Statutes of the Realm: Volume 5, 1628-80. Originally published by Great Britain Record Commission, s.l, 1819.
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Recital that the City of London had been destroyed by Fire.
Reasons for passing this Act; All future Buildings to be after the Method herein mentioned.; Building Houses otherwise; Nuisance, and Builder to enter into a Recognizance to abate the same; on Default, Imprisonment; or House may be demolished by Order of Court of Aldermen.
Forasmuch as the Citty of London being the Imperiall Seate of His Majestyes Kingdomes and renowned for Trade and Commerce throughout the world by reason of a most dreadfull Fire lately happening therein was for the most part thereof burnt downe and destroyed within the compasse of a few dayes and now lyes buryed in its owne Ruines For the speedy Restauration whereof and for the better Regulation Uniformity and Gracefulnes of such new Buildings as shall be erected for Habitations in order thereunto, And to the end that great and outragious Fires (through the blessing of Almighty God soe farr forth as humane Providence (with submission to the Divine pleasure) can foresee may be reasonably prevented or obviated for the time to come, both by the matter and forme of such building, And further to the intent that all Incouragement and Expedition may be given unto, and all Impediments and Obstructions that may retard or protract the undertakeing or carrying on a worke soe necessary and of soe great Honour and Importance to His Majestie and this Kingdome and to the rest of His Majestyes Kingdomes and Dominions may be removed. Bee it therefore enacted by the Kings most Excellent Majestie by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spirituall and Temporall and Commons in this present Parlyament assembled and by the Authoritie of the same That the Rules and Directions hereafter in this Act prescribed be duely observed by all persons therein concerned And first That noe Building or House for Habitation whatsoever be hereafter erected within the limitts of the said Citty and Liberties thereof but such as shall be pursuant to such Rules and Orders of Building and with such materialls as are herein after perticularly appointed and according to such Scantlings as are sett downe and prescribed in a Table in this present Act hereafter specified, And if any person or persons shall presume to build contrary thereunto and bee convicted of the same by the oathes of two or more credible witnesses to be taken before the Lord Maior for the time being or any two or more of the Justices of the Peace for the said Citty who are hereby impowered to administer the same oathes That then and in such case the said House soe irregularly built as aforesaid shall be deemed as a common Nusance and the Builder and Levier thereof shall enter into a Recognizance in such summe as the said Maior and Justices respectively in their Discretions shall appoint for abatement and demolishing the same in convenient time or otherwise to amend the same according to such Rules and Orders as aforesaid, and in defaulte of entring into such Recognizance the Offender shall be committed to the common Goale of the said Citty there to remaine without Baile or Mainprize till he shall have abated or demolished or otherwise amended the same, or else such irregular House shall or may be demolished or abated by Order of the Court of Aldermen.
II. Surveyors elected by Mayor, &c. to prevent irregular Buildings.
And that the said irregular Buildings may be the better prevented or more effectually discovered Be it further enacted by the Authoritie aforesaid That the Lord Maior Aldermen and Common Councill of the said Citty shall and may at their will and pleasure elect nominate and appoint one or more discreet and intelligent person or persons in the Art of Building to be the Surveyors or Supervisors to see the said Rules and Scantlings well and truely observed, And that it shall be lawfull for the said Maior Aldermen and Common Councill, or for the Maior and Aldermen in their Court of Aldermen to administer to all the said Surveyours or Supervisors an Oath upon the Holy Evangelists for the true and impartiall execution of their Office in that behalfe and to appoint the severall Precincts which shall be under their severall Surveyes,
III. Four Sorts of Houses.
And to the end that all Builders may the better know how to provide and fitt their materialls for their severall Buildings Be it enacted That there shall be onely fower sortes of Buildings and noe more, and that all manner of Houses soe to be erected shall be of one of those [four (fn. 1) ] sortes of Buildings and noe other (that is to say) The First and least sort of Houses fronting By lanes, the Second sort of Houses fronting Streets and Lanes of note, the Third sort of Houses fronting high and principall Streetes, the Fourth and largest sort of Mansion houses for Citizens or other persons of extraordinary quality not fronting either of the three former Wayes And the Roofes of each of the said first three sorts of Houses respectively shall be uniforme.
IV. Lord Mayor, &c. to declare the Streets and Lanes.
And for avoiding any uncertainety to the Builders or others herein Bee it further enacted That the Lord Maior Aldermen and Common Councill of the said Citty for the time being shall on or before the first day of Aprill next ensueing declare which and how many shall hereafter be accounted and taken to be By lanes, which and how many shall hereafter be deemed Streets or Lanes of note and high and principall Streets by Act of Coo[m]mon Councill to be passed for that purpose, which Declaration being made as aforesaid, all and singular the said Streets and Lanes (hereby intended to be rebuilt) shall by Order of the said Lord Maior Aldermen and Common Councill or such persons as they under the Coo[m]mon Seale of the said Citty shall order and appoint be marked or staked out and distinguished to the end the Breadth Length and Extent thereof may be the better knowne and observed. And if any person or persons whatsoever shall wittingly or willingly without good Authority plucke up or remove any of the said Stakes or Marke stones thereby to obscure or confound the bounds of such Streetes or Lanes or any of them and shall be thereof legally convicted by the Oath of one Witnesse (other then of the Informer) to be taken before any one or more Justices of the Peace of the said Citty, That then the said Justice or Justices shall or may send such Offender to the Coo[m]mon Goale of the said Citty there to remaine by the space of three Moneths without Baile or Mainprize unlesse he shall pay or cause to be paid to the use of the Maior Coo[m]monaltie and Citizens of the said Citty the summe of ten pounds to be imployed in and towards the repaireing of the publique Buildings of the said Citty Provided alwayes That where any such Offence shall be committed by any person or persons of low and meane condition whom the said Justice or Justices of the Peace shall in, his conscience beleive to be unable to satisfie the said Penaltyes That then and in such case the said Justice or Justices of the Peace shall and may by Order and Warrant under his or their Hands and Seales cause such Offender to be openly whipped neere unto the place where the Offence shall be committed till his body be bloudy. And that it shall and may be lawfull for the said Justice or Justices of the Peace to reward the said Informer out of the Pecuniary Penalty to be incurred according to his discretion not exceeding a Third part of the said Penaltie.
V. Buildings to be of Brick, &c.
And in reguard the building with Bricke is not onely more comely and durable but alsoe more safe against future perills of Fire Be it further enacted by and with the Authoritie aforesaid That all the outsides of all Buildings in and about the said Citty be henceforth made of Bricke or Stone or of Bricke and Stone together except Doore cases and Window Frames the Brest Summers and other parts of the first Story to the Front, betweene the Peeres which are to be left to the discretion of the Builder to use substantiall Oaken Timber instead of Bricke or Stone for conveniency of Shopps, And that the said Doores Brest Summers and Window frames be sufficiently discharged of the burthen of the Fabricke by Archworke of Bricke or Stone either straight or circular
VI. Surveyor's Charge.
And bee it enacted That the said Surveyors or Supervisors soe to be appointed [as aforesaid (fn. 2) ] and every of them within their severall Precincts shall take care That in building of all Houses within the said Citty and Libertyes thereof there be, and it is hereby enacted by the Authority aforesaid That there shall be Partie walls and Partie peeres sett out equally on each Builders ground to be built up by the first beginner of such Building and that convenient Toothing be left in the Front wall by the said first Builder for the better joyning of the next House that shall be built to the same, And that noe man be permitted by the said Surveyours to build on the said Partie wall or on his owne contiguous ground untill he hath fully reimbursed the said first Builder the full moyety of the charges of the said Partie wall and Peeres together with Interest for the same after the rate of Six pounds per Centuo[m]m per Ann? for forbearance thereof to be accounted from the begining of the said first building. And in case any difference shall arise betweene the first and latter builders, concerning the true value of the said Charge that then the same be referred to the Alderman of that Ward where such building shall be and to his Deputie to mediate an agreement of such difference And where the said Alderman and his Deputie or one of them shall be partyes or where they cannot compose such difference as aforesaid that the matter be referred to the Examination of the Lord Maior and Court of Aldermen who shall heare and finally determine the same without any appeale to be had.
VII. The Contents of least sort of Houses.
And bee it further enacted that the said Houses of the first and least sort of Building fronting By streetes or Lanes as aforesaid shall be of two Stories high besides Cellers and Garrets, That the Cellars thereof be six foote and a halfe high if the springs of water hinder not, that the first Story be nine foote high from the Floore to the Cieling, and the second Story nine foote high from the Floore to the Cieling, that all Walls in front and reere as high as the first Story be of the full thicknes of the length of two Bricks and thence upwards to the Garrets of the thicknes of one Bricke and an halfe, and that the thicknes of the Garrat walls on the backe part be left to the discretion of the builder soe that the same be not lesse then the length of one Bricke, And alsoe that the thicknes of the Party walls betweene these Houses of this first and lesser sort of building be one Bricke and an halfe as high as the said Garrets and that the thicknes of the Partie Wall in the Garrets be of the thickenes of one Bricke in length at the least, and that the Scantlings of Timber and Stone to be used about the building thereof be as in the said Table are sett downe and prescribed.
VIII. Contents of Second Sorts of Houses.
And bee it further enacted That the Houses of the second sort of building fronting Streets and Lanes of note and the River of Thames shall consist of three Stories high beside Cellars and Garrets as aforesaid, that the Cellars thereof be six foote and [an (fn. 3) ] halfe high (if the springs of water hinder not) that the first Story containe full tenn foote in height from the Floore to the Sieling the second full ten foote, the third nine foote, That all the said Walls in front and reere as high as the first Story be of the full thicknesse of the length of two Bricks and an halfe, and from thence upwards to the Garret Floore of the thicknes of one bricke and an halfe, and that the thicknes of the Garret walls on the backe part be left to the discretion of the builder soe that the same be not lesse then the length of one Bricke, and alsoe that the thicknes of the Partie walls betweene every House of this second and larger sort of building be two Bricke lengths as high as the first Story, and thence upwards to the Garrets of the thicknes of one Bricke and halfe, the Scantlings of Timber and Stone to be as in the said Table are prescribed,
IX. Contents of Third Sort of Houses.
Alsoe that the Houses of the third sort of buildings fronting the high and principall Streetes shall consist of four Stories high besides Cellars and Garrets as aforesaid, that the first Story containe full ten foote in height from the Floore to the Cielling, the second ten foote and an halfe, the third nine foote, the fourth eight foote and an halfe, That all the said Walls in front and reere as high as the first Story be of the full thicknes of the length of two Bricks and an halfe, and from thence upwards to the Garret Floore of the thicknes of one Bricke and an halfe, that the thicknes of the Garret walls on the backe part be left to the discretion of the builder soe as the same be not lesse then the length of one Bricke, and alsoe that the thicknes of the Party walls betweene every house of this third and larger sort of building be two Bricks lengths as high as the first Story, and thence upwards to the Garrets of the thicknes of one bricke and halfe, the scantlings of Timber and Stone to be as in the said Table are prescribed
X. Scantlings of Fourth Sort.
And bee it further enacted that [all Houses of (fn. 4) ] the fourth sort of building being Mansion houses and of the greatest bignes not fronting upon any of the Streets or Lanes as aforesaid shall beare the same scantlings as in the Table are sett downe for the same, and that the number of Stories and the height thereof be left to the discretion of the builder soe as he exceede not foure Stories.
XI. Balconies with Rails and Bars of Iron in High Streets.
And bee it further enacted that in the Front of all Houses [hereafter (fn. 4) ] to be erected in any such Streets as by Act of Common Councill shall be declared to be High Streets Belconies fower foote broad with Railes and Barrs of Iron of equall distance from the ground shall be placed, every of which Belconies shall containe in length two parts of the Front of the House on which it shall be placed in three parts to be divided, and the remaining vacancy of the Front shall be supplyed with a Penthouse of the breadth of the Belcony to be covered with Lead Slate or Tile and to be cieled with Plaistering underneath, and that the Water falling aswell from the topps of the said Houses as from the said Belconies and Penthouses be conveyed into the Channells by Party pipes on the sides or fronts of the said Houses, and that Pavements under every of the said Belconies and Penthouses be made of good and sufficient broad flatt Stone at the charge of the builder,
XII. Height of the First Floor of Second and Third Sorts of Houses.
And bee it further enacted that noe builder of any of the Houses fronting any of the said High Streets, Streets or Lanes of note be permitted to lay his first Floore over the Cellar more then Eighteen inches above the said Streete or lesse then Six with one Circular step to leade up thereunto to be placed without the building, And that noe Trapp doores or open Grates to be in any wise suffered to be made into any such Cellar or Warehouse without the foundations of the Front, but that all Lights to be made into any of them be henceforth made upright and not otherwise, and that noe Bulks Jettyes Windowes Posts Seates or any thing of like sort shall be made or erected in any Streets Lanes or By Lanes to extend beyond the auntient foundation of Houses nor that any House be sett further into the streete then the auncient foundation saveing onely that in the high and principall Streetes it shall be lawfull for the Inhabitants to suffer their Stall boards (when their Shop windowes are set open) to [turne over and (fn. 4) ] extend eleaven inches and noe more from the Foundation of their Houses into the Streets for the better conveniency of their Shop windowes.
XIII. Ground not built upon in Three Years;
Notice to build.; Neglecting to build; Warrant by Lord Mayor, &c. to Sheriff to impannel a Jury.; Jury to estimate Value of Ground on Oath; and then the same to be sold under Common Seal of the City; and the Money paid to the Owner.; Sale made and enrolled to be final, and Purchaser may hold and enjoy.
And be it further enacted that if any person or persons bodies Pollitique or Corporate being seised possessed or interessed of or in any Ground which was formerly builded upon, and the Houses thereupon being now burned or pulled downe at the time of the late Fire shall not within three yeares next ensueing build up the same that then the Maior Aldermen and Coo[m]mon Councill of the Citty of London by Act of Coo[m]mon Councill may cause Proclamation [publiquely to be (fn. 5) ] made betweene the houres of twelve and two of the clocke in the afternoone as well at or upon the said Ground as [alsoe (fn. 4) ] at or upon the publique Exchange of the said Citty thereby to give notice to all persons that shall be or may be therein concerned to cause the same to be rebuilded according to the direction of this [pp[re]sent (fn. 4) ] Act within the space of nine moneths then next following, And in case the Owners thereof or other person or persons haveing Interest therein shall refuse or negclect to rebuild the same in manner and within such time as aforesaid that then in such case the said Maior and Court of Aldermen of the said Citty are hereby authorized to issue out Warrants to the Sheriffes of London for the time being requiring them to impanell and returne before them a Jury of good and lawfull men of the said Citty which the said Sheriffes are hereby authorized and required to doe accordingly, which Jury soe returned shall upon their Oathes to be administred to them by the said Maior and Court of Aldermen (who are likewise hereby authorized to minister the same) enquire estimate and assesse the true and just value of such void Ground according to their Judgements, and that from and after such Inquiry and Valuation thereof made as aforesaid (by Inquest of the said Jury) it shall and may be lawfull to and for the said Maior Aldermen and Coo[m]mon Councill of the said Citty to make Sale of the Fee or Inheritance thereof by Conveyance under their Common Seale to any person or persons that will purchase the same at such Price at which the same shall have beene soe as aforesaid estimated and valued by the said Jury, and the moneyes thereupon to be received of the purchasers thereof shall be paid into the Chamber of London and from thence to be issued out. and paid by the Chamberlaine of London for the time being unto such person or persons who shall have any Estate or Interest into or out of the same according to his or their respective Estate or Estates Title or Interest which Sale soe made and inrolled of Record according to the Custome or Usage of the said Citty for Inrolment of Bargaines and Sales shall be finall and conclusive to all other persons whatsoever and shall barr them their Heires and Assignes to claime any Estate Right Title or Interest of in or out of the Grounds soe sold precedent to the said Sale And the Purchaser or Purchasers thereof his and their Heires and Assignes shall and may by vertue of this Act have hold and enjoy the same against all persons claiming any Estate Right Title or Interest into, or out of the same his and their Heires, Executors Administrators and Assignes freed and discharged of and from [all (fn. 6) ] Incumbrances in Estate Title Charge or otherwise precedent to the said Sale.
XIV. Two Judges of K.B. may set the Prices of Brick, Tiles, and Lime.
And to the end the said Builders may receive due encouragement by haveing the materialls for building at reasonable prices and getting of Workemen for moderate wages Bee it further enacted that in case of Combination or unreasonable Exaction by Bricke makers Tile makers and Lime burners It shall and may be lawfull for the Justices of the Court of Kings Bench or any two or more of them upon the complaint of the said Maior and Court of Aldermen to call before them such a number of Bricke makers Tile makers and Lime burners makeing or burning Bricke Tile or Lime at any place within Five miles distance of the River of Thames as they shall thinke fitt, and upon conference with them had concerning the premisses if they will be present or otherwise in their absence to assesse such reasonable, prices from time to time upon every thousand of the said Bricks and Tiles and upon every hundred of the said Lime and every greater or lesser quantity to be delivered at the severall Kilnes And alsoe of all Carriages of the same Materialls from the said Kilns to the said Citty whether by Land or by Water as may equally respect the honest proffitt of the said Brickemakers Tile makers Lime burners and Carriers and the necessity and convenience of the Builder.
XV. In case of Combinations and Exactions of Workmen and Labourers for their Hire; Lord Mayor, &c. may appoint Wages, Prices of Materials, &c.;
Table thereof to bind Persons concerned.; Artificers, &c. refusing to sell or work at such Prices; or leaving Work unfinished; or giving more Wages than allowed; Imprisonment or Penalty.; Satisfaction to Party injured out of Penalty.
And to the intent noe Brickemaker Tile maker Lime burner Carpenter Brickelayer Mason [Plaister (fn. 7) ] Joyner Plumber or other Artificer Workeman or Labourer may make the common calamity a pretence to extort unreasonable or excessive Wages Bee it likewise enacted That in case of combination or exaction of unreasonable Wages by the said Artificers Workemen or Labourers or any of them the said Justices of the Court of Kings Bench or any two or more .of them upon the like complaint of the said Lord Maior and Court of Aldermen, shall and may from time to time limitt rate and appoint the wages of the said Artificers Workemen and Labourers by the day weeke or otherwise, and what wages every of the said Workemen shall have by the great, by the Foote Yard Rodd or Pearch, or for any greater Quantity, which said Rates together with the Prices of the said Materialls and Carriages soe assessed being sett downe in a Table and Proclamation thereof made by the Lord Maior for the time being accordingly the same shall eftectually binde all persons therein concerned. And if any of the said Artificers refuse to sell the said Materialls for the prices soe assessed or any of the said Carpenters Brickelayers Masons Plaisterers Joyners Plumbers or other Workemen or Labourers shall either refuse to worke for the wages soe assessed or shall depart from his said worke after he hath undertaken to doe the same without Licence of such person or persons as imployed him, and before it be finished unlesse it be for non payment of his hire or other just cause to be allowed before one Justice of the Peace of such place where the offence shall be coo[m]mitted or if any person or persons whatsoever shall by any secret wayes or meanes give covenant article or agree to give directly or indirectly by himselfe or any other for him any other or greater wages prices or other coo[m]modity then shall be soe assessed the said Offender and Offenders being thereof legally convict by the Oaths of one or more witnesses, which Oath the said Justice is hereby impowered to administer shall be by the said Justice of the peace [forthwith (fn. 6) ] coo[m]mitted to the Coo[m]mon Goale there to remaine by the space of one moneth without Baile or Maineprize unlesse he shall pay or cause to be paid for every such Offence [to the said Justice of the peace (fn. 6) ] such Fine as by the discretion of the said Justice shall be sett upon any such Offender not exceeding Ten pounds, Out of which Fine the said Justice shall and may award and pay unto the partie injured such satisfaction as he shall judge reasonable and the residue thereof shall pay unto the Chamberlaine of London for the time being to be imployed [for and (fn. 6) ] towards the reedifying of the publique Buildings of the Citty aforesaid.
XVI. Artificers working made free of London; and liable to serve in Offices as Freemen.
And be it further enacted That all Carpenters Brickelayers Masons Plaisterers Joyners and other Artificers Workemen and Labourers to be imployed in the said Buildings who are not Freemen of the said Citty shall for the space of seaven yeares next ensueing and for soe long time after as untill the said buildings shall be fully finished have and enjoy such and the same liberty of workeing and being sett to worke in the said building as the Freemen of the Citty of the same Trades and Professions have and ought to enjoy, Any Usage or Custome of the Citty to the contrary notwithstanding: And that such Artificers as aforesaid which for the space of seaven yeares shall have wrought in the rebuilding of the Citty in their respective Arts shall from and after the said seaven yeares have and enjoy the same Liberty to worke as Freemen of the said Citty for and dureing their naturall lives. Provided alwayes that such Artificers claiming such priviledges shall be lyeable to undergoe all such Offices and to pay and performe such Dutyes in reference to the Service and Government of the Citty as Freemen of the Citty of their respective Arts and Trades are lyeable to undergoes pay and performe
XVII. Differences about placing or stopping Lights may be determined by Alderman of the Ward or Deputy; or if concerned or cannot determine, then by Lord Mayor, &c.; No further Appeal.
And to remove all obsticles which otherwise may hinder soe good and proffitable a worke Bee it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid that all differences ariseing betweene the said Builders or any others concerning placeing. and, stoping up of Lights Windowes Watercourses or Gutters which may hinder or retard the said building shall and may be heard mediated and determined (if it may be) by the Alderman of the Ward where the cause of any such difference shall arise and his Deputie, and if either the said Alderman or his Deputie be concerned as parties in the controversie, or that they cannot determine the said Differences that then and in every such case the same be certifyed by the said Alderman or his Deputie unconcerned therein to the said Maior and Court of Aldermen who upon deliberate heareing of all partyes shall finally determine the same without further or other Appeale.
XVIII. Sewers, Vaults, and pitching and paving Streets, by Persons appointed by Lord Mayor, &c. and Surveyors.
And be it further Enacted by the Authoritie aforesaid That the numbers and places for all coo[m]mon Sewers Draines and Vaults and the order and manner of paveing and pitching the Streets and Lanes within the said Citty and Liberties thereof shall be designed and sett out by such and soe many persons as the said Maior Aldermen and Coo[m]monalty in Coo[m]mon Councill assembled shall from time to time authorize and appoint under their Coo[m]mon Seale or the more part of them, which said persons soe authorized and appointed or any seaven or more of them together with the said Surveyours or some or one of them within his or their Precinct respectively shall at their meeteing have power and authority to order and direct the makeing of any new Vaults Drains and Sewers, or to cutt into any Draine or Sewer already made, and for the altering inlargeing amending cleansing and scouring of any old Vaults Sinks or Coo[m]mon Sewers, For the better effecting whereof it shall and may be lawfull to and for the said persons soe authorized and appointed as aforesaid or any seaven or more of them at their said meeting to impose any reasonable Taxe upon all Houses within the said Citty and Libertyes thereof in proportion to the benefitt they shall receive thereby for and towards the new makeing cutting altering inlargeing amending cleansing and scouring all and singular the said Vaults Draines Sewers pavements and pitching aforesaid : And in defaulte of payment of the said summes soe to be charged it shall and may be lawfull [to and (fn. 8) ] for the said persons soe authorized as aforesaid or any seaven or more of them by Order and Warrant under their hands and seales to leavy the said summe and summes of moneyes soe assessed by Distresse and sale of the goods of the party chargeable therewith and refuseing or negclecting to pay the same rendering the overplus (if any be) And that all other Coo[m]mis?ers whatsoever be altogether suspended to intermedle in the premisses within the said Citty and Liberties thereof for the space of seaven yeares next, and for soe long after untill the said intended buildings shall be fully finished Any Law or Statute to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding.
XIX. Noisome and perilous Trades not to be in principal Streets.
And bee it further enacted That it shall and may be lawfull to and for the Lord Maior Aldermen and Coo[m]mon Councill of the said Citty from time to time to prohibit such Trades and Occupations as they shall judge noysome, or perilous in respect of Fire to be used or exercised in the high or principall Streets of the said Citty.
XX. Lord Mayor, &c. may remove, &c. Conduits.
And forasmuch as the freedome and opennes of the Streete conduceth much to the advancement of Trade and Ornament of the Citty Bee it further enacted that it shall and may be lawfull to and for the said Maior Aldermen and Coo[m]monalty by Order of Coo[m]mon Councill in that behalfe to be made from time to time and at their will and pleasure to remove out of any of the high Streets all or any of the Conduits now standing or hereafter to be erected, and to sett up and to erect the same in such other publique places within the said Citty as they shall thinke fitt, or to contract the same into any smaller or lesser compasse in the places where they now stand or hereafter shall be erected as aforesaid according to their discretions,
XXI. Streets herein named to be enlarged.
And whereas many auntient Streets and Passages within the said Citty and Libertyes thereof, and amongst others those which are hereafter mentioned were narrow and incommodious for Carriages and Passengers and prejudiciall to the Trade and Health of the Inhabitants and are necessary to be inlarged as well for the Convenience as Ornament of the Citty Be it enacted by the Authoritie aforesaid That the Maior Aldermen and Coo[m]mons of ( (fn. 8) ) the said Citty for the time being in Coo[m]mon Councill assembled shall and may and are hereby impowered and required to inlarge all and every the Streets and Places hereafter mentioned where and in such manner as there shall be cause by and with the Approbation of his Majestie and not otherwise that is to say, The Streete called Fleete Streete from the place where the Gray hound Taverne stood to Ludgate and from thence to Saint Pauls Church yard, The Streete leading from the East end of Saint Pauls Church into Cheapeside, The Streete and Passage at the East end of Cheapeside leading into the Poultry, The Streete and Passage out of the Poultry leading into the West end of Cornhill at or neere the place [late (fn. 9) ] called the Stocks, The Streete called Blow bladder streete leading from the West end of Cheapeside towards Newgate Market, and to inlarge the streete and passage from thence towards Newgate Market by laying the Ground where the Midle Row in the Shambls there lately stood into the said streete, and in like manner to inlarge the passage from Newgate Market towards Newgate by laying the Ground of the late fower Houses betweene Warwicke lane end in Newgate Market and the late Bell Inne there into the Streete, And in like manner to inlarge as there shall be cause the Lane called [Ava (fn. 10) ] Maria Lane leading from Pater noster Row to Ludgate Streete, And the Streete or Passage at the end of Saint Martins le Grand towards Blow bladder Streete aforesaid; And alsoe the Passage from Saint Magnus Church to the Conduit in Gratious Streete and the North end of Gratious Streete, and alsoe Thames Streete from the West corner of Saint Magnus Church aforesaid to the Tower Docke and to inlarge Old Fish Streete by laying the Midle Row there into the Streete.
XXII. Other Passages, &c. to be enlarged at Discretion.
And the said Maior Aldermen and Coo[m]mon Councill alsoe shall and may by vertue of this present Act inlarge and make wider any other such strait and narrow passages within the said Citty as are lesse then fowerteene foote in breadth, Soe as notice be given to the Owners or partyes interessed in the Ground to be soe taken for the inlarging thereof on or before the first day of May next ensueing And are and shall be alsoe further enabled by vertue of this Act to make or cause to be made a new Streete leading and extending from the Guildhall of the said Citty into Cheapeside, the same to be of such breadth and widenes as they shall judge meete and convenient
XXIII. Satisfaction to Losers of Ground.
And to the end that reasonable satisfaction may be given For all such Ground as shall be taken and imployed for the uses aforesaid The Maior Aldermen and Coo[m]mon Councill shall and may treate and agree with the Owners and others interessed therein, And if there shall be any Persons Bodyes Corporate or Collegiate that shall wilfully refuse to treate and agree as aforesaid, or through any disability by Non age Coverture or especiall intaile or other impediment cannot, That in such cases the said Lord Maior and Court of Aldermen are hereby authorized by vertue of this Act to issue out a Warrant or Warrants to the Sheriffes of London who are hereby required accordingly to impannell and returne a Jury before the said Lord Maior and Court of Aldermen, Which Jury upon their Oathes to be administred by the said Lord Maior and Court of Aldermen are to inquire and assesse such Damage and Recompence as they shall judge fitt to be awarded to the Owners and others interested according to their severall and respective Interests and Estates of and in any such Houses or Ground or any part thereof for their respective Interests and Estates in the same as by the said Lord Maior Aldermen and Commons in Coo[m]mon Councill assembled shall be adjudged fitt to be converted for the purposes aforesaid, And such Verdict of the Jury and Judgement of the said Lord Maior and Court of Aldermen thereupon And the payment of the summe or summes of money soe awarded or adjudged to the Owners, and others haveing Estate or Interest or tender and refusall thereof shall be binding to all intents and purposes against the said Partyes their Heires Executors Administrators and Assignes and others claiming any Title or Interest in the said Houses or Ground and shall be a full Authority for the said Lord Maior Aldermen and Coo[m]mons to cause the same to be converted and used for the purposes aforesaid.
XXIV. Houses improved by opening Streets to pay to Losers of Ground.
And forasmuch as the Houses now remaining and to be rebuilt will receive more or lesse advantage in the value of their Rents by the liberty of Air and free recourse for Trade and other Conveniencies by such Regulation and Inlargements It is alsoe enacted by the Authoritie aforesaid That in case of refusall or incapacity as aforesaid of the Owners or others interessed of or in the said Houses to agree and compound with the said Lord Maior Aldermen and Coo[m]mons for the same, Thereupon a Jury shall and may be impanneled in manner and forme aforesaid to judge and assesse upon the Owners and others interessed of and in such Houses such competent summe and summes of Money with respect to their severall Interests in consideration of such improvement and melioration as in reason and good conscience they shall thinke fitt, And all summes of Money that shall be soe assessed and raised as aforesaid shall be paid to the Chamberlaine of the Citty of London for the time being who is hereby enabled [from time to time (fn. 11) ] to receive and recover the same by Action at Law and whose Receipte shall be a good Discharge to such Owners or others interessed, And who is hereby appointed to receive and pay and be accomptable for the same according to such Directions as shall from time to time be given him by the said Lord Maior Aldermen and Coo[m]mons And the Money soe raised shall be wholly imployed towards payment and satisfaction of such Houses and Ground as shall be converted into Streets Passages Markets and other publique places aforesaid, And such satisfaction soe given or tendered and refused as aforesaid shall divest the Propriety Estate and Interest of the respective Owners and others haveing Interest of and in such parcells of Ground soe to be taken and imployed for the uses aforesaid by vertue of this Act, Which shall be and are hereby actually setled and invested in the said Lord Maior Coo[m]monalty and Citizens of the Citty of London and their Successors in like manner as other the Coo[m]mon streetes and Highwayes within the said Citty.
XXV. In Controversies about Titles; Three Judges may decide finally in a summary Way.
And in case any Controversies or differences shall happen to arise betweene severall persons that shall claime severall Estates or Interests into or out of any Grounds to be sould by the said Maior Aldermen and [Comon (fn. 11) ] Councill or by them to be taken and disposed of by vertue and in pursuance of this Act to and for the uses aforesaid That then the Justices of the Courts of Kings Bench and Coo[m]mon Pleas and Barons of the Coife of the Exchequer for the time being or any three or more of them shall be and are hereby authorized to heare and finally to order and determine the same in a summary way of proceeding and without the formalities or ordinary course of proceedings used in any the said Courts to order and award such Distribution to be made of the Money thereby ariseing for the satisfying [of (fn. 11) ] such severall Interests and Claimes as to them shall seeme just and reasonable according to the respective Estate or Estates Title or Interests of the person or persons makeing Claime thereunto according to which order and distribution to be made and appointed by the said Justices and Barons or any three or more of them the said Purchase money shall be satisfyed and paid by the said Chamberlaine to the said severall persons respectively.
XXVI. A solemn Fast yearly in Memory of the Desolation.
And that the said Citizens and their Successors for all the time to come may retaine the Memoriall of soe sadd a Desolation and reflect seriously upon their manifold Iniquities which are the unhappy causes of such Judgements Be it further enacted That the Second day of September (unlesse the same happen to be Sunday and if soe then the [next day (fn. 12) ] following) be yearely for ever hereafter observed as a day of Publique Fasting and Humiliation within the said Citty and Libertyes thereof to implore the Mercies of Almighty God upon the said Citty to make devout Prayers and Supplication unto him to divert the like Calamity for the time to come,
XXVII. A Pillar to be erected.
And the better to preserve the memory of this dreadfull Visitation, Be it further enacted That a Columne or Pillar of Brase or Stone be erected on or as neere unto the place where the said Fire soe unhappily began as conveniently may be, in perpetuall Remembrance thereof with such Inscription thereon as hereafter by the Maior and Court of Alderman in that behalfe be directed.
XXVIII. Places of Tender of Money altered.
And be it enacted And it is hereby enacted by the Authoritie [aforesaid (fn. 13) ] That all Tenders of Money or Payment thereof which by any Bonds Covenants or other Obligations or Assurance whatsoever ought to be made in the late Assurance Office or in any other place on the late Royall Exchange London, shall or may be made at or in the present Assurance Office in Gresham House And shall, be as valid and legall to all intents and purposes and discharge the Obligor as fully and amply as if they had beene made in the first intended place on the said Royall Exchange.
XXIX. No more than Thirty-nine new Churches.
And it is hereby further enacted That the Parish Churches to be rebuilded within the said Citty of London in lieu of those which were demolished by the late Fire shall not exceede the number of thirty nine Which shall be sett out and appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London for the time being.
XXX. Materials of Churches not rebuilt, and the Church Yards, how to be disposed of.
Provided alsoe And bee it enacted by the Authoritie aforesaid That the Scites and Materialls of such Churches as by this Bill are not intended to be rebuilt together with the Church yards belonging to such Churches shall be and are hereby vested in the Lord Maior and Aldermen of the Citty of London for the time being to the end soe much of the said Ground as shall not upon the Rebuilding of the said Citty be laid into the Streets be sold and disposed of by the said Lord Maior and Aldermen or the major part of them for the time being with the consent of the Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of London for the time being, and the Money raised by such Sale shall be by the said Maior and Aldermen or the major part of them with the consent of the said Archbishop and Bishop disposed of and imployed for and towards the Rebuilding of such Parish Churches as by this Act are intended to be rebuilt and for noe other use or purpose whatsoever.
XXXI. Proviso for St. Faiths and St. Gregory by St. Paul's.
Provided alwayes That any thing in this Act contained shall not extend or be taken to vest or setle the Church of Saint Paul and Saint Faithes or any part thereof or the Church of Saint Gregories ( (fn. 14) ) or any of them, or the Church yards to any of them belonging or appertaining in the Maior Aldermen and Co[m]mons of the Citty of London or any of them Any thing in this Act notwithstanding.
XXXII. Thames Street, &c. to be raised.
And be it enacted That for the preventing Inundations and for easines of Ascent the Streete called Thames Streete and all the ground betweene the said Streete and the River of Thames shall be raised and made higher by three foote at the least above the surface of the ground as now it lyeth,
XXXIII. Distances of Houses from the River and Fleet Ditch, &c.
Provided alsoe And it is hereby further enacted by the Authoritie aforesaid That noe House Outhouse or other building whatsoever (Cranes and Sheds for present use onely excepted) shall be built or erected within the distance of Forty foote of such part of any Wall Key or Wharfe as bounds the River of Thames, from Tower Wharfe to London Bridge and from London Bridge to the Temple Staires, Nor any House Outhouse or other building (Cranes onely excepted) be built or erected within the distance of threescore and ten foote of the midle of any part of the Coo[m]mon Sewers coo[m]monly called or knowne by the [nams (fn. 15) ] of Bridewell Docke Fleete Ditch and [Turmill (fn. 16) ] Brooke from the River of Thames to Clarkenwell upon either side of them before the fower and twentieth day of March which shall be in the yeare of our Lord One thousand six hundred sixty eight,
XXXIV. An additional Custom upon Coals for building the public Buildings of the City.
Coals sold by Chaldron, 12d. per Chaldron.; Coals sold by the Ton, 12d. per Ton.; Duty to be paid to Mayor, &c. by Master, &c. of Ship before Bulk broke or Meter assigned; at such Places as Mayor, &c. shall appoint.
And for the further enableing of the said Maior and Coo[m]monalty and Citizens of the said Citty of London and their Successors to performe and accomplish the workes in this Act mentioned Be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid That for all sorts of Coales which from and after the fower and twentyeth day of June One thousand six hundred sixty seaven, and Before the fower and twentyeth day of June One thousand six hundred seaventy seaven shall be imported and brought into the Port of the Citty of London or the River of Thames within the liberty of the said Citty of London upon the same River to be sould by the Chaldron or Tun, there shall be paid by way of Imposition thereupon (over and besides all other Impositions and Dutyes due and payable-for any sort of the said Coales by vertue of any Law or Statute now in force) according to the Rates hereafter mentioned That is to say for such sorts of Coales as are usually sold by the Chaldron for every Chaldron thereof containing, thirty six bushells Winchester measure the summe of twelve pence and for all such sorts of Coales as are sould by the Tunn, for every Tunn thereof containing twenty hundred weight the like summe of twelve pence, which said Imposition of twelve pence for every Chauldron or Tunn of Coales shall from time to time dureing the terme aforesaid be answered and paid unto the said Maior and Coo[m]monalty and Citizens and their Successors, or to their Deputie or Deputyes Officer or Assignes by the Master Owner or Owners or other person or persons takeing charge of any Shipp or Vessell whereupon the same shall be laden before they shall breake Bulke or have a Meter assigned for the measureing or weighing of any Coales aforesaid to be delivered from on board any such Shipp or Vessell the same to be paid at such place or places as by the said Maior and Court of Aldermen shall from time to time be appointed for the receipte thereof, Upon receipt whereof the partie appointed to receive the same shall without delay fee or reward deliver a Receipt to the person or persons who shall pay the said Duty, which Receipt shall for soe much be a sufficient discharge.
XXXV. Rules and Remedy for the said Duty.
And to the end that the said Imposition may be duely answered and paid without fraude or covin, and for the better leavying and collecting thereof and for discovery of the just quantityes of all sorts of Coales to be imported as aforesaid be it further enacted by the Authoritie aforesaid that the Coale meeters for the Citty of London appointed or to be appointed and every of them and their respective Deputyes in their turne and course of attendance respectively soe soone as any Shipp or Vessell fraight with Coales shall be unladen shall forthwith deliver a true Certificate in writeing unto the Deputie or Deputyes Officers or Assignes of the said Maior and Commonalty and Citizens who shall be appointed to receive the said Imposition of the sorts quantityes and number of Chaldrons or Tunns of Coales respectively which shall be measured or weighed and delivered from on Board any such Shipp or Vessell on paine for his or their defaulte therein to be suspended from the execution and benefitt of his or their Office or Imployment for one whole yeare from thence next following; And in case it shall appeare by such Certificate or otherwise that there was on Board any such Shipp or Vessell a greater number of Chaldrons or Tuns of Coales then for which the said Imposition shall have beene answered and paid as aforesaid that then in such case there shall be paid to the said Maior and Coo[m]monalty and Citizens and their Successors for every Chaldron or Tunn of Coales soe concealed over and above the Imposition aforesaid the summe of Five shillings, for which (in case of refusall to pay the same) such Shipp or Vessell or any the tackle furniture or Apparell thereof may be attached and detained by warrant from the Maior of the said Citty for the time being untill payment thereof.
XXXVI. Post-Entry and Payment of Duty for Surplus to discharge Penalty.
Provided neverthelesse that if the importer upon such Certificate delivered in by the Coale meter shall within fower and twenty houres give in his Post entry and satisfie and pay the whole Duty for the surplusage of Coales appearing upon the unladeing of such Shipp or Vessell that then upon such payment the penaltie aforesaid shall be discharged.
XXXVII. How Duty to be applied.
And bee it further enacted that all and every such summe and summes of Money which shall be raised upon the Receipt of the said Imposition of Twelve pence for every Chaldron or Tunn of Coales or by such additionall Duty in case of concealement as aforesaid shall in the first place be applyed and disposed unto and for the satisfaction of such persons whose Grounds shall by vertue and in pursuance of this Act be taken and imployed for the inlarging of the Streets and narrow passages within the said Citty, And after satisfaction given for the same the residue of the said Moneyes shall be applyed and disposed unto and for the satisfaction of such persons whose Grounds shall be imployed for the makeing of Wharfes or Keyes on the North side of the River of Thames, and upon each side of the Sewer called by the name or names of Bridewell Docke, Fleete Ditch and Turnmill Brooke, and alsoe for the building and makeing such Prisons within the said Citty as shall be necessary for the safe Custody and Imprisonment of Felons and other Malefactors.
XXXVIII. Books of Account of the Duty, and Application thereof.
And to the end the Moneyes to be raised upon the Imposition aforesaid may be duely applyed to the uses for which the same is by this Act appointed, Bee it further enacted that there shall [be (fn. 17) ] from time to time ( (fn. 18) ) provided and kepte in the Chamber of London one or more booke or bookes of Velome or Parchment in which all moneyes thereupon to be received shall from time to time be entred and sett downe, And alsoe other like booke or bookes wherein the Accompts of all payments and disbursements out of the same shall be likewise entred, expressing the time when, the occasion for which, and the name of the person or persons to whom the same were soe paid or disbursed And that it shall and may be lawfull to and for all and every person and persons that shall or may be in any wise concerned soe to doe to have free accesse unto and view the said respective bookes of Receipts and Disbursements at all times when the Chamberlaines Office is open without any Fee or Reward to be taken or demanded for the view or inspection thereof And that the Chamberlaine of London for the time being before the end of Michaelmas Terme in every yeare shall transmit and upon his Oath deliver into the Receipte of the Exchequer a true Copy or Duplicate of the aforesaid bookes of Accompts containing the Receipts and Disbursements of all Moneyes which shall be raised and paid by or out of the said Imposition upon Coales in the yeare preceeding and ending upon the fower and twentyeth day of June next before there to be received gratis by the proper Officer and kepte amongst the Records of the said Court; where it shall alsoe be lawfull for any person or persons who shall be in any wise concerned soe to doe to have accesse thereunto and to view and peruse the said bookes of Accompts without any Fee or Reward to be taken or received for the same.
XXXIX. Proviso for re-building Thomas Morris's Water-house with Timber.
Provided alwayes that it shall and may be lawfull for the Water house called Mr. Thomas Morris his Waterhouse formerly adjoyning to London Bridge to be rebuilt upon the place it formerly stood with Timber for the supplying the South side of the Citty with water as it for almost this hundred yeares hath done, Any thing in this Act to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding.
XL. Lord Mayor, &c. may open Water Lane, and Streets herein mentioned.
[Provided alsoe And it is hereby further enacted by the Authoritie aforesaid that the Lord Maior and Aldermen of London may and shall open and inlarge a Streete or passage called Water Lane leading from Fleete streete to White Fryars Docke by the River of Thames, as alsoe open and inlarge a Streete or passage to the said River from Cheapeside through Soper Lane to Thames Streete and from the Three Cranes to the Thames, And open and inlarge one other Streete or passage through Minceing Lane by Saint Dunstons in the East to Thames Streete neere the Custome house And to make the said Streetes or passages twenty fower foote in breadth for the conveniency of Trade and better passage of Carts and other carriages to and from the said River giveing notice of what they shall herein resolve to the proprietors and persons concerned before the last day of May which shall be in the yeare of our Lord One thousand six hundred sixty seaven and giveing them satisfaction for their ground according to the Rules and Directions of this Act for the inlarging of other Streetes and places. (fn. 19) ]
|Bricke.||Division of Story||Height of Story||Thicknes of Walls||Bricks||Bricks|
|First sort being the least Houses fronting By Streets and Lanes||Cellars||6½||To the First Floore||2||1½|
|Second sorte Houses fronting all Streets Lanes of Note and River of Thames.||Cellars||6½||To the First Floore||2½||2|
|1 Story||Not lesse [in (fn. 20) height cleare then||10||Thicknes of Walls in Front and Reere from the Foundation||2d||2||Thicknes of Walls betweene House and House||1½|
|2 Story||Where ye||10||3d||2||1½|
|3 Story||Springs pp[re]vent not||9||4th||1½||1½|
|Third sort Houses fronting all High Streets and Lanes of Note||1 Story||10||1st||2½||2|
|Foote||Breadth Inches||Thickness Inch|
|Single Quarters in length||8||3½||1¾|
|Double Quarters in length||8||4||3½|
|Sawed Jousts in length||8||6||4|
|Lathes in length||5||1¼||1 quarter & ½ of Inch|
Where Stone is used to keepe to these Scantlings.
|First sort of Houses||Corner Peeres||18 square|
|Middle or single Peeres||14 and 12|
|Double Peeres betweene House & House||14 and 18|
|Doore jambes and Heads||12 and 8|
|2d and 3d sorts||Corner Peers||2||6 square|
|Midle or single Peeres||18 square|
|Double Peeres betweene House and House||24 and 18|
|[Doores (fn. 21) ]Jams and Heads||14 and 10|
|Scantlings for Sewers||3 wide||Side walls||1 bricke( (fn. 22) )||Bottome paved plaine and then 1 bricke and edge circular.|
|5 high||Arch||1 bricke on end|
That noe timber be laid within twelve Inches of the Foreside of the [Chimney (fn. 23) ] Jambs, And that all Joysts on the Backe of any Chimney be laid with a Trimmer at six Inches distance from the Backe.
Noe Summer or Girder to lye lesse then ten Inches into the Wall, noe Joysts then eight Inches and to be laid in Lome. (fn. 24) ]