The Records of St. Bartholomew's Priory and St. Bartholomew the Great, West Smithfield: Volume 2. Originally published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1921.
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Borradaile Savory, Baronet, M.A., Rector 1887–1906.
'On the 28th July 1887, the Rev. Borradaile Savory, clerk, M.A., was instituted to the rectory vacant by the death of William Panckridge on the presentation of the Rev. Frederick Parr Phillips, the rector of Stoke d'Abernon, Surrey, the patron' (pl. XCVI, p. 374). (fn. 1)
He was born at 13 Charterhouse Square on the 5th October 1855, (fn. 2) being the only child of Sir William Scovell Savory, Bart., M.B., F.R.S. (Surgeon of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, president of the Royal College of Surgeons, and Surgeon Extraordinary to Queen Victoria), by his wife Louisa Frances Borradaile. He was educated privately and matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1875; he graduated B.A. in 1879 and M.A. in 1882. He was ordained deacon in 1880 and priest in 1881, when he was appointed curate at St. George's, Hanover Square, and so continued until he came to St. Bartholomew's as rector. He succeeded to the baronetcy on the death of his father in 1895. He was president of Sion College in 1905. He held the position of chaplain to the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, and to the Royal Army Medical Corps, volunteers; and in 1890 he was senior grand chaplain to the English Freemasons. He married, in July 1881, Florence Julia, the only surviving daughter of Frederick William Pavy, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., of Wroughton in the county of Wilts.
The new rector lived both before and after his father's death at 66 Brook Street, W., and in order to be near the parish he had also chambers at 20 King Street, Snow Hill. In 1895 he inherited his father's country house, Woodlands, Stoke Poges, Bucks.
Rector Savory attended a meeting of the vestry, together with the patron, by invitation, on the 21st July 1887, seven days before his induction, to be introduced by the patron to the members of the vestry. (fn. 3)
He had as curate until 1889 the Rev. F. W. J. Daniels; then, until 1900, the Rev. C. Albert Smith (now the vicar of St. Mary's, Haggerston). The latter was succeeded by the Rev. P. T. Williams, from Jesus College, Cambridge, who remained until the year 1892, subsequently joining the Melanesian Mission. Williams was succeeded in the same year by the Rev. Leonard Savill, also from Jesus College, who remained until he was presented to the vicarage of Swanley, Kent, whence later he went to Dartford. The Rev. W. E. Robinson came in 1904 and remained until after Rector Savory's death. In 1902 the Rev. J. Arbuthnot Nairn, head master of Merchant Taylors' School, often preached for the rector: the Rev. S. J. Childs Clarke, minor canon of St. Paul's, the Rev. William Ostle, the vicar of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, the Rev. Blomfield Jackson, the Rev. R. M. Woolley, the Rev. W. S. Mavor, the Rev. Dr. Linklater, the Rev. C. Swynnerton, and others also helped, especially during the later years.
In March 1888 the vestry resolved to appoint a committee to raise a memorial to the late rector, William Panckridge. (fn. 4) By the 4th April a representative committee, numbering forty-one members, was formed (fn. 5) with Lord Charles Bruce as chairman, Sir F. D. DixonHartland as honorary treasurer, and including the Bishops of Bedford and of Colchester, Bishop Bromby, the Rev. F. P. Phillips, Dr. Norman Moore, &c. It was unanimously resolved that the most suitable form of memorial would be the completion of the quire screen, the present arrangement of the organ and quire stalls having originated with the late rector. In November (fn. 6) the architect submitted a design for such a screen which was highly approved both by the widow and by the committee. (fn. 7) The cost, which was over £300, was eventually raised, Mr. Grimshire greatly assisting by allowing his subscription of £60 for providing a screen to the sanctuary to be diverted to this object. The unveiling took place on the 8th June (1889), when the patron preached a sermon which was subsequently printed. (fn. 8)
Owing to the premature death of Mr. Panckridge there were certain works promoted by him, outside the restoration, still on hand; such as rebuilding the schools and the new organ and organ gallery. These were the first things to be dealt with by the new rector. The debt on the organ gallery and the repairs to the organ were defrayed out of the proceeds of the performance of a new oratorio, Judith, given by Miss Holland's choir, (fn. 9) which amounted to over £230. Again, over £100 was raised by Lady Savory by a sale of work held for the reduction of the debt on the organ at Lord Brassey's house in Park Lane. (fn. 10)
Subsequently the organ was, in 1892, provided with a case by Mr. Henry Thomas Withers, who presented 400 guineas for the purpose in memory of his brother Frederick John Withers: (fn. 11) frequent reference has already been made (fn. 12) to the latter's diary, written during the restoration of 1864. The organ case was designed by the architect and completed in June 1893. (fn. 13)
The preliminaries for the rebuilding of the schools had been settled before Mr. Panckridge's death. The rebuilding committee had been formed, as already stated, (fn. 14) and had met in March 1886. They had obtained the consent of the parish trustees to the transference of the proceeds of the sale of the parish Watch House (£323) to the school building fund, and had appealed to the various church societies, the City Companies, &c., and had collected £900. They had also negotiated with the Restoration Committee for a site on the south side of the Lady Chapel, some 1,900 ft. super, for £1,100 as already stated (fn. 15)—£1,900 less £800, allowed in compensation for relinquishing their school-room in the triforium. Plans had also been submitted, but the owners of Bartholomew House, recently erected in Kinghorn Street, claimed compensation for loss of light and air, which was met by setting back the school building 3 ft. (fn. 16) and by this amount Red Lion Passage was widened to the general advantage.
The plans were for a three-story building, but in March 1888, at the wish of the Restoration Committee, a two-story building was substituted. (fn. 17) At the same time the cottage at the east end of the Lady Chapel was pulled down to give light to the schools.
The new rector, on taking up the work, had to find £2,000 for the building, and £1,100 for the club rooms in the basement, which he had decided to form. His father, Sir William Savory, had made a donation of £250 to the school building fund on the rector's induction, as well as a similar sum to the Restoration Fund. £1,600 in all was subsequently received from subscribers, (fn. 18) and nearly £700 by means of concerts, sales of work, &c., by Lady Savory, which sums were, in addition to the cost of the club rooms, raised exclusively by the rector and his wife. The Duchess of Albany laid the foundation-stone on the 5th July 1888, and the schools were opened about twelve months later. (fn. 19) There were various claims made by the owners of Fenton's Buildings and of the surrounding houses, but all were amicably arranged by the architect, for which he was cordially thanked. (fn. 20) The accounts were finally balanced and the committee dissolved on the 5th December 1892. (fn. 21)
In 1890 the Restoration Committee, by reason of a grant made by the Charity Commissioners under Bryce's City of London Parochial Charities Act of 1883, were able to take up the works of restoration which the architect had reported in November 1886 (fn. 22) as being urgently required; viz.:
On the 10th January 1889, Mr. Ewan Christian, acting as architect for the Commissioners, inspected the church, (fn. 23) and was furnished with the architect's estimate of the cost of the works required, which amounted to £7,519. (fn. 24) Mr. Christian's (fn. 25) estimate, exclusive of the Lady Chapel which he considered should be left to private benevolence, amounted to £8,000; (fn. 26) and this sum was included in the Commissioners' scheme, which received the Royal Assent in February 1891.
On the other hand, the annual grant recommended by Mr. Christian of £55 for the maintenance of the fabric was entirely inadequate, and, after an inquiry, this was raised in September 1893 to £120. (fn. 27) Two-thirds of the rent of the parish house (86 Bartholomew Close) was, however, taken by the Commissioners for civil purposes, leaving only £11 a year for the maintenance of the services of the church.
In March 1890, as the roof of the south transept was in a dilapidated condition, (fn. 28) it was decided, with the consent of the Charity Commissioners, (fn. 29) to anticipate the grant to the extent of £1,200, and to restore the south transept at once. In May the architect submitted alternative plans (fn. 30): one for a shallow transept as proposed by Mr. Christian; the other to occupy the whole area of the original transept. He pointed out that the rights of light over the transept acquired by the adjoining buildings presented difficulties in carrying out the larger scheme, and that a transept of those dimensions would be out of proportion with the rest of the church now that the nave was destroyed; and further, that the corresponding transept on the north side could in no case be so built because a large portion of the area was occupied by the public thoroughfare. Some members of the committee favoured the larger scheme, but the opinion was expressed that the committee, whilst preserving all work that existed, should aim at not building more than was necessary for the requirements of the day; and as the architect considered that the best thing to do was to build a shallow transept, his advice was followed. It was also decided to add to the transept a much needed baptistery, and otherwise to extend somewhat the work included in the Commissioners' grant. A contract was thereupon entered into with Dove Bros. for £1,750.
As soon as the vestry room was cleared away (fn. 31) from the upper part of the transept, a plain twelfth-century arch was uncovered on the east side in which the vestry fireplace had stood; and on the west side a corresponding arch of the triforium was found, with later mouldings, as already described. (fn. 32) As the work proceeded various difficulties arose, but they were all successfully overcome. Thus, the owner of the stable in the east cloister had, in the year 1726 (as already stated), (fn. 33) been allowed to make an opening into the green churchyard for ventilation; but, as this would now open directly into the new transept bay, the owner's consent had to be obtained to close it and make a new outlet to the open air in its place. (fn. 34) Also, probably after the fall of the cloister vault in 1833, the owner of the stable, in rebuilding his dwelling-room over, had, in order to enlarge his room, encroached some 3 ft. on the transept wall, which made it impossible to carry up the new wall at that point to the full thickness. This was got over by throwing above the intruding part of the room a small girder on which the wall was continued of the full thickness. (fn. 35) The result was that the upper part of the flue of the dwelling-room was enclosed in the thickness of the transept wall through which the chimney pot protruded; as indeed it still does, although the room and its flue have been pulled down.
The coffins in the green churchyard, disturbed by the extension of the new bay of the transept, were reinterred at a lower level, the head stones being laid on the floor above them. The two memorial tablets taken down to build the new bay were refixed on the new portions of the east and west walls of the transept. (fn. 36) The high brick wall, erected after the fire of 1830 to enclose the graveyard, was replaced by iron railings.
At the meeting of the Executive Committee, in February 1891, the members expressed their satisfaction at the work of the architect, which they said had brought to light unaltered all that remained of the old work and made the new harmonize with it, though distinct in design. The General Committee, at their meeting on the 28th February, expressed similar satisfaction, and also thanked Messrs. Dove Bros. for their careful work. The rector was thanked for the great part he had played in rebuilding the schools, whereby the church was also freed from a dangerous fire risk. (fn. 37) The restored transept was opened by Dr. Temple, the Bishop of London, on the 14th March (1891), on which occasion Sir Norman Moore presented 600 copies of his pamphlet on the charter granted to Rahere in 1133 by King Henry I. (fn. 38)
On the 9th February that year (1891), the Charity Commissioners' scheme having passed the Commons, the architect submitted his plans and estimates for completing the work therein specified, (fn. 39) viz. the repairs to the Tower and West front; repairs to the vaulting in the north and south aisles; re-roofing the south triforium, and repairs to the north triforium, which had been vacated by the school. And as this part of the work could be put in hand at once (fn. 40) a contract for £1,035 was entered into with Dove's in the following July. (fn. 41)
The other works in the grant were the building of a shallow north transept and the formation of a new vestry room, which could not then be put in hand, owing to the delay in obtaining signatures to the conveyance of the house 9½ Cloth Fair. In addition to these works, the architect recommended the utilization of the remainder of the Forge site (No. 10 Cloth Fair) for a porch, with a room over extending to the footway in Cloth Fair, which, besides making a striking architectural feature, would give covered access to the church; he also proposed to erect a west porch with a vestry over and a statue of Rahere in a niche in front, to place a flat oak ceiling in place of a stone vault over the south-west bay of the nave, and to rehang the bells. The estimate for the whole work came to £2,500 beyond the Commissioners' grant. (fn. 42)
By the 30th January following, the work ordered in July was completed. The upper portion of the tower had been entirely rebuilt; the external wall of the south triforium had been raised and an entirely new oak roof had been placed over it; a circular stone stair, giving access to the triforium, had been built and other minor works executed. (fn. 43) Some had wished that the Early English vault of the south-west bay of the south aisle could have been restored in place of a new flat oak ceiling; but this was not feasible, even if desirable, because, the tower having been built since the vaulting was destroyed, the base of the tower walls came in the way. (fn. 44)
An event, in itself of minor importance, must here be chronicled, because it influenced the decision concerning the new pulpit, which was built at the same time as the north transept was restored. (fn. 45) In October 1891, the death of the sextoness, Miss Charlotte Hart, was reported to the vestry, (fn. 46) by whom she had been appointed in October 1852. After the church was reopened in 1868, it had been kept open daily, and it was the duty of the sextoness to show the church to visitors. After Rector Abbiss's death her health began to fail, and in 1888 she applied to the churchwardens for a pension and, being to all appearance reduced to a state of great poverty, a pension was granted to her. (fn. 47) She died on the 30th April. On the day of the funeral a will was produced (fn. 48) leaving a sum of £2,900 invested in Consols (as well as plate, pictures, and other things). Of this sum (the proceeds of gratuities given her by visitors) she bequeathed to the rector and churchwardens for the time being the sum of £600, to be expended as they might think fit in permanently beautifying or altering the church at their entire discretion, but she suggested a pulpit, if one had not already been erected. (fn. 49) She further left £100, the interest of which was to be distributed in coals for the poor; £25 for a small tablet or other memento of herself in the church where she had officiated as sextoness for nearly forty years; and £100, the interest of which was to be expended towards keeping in repair the tablet of her grandparents in the church, and of her mother, sister, brother and others in the churchyard. (fn. 50) When the restoration of the north transept was finished, a bronze tablet was erected in accordance with the will, and placed on the new west wall, being close to the site of 9½ Cloth Fair, the house where the sextoness had lived. The tablet to her grandparents, the Wheelers, was removed from the south aisle to the same wall. The £600, less the legacy duty, was entrusted to the Restoration Committee and was expended by them in part on the new pulpit (presently referred to) and in part on the restoration of the transept.
The residuary legatee of the will presented some interesting water-colour drawings and permanent photographs of the church to Mr. E. A. Webb, who presented them to the church authorities; (fn. 51) they are now in the west porch vestry.
In January 1892 the restoration of the north transept was taken in hand. Preparation for the work had been going on for several years. The freehold of the blacksmith's forge, No. 10 Cloth Fair, was purchased, as already seen, in 1884. (fn. 52) The surrender of the tenant's lease was taken in November 1889. (fn. 53) The house 9½ Cloth Fair was a small house which stood on the western side of the transept site and abutted on the church. It formed the endowment of the almshouses, and as such had come into the hands of the Charity Commissioners under Bryce's Act. This had to be acquired before the transept could be restored. The architect valued it at £500 (fn. 54) but Ewan Christian's valuation was £775, and, as that sum was allowed in the grant, that amount was paid to the Commissioners for its conveyance, on the 28th July 1891. (fn. 55)
In June of the same year (1891) the Commissioners of Sewers opened negotiations for the purchase of a portion of the site of No. 10 Cloth Fair (the Forge property) to widen the road, and, as this would be of mutual advantage, a portion was conveyed to them on the 12th April 1893, at the cost price (£255). Later, in December 1895, the Corporation still further improved the approach to this part of the church at the instance of Mr. Deputy Turner, churchwarden, by throwing into the public footway a portion of land which had been occupied by No. 11 Cloth Fair. (fn. 56)
|New North Transept||2,250|
|Entrance Porch to the same||449|
|Room over the Porch||300|
|West Porch with Vestry over and stairs to Organ loft||920|
|Recasing the West Front||416|
|£4,335 (fn. 57)|
In July the rights of light and air of No. 11 Cloth Fair were dealt with. (fn. 58) The house stood on a part of the original transept site, and the new transept wall came close up to its windows. By mutual consent the matter was submitted to the arbitration of Mr. Gruning, who considered that the freeholder had already been compensated by a grant of the right, when reconstructing, to build again on the church boundary wall; he paying his own costs and those of the church trustees. The tenant was awarded £30 compensation; the trustees paying his and their own costs (some £31). This settlement was cordially approved by the Restoration Committee; subsequently the Corporation purchased the house, and as they threw the site into the footway (as mentioned above) the right to rebuild on the church wall was fortunately not exercised.
At the time of the arbitration the architect was able to report that the transept was already built half-way up the triforium; and that the recasing of the west front and the west porch were up to the level of the organ gallery. In the niche over the door of the west porch he was placing a figure of Rahere by W. S. Frith the sculptor; (fn. 59) and in the niche of the north porch, a figure of St. Bartholomew (fn. 60) by the same artist.
At this time one of the piers of the entrance gates to the graveyard stood immediately in front of the entrance to the church, as seen from Smithfield; to remedy this a plan was submitted for shifting the gates and widening the approach at a cost of £100; (fn. 61) this was approved and was carried out, the latter (owing to the care of Dove's foreman, Gregory) without the removal of any bones from the graveyard. (fn. 62)
At the commencement of the work to the transept in February 1892, the question of retaining or removing the stone screen under the north arch of the crossing was considered, (fn. 63) especially with regard to the new pulpit to be erected under Miss Hart's will. (fn. 64) The architect at first proposed to continue the stalls across the screen, to be terminated by a wooden canopied pulpit at the eastern end, (fn. 65) thus concealing the rough condition in which the first restoration committee of 1864 had left the back of the screen by removing its ashlar face. In February 1893 plans were submitted for carrying out this proposal, (fn. 65) but with the stalls terminating in a canopy over a stone instead of a wooden pulpit. As, however, the backs to the stalls would thus cover some of the twelfth-century masonry and the canopy would entail the removal of the Chamberlayne monument, it was resolved to continue the stalls without backs, and to proceed with the pulpit in stone without the canopy. (fn. 66) By the next meeting, however, the post-suppression wall filling the transept arch above the stone screen had been taken down, and the architect then felt that the better plan would be, while retaining the screen, to remove the filling of its two arches, to replace it with wrought-iron grilles, and to recut the rough face of the arches on the church side, a proposal which was unanimously approved. (fn. 67) This arrangement opened up the transept to the church and obviated the necessity of any additional choir stalls. A model of the new pulpit was then placed in position and approved, and it was resolved, on the recommendation of the architect, that it should be executed in Hopton stone, instead of in Blue Bath, at a cost of £117. (fn. 68)
When, in May 1893, the plans for the wrought-iron screens or grilles were submitted, the rector frankly told the committee that he did not favour any screen being placed in the arches; but at the same time he admitted that the recommendation of the architect weighed greatly with him, as what Sir Aston had done up to that time had always proved to be right. His views were endorsed by another member of the committee, but after further explanations from the architect the plans were adopted with the generous concurrence of the rector. (fn. 69)
It was in the course of the excavations on the site of the blacksmith's forge (i. e. on the north side of the stone screen) that the stone coffin of a former prior was found, as described in a previous chapter. (fn. 70)
During the restoration of 1864 the narrow passage to the small north door had to be lowered in order that the steps might be outside instead of inside the church; this necessitated the lowering of the doorway. This doorway occupied then, as now, the eastern portion of the north-eastern bay of the main nave arcade. In 1892 it was considered desirable that possession should be obtained of No. 9 Cloth Fair, which abutted on the church, whereby the whole western bay of the north nave aisle could have been restored; but the trustee owners at that time were buyers and not sellers of property in the parish, and they could not be persuaded to sell the house or the part with the overhanging wooden closet which at some early period had been allowed to encroach over the church passage; the latter would at any rate have allowed the west wall in this bay to have been carried to its proper height. Three years later, in February 1895, the trustee owners approached the architect with the view of surrendering the overhanging closet in exchange for a large grant of rights over the graveyard, in view of rebuilding their Cloth Fair houses. But as the committee's work in regard to this encroachment had by then been carried out, its removal at this time would have been of no advantage, and so no arrangement was come to. (fn. 71) Twenty years later, in December 1914, the houses, Nos. 6–9 Cloth Fair, were demolished, and the site was purchased by the Corporation, from whom the site of all the houses 6–9 Cloth Fair have since been acquired. The old wooden door which gave entrance from the church passage is still preserved as the door to the south chapel, now the choir vestry; until 1914 it was used as an entrance door to the furnace room, which was then within the chapel. (fn. 72)
In February 1893 it was decided to ask King Edward (then Prince of Wales) to be present at the opening ceremony of the transept, on the ground that it was his ancestor, King Henry I, who granted the site for the church; that the Prince was the president of Rahere's other foundation, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and that the present work completed that contemplated in the Commissioners' grant. Consent was readily given, and throughout the many arrangements that had to be made in connexion with the ceremony, the gracious replies that were sent and the great consideration for the convenience of others shown by King Edward made a lasting impression on all concerned. There was only one suggestion with which he could not concur; the Archbishop had told the rector and his warden that the heir to the throne might sit, on such an occasion, in any place that he pleased, even within the sanctuary, but the Archbishop recommended that chairs should be provided for the Prince and the Royal party on a raised dais; to which his courteous secretary at once replied, 'I am sure the Prince would not like that: in fact, he always tells me that when he is in church he likes to feel that he is like any one else.'
On the day before the ceremony, which was fixed for Monday, the 5th June, at 3.30 in the afternoon, an intimation was received that it was also the intention of Queen Alexandra, then Princess of Wales, to be present, which was particularly gratifying to all, since it was her first appearance in public after the death of her eldest son and heir, the Duke of Clarence. It was recalled that King Henry I, after the death of his son and heir in the wreck of the White Ship, had in like manner assisted in the founding of St. Bartholomew's.
Besides the Prince and Princess of Wales there were present—the Duke of York, now King George, the Princess Victoria and the Princess Maud, now the Queen of Norway; and there were also present Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury, Frederick Temple, Bishop of London, R. C. Billing, Bishop of Bedford, and Bishop Mitchinson; also the Archdeacons of London, of Middlesex, of Guildford, and of Surrey; the masters of Jesus College, Cambridge, and of the Charterhouse; Canons Benham and Newbolt, Precentor Venables, and other clergy. Among the laity there were present the Earl of Meath, Lord Egerton of Tatton, Sir Trevor and Lady Lawrence, Sir James and Lady Paget, Viscountess Chewton, Mrs. Benson, Mrs. Temple, and many others. The sermon was preached by the Archbishop of Canterbury. (fn. 73) The collection amounted to £207, and there was otherwise subscribed for the Restoration Fund £1,206.
The work contemplated in the Charity Commissioners' grant being now completed (with the exception of small repairs to the monuments in the church), on the 16th November 1893 the Commissioners paid the balance of their grant of £8,000. After this the monuments were all put into a satisfactory condition. (fn. 74)
The Lady Chapel, as we have seen, was not included in the Commissioners' grant; but it was now necessary that the building should be dealt with in some way. There was still a loan of £1,100 on the premises, the interest on which had at first been met by housing the Rahere club in the lower stories, and the girls' school in the upper ones at a small rent; but in 1889 the District Surveyor reported that the top floor was in a very dangerous state and, being of timber construction, its occupation was no longer possible. (fn. 75)
The next year, 1890, the owners of 6–7 Kinghorn Street wished to advance their building frontage two feet to the detriment of the Lady Chapel property. This was settled by payment of £50 to the church authorities. (fn. 76) In November 1892 the architect reported that, owing to the bad condition of the roof, decay was proceeding rapidly. (fn. 77) He had had the building shored, but a heavy fall of snow might at any time make the roof give way: in the following February a fall of brickwork from the east end did actually occur. (fn. 78) But it was a difficult problem to know what to do when the hands of the committee were so fully occupied with other works in progress. It was, however, decided that, although the Lady Chapel had been so badly treated that there was not much worked stone to preserve, there was at the same time far too much old work to destroy, and its restoration, as already described, (fn. 79) was decided on.
As a first step application was made, in 1892, by the rector and churchwardens, for the transfer to them of the almshouses (under section 51 of the City of London Parochial Charities Act), (fn. 80) so as to free the north side of the Lady Chapel from these abutting buildings. (fn. 81) The application was at first refused, but eventually, in 1894, the Commissioners sanctioned their sale for £150, (fn. 82) having previously decided that they would not allow them to be used any longer as almshouses. They covered an area of 286 square ft. (fn. 83) In 1897, when they were pulled down, (fn. 84) the two tablets commemorating their building in 1631, and their rebuilding in 1823, were removed to the wall of the south triforium of the church. (fn. 85)
In 1893 it was decided to appeal for funds for the work of the Lady Chapel restoration, and, at the meeting of the committee in May, the architect submitted a perspective drawing of the chapel, as proposed to be restored, for inclusion in the appeal for funds. (fn. 86) But the appeal did not meet with a ready response. In consequence, in May 1894, the architect submitted a plan whereby the work could be executed in three sections; but there were difficulties to be faced whichever section was first undertaken. (fn. 87) The architect then evolved a further scheme, which was to remove at once the whole of the dilapidated post-suppression buildings, to restore the three walls and windows and to re-roof the whole, whereby the old work would be rendered safe and the building itself would once more be in a sound condition and ready to be finished and beautified internally later as funds would allow; the crypt (or charnel house) to be excavated and restored at convenience. The total cost of this was estimated at £1,564. (fn. 88) This scheme was unanimously adopted and the work put in hand. By the November following (1894) the demolition of the factory buildings was completed, and the restoration of the walls and roof was commenced. At the east end there remained of the wall only the south-east angle, as already mentioned when describing the Lady Chapel, (fn. 89) but this fragment was sufficient to show precisely the inner and outer face of the wall. (fn. 90) There was no indication as to how the east end of the chapel had been originally treated; it was therefore decided, on the advice of the architect, to have no windows at all in the east wall, as the effect of the direct light, when seen from the church, would interfere with the sombre character of the eastern ambulatory. (fn. 91) The effect of thus leaving the lighting of the chapel to side windows has proved highly satisfactory.
All that remained of the original south wall were the backs of the three buttresses left standing; it had been completely destroyed where the fourth buttress had stood. As the base of the fourth buttress still remained at the street level it was decided to restore it with the rest of the wall. (fn. 92)
In the meantime, in spite of a deficit of £400, and whilst the work on the Lady Chapel was in progress, it was decided to deal with the crypt, so that it might be opened separately as a Mortuary Chapel. The limit of this bone crypt westward was settled by the discovery of the north-west angle of the walls with a portion of the original chalk vault, and a portion of the vault rib, attached to the west wall, proving that this was the original west wall of the crypt, as had already been assumed. (fn. 93) It was decided to revault the crypt in concrete with stone ribs similar to those used in the fifteenth century (several of which had been found in the débris outside), and to give greater height by lowering the floor three inches, (fn. 94) and to pave the same with granolithic. It was also decided to glaze the windows, leaving what remained of the original iron stanchion bars; to erect an altar against the east wall and to place a raised slab for coffins in the centre. All this was carried out and finished by the same time as the first part of the work to the Lady Chapel above.
The ceremony of re-opening the crypt took place on the 29th June 1895, and was performed by the Duke of Newcastle, after a service in the church and a sermon by Dr. G. F. Browne, then Bishop of Stepney. (fn. 95)
Outside the east end of the chapel there was found a brick vaulted passage filled with stone débris, as already referred to. (fn. 96)
At this time there had been raised, for the restoration, schools, and club buildings (including the Commissioners' grant), since the commencement of the effort in 1884, £31,000, (fn. 97) but £1,200 was still required to complete the Lady Chapel.
In January 1895, the trustees of the late Sir Daniel Gooch, who had recently acquired No. 22 Cloth Fair, and No. 1 Red Lion Passage, complained of the opening by the committee of the north-east window of the Lady Chapel over their back yard. Friendly negotiations were opened which ended in a strip of land 5 ft. wide being bought from the trustees for £72 (fn. 98) (as already stated (fn. 99)). The land thus bought extended the full length of the north-east bay to the east end of the chapel. It not only enabled the window to be kept open and the crypt window below to be opened out, but it also gave access from the north side of the chapel to the open space, the east end of which already belonged to the church. (fn. 100)
By December 1896 the committee were prepared to commence the second and final stage of the Lady Chapel work. Estimates were submitted, amounting to £719, for completing the internal work, including a carved and panelled oak ceiling; £300 for an iron screen at the entrance to the chapel; and £150 to £200 for the furniture. These were approved, as well as the design for the iron screen, which was given privately. (fn. 101)
The work was sufficiently advanced by March (1897) to arrange for the opening ceremony, which was performed by Mandell Creighton, Bishop of London, on the 18th May. It was followed by a subscription luncheon in the Great Hall of the Hospital, presided over by the Bishop to celebrate the completion of the original restoration scheme. (fn. 102)
The uncovering of the floor of the nave had been abandoned in the year 1889. The architect reported in that year that he had had a shaft sunk in the graveyard, which showed that, although the foundations of some of the Cloth Fair houses went down 9 ft., that is they were built on the ancient church wall, in other parts, where the buildings projected into the graveyard, the foundations were only 4 ft. deep, which would involve underpinning. (fn. 103) But apart from this difficulty the committee considered that it would not be in harmony with their feelings to disturb the human remains so recently interred. (fn. 104)
There was still some work to be done on the north side of the Lady Chapel. In the following July (1897) it was decided to form a dry area against the north wall where the almshouses had stood. In doing this the foundations of the missing buttress were uncovered, but, as it was not necessary for the stability of the building, it was decided that it should not be rebuilt. The coping of the north wall of the chapel was completed at the same time, (fn. 105) but it could be only temporarily rendered in brick instead of stone for want of funds. (fn. 106)
There remained one window on the north side of the Lady Chapel which was blocked by an old timber cottage, known as No. 2 Back Court; and this also blocked the north-west window of the crypt. (fn. 107) It stood next to the east side of the almshouse site. This cottage collapsed in December 1904; it had covered an area of 256 square ft., and an attempt was made to purchase it, but as the price asked was so exorbitant (£600), nothing further was done at that time. (fn. 108) In February 1896 the leaseholder, having purchased the freehold, was preparing to build another house on the site; (fn. 109) but as this seemed very undesirable the committee, in the month following, (fn. 110) reluctantly purchased the place for £500.
When further demolishing the house, the remains of the second buttress were found, which Mr. Gruning, the surveyor, on behalf of the committee, claimed as part of the party wall, (fn. 111) and thereby it was saved. The tracery of the window had already been skilfully inserted from the Lady Chapel side in 1894. In May 1906 the architect submitted a tender from Dove Bros. to open out the window of the chapel, and, by forming an area, to uncover the window of the crypt beneath, also to repair the buttress (fn. 112) for the sum of £138.
In the same year as the Lady Chapel was reopened (1897) the committee began to turn their attention to the remains of the cloister. In July the committee emphatically expressed the opinion that it would be most desirable to obtain possession of one or more bays of the cloister should an opportunity of doing so arise. (fn. 113) Of the thirty-six bays only the ruins of three in the north end of the east walk remained, and these had 7 ft. of earth on the floor and were used as stables; but there was a considerable quantity of twelfth- and fifteenth-century work still visible in the mutilated arches.
In the year 1900 it was apparent that, when the leases of the 'Coach and Horses' yard fell in, in the year 1926, lofty warehouses would be built on the site and against the tower of the church. Negotiations were therefore opened for the purchase, first of the freehold and then of the head leasehold and sub-leasehold interests. (fn. 114) The negotiations lasted over four years.
The freeholder was willing to sell his freehold interest in his six-stall stable, and a strip of some 996 square ft. of the stable yard (formerly the cloister garth) for £500 and expenses, and this the committee in April 1901 agreed to buy, (fn. 115) as they had now more than cleared all their liabilities. The freeholder, however, imposed a condition that the church authorities were not to block any windows which he in future might make overlooking the churchyard, but this stipulation could not be agreed to. (fn. 116) In July (1901), however, an agreement was arrived at as regards the number of the windows, the height of the new building and its design, (fn. 117) and in December 1902 a faculty was obtained sanctioning the carrying out of the arrangement. (fn. 118)
Negotiations with the head leaseholder were opened early in the year 1901, but there were a number of beneficiaries, and the first negotiations fell through, the committee's offer of £650 being declined. (fn. 119) In June 1903 fresh negotiations were commenced, which finally resulted in an offer to sell the head leasehold interest for £850. the committee paying £38 expenses, and relinquishing £12 a year rent on the one hand, but receiving £50 a year rent on the other, and this offer was accepted. (fn. 120)
There was now the sub-leaseholder to arrange with so as to get immediate possession, and in June 1904 his interest was secured in a portion of the site by payment of £200, and by relinquishing the above-mentioned rent of £50. (fn. 121) This left some 10 ft. in width of the site westward, possession of which would not be obtainable until the expiration of the head lease in 1926, as already seen. (fn. 122) The total cost of the cloister, including law costs, amounted in this way to £1,880. (fn. 123)
At the same time (June 1904) the architect was requested to prepare plans for the restoration of the cloister with rooms over. (fn. 124) But before the plans could be made the 7 ft. of earth from the floor of the cloister had to be excavated and the filling in of the arched entrance to the church removed. (fn. 125) In March 1905 plans for the work and an estimate of £785 were submitted and approved, (fn. 126) Mr. Maurice E. Webb for this occasion undertaking the work for his father. The old rooms over the cloister being too dilapidated to retain, plans for their rebuilding were also submitted, the rector being desirous of having them for the use of the curate, mission worker and verger; or failing that for letting to students of the Hospital; the rent to be applied to the maintenance of the services of the church. (fn. 127) These plans were also passed, but some of the committee deprecated entering on a building scheme. Before, however, anything was done, counsel's opinion was taken (fn. 128) as to the possibility of securing that any rent received from such rooms could be applied to the maintenance of the services. Counsel's opinion was that it would be impossible to ensure legally that such rent should be at the disposal of the churchwardens; (fn. 129) it would, therefore, be at the disposal of the rector for the time being. For this reason, and because the committee were now liable for the cost of the cloister to the extent of £1,300, it was decided to relinquish building the rooms for the time being and to place a temporary roof only over the cloister. (fn. 130)
As the work on the cloister proceeded it was found necessary to obtain from the sub-tenant immediate possession of 4 ft. of the 10 ft. strip of the stable yard, and for this £5 has to be paid annually by way of rent until the year 1926. (fn. 131)
Towards the end of the year the work was completed. £500 had been voted for it by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners from the City of London Parochial Charities fund, at the instance of Dr. WinningtonIngram, Bishop of London; and it was opened by him in the presence of the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs on the 2nd December 1905. (fn. 132)
In July 1891 the five ancient bells, which were in a neglected condition on the floor of the belfry, were repaired and put into ringingorder by J. Warner & Sons, and a chiming apparatus was added at a cost of £75. (fn. 133)
In May 1894 Mr. H. T. Withers, who had the year before presented the church with an organ case in memory of his brother, Mr. F. J. Withers, now made a gift of a bound copy of his brother's diary written during the years of the first restoration—1864 to 1866. (fn. 134)
In March 1898 an illuminated address, signed by twenty-five members of the Restoration Committee, was presented to the architect as a memorial of 'their high appreciation of the ability with which the work had been carried out', and of the 'religious care in preserving whatever ancient work remained, and in welding the old and the new into one beautiful and harmonious whole'. An illuminated address was also presented to his brother, the churchwarden, in appreciation of his fourteen years' service as honorary secretary. A resolution of thanks to Dove Bros. for their conscientious work was also unanimously passed. (fn. 135)
In October 1900 the brickwork which had filled the openings in the thirteenth-century clerestory window in the south side of the only remaining bay of the nave was removed This brought to light the tracery dating from about the year 1230. (fn. 136) The corresponding window on the north side was treated in the same way in the year 1915, as will be shown later.
In January 1906 excavations were made in the graveyard path in search for the remains of the processional door of the west walk of the cloister. (fn. 137) The foundations were found without difficulty, the plinth of the doorway still being in good condition. Measurements were taken and the remains were again filled in, that being considered by the architect to be the best way to preserve them. The plan of the doorway was then outlined in brass in the granolithic pavement by way of recording (fn. 138) the remains below. The excavations were continued westward, whereby the nave wall with its bench and a threshold (leading probably into a parlour) were uncovered, and the nave wall was traced under the public way within 7 ft. of the Smithfield gate. (fn. 139)
In March 1906 the committee passed a resolution (fn. 140) that it was very desirable, for the maintenance of the fabric of the church, that lighting by electricity should be substituted for lighting by gas, and they hoped that the rector and churchwardens would see their way to carry out so great an improvement. The next month the rector and churchwardens reported that they were prepared to adopt electric lighting, subject to any additional cost for lighting and heating being a first charge upon the receipts from visitors to the church. The architect's estimate was £250 for installation and £150 to £200 for simple fittings, the cost of which could be drawn from the extraordinary repairs fund. (fn. 141) In May the matter had gone so far that a plan was submitted and approved for lighting the church by means of pendent electric lights; (fn. 142) but after the rector's death the matter was allowed to remain over until a new rector was appointed, (fn. 143) and after that no active steps were taken to carry it out, but the object was added to appeals for other works, the needs of which, however, always seemed more necessary.
In March 1898 the committee were perturbed by plans being published for the formation of a new road by the Corporation, which, starting from London Wall, and passing through Edmund Place and across Aldersgate Street, was to pass through the parish into Smith field in such a way as to necessitate the demolition of the Smithfield gate; but in April 1900 the scheme was fortunately abandoned: (fn. 144)
In October 1893 a desire was expressed by the governors of the Witton Grammar School that a memorial brass to Sir John Deane, (fn. 145) the first rector of this church, might be erected by the scholars of the school which he founded. This was acceded to by the rector and church wardens, and the memorial was placed on the floor of the westernmos bay of the north ambulatory. (fn. 146) In the year 1903, at the request of the governors, the slab was removed to the floor on the south side of the sanctuary, over the place, as nearly as could be estimated where Deane had willed to be interred. (fn. 147)
On the 20th November 1901 occurred the death of Mr. Joseph Grimshire, who had joined the committee in 1888, and who had always liberally assisted in the work of the restoration. (fn. 148) In the year 1903 his friends of the Toynbee Antiquarian Society sought for permission to erect a memorial to him at St. Bartholomew's, and, following the rule it is desired to establish that a personal memorial must take the form of something required by the church, permission was given to erect a tablet (as designed by the architect) recording the name and dates of the priors and rectors of the church, on the south side of the west porch. (fn. 149)
The committee suffered a great loss in the year 1903, in the death of the patron, the Rev. Canon Frederick Parr Phillips, which occurred on the 17th March in his 85th year. A resolution was passed by the committee expressing their 'deep sense of gratitude for the great personal interest he had shown in the restoration of the church for a period of forty years, and for the munificent gifts made by him to the Restoration Fund'. (fn. 150) His son, Captain Frederick Abbiss Phillips, being desirous of raising a memorial to his father, consented to its taking the form of a new sanctuary floor, which the rector had long wished for in the church. It was felt that this would form a very appropriate memorial, as the apse had been restored by the patron.
In June 1893 the death was announced of Mr. R. C. Nichols, (fn. 151) a very useful member and regular attendant at the committee meetings, and in May 1895 that of Sir William Savory, the father of the rector, who helped the work by his interest and pecuniary aid.
At the same time was announced the death of Precentor Venables, who had benefited the restoration by his writings in the Saturday Review. (fn. 152) Mr. John F. France, F.S.A., who had been a member of this committee, as well as of that of 1864, since the commencement, died on the 6th October 1901. (fn. 153) Sir Norman Moore, whose advice was always valuable, was obliged to resign, from pressure of other engagements, in February 1903. (fn. 154) Mr. J. A. Kingdon, who joined the committee in 1890 (fn. 155) and had been of special service in many ways, died on the 4th January 1906. (fn. 156)
On the other hand, the Executive Committee were, in 1888, greatly strengthened by securing the services of the late Rev. E. S. Dewick. F.S.A. (fn. 157) In May 1890 the late Mr. F. Harwood Lescher was elected on the General Committee. (fn. 158) In July 1892 Mr. H. P. Boord, (fn. 159) son of Sir William Boord, (fn. 160) and in February 1893 the Duke of Newcastle and Canon Newbolt were also elected; (fn. 161) and in 1893 Lord Addington consented to serve. (fn. 162) In March 1905 Mr. Maurice E. Webb, son of the architect, (fn. 163) and in February 1906 Sir Paget Bowman (fn. 164) were elected to the Executive Committee.
Sir Borradaile had as warden Sir William Boord, M.P., until 1896, when he retired and Mr. E. A. Webb again took office. (fn. 165) The late Mr. Benjamin Turner, C. C. deputy, was elected people's warden at Easter 1887, (fn. 166) and was as such re-elected at each Easter vestry until his death in 1917. In 1896 Mr. Turner was thanked by the vestry for his services, and especially for having been instrumental in setting back the house at the east end of Cloth Fair and for having Bartholomew Close paved with asphalt. In October (fn. 167) of that year he was presented with a testimonial by his fellow parishioners.
Lady Boord did good service to the parish during her husband's churchwardenship by having the documents belonging to the church properly sorted. (fn. 168) Later a descriptive inventory was made of them, together with the books, registers, &c., with exact reference as to where each was to be found. This was the work of Sir William's successor.
The vestry again did not take a prominent part in the history of
the time, though the rector presided regularly at their meetings.
In 1786, as already seen, the vestry had to make a return of charitable
donations by Deed or Will for the benefit of the poor of the parish. (fn. 169)
In February 1902 an Inquiry was held into the endowments of the
parish (fn. 170) which were subject to the provisions of the Charitable Trusts
Acts, 1853 to 1891, and a Return was made to the Charity Commissioners the same year. (fn. 171) The Return gives the Report made in 1819
on the Parochial schools and on the Protestant Dissenters' schools;
also the Report of 1823 on the following charities:
Deane's (the first rector's); Lady Saye and Sele's (concerning the almshouses); Thorpe's; Wyatt's (bread for the poor); Doncaster's; Whiting's (the farm for the school endowment); Burgess's (for the poor); Roycroft's; Richardson's (for bread for the poor); Johnson's (for the poor); Woodward's (for bread); Elston's (for bread); and Mrs. Bridge's (for coals).
The report also refers to the description of the Charities contained in the 'General Digest' of 1875–1876. It further refers to the Report of Thomas Hare made in 1855.
All these charities, with the exception of the Parochial schools, were included in the central scheme made under the City of London Parochial Charities (Bryce's) Act of 1883, and so were alienated from the parish; but the report concerning them and the schools, as well as those concerning the Butterworth Charity and the Charlotte Hart's gifts (founded since the Act of 1883), are printed in the Appendix. (fn. 172)
On the 24th June 1904 the St. Bartholomew Hospital Act, 4 Edward VII, was passed granting power to demolish the church of the hospital, and to unite for ecclesiastical purposes the parish of St. Bartholomew the Less with that of St. Bartholomew the Great. (fn. 173) This Act was promoted with the assent of the rector and the patron of this parish and of the Bishop of London, but the powers given by the Act have never been exercised.
In June 1906 Sir Borradaile was seized with an illness which, to
the regret of all, terminated fatally at his house, Woodlands, Stoke
Poges, on the 12th September following. He was buried in the churchyard there, beside his wife, on the 16th. On the gravestone is the
In loving memory of Florence Julia the dear wife of the Rev. Sir Borradaile Savory, Bart. She was born June 14th, 1856, and died May 18th, 1902. Also in memory of the Rev. Sir Borradaile Savory, Bart., born October 5th, 1856. Died Sept. 12th, 1906.'
On October 12th following the vestry passed a resolution expressing the esteem in which the rector was held by the parishioners for his personal qualities, for his work for the restoration of the church, for his rebuilding of the schools, and for his efforts for the general welfare of the parish. (fn. 174)
He was of a genial and cheerful disposition and thereby contributed largely to the successful carrying through of the difficult and sometimes intricate work of the restoration of the church. He made no enemies and had many friends both within the parish and without. He left an only child, William Borradaile Savory, who succeeded to the title.