actors being apprehended, were rescued again by their own Party, and four of them escaped.
The Commons considering of the Carriage of this business, and the great danger of the City and Parliament, resolved for their better Guard and Security, to raise a new Regiment of Horse, and put them under the Command of Major-General Skippon. Ordered 5000l. out of Haberdashers and Goldsmith's Hall for raising of them, and such Citizens or others, as please to send in any Horse or Arms voluntarily, under the said Major-General's Command, for the defence of the Parliament, City, and Parts adjacent, they have declared it an acceptable Service.
The Post Letters from the North were this Week intercepted. From Belvoir Castle, June 30. came as followeth: "The Enemy at Pontefract Castle still go on at pleasure, taking and plundering whom they please, and yet please to deal so with none but those who have been most active for the Parliament. Having quitted the Isle of Axholme, they came towards Lincoln, and (fn. 1) yesterday entred the City, plundered the House of Captain Pert, who is now in Arms in Northumberland for the Parliament, and may do as much for them and many others, to the great Damage if not Ruine of them. They have Prisoners, Captain Bees, Captain Fines, and others; Colonel Rossiter was at a distance. They went farther on, and took Prisoner Mr. Ellis; they brag they have 3000l. listed in Lincolnshire; but there are divers Thousands in Leicester, Derby, Rutland, and Lincolnshire, who are ready to join against these.
The Commons for satisfaction of the Debts of the Kingdom, upon Complaint of many of them to the House; and for a farther Encouragement to such as shall assist them for the time to come, (if the Treaty takes Effect or not) pass'd a Vote, That before a Treaty be concluded, all just Debts to such as have adhered to the Parliament in this War shall be paid or secured; and that an Ordinance be brought in to this Purpose.
The Forces in Sussex, tho' much allayed, yet a great Danger apprehended, if the Garisons of that County should not be speedily secured. It was therefore referred to Derby-House, to make Farnham Castle defensible, and likewise secure Rigate, Martin Abby; and all other Places of Strength in that County.
The Ordinance for the Militia of the whole Kingdom admitted of a serious and long Debate; many Gentlemens Names of several Counties desired to be incerted, but rejected. A Clause to be added thereunto, viz. That no new Forces be raised or put into Garisons, without the Consent of the Committees of the Militia of the several Counties, Committed.
By Letters this Day out of Lancashire is certified, 'That a Party of 600 Horse, under the Command of Colonel Lilburn, engaged against the Forces under Sir Richard Tempest and others joined, to the Number of a 1000. After some hot Dispute, 600 of the Enemies Horse taken, and 300 Prisoners; amongst which were many Knights and Gentlemen of Quality: This Intelligence we had farther confirmed from Newcastle the Day following.
From the Navy came Letters, 'That Sir George Aiscough is come in with the Lion, one of the Parliament's Ships, and declares his hatred against the Perfidiousness of the other Ships that are gone away, and stand out against the Parliament; engaging himself and the whole Ship with him, to do their best for reducing the Revolters.
'Tuesday last we gave the Town an Allarm; 120 within laid down their Arms, vowing never to take them up again: They Were of Colonel Boteler's Regiment; but Poyer and Langhorne, prevailed with them by telling them if Relief came not in five Days, they would yield, and they should hang them if they did not. They confeft on Friday last, they had not Provisions for 14 Days; we expect, every Day that most of them will come to us thro' want; they only have a little Rainwater and Bisket left; it's still feared, Poyer will go into the Castle with some Gentlemen, and leave the rest to Mercy. If we get the Town, we doubt not to carry the Castle suddenly; our Guns for want of Wind are not yet come from Bristol, we expect them hourly; had they come, we had done before this; we shot Stones into the Town with our Mortar-pieces, which kill'd divers.
Here is arrived Moneys from Bristol, 50000l. which was once designed for Munster; and 3391l. 6s. 6d. from London. 6000 Suits, and all sorts of Grain; 6571 Barrels; had I but Men, I should, (God assisting) soon end this War. Tho' all the Forces of this Kingdom look this way. The Scots endeavour to entice away many of my Soldiers, should I march abroad, I should endanger the loss of all behind. Not long since, I sent to the House My Lord Inchequin's Letter to we, and my Answer thereunto; of which I put you in mind again, because you may not be apt to believe Reports raised on it, that should assent treating with Inchequin for a Cessation. When my Messenger returns out of Munster you shall hear farther. I am,
'From Colchester Leagure came thus, dated this Morning at Four a Clock: Our great Guns and Carriages are come, the Cannon planted, Lieutenant Colonel Pitman, Mr. Gibson, and Lucas his Carpenter, with others, have deserted them. Mrs. Gibson, Mrs. Lamb, and others of the Enemies Wives, came out, but were turned into Colchester again. The Wives of the well-affected are not suffered to come out, and complained to the Lord Goring for want of Victuals, many ready to starve; he said they must not complain, till Horse-flesh is worth 10d. per Pound, but appeased by giving them Moneys. We kill'd some of their Horses under the Walls; Horse-meat and Corn they are not distressed of; when the Line is finished from the North-bridge River to Sir Charles Lucas his House, the General will batter and storm. They have in Colchester 20 Pieces of Ordnance, and 200 Barrels of Powder, but want great Shot.
The Common Council of London presented a Petition to both Houses this Day, with another Petition from the Commission Officers of the Trained-bands of London; desiring, First, 'That the Militia of the City of London and adjacent Parts, may be settled in one Committee: And if the Parliament shall think fit, to join some Persons of the Parts adjacent to the Grand Committee, they may be such as have no Places of Profit, which depend upon the continuances of War and our Troubles; or have shewed themselves disaffected to the Ends of the Covenant. 2. That the King may be brought to London with Freedom, Honour, and Safety, to treat with His Parliament for settling of a safe and well-grounded Peace. 3. That the Militia of the City of London may have Power to raise Horse, (if need be) for the Defence of the King, Parliament, and City.
The Lords gave Answer, 'That they have considered of the Petitions; they had of themselves made some Progress in those Things mentioned therein: And they do now declare, That they have thought fit to grant their Desires in all their Particulars contained in the Petitions; in Confidence that the City of London will be careful to make good their great Engagement now made, for the preserving and securing His Majesty's Person, and the Parliament, from Tumults, Mutinies, Insurrections, or other Disorders, that may interrupt the Honour, Freedom, and Safety, of the King or Parliament. And they can not doubt, but that they will still adhere to live and die in Defence of the King and Parliament, according to their Covenant. Mr. Speaker, by Command of the House of Commons, gave them this Answer.
A Petition was likewise presented to the House, subscribed by 80 well-affected Seamen of Trinity House, Masters of Ships, &c. Offering their Service upon the Command of the Parliament, for the Reducement of the revolted Ships, if Shipping may be designed for that purpose; upon reading their Petition they had Thanks given them, and the Business referred to a Committee.
A Letter was this Day read in the House of Commons, from Sir Arthur Haslerig, Governour of Newcastle, of a gallant Victory obtained against Langdale's Forces in Northumberland, July 1. The Sum of all is thus, 'Langdale as you heard last Week, retreated, upon Major-General Lambert's approaching, and would not engage his Forces upon terms of Advantage, resolving to preserve his Body whole to join with the Scots; and upon his Retreat to Carlisle, he sent Col, Tempest, with 7 or 800 of his Horse, to meet Col. Grey, that was before that Time kept up in Berwick by our Northumberland Horse, with the assistance of Major Sandersan's two Troops; but upon Col. Tempest's coming into Northumberland, ours drew towards Newcastle, and Col. Grey with his Forces from Berwick, joined with Col. Tempest about Alnwiok: Sir Arthur Haslerig then sent for the Bishoprick's Regiment of Horse, under Col. Wren, to come into Northumberland, to join with Col. Fenwick, who Commanded Northumberland's new raised Regiment; and Major Sanderson also mounted about 100 of his Foot as Dragoons, and sent them to them; He writ also to Major-General Lambert, letting him understand that the Enemy was joined, and intreated him to send some Assistance immediately to our Forces. Upon Friday last Col Lilburn, with Three Troops of Horse, came to them at Cholerton, and that Evening they marched towards the Enemy that lay about Eslington and Whittingham, and all along Cocquet-water; and having marched all that Night, the next Morning they fell into their Quarters, and they fell in so close from Town to Town for about Seven Miles, that they suffered the Enemy to take no Alarm. There are taken most of the considerable Gentlemen of Northumberland, and Bishoprick, that were the first Beginners of this War, and Encouragers of the Scots to come into England, and at least 300 private Soldiers, and between 5 and 600 Horses, and good store of Arms, without the loss of one Man on either side. A List of the Commanders and Gentlemen is also sent. This Victory was very seasonable, but we may not think the Work of the North over by it; for it is certain, That the Scots are come very near the Borders, and Langdale is joined with them, and their Numbers will be far too great for what we are able to withstand in these Parts: Only, to God nothing is impossible.
Col. Edward Grey, Commander in Chief of the Forces in Northumberland and hath Compounded and took the Covenant; Col. Sir Richard Tempest Baronet, Commander in Chief of the Forces for the County of Durham, Sir Francis Ratcliffe, Baronet, Ratcliffe his Son, Sir Gervas Lucas, Mr. George Bellasis Mr. G. Collingwood, Mr. Job Collingwood, Lieut. Colonel John Salkield, Lieut. Colonel Ralph Millet, Lieut. Colonel John Thornton, Major Thomas Salkield, Major Trollop, Capt. Francis Brandling, Capt. James Shafto, Capt. Hugh James, Capt. Smith, Capt. Fetherstonbungh, Capt. Francis Carlton, Capt. Ascue, Capt. Ambrose Carlton, Mr. Gowen Ratcliffe, Mr. Roger Ratcliffe, Mr. Ralph Bowes, Mr. John Wright, Mr. Cholmley Wright, Mr. John Thornton, Mr. William Hodgson, Mr. Charles Selby, Mr. John Thurlwell, Mr. William Lampton, Mr. Shaw, Mr. Lancelot Selby, Mr. Nicholas Woodhouse, Mr. Anthony Trollop, Mr. John Fitz-Williams, Mr. John Sison, Mr. Thomas Hardy, Mr. John Watson, and Mr. Ralph Clackston, With many other Gentlemen, Lieutenants, and other Officers, and above 300 Soldiers, and; or 600 Horses, and many Arms: The Enemy was about 1200, and we about 9. Six Hundred came out of Berwick this Day, and was within Eight Miles of the Horse, who were thus taken, to join with them about Carlisle.
The House was informed of about 500 Horse got together about Kingston upon Thames, most of them out of London, Armed, the Earl of Holland, Duke of Buckingham, Lord Francis Fillers, Earl of Peterborough, in the Head of them; That they summon the Country, expecting great Numbers to join with them, and have plundered some Friends to the Parliament.
The Commons passed Instructions for the securing of Whitehall, and Lambeth-House, which they conceived might be in some danger of this Party; They also appointed Guards upon the Thames, at the Ferrying and Water-places, to stop all suspected Persons passing that way.
The Committee of Derby-House made Report also of this Business, and the Judgment of that Committee, for Subscriptions for Horses, to be made by the Members of this Parliament for Ten Days, for Defence of the Parliament and City; which the House very well approved of, and the Members Subscribed accordingly very freely, some Two, Three and Four Horses.
The House also farther Declared it an acceptable Service in all such who shall freely List any Horse for the Service of the Parliament and City, to be put under Command. They Ordered the Committee at Derby-House, to grant Commissions to Captain Boteler, and Captain Dickenson, to raise Two Troops of Horse, for the Defence of the County of Northampton.
Leagure before Colchester, this 4 July, 1648. 'This Day produced no Matter of Action. The Enemy, by reason of the great Floud, cannot escape over the River, had he purpose to do it; we keep strong Guards on this side the Town, in case they attempt this way; several come out of the Town, and do confirm what others daily tell us, of the great want of Bread amongst the Townsmen. The People complained of their great want to the Lord Goring; He and his Officers answered, They must not complain till Horse-flesh came to be 10d. a Pound.
This Day a Porter in Soldier's Habit, who came from the Belt in Grace-Church-street, got into Colchester, with Intelligence from the Malignant Party in the City, assuring the Enemy that there was a great Force coming from London for their Relief: And Wigmore the Carrier did undertake that Credit might be given to the Porter in what he said.
Thursday, July 6. 1648.
The House considered of th good Affections and Forwardness of many well-affected Persons in the several Counties of the Kingdom, that have raised Forces for Defence of themselves and their Counties, and have not any Authority of Parliament for so doing, being compelled thereunto by necessity; The House hereupon Declared, "That it was an acceptable Service in all such as have, or shall raise Forces in this Kingdom against the Common Enemy.
They likewise acquainted the House, That they had Granted a Pass to Monsieur Monteril, Chief Agent for the King of France, to come to London. The reading these Letters and Papers took up most part of the day; and because the whole Kingdom may receive Satisfaction in the Transaction of the Commissioners of Scotland, and of the Brotherly Love and Union endeavoured to be preserved by this Kingdom; They Ordered; "That all the Letters and Papers should be forthwith Printed.
The House then Considered of the Security of their own Sitting, and the Safety of the City of Westminster; and in order thereunto, Voted, "That the Horse already Listed and to be Listed, under the Command of Col. Boteler, and Quartermaster-General Fincher, should be Quartered at the Meuse.
The House then Ordered, "That all such Members of the House of Commons as would subscribe for advance of Horse, as aforesaid, should repair this Afternoon to the Committee at Derby-House, and there make their Subscriptions, and the Receipt of the Clerk of the said Committee should be a sufficient Warrant for them.
"The Enemy Sallied forth at East-Bridge about Eight on Wednesday in the Morning with 1000 Foot and 300 Horse, and fell on our Guard very suddenly, and surprized some of them, being Countrymen, the rest retreated to the main Guard; Colonel Whaley perceived what advantage the Enemy had got, presently advanced with his Horse to get between, them and home, whilst Colonel Barkstead's Regiment advanced towards the Front, and routed both Horse and Foot together, and took about 100 Prisoners, the most of them miserably wounded; the Soldiers giving them a Payment for their poison'd Bullets; about 20 of the Enemy were slain on the place, most Gentlemen, their good Apparel and white Skins speak no less: Lieutenant-Colonel Weston, Son to Sir Richard Weston, and Two Captains more, were taken Prisoners; the Retreat was so hasty, that our two Drakes which they surprized at East-Bridge, they left behind, so that we gained them, the House, and Turnpike, where we formerly were. Lieut. Colonel Shambrooke was shot in the Body, the Bullet since taken out, and we find it poison'd, boiled in Coprice; our Soldiers hope to be revenged of them the next Engagement for this poison'd Bullet. Capt. Moody, who Commanded a Troop of Suffolk Horse, was taken Prisoner, engaging the Enemy very boldly in Person; one Soldier had his Leg shot off with a great Bullet, and some wounded. The Enemy was this day so sufficiently beaten, that unless Hunger, which breaks Stone Walls, enforce them to play their last Game, they will no more appear.
The last Night a Committee of both Houses Treated with the Committee of Aldermen and Common-Council of London, about the Security the City would give for the Security of His Majesties Person, and the Parliament, during the time of their Treaty in London, if it should be so agreed for His Majesty- to come to London to a Treaty; and this day the Cities Answer hereunto was Reported to the House, and some Debate thereupon; the Business being of that weight and importance, and the Houses desiring to give the City and Kingdom Satisfaction herein, Ordered, "That notwithstanding the general Order of Adjournment from Friday till Tuesday following, the House should Sit both Saturday and Monday.
The City likewise this day acquainted the House with a Declaratory Letter they had the last Night sent them, Directed To the City of London, and Signed by the Earl of Holland, Duke of Buckingham, and the Earl of Peterborough; Declaring their Intentions, to join with the Forces of Surrey, Sussex, and Middlesex, to Release and Preserve His Majesties Person, to bring him to his Parliament, to settle Peace in the Kingdom, and to preserve the known Laws of the Kingdom; inviting the City to join with them, or at least not to be active against them. The Letter to the City, for better Satisfaction, was as followeth;
Having a long time beheld the sad Calamities and Miseries of these Kingdoms, and finding no other means for Redress, we are forced into this undertaking which we desire may be rightly understood of all that are Well-affected, but not to the present Designs, especially of this City, whose Actions and Endeavours do sufficiently evidence their good Affections: To this end we have inclosed a brief Account of our Intentions, or Pretences of Peace to the Kingdom, which we hope may give Satisfaction both to you, and the whole Kingdom, whose Assistance, with God's Blessing, we desire no farther, than our Designs are real for the Good and Happiness, both of the King, Parliament and Kingdom, according to our Covenant.
The House of Commons had Debate hereupon, and Voted, "That the said Earl of Holland, Duke of Buckingham, and Earl of Peterborough, had Levied War against the Parliament and Kingdom; and in so doing were Traitors, and ought to be proceeded against as Traitors.
They farther Ordered, "The Estates of the said Earl of Holland, D. of Buckingham, and Earl of Peterborough, should be Sequestred by the several and respective Committees where they lie, and all the Estates of all other Persons, that join with them herein.
From the Leagure before Colchester, July 6. 1648. Twelve at Night. We have got farther Intelligence of yesterday's business, and find it to be a greater, Victory than at first we conceived; for we understand from good hands in the Town, That as they had Officers of Quality slain in the Field, so they have had some dead since they were brought wounded into the Town; and that divers of their Officers received very dangerous wounds.
"They much lament that their Success was no better, in regard they drew out all their considerable Foot they had in the Town, leaving not 600 upon the Line, and thought, by this Attempt upon our fresh Soldiers, to have fleshed their Men for farther Service.
'This day the Enemy drew out on this side the Town, as if they would have interrupted our Men in the new Work they are making near the Lord Lucas his House; but they did not attempt it, neither would our Cannon give them leave to stay long without the Walls.
'It is certified from all hands within, That their Hearts are very much down, and that the Conditions offered would now be acceptable. The Lord Goring and Capel carry things very high and peremptorily, but Sir Charles Lucas more moderate; the Townsmen are infinitely weary of their Company; Butter is not to be had under 5s. the Pound, and Cheese almost at as dear a rate; and the Soldiers do seize upon the Meal at the Mills, and Bread at the Bakers, which doth reduce the Townsmen to extream Misery and want of Bread.
'Lieutenant-Col: Shambrooke is dead of the shot he receiv'd by the poison'd Bullet; and many of the Prisoners we took yesterday, are likewise dead of those Wounds and Cuts they received, meerly for their using of poisoned Bullets, who otherwise had received fair Quarter.
The House of Peers sent a Message this day to the Commons, to desire a Conference about the Three Propositions to be sent to His Majesty, That they should not be insisted on before the Treaty; the Commons agreed to a Conference about the same, and appointed the Report of this Conference, and the farther Debate about the Treaty, to be on Monday next.
Letters this day to the House from Colonel Rossiter, from Nottingham, July 6, 'That he had met with the Pontefract Forces upon their Return after their Plundering Voyage, and engaged them at a Place called Willoughby-Field, routed their whole Party, consisting of about 1000, took 600 Horse and their Riders, the Commander in Chief, and all his Officers, all their Bag and Baggage, the rest routed, but not many slain; Colonel Rossiter unhappily wounded in the Thigh. Captain Harwood who brought the Letters, had 100l. given him by the Order of the House.
This day came Letters to the House, of the Proceedings of Sir Michael Levesey and the Forces with him against the Earl of Holland, Duke of Buckingham, his Brother the Lord Francis, Earl of Peterborough, and the rest about Kingston; 'That on Friday Morning this Party marched from Darking with their whole Force to possess Rigate, which they had, and quitted the day before; but their Design was now disappointed by Major Gibbons, and two Troops of Colonel Rich's Horse entring the Town before; Upon this they marched the next way for Kingston, ours pursued those, and took some Horse and Men Prisoners betwixt Uwell and Nonsuch-Park: In the mid-way between Nonsuch and Kingston, the Enemy drew up and faced us, this was sometime disputed by Parties, whilst the Enemy sent their Foot before into Kingston to secure their Retreat; the Forlorns fought gallantly, ours led on by the Cornet of Colonel Riches; who was seconded by Major Gibbons's Troops, and their Division followed close on: The Enemy was routed, and the Pursuit violently followed to Kingston; but the Foot sent before making good the Turnpike, and our Foot not being come up, it was not thought fit to enter the Town with them. Friday Night we kept our Guard on that side the Town, thinking to make some farther Attempt this Morning, but they not answering our Alarm, the Horse-Guard advanced into the Town, and found it quit of the Enemy; they left near 100 Horse in the Town with their Carriages, and took their Flight over the Bridge towards Harrow on the Hill, whither we are now in Pursuit of them. In this Service about 20 slain, the Lord Francis dangerously wounded, if not dead; the Earl of Holland said to be shot in the Shoulder; Colonel Howard, and some others of Note, hurt; about 100 Prisoners, and 200 Horse taken: The Enemies Strength now on their Flight is about 400, and gone towards St. Albans, and ours after them; Colonel Scroop, with a Regiment of Horse, also on his March to join with ours.
From the Leagure before Colchester, by Letters this day dated at Noon, came as followeth; 'The Enemy shot much yesterday with a great Piece from the Top of St. Mary's Church, to annoy our Men at work upon the Line, which goes very fast on; but our Cannon from one of our great Forts fetched down the Battlements of the Church, and could not chuse but do Execution on those in the Steeple, and afterwards they never made a Shot; They suported the Spirits of their Men, That the City of London appeared for them; That 1000 Horse were advanced to raise the Siege; and That of a certain the Parliament was broke up; and many of the Members cut in Pieces. They feattered Papers in the Field, that our Soldiers might find them; the Effect was, That they were in no Treaty with the Lord Fairfax for Surrender, or would hearken to it; and that whereas it was reported, They would give no Quarter to his Soldiers, they declared, That they would receive them with much Affection, and put them in all Respects equal to themselves. Thus you may see what Shifts they make to uphold the Hearts of their Men, and all little enough to preserve them from running away. We took some Prisoners, and sound 10 Slugs done with Sand in one of their Pockets; a Trumpet is gone to the Lord Goring, to let him know what their Soldiers must expect. The Enemy was very quiet all this Night, and have not appeared all this Forenoon.
According to a Letter July 8, at Noon, from the House of Peers, the General hath returned the Lord Capell. Colonel Scroop is gone with a Regiment of Horse to join with Sir Michael Levesey, against the Earl of Holland and the rest; and no doubt you will hear a good Account of them within a Day of two.
This Day the House of Peers, at a Conference of Both Houses, gave Reasons to the Commons, wherefore, they desire that the Three Propositions should not be insisted on before a Treaty with His Majesty. I. That so there may be no delay in the Thing, a speedy Personal Treaty being so much desired, and Petitioned for. II. It's the Desire of the Parliament of Scotland. III. The Agreement upon the Treaty will be the more Authentick. IV. It's probable, having no Army in being, His Majesty will condescend to that, which at Uxbridge and Oxford He refused. V. It's not the way of Treaties to Confirm any before all is Agreed, especially those of most Concernment, and that which chiefly will be insisted upon. These, or to this Effect, with some other, were given, and the Concurrence of the Commons desired.
A Petition was delivered to the House by Major Rolfe's Wise, 'That her Husband may be speedily brought to Trial at Common Law; and that his Accusers, Mr. Qshburne and Mr. Dowcet, be kept in safe Custody until the Tryal be over.
Three Ordinances passed the Houses this Day; One for a Troop of Horse to be raised for the County of Surrey, Capt. Hill to Command them; a Troop for Hampshire, Capt. Norris to Command them; and a Troop for the Sheriff of Carnavan. The Commons took into Consideration the Brief for Wrexham.
Report was made to the House, of the Scandalous Libel against Major-General Skippon, whose, Vindication was brought in by the Committee, and Ordered to be Posted in the most eminent Places of the City of London.
An Ordinance was brought in, for the bringing in of the Parts adjacent into the Militia of the City of London, and Read the First Time; and a Petition against it, presented from Southwark and Lambeth, was also referred to the Committee to consider of.
We had this Day a farther Confirmation of Colonel Rossiter's Victory against the Pontefract Forces, July 5. which we mention'd the last Week, and a List of the Prisoners. Sir Philip Mouncton, General; Sir Gilbert Byron, Major-General; Robert Portington, Ralph Ashton, Lieutenant Colonels; Majors, Walter Salting stall, Thomas Scot, John Scot, George Roberts, Edward Fitz-Randal; Captains, John Elvidge, William Bates, John Risby, John Munson, Thomas Byard, Anthony Wright (Pitket,) John Rich, Arthur Lee (Downes,) John Cooper, one of the Sons of Sir Roger Cooper, William Saltmarsh, Edmond Mounkton; Lieutenants, John Grinditch, Robert White, Edward Blundevell, Henry Lassell, (Bradwell,) Marmaduke Dilman; 4 Cornets, 2 Ensigns, 24 Gentlemen of Quality, who have many of them been Officers formerly, about 500 Prisoners taken, who were all Horse, except 100 Dragoons, amongst which, many Gentlemen who. will not yet discover themselves; 8 Carriages taken with Arms and Ammunition; Col. Pocklington and Col. Cholmley slain, with many other Officers and Soldiers, to the Number of 100, besides many others not yet found, because the Fight was in the Corn-Fields; all their Colours, Bag and Baggage taken.
Since we came into these Parts we have taken five Castles from the Enemy, viz. Appleby, Brougham, Grastoke, Rose, and Selby; Rose was taken by Storm of 200 Foot, being a commanded Party, and taken within two Hours; the Place is strong had 40 Men in it. The Governour stood and refused two Summons, and yet Quarter was given, only one of the Enemy slain, and one hurt, not one of ours killed or hurt. Selby Castle was taken by a Party of Horse only, they fired but one piece, and one Trooper going up to the Walls and shewing his Pistol to them, and threatned what he Would do if they fired any more, and that they should have no Quarter, they presently yielded. On Sunday Night last our Army coming to Warwick Bridge, four Miles from Carlisle, the Enemy kept a strong Guard of Horse and Foot there; we were upon them before they were aware; they left their Guards and sled; our Forlorn pursued them to the Walls of Carlisle; we took 100 Prisoners Horse and Foot, and 40 Horse, and gave them so hot an Alarm, being in the Night, that from all their Quarters they ran both Horse and Foot to Carlisle, in so great a Confusion, that if it had been Day we had taken at least 1000 of them: They pretend they will not fight till the Scots come in, and we have received credible Information, That several Regiments of Scotish Horse are ready to join with them, and I think they will do it, do what we can; but when that's done, we shall not refuse to fight, tho' they should be twice our Number: We have had miserable Marches, and most pitiful Quarters, in this barren and undone Countrey.
Tuesday, July 11. 1648.
This Day a Letter was read in the House of Commons from Colonel Hammond, Governour of the Isle of Wight, desiring, That Osburne's Charge against Major Rolfe may come to a speedy Hearing; and we will, for more Publick Satisfaction, insert the Letter as followeth:
Being deeply sensible of the Reflection upon me, and divers other Innocent Persons, by Mr. Osburn's Proceedings, in Excuse of his Odious Treachery, I am bold to beg of you, That this Charge against Major Rolfe may be brought to a speedy Examination, who, I am confident, will appear a Man exceedingly injured, and this only a Design to work greater Disturbances in these distracted Times. As this horrid Scandal relates to the Army, I must say, That neither directly nor indirectly, from any Member of it, or from any other Person or Persons whatsoever, did I ever receive a Word or Title tending in the least to such a wicked Purpose; much less as it relates to my self, could I, or did I speak any such thing to Major Rolfe. But this is not the First Fruit of this kind I have received for my faithful Service to you, nor is it more than what I have expected; yet herein I am satisfied, That in Faithfulness and Integrity I have served your Commands -with all possible Care of, and Respect to, the person of the King; so that come what will come, I can say from a gond Conscience, The Will of God be done: And in this I appeal to His Majesty, who of any Man best knows it, and who doth, and I doubt not will still do, upon every Occasion, as Opportunity serves, sufficiently clear me. Sir, if through Mr. Osborn's Malice, or rather the wicked Design of those who have set him at work, you have received the least Prejudice of me, be pleased to send down some other, whom you may judge more worthy your Trust, to receive my Charge; and I shall immediately, with all possible speed, present my self to you to receive your Pleasure. In the mean time, it shall be the Business of my best Endeavours, to preserve His Majesty's Person from Danger, as well as in security in this Place, according to your Commands, until I receive Instructions for his Removal, which I hope, and expect will be sudden. Sir, When I am throughly considered, you will find none more Faithful to you, and more Observant to your Commands, than,
A Declaration was brought in from the Committee of the Admiralty, desired to be passed for Indemnity for the Revolted Ships that came in by a day, the rest to be utterly out of Mercy, with Instructions concerning the Incouragement of Seamen; all which was referred to a Committee.
Letters were read in the House, of a Design of Rising by the Malignants in Worcestershire, Shropshire, Stafford, and Herefordshire, and to possess several strong Places, to make them Garisons for the King; but the Design was discovered, and through the vigilancy of the Governour of Hartlebury Castle prevented. Major Harcot, a chief Actor for the King, and some others, taken Prisoners; who confessed the whole Design.
The House made an Order, Approving of the Re-garisoning of Worcester, by Colonel Dingley, and the well-affected Gentlemen of that County; the like for Re-garisoning of Hartlebury; and referred to a Committee to consider how Moneys may be raised for the Maintenance of the Forces of these Garisons.
The Return of Southwark Borough referred to the Committee for Elections, with the Misdemeanour of the Sheriff of Berks, in making two Returns for this Place. Major Rolfe to have a convenient Lodging as a Prisoner, and his Doctor, Chirurgeons and Friends, to have admittance to him. A Letter was sent to Colonel Hammond from the House, giving him Thanks for all his good and faithful Services, and desiring his Perseverance; Read and Approved of,
The Committee of both Houses of Parliament, and the Committee of the Common Council of London, have had several Meetings about the City's Engagement for the Safety of the King and Parliament, during the intended Treaty, if in London; and this day a Common-Council being called in London, Report was made of the whole Transaction in this Business, and Approved of by the Common-Council to be presented to the Houses: Some of the chief Heads whereof, for better satisfaction, we will give you briefly as followeth;
The Committee of Parliament did desire to be satisfied what was intended by those Words in the Petition of the Military Officers, wherein the Petition of the Common-Council to the Parliament do concur, viz. That the King and Parliament may Meet and Treat with Freedom, Honour, and Safety, according to the ancient and fundamental Constitutions of this Kingdom.
To this the Committee of the Common-Council made Answer, and Approved of by the Common-Council; We mean, That the King and Parliament may Meet and Treat free from Force or Violence, which we conceive to be according to the ancient fundamental Constitutions of this Kingdom.
The Committee of Parliament did farther desire to be satisfied, What is meant by these Words, viz. That they will defend His Majesty's Royal Person and the Parliament during; the Treaty, according-to their Covenant?
The Committee did farther propound, 'That in case the Parliament shall make choice of this City to be the Place of the Treaty, and that the Common-Council, on the behalf of the City, do engage themselves to defend both King and Parliament from Violence during the Treaty, Whether the City will maintain their Guards at their own Charge?
To which it was declared by the Common-Council, 'That if the said intended Treaty be in London, then the City will for the present de fray the Charge for the maintaining of the Military Guards for the purpose aforesaid, during the Treaty, and afterwards refer themselves to the King and Parliament for satisfaction thereof.
The Committee did farther propose, 'That in case the King shall not consent and agree to such Things as shall be propounded and insisted on by both Houses of Parliament in this Treaty, for a safe and well-grounded Peace, Whether they will undertake and engage, That the Person of the King shall be disposed of as both Houses of Parliament shall think fit?
To this the Common-Council, after large Debate thereupon, did declare, 'That in case the said intended Treaty shall be in London, and that His Majesty and His Parliament should not agree, (which God forbid) then they conceive themselves bound to submit to the. Wisdom of both Houses of Parliament.
The said Committee did likewise desire, That the Committee of Common-Council, and the Military Officers, should satisfie them in what manner and by what means they will make good their Engagement; by defending the King and Parliament against all Violence.
To which, Answer was made and propounded as followeth, viz. We do declare, and we are ready, according to our Engagements, as much as in us lieth, by the Trained-Bands of the City, and the late Lines of Communication, to guard and defend the King and Parliament from all Force and Violence; and to the end, that we may be enabled to perform the same, we do humbly offer, That the Ordinance for the Uniting of the Military Forces within the late Lines of Communication, and the Parishes of the Weekly Bills of Mortality, to the Forces of the City, to be one intire Militia, may be speedily passed; That the Militia may be enabled to raise such other Forces as they shall find needful to carry them thro' this Service; and that no other Forces may be raised or made use of within this City and late Lines of Communication, but by Authority of the said Militia by consent of Common Council.
'To consider what our Dangers are, either from without or from within, and therefore propounded, viz. For those without, and for our better Security in guarding the King and Parliament, we desire that some course may be taken, as shall be thought sit by Wisdom of Parliament; That no Forces in Arms may come within 30 Miles of London, during the time of the Treaty; and for those within, That what Person or Persons so ever shall make any Tumult, Insurrection, or Disturbance, during the time of this Treaty, after Proclamation made, it shall be Death.
'That is the Wisdom of Parliament shall think sit, That none that have born Arms against the Parliament, or have, or shall contribute thereunto, shall be permitted during the said Treaty to come within 20 Miles of London, without leave of the Parliament had or to be had.
'These Things being Approved of by the Common-Council, they were ordered to be communicated unto the Committee of Parliament, to be by them presented unto both Houses of Parliament; and also to declare to them, That is the humble desire of this Court, That the said Treaty may be with all Expedition, for preventing of farther said Inconveniencies; and likewise, That this Court will do their Endeavours, if the said Treaty be in. London, for the finding out of some convenient Place within the City for that purpose, and such other Accommodations as shall be fitting.
'Ordered likewise by this Common-Council, That the Common-Council Men and Commanders, or such as they shall appoint, shall within their several Precincts, either by calling all the Inhabitants before them, or by going from House to House, receive their Concurrence to the said Engagement, by Subscription of their Names; which is put in Execution accordingly throughout the City.
From the Leagure before Colchester, July 1. came to this purpose: Our Line goes on so fast, that we are in far better case to offend the Enemy, and correspond with Suffolk. Many of their Men come to us; the People in the Town in great want; all their Bread is made of Rye, and but half ground, and that not without a Ticket; their Hay gone, the Green Corn they cut for their Horse, they fetch with hazard of the Lives of their Men. Yesterday having placed a Guard to secure those who came to get Horse-meat, the Guard was beaten by us, divers of them killed, some taken: Great shooting with Cannon from both sides; they have spent very much Powder, more Yesterday than in 10 Days before; we raised this Night a new Battery, to beat them out of St. Mary's Steeple, where they have planted a Demi-Culvering, which annoys us in our new Quarters; we have two whole Culverings play hard against the Lord Lucas his House; the Women would come in great Companies out of the Town, but that it is not permitted.
Letters came this Day of the total defeating of the Royal Party, with the Earl of Holland, &c. at St. Needs, July 10. The Particulars thus certified: 'The Party of Horse commanded by Colonel Scroop, sent from the Leagure before Colchester, whom we mentioned the last Week to meet with the Royal Army, came to Hertford on Saturday, where they got Knowledge of their Enemy's Posture and Place of Quarter; they got into Hertford some skilful Guides, who brought them the nearest and best way to St. Needs on Monday Morning, before the Nobles could shift away, yet not before they were got into some Bodies in the Town; the Parliament's Forlorn being entred, charged, routed them before the Body came up, but when come up there was speedy work made with them; that in an instant they sled several ways, yet many fell, and of the Chief; the Duke of Buckingham sled with about 60 Horse to Lincolnshire; our March was so long, and our Horse so tired, that we could not pursue; we have Prisoners, the Earl of Holland, took in his Chamber, Sir Gilbert Gerrard, Col. Skeimisher, Major Holland, Major Stepkin, Lieutenant-Colonel Goodwin, and Colonel Dalbeire slain, Colonel Leg wounded, 100 Prisoners, besides Sir Kenelme Digby's Son slain, a Colonel and divers other Officers slain, whose Names we cannot yet learn; we had more than 100 gallant Horse; for Gold and Silver, good Clothes and Weapons, good store.
'There is ground to believe, that the Duke of Buckingham and those with him will desist, and seek Mercy of the Parliament. The Lord Andover, going to the Prince, is taken, and put into Dover Castle. We had two Men slain, Colonel Scroop's Captain Lieutenant wounded, and three more.
A Declaration, 'For recalling in the Revolted Ships; giving them 20 Days time after Publication thereof, or sending the same unto them by the Lord Admiral; and in Case of refusal, to be Traytors, and their Estates confiscated; was read and assented unto, and transmitted to the Lords for their Concurrence.
Letters this Day to the House farther from the North, give to under stand 'That after that notable Defeat given to Langdale's Forces, by Colonel Robert Lilburne, the Forces under his Command have e er since Quartered in and near Hexam, being three Regiments, viz. Northumberland's, Bishoprick's and his own: Tho' the Civility of these Soldiers be great, yet the Charge unsupportable. The noise of the Scots entrance into the Kingdom makes the Levies much increase, and the Burthen the greater. The Advertisement given this Night to Colonel Lilburne from Persons of Quality and well-affected, That 9000 Horse and Foot of the Scots are joined with Langdale's Forces, and advanced within eight Miles of Carlisle, intending to fall upon Major General Lambert's Forces there, hath occasioned the remove of these three Regiments, who are advanced with intention to join with Major General Lambert, to fight the Enemy, which with the Assistance of the new Levies, will make a considerable Body, and tho' less than the Enemy by some Thousands, yet are resolved to fight them. Duke Hamilton sent a Compliment this Day to Major-General Lambert That he was upon Advance of an Army towards England, for that the Parliament of England had given no Satisfaction to the Desires of the Parliament of Scotland, and could not avoid the Northern Parts of England; he assures the Major-General, he intends no hurt to him or the Kingdom, which his future Carriage would demonstrate. The Major General returns him a tart Answer, and tells him, That as to Nonsatisfaction from this Parliament, he had nothing to say, but as to his coming in a Hostile way into England, he would oppose to the utmost, and fight him and his Army as Traytors and Enemies to the Kingdom, upon all Opportunities; That this great Breach of the Covenant, and large Treaty between the two Nations, he doubted not but would be revenged upon them to their utter Ruine, and was assured of Assistance herein of all true English Men, and right Covenanters of the two Nations. This Answer of Major-General Lambert, was read in the House of Commons, and Approved of.
Letters from France of the 6th of July say, 'Prince Charles failed from Calais on Thursday last, bound for Holland, or by this time there, in a Dutch Vessel of 36 Pieces of Ordnance; and with him Prince Rupert, the Lord Hopton, the Lord Wilmot, and the Earl of Branford, Ruthen formerly General for the King; the Lord Jermin returned to St. Germains.
The House of Commons this Day considered the great Inconveniencies occasioned by bringing of Prisoners of Quality into the City of London, causing Tumults, Instructions of the common People for prevention thereof for the future, they Ordered, That no more Persons of Quality should be brought up Prisoners to the City, but be disposed of to other Places of Strength in the Kingdom, and there to remain till farther Order. In Prosecution hereof, the House Ordered, That the Lord Andover should be continued Prisoner at Dover, and not removed as was intended: The Earl of Holland also ordered to be sent to Warwick Castle.
Upon the Report this Day from the Committee at Derby-House, the House Ordered to agree with the said Committee, 'That 1000 Foot and 500 Horse should be speedily advanced by the County of Essex, for Preservation of that County in Peace, and suppressing of all Insurrections for the future: When this Army shall be drawn from thence, to be maintained out of the Estates of such of that County, as have engaged with the Enemy.
A Letter came this Day from Colonel Rich, 'Giving the House an Account of the three Besieged Castles in Kent, and that one of them had surrendered upon Articles, and doubted not but that the other two would be delivered in a short time, they being in much want of Provisions: The Articles he inclosed, and desired the Approbation of the House thereunto.
They farther Ordered, 'That the Estates of the Lord Duke of Buckingham, Lord Francis, and Sir Francis Ratcliffe in the North, should go towards the Maintenance of the Forces under Major-General Lambert.
A Letter this Day came from Major-General Lambert, of the 10th Instant, from Perith, informing the House, 'That Duke Hamilton is advanced into the Kingdom, with an Army consisting of about 10000 Horse and Foot; with whom Sir Marmaduke Langdale hath joined, and that their Army is at Carlisle, and thereabouts. The House had much Debate concerning this Business, and at last came to this Resolution by way of Declaration, 'That the Forces that are now come out of Scotland into England, in a hostile manner, being without the Authority of the Parliament of England, are Enemies to the Kingdom of England: And that all such Persons, either of this Kingdom, or the Kingdom of Ireland, that do or shall hereafter adhere unto, voluntarily aid assist, or join with them, are Rebels and Traytors to the Kingdom or England, and shall be proceeded against, and their Estates Consiscated, as Traytors and Rebels.
The House considered how Moneys might speedily be advanced for encouraging and supplying the Forces of the North, and Voted, The Sum of 20000l. should be advanced upon the Excise in course, with Allowance of 8l. per Cent, per Annum, to such as shall advance the same, or any part thereof, for the Forces of the North; and that an Ordinance to this purpose be speedily drawn.
And for a farther Encouragement, and more constant Pay for them, the House Ordered, 'That all the King's, Queen's, and Prince's Revenues in the Northern Parts of this Kingdom, shall be collected as formerly, and paid by the General Receiver of Yorkshire to the Commander in Chief of the Northern Forces, for the Maintenance and Pay of all the Northern Forces.
The House referred it to the Committee, to consider of sending more Forces down to Major-General Lambert, The rest of this Day was spent upon the Reports from the Committee of both Houses, and Citizens, concerning the Security they offer to His Majesty and both Houses of Parliament, during the Treaty (if at London.) The further Consideration thereof was ordered to be resumed to morrow Morning.
Letters this Day came from Lieutenant General Cromwell, to His Excellency the Lord Fairfax, and the Committee at Derby House, of the Surrender of Pembroke Town and Castle, Tuesday last the 11th of July 1648. upon these Articles; 'That Major General Langhorne, Colonel Poyer, Colonel Humphrey Matthews, Captain William Bowen, and David Poyer, do surrender themselves to the Mercy of the Parliament. That Sir Charles Kemish, Sir Henry Stradling, Mr. Miles Button, Major Pichard, Lieutenant Colonel Stradling, Lieutenant Colonel Langborne, Lieutenant Colonel Brabson, Mr. Gamage, Major Butler, Mr.Francis Lewis, Major Matthews, Major Harnish, Captain Roch, Captain Jones Captain Hugh Bowen, Captain Thomas Wats, and Lieutenant Young, do within six Weeks depart the Kingdom, and not to return within two Years: All Officers, Gentlemen, and private Soldiers, not before named, shall have free Liberty to go to their several Habitations and not be plundered. And all sick and wounded Men, to be carefully provided for, till they be well That the Townsmen shall be free from Plunder and Violence, and enjoy their Liberty as heretofore. That the Town and Castle of Pembroke, with all the Arms, Ammunition and Ordnance, together with the Victuals and Provisions for the Garison, be delivered unto Lieutenant General Cromwell for the Use of the Parliament; which was done accordingly.
Friday Morning last, the Lieutenant General intended his March with his Army towards the North, to join with Major General Lambert, to fight the Scots. The certain number of Scots entred the Kingdom, is, 6500 Foot, 2600 Horse.
The House this day declared, That they would adhere to their former Vote; "That His Majesty should sign the three Propositions, before any personal Treaty be had with His Majesty. And a Committee was appointed to give the Lords Reasons, why they so adhere to their first Vote; and that this Business be resumed on Monday next,
His Majesty is pleasant and in good Health: He hath much Discourse with the Governour, of whom he lately gave a very honourable Testimony, before divers Gentlemen of the Royal Party; Giving them to understand, That the Governour had been very civil and respectful in his Carriage to him; and that he was a Man of Honour and Trust; and therefore they should not credit those scandalous Reports that were raised of him. This Testimony of His Majesty being true, he commanded them to declare it to their Friends. And farther, having declared Intelligence, That Osborne had unjustly and ungratefully aspersed the Governour; His Majesty was pleased to tell him, That at touching the preservation of his Person from Poison, or any other horrid Design, he was so confident of the Honesty and Faithfulness of the Governour, That he thought himself as safe in his hands, as if be were in the Custody of his own Son.
Thus you see His Majesty is so ingenuous, that he will give those their due, that are of contrary Principles to him. Mr. Throughton, the Governour's Captain, told His Majesty, That he hoped there was not any about him who durst entertain a Thought of doing hurt to His Person, it being a thing so inhumane and barbarous. The King answered, That he hoped there was not any so cruelly minded.
Sir, I am confident His Majesty hath not the least jealousie of that which is groundlesly suggested in the late scurrilous Pamphlets, as if there bad been a Design in some about him to offer Violence to His Royal Person.
Leagure before Colchester, July 14. 7 at Night. "Yesterday the Enemy were all drawn up into the high Street in Colchester, which gave an Allarm to our Forces on Suffolk side, and they to those on this side, but were beaten in with Loss. One Captain Taylor came out of the Town to the General; he relates the great necessity of the Town; and that many of the Soldiers would come out, if they knew the Lord General's Conditions. The Soldiers wrought all last Night, in making a Battery against St. John's, which much angred the Enemy; for they shot incessantly all last Night and this Morning, but did us little hurt; and about fix of the Clock in the Morning, our great Guns began to play, and made a Breach in the Wall, notwithstanding their Wool Sacks, which our Soldiers fetch'd upon their Backs; and beat them out of the Court-Yard into another, into the House, and afterwards out of the great House into the Gatehouse, where they fortified themselves with their strong Guard: And our Men have got betwixt them and the Town, and possess'd themselves of St. Giles's Church, and sent another Party in the Hithe, to intercept their Guard there from returning back into the Town.
Leagure before Colchester, July 14. 12 at Night. "In my last to you this Evening, I made mention of the General's sending a Party, to interpose betwixt the Guards at the Hithe and the Town, which accordingly was done, and Colonel Whaley appointed, with some of his Horse and the Suffolk Foot, (at low Water) to come over; and a Party of ours under Colonel Ewers to join with him, and to fall upon the Church of the Hithe where their Guard was; and accordingly both Parties advanced: But Colonel Whaley and the Suffolk Foot were there before those on this side, and fell upon the Church; whereupon the Enemy cried for Quarter. There were taken Prisoners in the Church, between 80 and 100, most of them Kentish Men. I suppose, before this you have the total Rout of the Duke of Buckingham's Party after their Defeat at St. Needs; and of Captain Butler's falling upon them coming from Oundle. The Duke of Buckingham, Sir Thomas Bludder, and two more, with their Company, got away, and went privately to London; many of them wounded that escaped. One Sir Edmond Halescue lies wounded; one Lieutenant Colonel Fowler slain; Dalbeere died of his Wounds the 11th instant.
Leagure before Colchester, July 15. 12 at Night. a You had before the taking of Sir John Lucas's House. This Afternoon we took the Gatehouse, which was hard disputed; a Hand-Granado was thrown amongst them, which lighting upon their Magazine of Powder, about 40 of them were blown up. We took about 60 Prisoners, the rest of Sevenscore were destroyed and killed; this so enraged the Enemy, feeing themselves beaten into the Town, and confined within the Walls. they fired all the Suburbs round the Town: And it is the saddest Spectacle that ever was seen, since this War began; the Houses for above a Mile being all of a Flame.
Monday, July 17. 1648.
The House of Commons this day resumed the Debate of the Treaty with His Majesty; and having before resolved to adhere to their former Votes, That His Majesty subscribe the Three Propositions before a Treaty, viz. To settle the Militia for Ten Years. The Presbiterial Government. And to recall all Proclamations and Declarations against the Parliament.
They this day had Debate, as to the place to which His Majesty should come to treat; and Voted, "That after the three Propositions be consented unto and signed, the King be desired to name three Places within twenty Miles of Westminster, two of which to be at least ten Miles distant from Westminster, where the Treaty shall be: And then both Houses of Parliament shall have Choice of one of them, so nominated by His Majesty, which they shall think fit.
The Commons this day agreed to Ratifie what was done by the Governour of Newcastle, in laying the Tax upon Coals and Salt: Gave 20l. to the Messenger that brought the News of the Surrender of Pembroke: Voted a Pardon to many in the Insurrection in Kent; to all such as came away upon Indemnity offered; and to all such as can make it appear they were forc'd. Mr. Vaughan, that was apprehended at Rumford, his Papers and himself, referred to Derby-House.
A Petition was presented this day to the House, in the Name of the Inhabitants of Westminster, the Hamlets of the Tower, the Borough of Southwark, and Parts adjacent, in Concurrence with the City of London; That the Personal Treaty may be hastened, and the Militia of the out parts united with the City, &c. which Petition was read; and Mr.Speaker, by Command of the House, gave this Answer to the Petitioners.
"The House has received your Petition and read it, and the House hath already Voted, That the Militia shall be joined, and for them manner how, they have referred it to a Committee, to which they have likewise referred your Petition; and the House has taken notice of the expression of your ample good Affection, and of your approbation of their Votes touching a Treaty; for the Matter, being for Peace, no good Man but desires it; and for your great and good Affections expressed in this Petition, the House have Commanded me to give you real and very hearty Thanks.
From the Leagure before Colchester, July 16. The last night the Enemy endeavoured to escape with their Horse, at a Ford over a River, with some Foot, near the North Bridge; but so soon as our Scouts fired at them they run in again.
'This day his Excellency being desirous, as much as in him Jay, to prevent the shedding of more Blood, or the Town from farther Ruine, sent a Summons to the Earl of Norwich, Lord Capel, and Sir Charles Lucas, to surrender. the Town for the Service of the Parliament; who return'd a bold and scornful Answer, That if any more Letters of that kind were sent them, they would hang up the Messenger.
'Our Battery hath been preparing this day, with which we hope to dismount their Cannon, and gain part of their Walls, and doubt not but by degrees, and that shortly too, with God's Blessing upon the endeavours of this handful of Men, to reduce them to Obedience: Before we attempt any thing upon the Town, the General intends to fend for all the Women and Children to come out.
We can now assure you that the Scots are come into England, with a considerable Force of Horse and Foot, under the Command of Duke Hamilton; the time of their entring is said to he about Four a Clock on Saturday Morning last. Duke Hamilton himself came in person to the City of Carlisle that Night, and was entertained with great Rejoycing by the Soldiers there; the Ordinance was shot off, and Bells rung, with great Acclamations. The Van of the Scots Forces lie now about Wigton, Five Miles West of Carlisle; when they have consulted there with Sir Marmaduke Langdale, it will be resolved if they march towards Lancashire, or; which is more likely, towards Newcastle; Duke Hamilton marched himself in the Van of the Scots Army, with his Trumpeters before him, all in Scarlet Cloaks full of Silver Lace, in great state; with the Duke did march a Life-Guard of Scotch-men, all very proper, and well-cloathed, with Standards and Equipage like a Prince; in the Van of the Army, there marched Four Regiments of Horse, Seven Colours in a Regiment, in all about 2000 in the Van; their body of Foot in the middle, led by Major-General Middleton Seven Regiments, Ten Colours to a Regiment; the Foot in all about 7000. They have brought some Carriages, but the Artillery, and compleating of the Carriages is to he from Carlisle; which was one great Reason of the Duke's so much bast'ning thither as soon as he entred England: In the Rear of the Army, marched another division of Horse, with the Earl of Kalender, about 1500; Major-General Monro, it is said, will join them with 3000 from Ireland of the Scots that are there, under his Command, only some few Irish that have recruited the Regiments. Sir Marmaduke Langdale hath about 3000 English that he can Arm, and draw into the Field to join them.
The Parliament of the Kingdom of Scotland, upon the Consideration of the great danger iminent to Religion, His Majesties Sacred Person, and the Peace of His Kingdoms, for the prevailing Power of Sectaries and their Adherents in England, did lately send to the Honourable Houses of Parliament such Demands as they conceive just and necessary; and have great Forces drawn together upon their Borders. The Committee of the Estates of Parliament have thought fit to lay their Commands, upon me, with such other Noble Personages as they joined with me in this Service, for the prosecuting their just Desires, in pursuance of the ends of the Covenant, according to the joint Declaration of both Kingdoms, January 6. 1643; and 1644. for settling Religion, liberating His Majesty from His base Imprisonment, freeing the Honourable Houses from such Constraints as have been by Forces long upon them, Disbanding of all the Armies, whereby the Subject may be free from the intolerable Taxes and Quarter, which they have so long groaned under; and for the procuring the Settlement of a solid Peace and firm Union betwixt the Kingdoms, under His Majesties Government: These being the true Intentions and Desires of the Kingdom of Scotland, who will most faithfully observe on their part their Engagement by Covenant and Treaty to their Brethren of England; I expect you will not oppose their Pious, Loyal, and necessary Undertakings, but rather join with them in the prosecution of their ends. I shall desire that the Bearer, my Trumpeter, may not be long kept, but return with your present and positive Answer, that accordingly I may move as I am Commanded,
I Received a Letter from your Excellency by your Trumpeter, which mentions, That the Parliament of Scotland, having, upon the consideration of the danger to 'Religion, His Majesty's Person and Kingdom, by Sectaries in England, Addressed themselves to the Parliament of England for Redresses, have not received a satisfactory Answer therein; to which, my Lord, I shall not take upon me to give an Answer, seeing the late Ordinances concerning the settling Religion, their several Addresses and Propositions tendred to His Majesty, in order to the Peace and Well-being of his Kingdoms, are Published and laid open to the view of the whole World: and which, I doubt not, is well known to your Excellency. To what your Excellency mentions concerning the increase of Danger, by the drawing of some Forces upon the Borders of Scotland, I can more fully Answer, having the Charge and Conduct thereof, by Commission from his Excellency the Lord Fairfax, and have his positive Command to be most tender in Acting any thing that might give any seeming occasion of Offence to our Brethren of Scotland; which Command 1 may confidently say, I have hitherto most cautiously and punctually observed; And farther, That I do believe it never entered into the Thought of the Parliament, or his Excellency, to Act any thing prejudicial or harmful to the Kingdom of Scotland.
And what the true Reasons are which did occasion their Force so near the Borders, I shall not need to mention, all Men knowing it to be for suppressing Sir Marmaduke Langdale, and his Adherents, who are many of them Papists, and grand, Delinquents, and are lately risen in Rebellion against the Parliament, and have ever been, and still are notorious Opposers of the ends of the Covenant, according to the joint Declaration of both Kingdoms, Jan. 6. 1643, 1644. for settling of Religion, and His Majesty in His due Rights and Prerogative; and for procuring of firm Peace and Union betwixt both Nations.
For what your Lordship mentions for the freeing of the Honourable Houses from Restraint of Forces being upon them; I cannot but wonder at their Artifice, who have so cunningly suggested these things to the Parliament of Scotland, as to possess them with the Belies thereof; seeing it is apparent to all Men, That the Parliament Sits and Votes free, and no visible Force in this Kingdom act any thing but their immediate Command, even these, and same few of their Adherents formerly mentioned.
And for your Lordship's farther satisfaction in this, I know no surer way to understand the Truth, than by Answer from the Parliament; I should trouble your Lordship too much in Answer thereunto, if I should but briefly run over their Labours for the Disbanding of all Forces, except such as they did judge necessary for the Kingdom, and their own Defence; as also their Zeal for freeing the Subject from unnecessary Taxes and Quarters, which I perswade my self your Lordship cannot but in some measure have heard of before this time; and therefore I shall, in satisfaction to your Lordship's expectation that 1 shall not oppose the Committee of Estates, in their Pious, Loyal, and necessary Undertakings, Answer, That I conceive their Resolutions to be wholly grounded upon Mistakes; desiring you also to consider, whether not contrary to the Covenant: And I must, in Prosecution of the Trust reposed in me, to the utmost of my Power, oppose all Forces whatsoever, either raised, or brought into this Kingdom, except those by Authority and Command of the Parliament of England; in which I hope your Lordship will not oppose, but rather assist me, if the Parliament of England desire it. I have, according to your Excellency's desire, returned your Trumpet as speedily as I could dispatch him; and doubt not but your Lordships Addresses to the Parliament of England, tendred to your Lordship, us an Answer from,
This Day, according to former Order, The Report of the Declaration, calling to mind the great Victories that God hath pleased to give the Parliament's Forces within these few late Months over the Enemy; and how God hath of late owned the great Cause of the Parliament and Army, was made: And after Three times Reading Assented unto, and Ordered to be sent to the Lords for their Concurrence.
An Express this Day came to the House from Major-General Lambert giving them an Account of the Scots Army in the North; That they were joined with Langdale's Forces at Ross-Castle, which in all made about 12000 Horse and Foot: He desired a Supply of Men and Money, and that Care might be taken of them. The House hereupon Ordered, 'That the latter part of his Letter be, referred to the Committee at Derby-House; and that the former part thereof should be considered of on Thursday next.
Several Petitions were presented to the Parliament; Two from the Common-Council of London; The First to the Commons, in Answer to their Desires to the Town of Newcastle upon Tyne, for laying an Imposition upon Coals; 'That they cannot find any expedient for the Supply of the Garison in Newcastle, as is propounded; yet they do offer, That if the Profits of ail the Places and Employments, enjoyed contrary to the Self-denying Ordinance of the 4th of April, 1645. and the several Votes of the 10th of June, 1647. and likewise the Profits of the several Places belonging to Customs, Excise, Post-masters, Committee-men, Officers Sequestred, and such like, may be disposed of for the Publick Occasions of the Kingdom, and not converted to Private Uses, (reasonable Salaries for such and so many as shall be necessarily employed therein excepted) they will advance a considerable Sum of Money for the other Publick Charge during the time of the miserable distractions of this Kingdom; and therefore Pray, 'That no Tax or Imposition be laid upon Coals, and the aforesaid Representations may be effectually taken into the grave Consideration of this Honourable House. The second, to both Houses, 'That an Ordinance of Parliament may be speedily passed, for the adding unto the present Militia of London the Fifteen Persons nominated by the Common-Council, and by them humbly Presented, and submitted to the Honourable House of Parliament for their Confirmation. Another Petition was presented from the City of London, in which the Common-Council was. not engaged, Signed by about 10000 Hands, desiring, 'That the said Militia may continue distinct, as now they are; That the Parliament will keep the Power in their own Hands and have liberty to call what Forces they please to their Assistance, &c, Both these Petitions from Westminster, Southward, &c. for Joining, and against Joining, were all referred to a Committee, to examine the Right of both Parts, and hear both. Parts, and Report back to the House.
A Petition this Day from the Watermen upon the River of Thames, desiring a Personal Treaty, and the speedy. settlement of the Peace of the Kingdom, was read, and the Petitioners called in, and Mr. Speaker acquainted them, That most of the Petitioners were Witnesses of what the Parliament's Endeavours have been to settle the Peace of the Kingdom, that it was a Business now before them, and the House doubted not to do therein as shall be for satisfying the whole Kingdom, and gave the Petitioners Thanks for the private Addresses with that Petition with a few of the Petitioners, according to the Declaration in that behalf.
The House having Voted to Morrow a Day of Thanksgiving for the City and Suburbs, for the great, Victories lately to the Parliament's Forces, Ordered, 'That the 9th of August next should be observed a Day of Thanks giving thro' the whole Kingdom for the said. Mercies.
Mr. Ashurst came this Day Past from Scotland, with the Declaration of the Committee of Estates of Scotland, of the Grounds of their Army's marching into this Kingdom: The House Ordered, That Report thereof should be made on Thursday next.
From the Leagure before Colchester, July 15. 'They in the Town attempted to escape, laying Stones in some places, but were beaten in with loss of five, and divers wounded; the 16th they did the like, but like Rabbets run to their Burrows at sight of our Men: They have set another Street on fire, not permitting the People to take out their Goods. The General on the 17th lent in one to have them deliver up the Town; they refused; their last Water-Mill is spoiled; they have stood Saddled every Night but the last, with intent to make away, as is conceived.
Having by Accident a Latter come into my Hands, intended to be sent to London to some eminent Many and finding it a Discovery of some Things very considerable, it being taken with other things from a Gentleman of Quality, by one of our Party, I conceived it my Duty to send it to you; perhaps there may be something in it satisfactory to your self or others: Methinks it plainly discovers the Intentions of the Scots and Royalists meerly to abuse the honest Presbyterian Party, and to make use of them only to serve their own turns upon them, and afterwards throw them, as useless Shooing-Horns, aside. I am sorry to hear your City so much slights the Army, and as' tis said here, a great Part of them are become Factors for those that would inslave them and theirs: Had not you fair Warning about a Year since But what shall I say, Midsummer-Moon, and that time of the Year, is surely very dangerous. How sad it is to think, that Godly Men should contest so much about Circumstances, whilst the Publick Enemies to Truth and Piety can agree against their Peace, and the Means to procure it! We have seen Papists, Atheists, Protestants at large, the Episcopal Faction, and, what is most to be lamented, even those many Times which have, and hold forth, a fair Shew of Religion, do desire to Persecute those that desire to keep closest to the Rule, and do even, constantly Pray for them; and such do more Hurt than those that be openly Prophane: You see how diligent they are in their way; let it incite its to Labour the more to be united, laying aside ail Differences in Opinion, and keep our selves close to those Principles which did first engage us against the Common Enemy; for otherwise we shall give them Advantages against us, and we see they will leave no Stone unturn'd, both by Policy and underhand Dealings with our Councils and Forces, Foreign Powers, and continue all Insurrections in several Places, abusing the People with specious Pretences, as if they were the only Men for Peace, when as they seek nothing less than such a Peace as is likely to prove well-grounded and lasting. You may gather by the Inclosed, how falsely they report Things: This I thought fit to impart unto you, and remain,
Your Health and Prosperity prefixed with the rest of our Friends, these are to let you know, That we have excellent good News out of France, and do expect the Prince his Highness here suddenly, who hath sent a Letter and Declaration to our General Langdale, to Publish to the Army and Country-People, which is to this effect: That the King his Father being Prisoner by the Parliament, is rather a Faction therein; he is resolved to these all possible Means to free him, and Reinthrone him; and to that end, desires that all possible Means may be used to prevail with all, of what Rank or Quality soever to join with our Party; and doth Promise and Engage himself, and earnestly Desire and Require Langdale, and the rest of his Friends, to Engage themselves in his Name and Behalf: shat all that have heretofore adhered to, or acted for the Parliament, and shall now come in and join with us, shall not only have Pardon and Indemnity for what is past, but shall also have all their Arrears paid them, or at least so much as shall fully and contentedly satisfie them for all their former Service performed for the Parliament. This takes exceedingly with many, and we hope will do, not only with the Royalists, but also with the Presbyterians, who we hope will be ready to join, especially now the Scots are come in, who do declare for King, Covenant, and Presbyterial Government.
We labour all we can to procure the Union between the Presbyterians and us, and doubt not but this will take: We are exceeding glad the Design doth Prosper so well with you, and desire you to be as Active now as possible you can; and as you have greater Interest in many in jour City, who are Eminent, and able to do more than others in carrying on the Design; so your Care and Industry herein must be more now than ordinary, especially with those who are most Eminent, and least to be suspected. I am glad to hear so many of your City and Trained-Bands are so right; they being Encouraged, may do much: But take heed how you discover too much to them, until you get His Majesty to London, and then yon will know what to do. Acquaint our Friends herewith, and by all means perswade them all to provoke all they can to a Detestation of that Bloody, Destroying, and Factious Army; we hope to meet with some of them shortly: We courted the Lancashire Forces, but could do no Good upon them; yet we have some Friends there, which in time may do us Service. Whatsoever you hear of Duke Hamilton's Declaring, be confident she is for Episcopacy, and will in time make their Kirkmen know it, and all their Party, altho' as yet they continue obstinate, which somewhat hinders us from, expelling that Assistance from thence, which we were confident of. We were also in great hopes of a considerable Party in Arms near your City: Duke Hamilton is to march along the Eastern Coast, and our Army from Carlisle along the West; yet so as we may be, capable to join upon any occasion against any Forces of the Parliament's. You shall hear farther shortly, from
A Letter this Day came to the House of Commons from the Committee of Sequestrations sitting at Horsham in Sussex, of the late Insurrections there, and how it was suppressed by the honest Party; they likewise inclosed the Examinations of many concerning this Riot, and found that one Mr. Middleton, a Member of the House of Commons was guilty therein, and therefore have committed him to Arundel Castle; they desire the Approbation of the House in this Business: The House hereupon Ordered, 'That they Approved of what the Committee had done in committing Mr. Middleton, and suppressing the Tumult in that County; and farther Ordered, 'That the Governour of Arundel Castle should permit the Said Mr. Middleton to come up, and attend the Committee appointed formerly concerning Riots and Tumults, to the end he may be examined concerning this Business.
A Message came from the Lords, Desiring the Commons Concurrence to an Ordinance for quitting and indemnifying the Duke of Bucks, for this late Engagement against the Parliament, if within 14 Days he shall come in after Publication thereof.
The House, according to former Order, on Tuesday last spent much time concerning the intercepted Scots Letters, sent up to the House by Major General Lambert; these Letters were referred to farther Examination: The House of Commons Ordered, 'That these Letters should be communicated to the Lords at a Conference.
The House hereupon Declared, 'That all Persons whatsoever which are of this Kingdom, and have invited the Army of the Scots, now under the Command of Duke Hamilton, to come into the Kingdom of England, or have any ways assisted that Army in this Kingdom, are Traytors, and shall be proceeded against accordingly. The House considered of our Commissioners in Scotland, Whether it was secure for them to stay any longer there, seeing that Kingdom hath Proclaimed War against England; and it was Ordered, 'That the said Commissioners should be desired forthwith to make their repair into this Kingdom.
Friday, July 21. 1648.
The House this Day considered of such as have formerly served the Parliament, and in this War, and have revolted to the common Enemy of late: And upon this Debate Voted and Declared; That all Perform whatsoever, that have ever served for the Parliament of England, and have, or shall hereafter, revolt to the Enemies thereof, that are in open Hostility against them; and have been, or shall be taken Prisoners, be sent to the Lord General Fairfax, and tried for their Lives by a Council of War.
And for the better effecting hereof, in the several Counties of the Kingdom, where such shall be taken; the House farther Ordered, 'That the Lord General should be desired, to grant Commissions to Officers and Gentlemen of the several Counties, for the Trial of such as have revolted from the Parliament, by Martial Law. The House was informed, That Captain Yarrington was at the door; He was called in, and acquainted the House, how by his weak Endeavours, God was pleased to prevent the Enemies Design, in taking Doyley Castle, Hereford, and other strong places in that County.
The House receiving great Satisfaction therein, and looking upon this as an extraordinary Providence and Service of the said Captain; Ordered, 'That the Sum of 500l. should be raised upon the Estates of the said Sir Henry Lingen and other Delinquents in that great Design, and bestowed upon the said Captain Yarrington for this great Service.
A Report was made to the House from the Committee at Derby-House, of the Instructions ordered to be drawn up by them for Mr. Bence. and Mr. Walter Strickland, to go to the Lord Admiral, and advise with, and be assistant to him upon all Occasions, and to give the House an Account of things as occasion shall be; And upon the Question approved of, and Ordered to be transmitted to the Lords for their Concurrence. The House proceeded in reading the Scot's Declaration, which took up the greatest part of this day,
The House this day received a Petition from the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council Men in Common Council assembled; complaining of the listing, and the manner of listing of many in the City and Suburbs, under Major General Skippon, though according to Ordinance of Parliament; upon which they had much Debate. The House Voted, "That they insist upon the Ordinance of 20 June, 1648. for giving Power to Major General Skippon, to raise and list Forces for suppressing Insurrections against the Parliament, or to the Disturbance of the publick Peace of the Kingdom; and for a farther Vindication and Confirmation of the said Major General, and those acting under him from all Malignity cast upon him.
The House Ordered, "That it should be referred to the Militia of the out Parts and the several Counties, to receive all Complaints of indirect Carriages in listing of any Forces in the Kingdom, and in their several Divisions, without the Authority of Parliament.
The Petitioners being called in, the House acquainted them, when they passed the Ordinance for Major General Skippon to list Forces, for the Security of Parliament and City, and the whole Kingdom, there were then many dangers and designs upon them, which they see not yet abated. That as for any disorderly listing, without the Authority of Parliament, the House had referred that to the Examination of a Committee.
Leagure before Colchester July 21. Here is little News stirring at present; the Enemy in Colchester have now begun to eat Horseflesh, you may believe it; how they will digest it I know not: Many come out from them daily, (especially the Women) whom they resolve to starve first; they are almost desperate, notwithstanding their great boasting of Relief, and will sell their Lives at a desperate Rate: And to that purpose, if we may credit those that come out, are providing all the Pitch and Tar they can get, and have Fires under the Wall to heat the same, and to throw it with Frying-pans against our Men, in case they attempt a Storm; and have also provided Sithes to cut off our Men at their coming up. But these new found Stratagems will not secure them as you shall hear farther shortly. Last Night they were quiet for the most part, only about 12 a Clock gave a great Shout to allarm our Men, which ours answered with another Shout, and no more done. We are cutting off a Passage which supplies the Town for the most part with Water.
The House this day Ordered, That Power should be given to the Lord Admiral, to give Indemnity to such Mariners, as should come in from the revolted Ships. That the farther Power to be given to him be debated to morrow.
An Ordinance was read, for payment of 4000l. out of the Excise in course, with Allowance of 8 per Cent to the well-affected Advancers thereof, for the pay of the Northern Army, and Assented unto. Also an Ordinance for the payment of the King and Queen's Revenue for the maintenance of that Army. Upon the Report of the Committee, at Derby House, it was Ordered: That it should be referred to the said Committee, with the Committee for the Army joined, to provide the Artillery for Major General Lambert, and the Forces of the North.
The House was informed, That some Endeavours had been made, by disaffected Men, to transport some of the Scot's Army in Ireland, into this Kingdom; but was prevented by one Captain Clark, a faithful and discreet Commander. The House hereupon Ordered; "That they approved of what the said Captain had done in relation to this Business; and did, for the time to come, Authorize him, and the Ships near him, to make stay of such Ships as shall so endeavour to transport the Scots away. And for an Encouragement to all such of the Scottish Nation as shall not desert the Parliament's Service in that Kingdom, the House Ordered, That they should be equally provided for, as the rest of the English Soldiers in that Kingdom.
Out of the North by Letters this day from Major General Lambert's Quarters now at Bowes, July 19. came as followeth: "Upon the Approach of the Enemy with their whole Body, within two Miles of Penrith, on Friday Night the 15. of July, it was thought sit, upon Advice at a Council of War, to draw off our Forces from thence, and to retreat to Appleby, and farther if occasion shall be. The Reasons moving were, 1. The paucity of our Forces, compared with the Enemy's conjoined Bodies. 2. We had some additional Forces coming up to us out of several Counties, as Yorkshire, Northumberland and Durham; and it was not held Wisdom to hazard a Fight with our small Number, considering the Consequence to these Parts, and to the whole Kingdom, if it had not proved well; when we might easily retreat, and to such Advantages. 3. We were tender in being too forward to engage, in regard we had not understood the Pleasure of the Parliament, upon the coming of the Scottish Army into this Kingdom. Accordingly that Evening we retreated from Penrith, and came to Appleby very safe, the Enemy never appearing in our Retreat at all; where we lay from Saturday till Monday Morning without Disturbance, save illness of Weather; tho' the Enemy marched after with their whole Body, and pitched with their Foot between two Bridges near Brougham Castle. 7 Miles from Appleby, and their Horse about them. But on Monday Morning, they marched again with their whole Body towards us: And it being a very dark rainy Morning, were within a Mile of our Horse Guards before they were discovered all our Horse having been that Night, in expectation of their Approach, drawn together, and continued till the Morning; and then not hearing of the Enemy's March. and by reason of the great Rain and Cold in which they had been all Night, and not in Quarters for a Fortnight before, they were dismiss'd to some Towns near Appleby for Refreshment. About nine a Clock came this Allarm, and the Enemy presently appear'd in three great Bodies, upon three great Hills, very advantagious for them, within half a Mile of Appleby; so that our Horse-Guards were forced to Retreat to the Town, and the Enemy followed very hard; but Colonel Harrison, with the Horse-Guards, Charged the Enemy, and gave a Check to their Advance: And being more forward and bold, then his Men did second him having hold himself of one of the Enemy's Horse Colours, he received three Wounds one Cut on the Bridle Wrist, and a Prick in the Back and Thigh but we hope none of them Mortal, Captain Cromwel's Lieutenant, at their Charge, who behaved himself very stoutly, was slain, and some of the Enemy. Our Foot were presently in readiness, and drawn down, and placed at their several Passes and Baracadoes, to prevent the Enemy's Horse careering into the Town to make way for their Army, which they resolutely attempted to do but were valiantly repuls'd, and then with shouting our Foot were most of them drawn out of the Town, to line the Hedges, and stop the Approach of their Body, till our Horse could be embodied; being placed near the Enemy's Body, who drew out several strong Parties, to break into the Town, every quarter of an Hour, but were forced to Retreat as fast as they came on. A small Party of ours, Commanded by Captain Hatsield, advanced to the Gallows-Hill, where these was a great Body of the Enemy, and gave them such a Charge, that they forced their whole Body to Retreat, and came off with Freedom and Honour.
'During this time, our Horse were drawing up from their Quarters into a Body, and came all safe together; the Foot crying out a Field, a Field. It was again resolved at a Council of War, to draw off and go to Kirby Stephen: In this Service were only two slain, and two or three wounded, and Lieut. Shears taken Prisoner. The Enemy had above 40 slain, many wounded, and some taken; amongst the rest, one of Duke Hamilton's Chirurgeons.
This Day both Houses had a Conference, about the Personal Treaty with the King. The Commons gave Reasons why the three Propositions should be sent to His Majesty, to pass before a Treaty. The Lords gave Reasons against it, and that all be done by Treaty: To this the Commons replied; and for better Satisfaction, we will give you some of the Reasons on both sides: And first the Commons gave Reasons to this purpose.
They say, That the Disaffection to the Parliament, and those that have adhered to them, is such in all Parts, (especially in and about London) That if the King grants not the Militia before he comes, there will be no Safety, nor is the Treaty like to proceed: For many will endeavour to bring in His Majesty without any agreement; yea, with Destruction to the present Parliament. Secondly, if the Presbyterian Government be not Decreed, all Things will grow into Confusion in the Churches, and the present Ministry be great Sufferers. Thirdly, if the Declarations be not recalled, the Parliament is not in Capacity to treat, having been declared Rebels and Traitors, and no Parliament, but a pretended one all along the Differences; which was never done by any of the Kings of England. And whereas it may be objected, these Things need Debate; it's answered, His Majesty is not ignorant of the full Demand of these, they having been over and over presented to him. And to the two first he hath declared a willingness; nor yet is he obliged to pass them as Bills, unless all other Things are agreed upon; and if no Agreement, (he being at liberty) a new War is like to ensue, or to this Effect: And when His Majesty hath Signed these, they will treat Personally; that is, a Committee of Lords and Commons, with Himself, at the Place agreed upon.
The Lords Reply to this Effect, That they could not imagine, nor was it probable, that the-Parts about London who had Petitioned for a Treaty, would put it on to the Disadvantage of Parliament or Common-wealth. Secondly, That they did not apprehend any prejudice to the Parliament's Party during the Treaty. Thirdly, His Majesty had declared, he would consent to all together; and not to any, before all was agreed. And lastly, That in Case there were no Agreement, they were in State as before. To this was replied presently, by a Member of the Commons House, it being a free Conference (to this Effect,) That there was no doubt, but those in the Parts about London, would put forward the Treaty, to the Disadvantage of Parliament and Kingdom; being such who had not only Petitioned there-establishment of His Majesty without Conditions, but had taken up Arms, and were now in Arms, for no Jess in shew, nay in Words, than to cudgel them into a Treaty (as they say in Colchester.) Secondly, for His Majesty's saying He would not pass any before all were agreed; it. seems not; for he pretends to be willing to pass these only upon Conditions, or in any way, as that de facto he will; and de jure, the Power shall be declared in him; which were for the Parliament to part with That, that will be their irrepairable Loss and Destruction. And besides, as to Security, what appears, unless the Grant of these Propositions? For it's supposed, the Treaty will be in or near London. And what is said, how His Majesty shall be, who shall be with him? How the disaffected to Parliament shall be ordered? And besides, if this be not, why may not these Things settled by Law revive Episcopacy again Set on foot? All the Ministers put out for Scandal re-enter? Others of honest Life put to seek their way of Life; Ordinances for Money deny'd of all forts, as they were formerly when His Majesty was in Arms, where He was. And Lastly, in case no Accord be made, can any think, after the probable flowing in of all the afore-named, that His Majesty and Parliament be in State as before; nay, may it not rather be thought they will be all in Blood again, and a new and lasting War Contracted, with many other weighty Reasons.
Intercepted Letters from the Scots, sent up by Major-General Lambert, to the House were this day read; "That in Characters Ordered to be referred to a Committee to find out the Clavis, who had Power to send for and secure such Persons concerned therein, as they should think fit.
Letters this day from Major-General Lambert were read, giving an account of his late Retreat, and the Reasons why he did hot farther engage the Enemy, which we gave you before. The House hereupon Ordered, That it should be referred to the Committee at Derby-House, who had Power given them to Command such Forces at Gloucester, and all other Garisons in the Kingdom, to march forthwith into the North to join with Major-General Lambert, to hinder the farther advance of the Scots Army into this Kingdom.
A Committee was Ordered to go into the City, to desire the repayment of their Arrears to the Army; and Letters were' Ordered to be writ by the Committee of the Army to the several Counties, for the speedy payment of their Arrears due to the Army.
The Commons passed Two Ordinances; The one, "For removing Obstructions in the Sale of Bishops Lands; The other, "For Settling in the County of Dorset, a Power for their Militia to raise such Forces as other Counties. Both which were sent to the Lords by a Message, arid their Lordships Concurred therein; and the Ordinance for the Militia for Huntingtonshire, in which the Lords made some Amendments.
Several Reports were made from the Committee at Derby-House, and Orders made thereupon; as upon Col. Hammond's Letter, Ordered the Payment of 200l. for Carisbrook-Castle, and 200l. for Hurst-Castle; These Sums to be paid by the General-Receiver of Hampshire. Agreed that a Troop of Horse be sent into that Island for farther Security. 2000l. Ordered out of the Sequestred Estates of the Duke of Buckingham, Earl of Holland, and the rest that engaged for Payment of the two Troops of Reformadoes attending the House.
The House passed these Votes formerly made, for Monies out of the Revenue, the Duke of Buckingham's Estate, &c. for supply of Major General Lambert, into Ordinances; the Lords Concurrence to be desired.
Upon a Report made from Derby-House, a Vote passed for 500l. to be advanced for the Supply of a Garison, not then to be named; with some other Instructions for the Committee at Derby-House, concerning that and other places.
Wednesday, July 26. 1648.
This was the Monthly Fast. Mr. Marshal and Mr. Ranelaugh Preached before the Commons; The House sate, and Ordered them Thanks, and to Print their Sermons: And that Mr. Boulton and Mr. Strong be desired to Preach the next Fast.
From the Leagure before Colchester, July 25. 1648. "This Morning a Trumpeter went into the Town about the exchange of Mr. Ashburnham, for Sir William Massam; the chief thing in difference about this Exchange is, those in the Town would have the Lord General give Mr. Ashburnham a Pass to go whither he pleaseth, and they say, they will give one to Sir William Massam, to go all England over.
'We have cut off all their Pipes for Water, by which means we have not only prevented them of good Water, but have furnished our selves with good store of Lead; they have very little Water Jin the Town but what is Muddy, or annoyed with dead Horses; the Common Soldiers have now lived upon Horse-flesh, for the most part of Five days together.
'The other night they roasted a whole Horse at one of their Courts of Guard; the Foot were very merry at it, but the Troopers are discontented for the loss of their Horses, not knowing how to get others; nor well liking the Service of Moving with their new devised long Sithes, which weapons are put into the hands of such as were Troopers.
'The Lord-General being desirous to gain this place without shedding any more Blood, if it be possible, thought of a device to let the Soldiers in the Town know, what was thought hitherto to be concealed from them, viz.
'That if they would deliver up the Lord Goring, the Lord Capel, the Lord Loughborough, and some other of the Chief of the Town, the rest Should have Quarter and Passes to go to their own Houses; and Papers signifying thus much were sent into the Town upon the head of an Arrow, of which we hear nothing yet.
To Morrow we expect the other great Pieces, and the Ammunition from London, to come up to us; and then you will hear mote, if they yield not before, which can hardly be expected; for that certain Intelligence is come, That the Prince and the Duke of York are come to Yarmouth with Nineteen Sail of Ships, in which are said to be about 2000 Men; some of them landing near the Town, were set upon by a sew of our Horse, which were there, and after a little Fight with them, we took seven Prisoners, the rest getting into the Town, from whence a Party of Townsmen issued our, and refused the Prisoners, from us, and placed a Guard at the Turnpike.
There is great Division in the Town; some are for the Prince's Landing there, and others against it; but we may guess by this Act of theirs in rescuing those Prisoners, which side it is that is most prevalent, and what we may expect farther from them; the design of the Prince coming thither, is undoubtedly for the Relief of Colchester (if possible,) for it is not above two Days march from thence: Col. Scroop, with eight Troops of Horse and Dragoons, is ordered by the Lord General to march from the Leagure towards Yarmouth, and attend the motion of the Prince, if he land with any Forces there; with whom it is said, a Thousand of the Norfolk Foot will join, and if need be, we shall spare more Forces from hence, and yet be able to make good the Leagure.
Letters from Major-General Lambert certifie, "That he is come to Bowes, and Duke Hamilton at Appleby; they have had several Skirmishes in Parties, but not many Men lost on either side; Yorkshire Horse, and a Thousand of Lieutenant-General Cromwel's Foot, are by this time joined with him; and being thus united, we shall be in a very good posture to give the Scots and Langdale's Forces a Field Fight.
Amidst these times of killing and destroying, it is a Work of Charity to Save such as may be Saved. To this end a Medicine is offered, by which many Lives have been Saved, and in so dangerous a Case, that it hath been often left by Physicians as desperate, and by one of the greatest of Physicians in this Kingdom, hath been thought remediless, but only by cutting a hole in the Breast, so that both Pain and Danger is here prevented by an easie Remedy.
When the Plurisie is past the time of Blood-letting, take an Apple and cut away the top of it to make a Cover, then pick out the Core, and fill the empty room with the white of Frankinsence, then lay on the Cover, and Roast it, and when it is soft, bruise and mix it all together, then put so much Sugar to it as will make it savory; let the sick Person eat it, and it fails not to Cure: If need be, it may be taken more than once.
A Message this day came from the Lords, desiring the Commons Concurrence to an Ordinance for conferring the Honour of Constable of Windsor-Castle, with the Keeper of the Great Park, on the Earl of Pembroke. The House Debated hereupon, and Ordered to agree with their Lordships herein.
They likewise desired that Mr. Osborne Mr. Worsley, and Mr. Dowcet, might nave liberty to go down to Southampton Assize, and that St. James's Fair, kept in the Fields near St. James's, might be put off; To which no Answer at present was given.
A Report was this day made from the Committee appointed to Consider of the Stores of the Kingdoms; and it was thereupon Voted, "That 4000l. should be forthwith advanced for furnishing them; and that it should be referred to the Committee of the Navy, how this Sum may be speedily advanced. The House was informed of the great want of Provisions for Tilbury Fort, and the, Arrears due unto them: They Ordered, "That it should be referred to a Committee, to furnish Them with Provisions and Victuals forthwith: And farther Ordered, The Sum of 8000l. should be Charged upon the Excise with Interest for the Pay of that Fort.
The House of Commons this day, according to former Order, took into Consideration the Debate concerning Peace; and the Lords Reasons yesterday for adhering to their former Vote to Treat with His Majesty upon the Propositions presented to His Majesty at Hampton-Court, without the Signing of the Three Propositions before the Treaty.
The Business being of great Importance, took up many Hours Debate; at last the Question was put, "Whether that House would Adhere to their first Vote, viz. That the King should Sign the Three Proportions before the Treaty, or no: And upon division of the House, It was carried in the Negative Voice: And the Commons thus concurring with the Lords for a Personal Treaty, they then Debated where this Personal Treaty should be, Whether in Carisbrook-Castle in the Isle of Wight, or elsewhere in that Island; and this took up much time, but at last it was Resolved, "That His Majesty in Person should be Treated with by Commissioners of both Houses of Parliament in the Isle of Wight, upon the whole Matter of the Propositions at Hampton-Court, for settling the Peace of this Kingdom.
A Letter was this day read from Lieutenant General Cromwell, who was on Wednesday last upon Advance with his Forces as far as Glocester; the Letter was Reported from Derby-House, 'Desiring that his poor wearied Soldiers may have Shoes provided them, the better to enable them to take their long march into the North: According to the Orders of Parliament in that behalf.
The House Ordered, "Three Thousand pair of Shoes should be prepared for Lieutenant-General Cromwel's Foot, advancing into the North, and these to be in readiness for them, as they march through Northamptonshire.
From the Leagure before Colchester this 27 July. "This day two Expresses came from Yarmouth to his Excellency; the one from the Town, Shewing how much they were laboured by the Prince, for Admittance into the Town, and that notwithstanding it was modestly excused; Whereupon the Prince hoisted Sail, and put to Sea, towards Harwich or the Downs: The other Express came from the Forces that were sent by his Excellency under the Command of Major Jarmy, a faithful and stout Commander, informing, "How confidently the Ships attempted to land a Trumpeter to summon Yarmouth; that he took seven of those that came with the Trumpeter, whose Examination Declares something of Importance, and do particularize, That they were aboard the Admiral, wherein then was the Prince, Prince Rupert, the Lords Willoughby, Wilmot, Hopton, Culpepper, Gerrard, Sir Henry Palmer, and many more Persons of Quality; That they were resolved, by a Council of War, to sink Ships in the Harbour, by reason they had not admittance into the Town; but put not their Resolutions into Execution. Major Jarmy was put to great straights to secure both sides of the Town, being denyed the use of the Ferry-Boat, or any other Boat, altho' Plenty, to pass the River; and was forced to swim over a Troop of Horse: His Faithfulness and Diligence deserves to be taken notice of.
'Bayliffs and other Magistrates did appease the Tumult, and a Present of Provisions was sent Aboard to the Prince. It was a happy time that those Horse and Dragoons came into those Parts; Col. Scroop's Horse being not yet come up. There was taken from some that came from Aboard, the Heads of a Declaration to be Published by the Prince, a Copy whereof I have sent here inclosed: There was nothing of Note this Day before Colchester.
Ordered by his Highness in Council, That with all convenient Speed a Declaration be made in his Highness's Name, setting forth the Reasons and Grounds of his present appearing upon the Fleet in Action, which are to be,
- 1. The Establishing Religion, according as is mentioned in His Majesty's Agreement with the Scots Commissioners of the 26th of December last.
- 2. The punctual Performance of the said Agreement, and the pursuance of all Concessions on His Majesty's Part therein mentioned.
- 3. The Restoring His Majesty to his Liberty, and just Rights; and in order to it, a Personal Treaty with His Majesty, with Honour, Freedom and Safety.
- 4. The Maintenance of the Freedom and just Privileges of Parliament.
- 5. The Defence of the Liberty and Property of the Subject against all Violence and Oppression whatsoever; and therein particularly the Abolition of Excise, Contribution, Free Quarter, and other Illegal Taxes.
- 6. The obtaining an Act of Oblivion and Indemnity.
- 7. The Disbanding of all Armies, and the settling of a Well-grounded and Happy Peace.
- 8. For the Defence of His Majesty's Just Rights in the Narrow Seas; the Protection, and Security of the Trade of all His Majesty's Loyal Subjects; and the Support of His Majesty's Navy, and all the Officers and Mariners of the same.
The Lords, Willoughby, Hopton, and Culpepper, together with his Highness's Secretary, or any two of them, are appointed to Digest these Heads into a Declaration, and to Present it to his Highness in Council. Dated July 27. 1648. New-Stile.
The House was this Day informed, That many of the Common-Council of the City of London were at the Door to prefer a Petition from the City; they were called in, and presented a Petition from the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and Commons, in Common-Council Assembled setting forth therein, How much the City of London was unsatisfied, and jealous of the Listing of Horse and Foot, under the Command of Major-General Skippon, and therefore Humbly desire, That no more Listing under him may be permitted, unless by him and the Committee of the Militia of London; and that such as are Listed already under him, may be dismist and disbanded.
The House willing to give the Petitioners any reasonable Satisfaction, which they could not do at present by granting their Request, till farther Satisfied; Ordered therefore, 'That a Committee of the House of Commons should consider of the said Petition, and Confer with the Common-Council of the City of London about the same, and the Grounds and Reasons thereof, and of the said jealousie; and to Report the same to the House with all convenient speed.
They farther Ordered, 'That the Lord Mayor of the City of London should be desired to Call a Common-Council against Monday next in the Afternoon, to Confer with a Committee of the House of Commons, concerning the Grounds and Reasons-of the last Petition of the City. The House of Peers gave the Petitioners great Satisfaction in their Answer to it, adding, That their Lordships would live and die with them.
A Letter this Day came from Major-General Lambert of the 25th. Acquainting the House, That there hath been no Action between himself and the Enemy, since. their beating up the Enemies Quarters near Appleby, He inclosed the Intelligence of Two of his Scouts that came out of the Enemies Quarters the 24th and 25th Instant, who speak, As if some additional Forces were coming to them from Scotland, desiring what Aid they intend for him, to fend him speedily, before his Engagement with the Scots, He likewise acquainted the House, That the Post Letters was last Week intercepted by the Enemy.
The House Ordered, 'That this Letter, with the inclosed should be speedily sent to Lieutenant-General Cromwell, and he desired to expedite his March towards the North, who we understand was about Warwick-Castle two Days since.
Letters came this Day also to the House, 'That a Frigat, one of them that came along with the Prince, was surprized near Margate in Kent by a Party of Sir Michael Levesay's Troopers, with the Assistance of a Boat and two Seamen; the Master, Seamen, Frigat, and all in her secured, and a Pacquet of Letters, and some Commissions from the Prince, taken, and brought up to the House.
This Day the Commons considered of the four Lists of the Northern Officers, under the Command of the late Lord Fairfax, whose Accompts were perfected, and Necessities not to be expressed: The House, to shew all Willingness to satisfie the Petitioners, passed several Votes to pay them, upon Discovery of Concealed Money due no the State.
A Petition was this Day presented to the House, in the Name of the Committees of the Militia of Southwark, Westminster, Hamblets, and all the Militia of the Suburbs, desiring the House that they may not be joined with, or under the Power of the Militia of London, giving Reasons why they should not be joined: The House of Commons hereupon Ordered, That the Petitioners should be called in, Mr. Speaker giving them this Answer from the House: Gentlemen, The House hath considered of your constant continued good Affections, and have found you serviceable and faithful to them, and much Sincerity in all your Actions, and without any private Designs; The House hath commanded me to give you their most hearty Thanks, and as for your Petition, and the Reasons there mentioned, they have Referred them to the Committee appointed to consider of the City's Petition for Joining the Militia, whom you are desired to attend. The House likewise Ordered, 'That it should be Referred to the Committee to consider of the great Abuses mentioned in their Petition, in procuring Hands to the former Petition for joining the Militia's.
An Ordinance this Day passed the House of Commons, 'To Enable the Commissioners of Excise to pay the Interest for such Arms and Ammunition as the Committee of the Army shall take up, upon the Credit of the Ordnance, for 150000l. which is to be deducted out of the Principal Money when the same becomes due.
The Letters and Commission taken in Capt. Green's Frigat, were this Day Reported from the Committee to whom they were Referred, and Ordered, 'That the Committee to treat with the Common-Council this Afternoon in London, should communicate these Letters and Commission to them.
Letters from Dublin, July 20. were read in the House, by which 'tis thus certified: 'The Differences here between Preston and Owen Roe, we believe, are fully heighten'd, so as we are secure from them this Summer Preston fell upon a Party of Owens, commanded by Colonel Fox, whom he had left to manage the Siege against the Castle of Athlone, in the County of West-Meath, killed near 500 of them, with the loss of near 100 of his own. All the Mischief that hath befallen us of late, hath been the loss of Cruces Fort, and Killalone, two Garisons in Pudsonby's Quarters, taken by Fleming. It's certified from Munster, That the Lord of Ormond is expected suddenly at Cork, with some of his Retinue, a House being taken for him; the Assurance of his coming hath discovered what we feared, viz. That a General Revolt was intended in this Kingdom, and we have found it in this Place; for a Combination is detected for a Surprize of this Castle, and then the City, and all our Footing in Ireland. Most of the Confederates are taken.
This Afternoon, according to former Order, a Committee of the House of Commons met the Common-Council of London, and acquainted them with the present Danger of the Parliament and City, and the Grounds thereupon of continuing the Ordinance to Major-General Skippon for the Listing of Forces for the Defence of both, still providing against all Irregular Listing within the City under Colour of the said Ordinance. They acquainted the City with the Papers Reported to the House this Day, taken in one of the Prince's Frigats near Margate in Kent by Sir Michael Levesay's Troopers, and amongst others the Prince's Commission to Capt. Green, Captain of the said Frigat; the Tenor whereof was to this purpose:
Charles, Prince of Great-Britain, Duke of Cornwal and Albany, highest Captain-General under His Majesty of all Forces, both by Sea and Land, within the Kingdom of England, Dominion of Wales, and Town of Berwick upon Tweed. Whereas We hold it very convenient and necessary for His Majesty's Service, to Arm, or cause to be Armed, and set forth to Sea, as many Ships and Vessels of War as possible can be, for the weakning and suppressing the Rebels usurped Power, and for the effectual stopping and breaking off their Commerce and Supply by Sea; and forasmuch as we have received sufficient Testimony of your Abilities and Experience in Sea-Affairs, and of your good Affection to the King our Royal Father's Service, we do by these Presents, by Virtue of the Power and Authority given and committed to us from our most dear Father, the King's Most Excellent Majesty, Constitute, Authorize and Appoint you Captain, and Chief Commander of the good Ship called the Christopher of Sunderland, Authorizing and Commanding you, with the said Vessel compleatly Manned and Armed for the War, and with such others as shall Associate with you for our dear Father's Service, to do, and cause to be done to the Rebels, all possible Damages and Hostility in their Shipping, Commerce, and Navigation; and in case of Resistance, to use your best Vigilance and Endeavours during the time of this Rebellion, to Take, Apprehend, Sink and Fire, or otherwise to Impair and Destroy the Ships, Vessels, and Men, their Goods, and all Things to them belonging, of all and every of those His Majesty's Subjects, who are, or shall be in Rebellion against him, or of those who shall be Aiding, Abetting, or Assisting to them, and of all others who shall Transport or Convey any Goods belonging to them, or which shall bring or carry any Arms, Ammunition, Victuals Or Provisions of Arms, or Warlike Provisions whatsoever, to them, or for their Use, or to any City, Town, Port, Creek, or Place in their Possession, and out of His Majesty's Obedience contrary to His Proclamations made, or to be made, on that behalf. That you will do, or suffer to be done, no Wrong or Violence to any of His Majesty's Friends, Allies, or Loyal Subjects; but on the contrary, as Occasion or Need shall require, to yield and afford them all Favour, Furtherance, and Assistance; excepting such as shall be employed in Aid, and Service by the Rebels, or any of them. And we further Charge and Command all their Inferior Officers and their Mates, and all the Soldiers and Mariners of the said Ship, (whom we hereby likewise give you full Power to nominate and appoint) you to Obey and Observe as their Captain and Chief Commander, and to receive, execute, and fulfil readily all your Orders, Commands, and all Things tending to the Good and Advancement of His Majesty's Service: And you your self likewise to accomplish such Orders and Directions as you shall receive from time to time from His Majesty, from us, or from I any other your Superior Officer for the time being, touching the Premises; for which, this shall be unto you, and to every one employ'd under you, a sufficient Warrant and Discharge; the same being to continue in Force for the Space of one whole Year from the Day of the Date hereof. Given at St. Germain in Laye, June 6, 1648.
Having so trusty a Messenger, and so sure Conveyance, I could not but advise you something of the State of our Affairs here; We are in this City generally right only Skippon makes some Disturbance by Listing Horse and Foot; which tho' inconsiderable to what we have Listed for us, yet we hope not only to null his Listing but rout him from his being General of this City: The Lords have already done something, but wait for some farther Encouragement from hence, to which purpose-the Common-Council are about framing a Petition. I shall refer you to T. Hamilton for the Business in the West; for that in the North, it is ours already; and Mat. (Viz. Colonel Mat. Boynton) who hath revolted from the Parliament, and keeps Scarborough Castle for the King, shall be Sainted. 291 is not yet ready to he dispatched; for Colchester is in no great Streights, able to hold out this Month. I hope you had mine by D. H. wherein I advised of the unfortunate Success of H. (Viz. Earl of Holland.) We have no safer way for Conveyance of Intelligence, than by Sea. I am in much hast, and have only time to Subscribe my self.
From the North, the Letters by the Post this day, and first from Newcastle, July 27. came as followeth; 'Major-General Lambert remains about Bernard Castle; he is in daily Expectation of the Forces from the South Parts under. Lieutenant-General Cromwell, some of which are to join with him this day; Our Party (in Appleby Castle, besieged by Sir Philip Musgrave) have Provisions for six weeks, before which time they expect, and no doubt will be relieved; The great number of additional Scots (said to be come both by the way of Carlisle and Berwick), proves but 150 landed at Warkington, very poor and unarmed, and some 3 or 400 with the Earl of Calender, Governour of Carlisle, as Lodowick Lesly is of Berwick, with the Artillery. The Cry in the Town of Berwick by the People is much to be pitied; and the like Cry is in Cumberland and Westmerland, whence the People fly to Parts adjacent, without any thing for Supply of their Necessities, being turned out of all by the Scots, who with Wives and Children take Possession, the English chusing rather to wander than endure such Oppressions, wishing the Scots would be so kind as to Quarter only upon their Friends, and hast to those Parts where they have most, which they shortly must, there being nothing almost left for Man or Beast Where they are.
And farther from Major-General Lambert's Quarters at Baynard's Castle, July, 28. to this purpose: Lieutenant-General Cromwel's Horse (consisting of 30 odd Troops) joined with Major-General Lambert the 27th; which no sooner came near the Major-General's farther Quarters, but sell upon Action with a small Party, with which they resolved to try the Scot's Scouts, who forced them to Retreat within two Miles of Appleby, where their main Guard was. The Scots advance not, nor hath the Major-General given ground these 10 days and upwards; no Action hath been between them, only the Scouts sometimes dispute it. The Major-General increases daily, his Number consists of 9000, and with the Foot of the Lieutenant-General's, with other Forces, (joined with him in Nottingham, Leicester, and Derbyshire, which will compleat 5000) his Army will be very Numerous, and more Offensive then Defensive.