The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 10. Originally published by W Bristow, Canterbury, 1800.
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THE TOWN AND PORT OF SANDWICH.
THE town of Sandwich is situated on the north-east confines of this county, about two miles from the sea, and adjoining to the harbour of its own name, through which the river Stour flows northward into the sea at Pepperness. It is one of the principal cinque ports, the liberty of which extends over it, and it is within the jurisdiction of the justices of its own corporation.
Sandwich had in antient time several members appertaining to it, (fn. 1) called the antient members of the port of Sandwich; these were Fordwich, Reculver, Sarre, Stonar, and Deal; but in the later charters, the members mentioned are Fordwich incorporated, and the non-corporated members of Deal, Walmer, Ramsgate, Stonar, Sarre, all in this county, and Brightlingsea, in Sussex; but of late years, Deal, Walmer, and Stonar, have been taken from it; Deal, by having been in 1699 incorporated with the charter of a separate jurisdiction, in the bounds of which Walmer is included; and Stonar having been, by a late decision of the court of king's bench in 1773, adjudged to be within the jurisdiction of the county at large.
The first origin of this port was owing to the decay of that of Richborough, as will be further noticed hereafter. It was at first called Lundenwic, from its being the entrance to the port of London, for so it was, on the sea coast, and it retained this name until the supplanting of the Saxons by the Danes, when it acquired from its sandy situation a new name, being from thenceforward called Sandwic, in old Latin, Sabulovicum, that is, the sandy town, and in process of time, by the change of language, Sandwich.
Where this town now stands, is supposed, in the time of the Romans, and before the decay of the haven, or Portus Rutupinus, to have been covered with that water, which formed the bay of it, which was so large that it is said to have extended far beyond this place, on the one side almost to Ramsgate cliffs, and on the other near five miles in width, over the whole of that flat of land, on which Stonar and Sandwich too, were afterwards built, and extending from thence up to the æstuary, which then flowed up between the Isle of Thanet and the main land of this county.
During the time of the Saxons, the haven and port of Richborough, the most frequented of any in this part of Britain, began to decay, and swarve up, the sea by degrees entirely deserting it at this place, but still leaving sufficient to form a large and commodious one at Sandwich, which in process of time, became in like manner, the usual resort for shipping, and arose a Flourishing harbour in its stead; from which time the Saxon fleets, as well as those of the Danes, are said by the historians of those times, to sail for the port of Sandwich; and there to lie at different times, and no further mention is made of that of Richborough, which being thus destroyed, Sandwich became the port of general resort; which, as well as the building of this town, seems to have taken place, however, some while after the establishment of the Saxons in Britain, and the first time that is found of the name of Sandwich being mentioned and occurring as a port, is in the life of St. Wilfred, archbishop of York, written by Eddius Stephanus; in which it is said, he and his company, prosper in portum Sandwich, atque suaviter pervenerunt, happily and pleasantly arrived in the harbour of Sandwich, which happened about the year 665, or 666, some what more than 200 years after the arrival of the Saxons in Britain. During the time of the Danes insesting this kingdom, several of their principal transactions happened at this place, (fn. 2) and the port of it became so much frequented, that the author of queen Emma's life stiles it the most noted of all the English ports; Sandwich qui est omnium Anglorum portuum famosissimus.
FROM THE TIME of the origin of the town of Sandwich, the property of it was vested in the several kings who reigned over this country, and continued so till king Ethelred, in the year 979, gave it, as the lands of his inheritance, to Christ-church, in Canterbury, free from all secular service and fiscal tribute, except the repelling invasions, and the repairing of bridges and castles. (fn. 3) After which king Canute, having obtained the kingdom, finished the building of this town, and having all parts and places in the realm at his disposal, as coming to the possession of it by conquest, by his charter in the year 1023, gave, or rather restored the port of Sandwich, with the profits of the water of it, on both sides of the stream, for the support of that church, and the sustenance of the monks there.
Soon after this, the town of Sandwich increased greatly in size and inhabitants, and on account of the commodity and use of its haven, and the service done by the shipping belonging to it, was of such estimation, that it was made one of the principal cinque ports; and in king Edward the Confessor's days it contained three hundred and seven houses, and was an hundred within itself; and it continued increasing, as appears by the description of it, in the survey of Domesday, taken in the 15th year of the Conqueror's reign, anno 1080, in which it is thus entered, under the title of the lands of the archbishop:
Sandwice lies in its own proper hundred. This borough the archbishop holds, and it is of the clothing of the monks, and yields the like service to the king as Dover; and this the men of that borough testify, that before king Edward gave the same to the Holy Trinity, it paid to the king fisteen pounds. At the time of King Edward's death it was not put to ferme. When the archbishop received it, it paid forty pounds of ferme, and forty thousand herrings to the food of the monks. In the year in which this description was made, Sanuuic paid fifty pounds of ferme, & Herrings as above. In the time of king Edward the Confessor there were there three hundred and seven mansions tenanted, now there are seventy six more, that is together three hundred and eighty three.
In Estrei hundred, in Sandunic, the archbishop has thirty two houses, with plats of land belonging to this manor,(viz. Gollesberge) and they pay forty-two shil lings and eight pence, and Adeluuold has one yoke, which is worth ten shillings.
These houses, with all the liberties which the bishop of Baieux had in Sandwich, had been given by him to Christ-church, in Canterbury, and confirmed to it in the year 1075, by his brother the Conqueror. (fn. 4)
Afterwards king Henry II. granted to the monks the full enjoyment of all those liberties and customs in Sandwich, which they had in the time of king Henry his grandfather, that is, the port and toll, and all maritime customs in this port, on both sides of the water, that is, from Eadburgate unto Merksflete, and the small boat to ferry across it, and that no one should have any right there except them and their servants.
The town, by these continued privileges, and the advantages it derived from the great resort to the port, increased much in wealth and number of inhabitants; and notwithstanding, in the year 1217, anno 2 king Henry III. great part of the town was burnt by the French, yet the damage seems soon to have been recompenced by the savors bestowed on it by the several kings, in consideration of the services it had continually afforded, in the shipping of this port, to the nation. The first example of royal favor, being shewn by the last-mentioned king, was in his 11th year, who not only confirmed the customs before granted, but added the further grant of a market to this town and port, (fn. 5) and in his 13th year granted the custom of taking twopence for each cask of wine received into it.
After which, the prior and convent of Christ-church, in the 18th year of King Edward I. gave up in exchange for other lands elsewhere, to his queen Eleanor, all their rights, possessions, and privileges here, excepting their houses and keys, and a free passage in the
haven, in the small boat, called the vere boat, (fn. 6) and free liberty for themselves and their tenants to buy and sell toll free, which the king confirmed that year; and as a favor to the town, he placed the staple for wool in it for some time.
The exception above-mentioned, was afterwards found to be so very prejudicial, as well as inconvenient, that king Edward III. in his 38th year, gave them other lands in Essex, in exchange for all their rights, privileges, and possessions, in this town and port. After which king Richard II. in his first year, removed the staple for wool from Queenborough, where it had been for some time, hither.
During the whole of this period from the time of the conquest, this port continued the general rendezvous of the royal sleets, and was as constantly visted by the several monarchs, who frequently embarked and returned again hither from France; the consequence of which was, that the town became so flourishing, that it had increased to between eight and nine hundred houses inhabited, divided into three parishes; and there were of good and able mariners, belonging to the navy of it, above the number of 1500; so that when there was occasion at any time, the mayors of it, on the receipt of the king's letters, furnished, at the town's charges, to the seas, fifteen sail of armed ships of war, which were of such continued annoyance to the French, that they in return made it a constant object of their revenge. Accordingly, in the 16th year of king Henry VI. they landed here and plundered the greatest part of the inhabitants, as they did again in the 35th year of it; but but this not answering the whole of their purpose, Charles VIII. king of France, to destroy it entirely, sent hither four thousand men, who landing in the night, after a long and bloody conflict gained possession of the town, and having wasted it with fire and sword, slew the greatest part of the inhabitants; and to add to these misfortunes it was again ransacked by the earl of Warwick, in the same reign.
To preserve the town from such disasters in future, king Edward IV. new walled, ditched, and fortifield it with bulwarks, and gave besides, for the support of them, one hundred pounds yearly out of the customhouse here; which, together with the industry and efforts of the merchants, who frequented this haven, the goodness of which, in any storm or contrary wind, when they were in danger from the breakers, or the Goodwin Sands, afforded them a safe retreat; in a very short time restored it again to a flourishing state, infomuch, that before the end of that reign, the clear yearly receipt of the customs here to that king, amounted to above the sum of 16 or 17,000l. (fn. 7) and the town had ninety five ships belonging to it, and above fifteen hundred sailors.
But this sunshine of prosperity lasted no long time afterwards, for in king Henry VII.'s time, the river Stour, or as it was at this place antiently called, the Wantsume, continued to decay so fast, as to leave on each side at low water, a considerable quantity of salts, which induced cardinal archbishop Moreton, who had most part of the adjoining lands belonging to his bishopric, for his own private advantage, to inclose and wall them in, near and about Sarre; which example was followed from time to time, by several owners of the lands adjoining, by which means the water was deprived of its usual course, and the haven felt the loss of it by a hasty decay. Notwithstanding which, so late as the first year of king Richard III. ships failed up this haven as high as Richborough, for that year, as ap pears by the corporation books of Sandwich, the mayor ordered a Spanish ship, lying on the outside of Richborough, to be removed. (fn. 8)
"Leland, who wrote in the reign of Henry VIII. gives the following description of Sandwich, as it was in his time. "Sandwich, on the farther side of the ryver of Sture, is neatly welle walled, where the town stonddeth most in jeopardy of enemies. The residew of the town is diched and mudde waulled. There be yn the town iiii principal gates, iii paroche chyrches, of the which sum suppose that St. Maries was sumtyme a nunnery. Ther is a place of White Freres, and an hospistal withowt the town, fyrst ordened for maryners desesid and hurt. There is a place where monkes of Christ-church did resort, when they were lords of the towne. The caryke that was sonke in the haven, in pope Paulus tyme, did much hurt to the haven and gether a great bank. The grounde self from Sandwich to the heaven, and inward to the land, is caullid Sanded bay".
The sinking of this great ship of pope Paul IV. in the very mouth of the haven, by which the waters had not their free course as before, from the sand and mud gathering round about it, together with the innings of the lands on each side the stream, had such a fatal effect towards the decay of the haven, that in the time of king Edward VI. it was in a manner destroyed and lost, and the navy and mariners dwindled to almost nothing, and the houses then inhabited in this town did not exceed two hundred, the inhabitants of which were greatly impoverished; the yearly customs of the town, by reason of the insufficiency of the haven, were so desicient, that there was scarcely enough arising from it to satisfy the customer his fee. This occasioned two several commissions to be granted, one in the 2d year of that reign, and another in the 2d year of queen Eli zabeth, to examine the state of the haven, and make a return of it; in consequence of the first of which, a new cut was begun by one John Rogers, which, however, was soon left in an untinished state, though there are evident traces of what was done towards making this canal still remaining, on the grounds between the town and Sandowne castle; and in consequence of the second, other representations and reports were made, one of which was, that the intended cut would be useless, and of no good effect.
Whether these different reports where the occasion that no further progress was made towards this work, and the restoration of this haven, or the very great expence it was estimated at, and the great difficulty of raising so large a sum, being 10,000l which the queen at that time could no ways spare, but so it was, that nothing further was done in it.
The haven being thus abandoned by the queen, and becoming almost useless, excepting to vessels of the small burthen before mentioned, the town itself would before long have become impoverished and fallen wholly to decay, had it not been most singularly preserved, and raised again, in some measure, to great wealth and prosperity, occasioned by the persecution for religion in Brabant and Flanders, which communicated to all the Protestant parts of Europe, the paper, silk, woollen, and other valuable manufactures of Flanders and France, almost peculiar at that time to those countries, and till then, in vain attempted elsewhere; the manufacturers of them came in bodies up to London, and afterwards chose their situations, with great judgment, distributing themselves, with the queen's licence, through England, so as not to interfere too much with one another. The workers in sayes, baize, and flannel in particular, fixed themselves here, at Sandwich, at the mouth of a haven, by which they might have an easy communication with the metropolis, and other parts of this kingdom, and afforded them like wife an easy export to the continent. These manufacturers applied accordingly to the queen, for her protection and licence; for which purpose, in the third year of her reign, she caused letters patent to be passed, directed to the mayor, &c. to give liberty to such of them, as should be approved of by the archbishop, and bishop of London, to inhabit here for the purpose of exercising those manufactures, which had not been used before in England, or for shishing in the seas, not exceeding the number of twenty-five house holders, accounting to every household not above twelve persons, and there to exercise their trade, and have as many servants as were necessary for carrying them on, not exceeding the number above mentioned; these immediately repaired to Sandwich, to the number, men, women, and children, of four hundred and six persons; of which, eight only were masters in the trade. A body of gardeners likewife discovered the nature of the soil about Sandwich to be exceedingly favourable to the growth of all esculent plants, and fixed themselves here, to the great advantage of this town, by the increase of inhabitants, the employment of the poor, and the money which circulated; the landholders like wife had the great advantage of their rents being considerably increased, and the money paid by the town and neighbourhood for vegetables, instead of being sent from hence for the purchase of them, remained within the bounds of it. The vegetables grew here in great perfection, but much of them was conveyed at an easy expence, by water carriage, to London, and from thence dispersed over different parts of the kingdom.
These strangers, by their industry and prudent conduct, notwithstanding the obstructions they met with, from the jealousy of the native tradesmen, and the avarice of the corporation, very soon rose to a flourishing condition.
In the 8th year of this reign, anno 1565, it appears by the return, made by the queen's command, that there were then in this town 420 housholds, of which 291 were English, and 129 Walloons, and seven persons were in want of habitations, namely, three merchants, one scrivener, two surgeons, and one master of sence. That there were at that time employed at Sandwich, in the coasting trade, and in the fisheries, nine crayers, from fourteen to twenty-four tons; five boats, from six to ten tons; three hoys, from twenty to sorty tons; sailors sixty-two.
The strangers here, in a few years, became much more numerours, insomuch, that in the year 1582, there were three hundred and fifty-one Dutch settlers in Sandwich, who exercised fifty-nine different trades or occupations; and though the haven still further decayed, yet the trade, populousness, and wealth of the town increased by their means. In this state Sandwich continued till the next reign of king James I. when the customs here amounted to 2,9261. per annum; but by that prince's setting up the company of merchant adventurers, and appropriating to them the trade to Germany, the Low Countries, &c. this place soon fell to decay again, and though the descendants of the Dutch and Walloon manufacturers still remained here, they not long afterwards entirely discontinued those manufactures, they had originally carried forward, and mixed among the rest of the inhabitants, in the exercise of the various occupations used in the town; and thus Sandwich, though it has since increased in the number of its houses and inhabitants, yet having lost its manufactures, the principal part of its trade, it was deprived likewise of that wealth and repute it had derived from them, and in process of time has dwindled down to the same obscurity as other country towns.
THE TOWN OF SANDWICH was first incorporated by king Edward III. by the name of mayor, jurats and commonaltie of the town and port of Sandwich, before which they were privileged by the name of barons, as they were at that time, with all such liberties as they had had granted to them by king Edward the Consessor, or at any time afterwards; and by this incorporation this town continued to be governed, till Charles II. in his 36th year, granted to it a new charter, which not having been enrolled in chancery, an information, in the nature of a quo warranto, was exhibited against the corporation; upon which it was agreed to surrender the charter into the king's hands, and a new one was immediately afterwards granted; but this last, as well as another charter, by king James II. and forced on the corporation, being made subservient to his own purposes, were afterwards annulled by that king, by a proclamation in his 4th and last year, which was made to restore all corporations to their antient charters, rights, and privileges; since which, this corporation has acted under its former charter, granted in the 36th year of king Charles II by which it is made to consist of a mayor and twelve jurats, who are ex officio, justices of peace. The mayor, or in his absence, his deputy, is coroner, within all the liberties of the town and port, and he is the returning officer at the election of barons to serve in parliament. All the municipal elections, decrees, and ordinances, are made by the whole corporate body, assembled in the Guildhall, at a Common Assembly, convened by the sound of the common horn; there are two regular and fixed Common Assemblies every year, one on the first Monday after the feast of St. Andrew, for the choice of mayor, and the other, on the following Thursday, for the election of officers; occasional meetings of the corporation are held at the pleasure of the mayor. The court of general sessions and gaol delivery, at which all freemen are called to attend, was formerly held quarterly, but now only half yearly. A courts of record is always held at the petty sessions, which is a monthly adjournment of the general sessions. Courts of conscience and of piepowder were formerly held in this town, but they have been long disused.
The mayor is chosen annually, by the mayor, jurats, and commonalty, at a common assembly, in the Guildhall; he carriers a black wand in his hand, as a badge of his office, the same as the mayor of Fordwich, a member of this port, probably for some delinquency committed by the mayor of this place; for all the other ports, and their members corporate, bear white ones. There are at present twelve jurats, exclusive of the mayor, who are chosen out of the common-councilmen, by the whole body corporate. There is a steward and a recorder, usually a barrister at law, who is appointed at a court of record, and a town clerk appointed for life, a deputy recorder to hold his office, during the pleasure of the recorder; the mayor, deputy mayor, jurats, recorder, and deputy recorder, are justices of the peace. There is a land and water treasurer, two serjeants at mace, with other inferior officers, necesiary for carrying forward the business of the corporation, which last-mentioned officers are elected annually. There is a fair, for drapery, haberdashery, shoes, hardware, &c. held on December the 4th, being Old St. Clement's day, and continues two market days; and a market, which is weekly held on Wednesdays and Saturdays. It has the grant of pleading, and of being impleaded, and of having a common seal, a power of purchasing and holding lands and tenements, not exceeding 200l. per annum, with a non obstanteto the statute of mortmain. It has the privilege of one large and one smaller silver maces, and other immunities and liberties, the same as the other corporations, within the jurisdiction of the cinque ports.
A court of requests, for the recovery of small debts in Sandwich, and the neighbouring parishes, was esta blished here by an act in 1786; all fines and forfeitures, not appropriated by the act, belong to the corporation.
THE LIBERTIES of the corporation were perambulated by Sir Stephen de Penchester, warden of the cinque ports, at the latter end of king Henry III.'s reign, who came hither, and was attended for this purpose, by the mayor and commonalty, collected together by the sound of the common horn. (fn. 9)
THE TOWN OF SANDWICH is five miles from Deal, over the Sandowns, by the horse road, and about seven miles by the coach road, through Ham and Finglesham; twelve miles from Dover and Canterbury; six miles from Ramsgate, and nine miles from Margate. It was first built, as it should seem, on a point of land, left by the retiring waters of the Portus Rutupinus, and now extends along the southern shore of the river Stour, which from hence to the sea is called Sandwich haven; the town communicates with Stonar and the Isle of Thanet, by means of a bridge, which draws up for the benefit of masted of a ships passing through it, having been first built by an act in 1755, and again lately rebuilt with great improvements, being vested in the mayor and corporation, who receive the toll collected for the passage over it.
From its exceeding low situation, on what was once the bed of the sea, bounded by the present haven, or creek, on one side, and a vast quantity of wet and damp marshes on the other sides of it, this town cannot possibly be healthy, or even a desirable place of habitation. It is in shape an oblong square; the houses are old fashioned and ill built, and the streets, which are in general but narrow and ill–convenient lanes, little adapted either for carriages or even horses; an exception to this, however, is High-street, which is of good breadth, and much better built. It was formerly divided into eight wards, for the purpose of desence, in each of which were two constables; but from the year 1437, there have been twelve wards or districts, over each of which a jurat presides, and nominates his constable and deputy constable. There are three parishes in Sandwich, and it is said there were formerly four churches in it, though now but three; St. James s church, which stood in the western part of the town having been desecrated in king Edward VI.'s reign. The present three churches are, St. Mary's, St. Peter's, and St. Clement's church, all which will be more particularly mentioned hereafter; and there are besides, three licensed places of Worship for the Dissenters. The Dissenters were formerly very numerous in Sandwich, but their number is now much diminished. The Presbyterians have a meeting house in the corn-market; the same market, and the Methodists have one in Lucksboat-street.
At the entrance of the town from Canterbury, is the grammar school. In the centre of the town, near St. Peter's church, is the market or butchery, and near the south part of it, the cattle and fish markets, and close to them the guild, or town-hall, which was built in the year 1579, in the mayoralty of Edward Wood, the initials of whose name, with the date, remain over the door. There is an establishment of the customs here, (the custom-house being near the keys, at the end of the bridge) under the management of a collector, deputy comptroller, supervisor, and other officers. Much of the fortified walls still remain, seemingly built in king Edward IV.'s reign, especially on the north and west sides, on the other sides it is desended only by a rampart and ditch. There were, till of late years, five gates, Canterbury gate, taken down in 1784, Woodnesborough gate, Sandowne gate, Fisher's gate, and Newgate. Two of these were formerly called St. Mary's gate, and Ive's gate. Sandowne gate was built, and the bridge repaired, at the charge of Sir Henry Furnese, bart. one of the barons in parliament in 1706; and mention is made in antient writings of David's gate, over against which was a place, called the Barbican; and Fryer's gate, which was at one end of the corn market, leading down to the friery of the Carmelites; but these seem to be interior gates, in the inner parts of the town.
In 1787 an act passed for new paving, cleansing, lighting, watching, and otherwise improving and ornamenting this town, which has since been carried into execution, and will no doubt, as far as is possible, remedy many of those disagreeable inconveniences, which before subsisted in it.
The town is not well supplied with good water; the springs lie high, and fill the wells with very indifferent water; but there is every where, at the depth of from forty to fifty-eight feet, a stratum of flint, which when once penetrated by the borer, yields a plentiful supply of fine water; but as the land drains are not kept out of the wells by steeming, the inhabitants have not that advantage they would otherwise have form them. The other supplies are from the haven and the delf, which is an artificial stream or canal, raised in some parts above the level of the grounds, through which it runs, and was made in king Edward I.'s reign, for the purpose of furnishing the inhabitants of Sandwich with water. It begins at a place called the Roaring Gutter, and running through the town, discharges itself into the haven, near Canterbury gate, being cleansed throughout its whole length, at the expence of the corporation. In the year 1621, a licence was granted to John Gason, esq. of London, to erect water works, and to convey water in pipes for the benefit of the town. He erected accordingly a water mill, but died before the works were compleated, and the design fell to the ground. (fn. 10)
By what has been said before, it appears that in king Edward the Consessor's time, there were in Sandwich three hundred and seven inhabited houses; at the time of the taking of the survey of Domesday, in the Conqueror's reign, three hundred and eighty-three; about the time of king Richard II. it had increased to more than eight hundred houses; after which, from the misfortunes it met with, it became so much diminished of inhabitants and impoverished, that in Edward VI.'s time, the house did not exceed two hundred; in queen Elizabeth's reign it seems to have somewhat increased, for in the 8th year of it, the town contained four hundred and twenty housholds, and there were some persons wanting habitations.
In the year 1689, the persons assessed to the poll tax, were in number 1447. In the year 1776, the town contained within the walls five hundred and sixty-two houses, and 2213 inhabitants; that is not quite four to a house, and at present they are much the same number.
THE SOIL about Sandwich, to the eastward, is a deep sandy loam, and the land there was, by the Dutch settlers, wholly appropriated to the growth of esculent plants, legumes, seeds, and other produce of the kitchen garden; these were the earliest gardens, for the supply of public markets, of any in the kingdom, and Canterbury and Dover markets, are still in a good measure supplied from them, where the garden stuff and seeds, carried from hence, bear the preference of any others, especially the carrots, and are distinguished by the name of Sandwich carrots, &c. notwithstanding which, only some part of the grounds, formely applied to the use of gardening remain, so at present, the greater portion of them being in tillage for corn. The lands to the southward, consist of a deep, rich mould, and are highly fertilized by manure from the town.
THE HAVEN of Sandwich, some account of which has been given before, in the early history of this place, begins at the town, and gives name to the river Stour from hence to the mouth of it at Peperness.
The efforts of the corporation and inhabitants of this town, as well as their applications to the crown, for the preservation of the haven, have been from time to time both strenuous and very frequent, from king Richard III's reign to the present time. So late as queen Anne's reign, anno 1705, commissioners were sent down by the queen's command to make a survey for a new haven, who reported that such a harbour might be of general advantage to the public; but nothing further was then done towards it. This occasioned petitions to be presented to the house of commons in 1736, praying for a new harbour near the Downs; and there it rested till the year 1744, when an address was ordered by the house to be presented to the king, that he would send proper and skilful persons to view the haven, and examine whether a better and more commodious harbour might not be made from the town of Sandwich into the Downs, near Sandown castle, fit for the reception and security of large merchant ships and men of war; in consequence of which it was resolved by the house, that such a harbour might be made, and be of great use and advantage to the naval power of Great Britain, by preserving ships in distress, speedily resitting them for sea, and by saving the lives of many of the king's subjects; and in the time of war, more particularly be a ready means of bridling Dunkirk, of guarding the mouth of the river, and protecting the country from invasion and insults; and an estimate was made of the whole expence of it, which amounted to 389, 1681. exclusive of the grounds to be purchased; and there can be no loss to judge why this great work, supposed to be undertaken by government, was suspended, when it is considered, that it was at a time when the kingdom was engaged in an expensive war both with France and Spain.
After this there were petitions presented to the house, in opposition to the above plan, that a more convenient harbour might be made, at or near Ramsgate, capable of containing a greater number of merchantmen, and ships of war, on account of the advantageous situation of the place, from which there would be a saving to the public of several hundred thousand pounds, &c. And there was a petition likewise from Sandwich, setting forth, that if piers were extended into the sea at Ramsgate, it would in a short time swerve up the mouth of Sandwich haven, ruin the trade of the town, and by stopping the course of the river Stour into the sea, would drown the lands between Sandwich and Canterbury. But the house, after due consideration, gave the preserence to the making of a harbour at Ramsgate, and an act passed accordingly for that purpose, as well as for cleansing, amending, and preserving the haven of Sandwich, in 1749, anno 22 George II. (fn. 11) By this act, to quiet the opposition made by Sandwich, a yearly sum of 200l. was granted out of the profits and dues of Ramsgate harbour, towards the latter purpose, which sum is now blended among the rest of the revenues of the corporation. This act, as well as another in 1765, were both repealed by a subsequent act in 1792, passed for the further maintenance and improvement of Ramsgate harbour, in which act is continued the like provision, for the cleansing, amending, and preserving of this haven of Sandwich, and a further power vested in the justices of Sandwich, with respect to the punishment of persons, who may remove the buoys, mooring posts, beacons, &c. or take ballast from the channel sides or shores of the haven, without the licence of the mayor and jurats, or the major part of them, under their hands, &c. but notwithstanding this provision, and every other support given for the preservation of this haven, it is at present but of small account, and by its still further apparent decay every year, seems hastening to its total ruin.
The exports at this haven are now consined to the produce of the neighbouring country for a few miles round, and the imports mostly to shop goods, and other necessary articles for the town and tl.e adjoining country; for which purpose there are several hoys, which sail to and from London, though there are a few ships of larger size, which at times make voyages as far as Wales, Scotland, Sweden, Norway, and the Baltic. From the frequent resort to this port, as the usual place of embarkation, especially for our kings, (whose royal fleets constantly rendezvoused in this haven) from these parts to the continent and back again, there must of course have happened at it a series of remarkable transactions and occurrences, from the earliest period to the time of its decary in the reign of queen Elizabeth, the principal ones of which are so interwoven with public history, that it is needless to recapitulate them here. During that interval this town became the object of vengeance to the French, and was frequently spoiled and burnt by them, in their several attacks on it. (fn. 12)
In 1597 the plague raged at Sandwich, as it did again in the year 1635, which continued with great violence for the greatest part of the two next years. On March 12, 1637, there were seventy-eight houses visited, and one hundred and eighty-eight persons insected. On June 30, twenty-four houses and tene ments were shut up, in which were one hundred and three persons; from July 6th to October 5th, there were buried in St. Clement's parish, about ten every week, who died of the plague; and it again raged here in 1643, when there were one hundred and nine houses insected, and one hundred and sixty-four persons that needed relief. A dreadful storm happened on Nov. 27, 1703, in the morning; the damage done by which, in the town of Sandwich, was estimated at 30col.
THE CINQUE PORTS, as well as their two antient towns of Rye and Winchelsea, have each of them the privilege of returning members, usually stiled barons, to parliament. The first return that is found for any of them, is in the 42d year of king Edward III.'s reign.
|Years of the Reign, &c.||Names of the Barons in Parliament.|
|Ist. At Westminster.||Roger Manwood, John Tysar.|
|5th—||Roger Manwood, esq.|
|Richard Perot, gent.|
|13th.—||Roger Manwood, sergeant at law,|
|John Manwood, gent.|
|14th.—||Roger Manwood, sergeant at Law, (fn. 13)|
|Years of the Reign, &c.||Names of the Barons in Parliament.|
|27th. At Westminster||Edward Peake, Edward Wood.|
|31st.—||Peter Manwood, esq.|
|Edward Peake, gent.|
|43d.—||Sir George Fane, (fn. 14)|
|Edward Peake, gent.|
|1st.—||Sir George Fane, Edward Peake, esq. (fn. 15)|
|12th.—||Sir Thomas Smith, Sir Samuel Peyton, bart.|
|18th.—||Sir Edwyn Sandys,|
|Sir Robert Hatton. (fn. 16)|
|21st—||Sir Robert Hatton, Francis Drake, esq.|
|1st.—||Sir Henry Wootton, Sir Robert Sutton.|
|1st.—||Sir John Suckling, (fn. 17) Peter Peake, gent.|
|Years of the Reign, &c.||Names of the Barons in Parliament.|
|3d. At Westminster.||John Philipott, Peter Peake, esqrs.|
|15th.—||Sir John Manwood, Nath. Finch, sergeant at law.|
|16th.—||Sir Thomas Peyton, bart. (fn. 18) Edward Partheriche, gent.|
IN THE TIME OF KING CHARLES II. (fn. 19)
|12th.— 1660.||Colonel Henry Oxenden, James Thurbarne, esq.|
|13th.— 1661.||Hon. Edward Montague, (fn. 20) James Thurbarne, esq.|
|31st.— 1678.||Sir James Oxenden, James Thurbarne, esq.|
|31st.— 1679.||The same.|
|32d.At Oxford. 1681.||The same.|
|1st. At Westminster. 1685.||John Strode, esq. Samuel Pepys, esq. (fn. 21)|
|Years of the Reign, &c.||Names of the Barons in Parliament.|
|2d. At Westminster. 1690.||J. Thurbarne, sergeant at law, Edward Brent, esq.|
|7th.— 1695.||John Taylor, Edward Brent, esqrs. (fn. 22)|
|10th.— 1698.||J. Thurbarne, sergeant at law, John Michell, esq.|
|12th.— 1700.||Sir Henry Furnse, (fn. 23) John Taylor, esq.|
|13th. — 1701.||Sir Henry Furnese, Sir James Oxenden, bart.|
|1st. — 1702.||John Michell, esq. Sir Henry Furnese, bart.|
|4th. — 1705.||Sir Henry Furnese, bart. Josiah Burchett, esq. (fn. 24)|
|7th. — 1708.||The same. (fn. 25)|
|9th. — 1710.||The same.|
|12th. — 1713.||Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. John Michell, esq.|
|1st. — 1714.||Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. (fn. 26) Thomas D'Aeth, esq.|
|Years of the Reign, &c.||Names of the Baroms in Parliament.|
|7th. At Westminster. 1722.||Sir George Oxenden, bart. (fn. 27) Josiah Burchett, esq.|
|1st. — 1727.||The same.|
|7th. — 1734.||The same.|
|14th. — 1741.||Sir George Oxenden, bart. John Pratt, esq.|
|21st. — 1747.||Sir George Oxenden, bart. John Cleveland, esq. (fn. 28)|
|28th. — 1754.||John Cleveland, esq. Claudius Amyand, esq. (fn. 29)|
|1st. — 1761.||Henry, viscount Conyngham. George Hay, LL. D. (fn. 30)|
|7th. — 1768.||Henry, viscount Conyngham, Philip Stephens, esq. (fn. 31)|
|14th. — 1774.||Philip Stephens, esq. William Hey, esq. (fn. 32)|
|20th. — 1780.||Philip Stephens, esq. Sir Richard Sutton, bart.|
|24th. — 1784.||Philip Stephens, esq. Charles Brett, esq.|
|Years of the Reign, &c.||Names of the Barons in Parliament.|
|30th.At Westminster.||Philip Stephens, esq. Sir Horace Mann, barts.|
|36th. — 1796.||Sir Philip Stephens, Sir Horace Mann, barts.|
The election of the barons of parliament was formerly made in Sandwich, by the mayor, jurats, and resident freemen; four of the jurats, or principal inhabitants were put in election, and the two, who had the greatest number of votes, were returned by the mayor; but by the last determination of the house of commons, the election now is in the mayor, jurats, and freemen, a well non-resident, as those inhabiting within the port, who do not received alms. The resident freemen, as appeared by the poll at the latter end of the year 1790, were 492, non-resident 320, in all 812; the number that voted at the general election, in that year, was 586. The lord warden formerly claimed to nominate a baron to parliament in each cinque port, but the right was never acknowledged in Sandwich, and it was expressly put an end to by the act of the second of William and Mary. Each baron to parliament was allowed two shillings a day for his wages, with a few variations, namely, in 1544 the allowance was only eighteen pence a day, and from 1576 to the latter part of queen Elizabeth's reign, it was four shillings, about which time it seems to have ceased entirely in Sandwich.
EDWARD, son of Sir Sydney Montagu, youngest son of Sir Edward Montagu, of Boughton, in Northamptonshire, an account of whose ancestors has already been given in the former part of this work, (fn. 33) was by king Charles II. in his 12th year, for his signal service in delivering up to him the English fleet, of which he had the command in the time of the usur pation; (having by his singular prudence, so wrought on the seamen, that they concurred peaceably in it); by patent, dated July 12, 1660, created baron Montagu, of St. Neots, viscount Hinchinbroke, and earl of Sandwich. He died at sea, on May 28, 1672. In his descendants these titles have continued down to the right hon. John Montague, the present and sixth earl of Sandwich, viscount Hinchingbrooke, and baron Montague, who succeeded his father in them in 1792. He married first Elizabeth, only surviving daughter of George, earl of Halifax, who died in 1768, by whom he had a son John George, lord Hinchinbroke, who died in 1793, having married Miss Beckingham. The earl married secondly, in 1772, Mary, eldest daughter of Hanry, late duke of Bolton, who died in 1779, by whom he had John-George, now lord Hinchinbroke; Mary married to lord Templetown, and other children, since deceased. The earl bears for his arms, quarterly, two coats; first and fourth, Argent, three lozenges conjoined, in fess, gules, within a bordure, sable, for Montagu; second and third, Or, an eagle displayed, vert, beaked and membered, gules, for Monthermer; on the centre, a muller, sable, for difference. For his crest,on a wreath, a griffin's head, couped, or, with wings indorsed and beaked, sable.For his supporters, on the dexter side, A triton, holding over his right shoulder a trident, all proper, crowned with an eastern crown, or; (fn. 34) and on the sinister side, an eagle, with wings endorsed, vert—Motto, post tot naufragia portum.
As EARLY as king Henry II.'s reign, there was an eminent and respectable family named De Sandwich, who no doubt took their name from this place; who were employed in the highest offices of honour and trust, and in this county in particular were possessed of manors and lands of considerable value; many of them were of knightly degree, and as appears by the records and histories of those times, continued to slourish in this county from the above reign to the end of that of king Richard II. after which, most probably, they were become extinct. King Edward I. summoned by his writs, in the first year of his reign, several of the gentry and their wives, to be present at his and his queen's coronation, in the several counties of Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, Essex, Sussex, Hertfordshire, and Kent; and in the last there was one directed Radulpho de Sandwico & Consorti Sue. (fn. 35) At the latter end of which reign Sir John de Sandwich married Agnes, one of the four daughters and coheirs of Sir Hamon de Crevequer, lord of Folkestone, who, in right of his wife, became possessed of the basony of Folkestone. His son left an only daughter and heir Julian, who married Sir John de Segrave, who in her right became possessed of that barony. This family bore for their arms, Or, a chief, indented, azure, and they were so painted on the tomb of Sir Simon de Sandwich, in St. Peter's church, in this town; in the windows of Woodnesborough church, and on the roof-of the cloysters at Canterbury. Sir Ralph de sandwich, custos of London in king Edward I's reign, is said to have borne the addition of a fleur de lis in the field.
In the above reigns, and almost to the time of the dissolution of monasteries, there were many of this name among the clergy, both secular and regular, too numerous to mention here, but as these in general, on their entering into the prosession of a religious, quitted their own surname, and took on them that of the place of their birth, it is probable, they had no connection with the above-mentioned family, one of them only excepted, which was Henry de Sandwich, elected bishop of London anno 1262, who died in 1273, and was buried in his own cathedral, where he had a monument erected to his memory. (fn. 36)
In the British Museum, MSS. No. 2230, are several Kentish pedigrees, continued from the Heraldic visitation, anno 1619, to the year 1663; amongwhich are those of Manwood, Iden, Alday, Peke, Wood, Finch, and Mennes; all of Sandwich.
HENRY COWFIELD, a German, in the year 1272, being the last year of king Henry III.'s reign, founded A PRIORY in the town of sandwich, for the order of sriars called Carmelites, and afterwards, from the habit they wore, white friars; (fn. 37) but his endowment of it was so small, that Raynold, or more properly William, lord Clinton, who was a much larger benefactor to it in the 20th year of king Edward I. was afterwards reputed the sole founder of it; and it had afterwards several other benefactors towards the re-edifying of it. The church and buildings of these Carmelites were in general large and stately, their churches were much so; this at Sandwich had the privilege of sanctury; there were buried in it several principal inhabitants of the town, besides the members of the priory; after which, I find no further mention of it, till the supprssion of it, which happened soon after the 27th year of king Henry VIII. The seal formerly belonging to this priory, is now kept with the seals of this corporation; it is of copper, of an oval form; the figure is a patriarchal cross, sable, with a key on each side, on the middle of one side a crescent, on the other a star of six points; in the segment of a circle, at the foot of the cross, a cross, patee; the inscription is in letters of an antient form S. JOHANNIS PATRIARCH JERUSALEM. The priory thus coming into the king's hands, remained there till the 32d year of his reign, when he granted it, by the description of the scite of the priory, called le Whitesryers, near Sandwich, with the church bells, and all messuages in the town, to Thomas Arderne, gent. of Faversham, to hold of the king in capite. After which I have met with no subsequent possessors of this estate, till the year 1614, when it passed by sale from George, Samuel, and John Crisp, to Nicholas Richardson, who that year settled it on his daughter Elizabeth, upon her marriage with Edmund Parboe. At length Elizabeth Parboe, sole daughter and heir of Edmund Parboe, marrying Capt. John Boys, entitled him to this estate; and on a partition afterwards, of the estates of their inheritance, this friery, as it was then called, was allotted to William Boys, their fourth son, who in 1684, anno 37 king Charles II. conveyed it to William Verrier, gent. of Sandwich, and he in 1703 made a settlement of it to certain uses, under which it became the property of Thomas Alkin, gent. of Canterbury, and Susannah his wife, from whom it descended to their son Thomas Verrier Alkin, clerk, on whose death the inheritance of it became vested in his only son and heir, now an infant, who is at this time entitled to it. The friery is situated on the south-west side of the town of Sandwich, between the rampart of it and New street; by the foundations that are remaining level with the ground, the buildings must have been of considerable extent, and the house, gardens, and meadows, occupied an area of somewhat more than five acres. This estate is now in the occupation of Mr. Joseph Stewart.
There is no account of the first foundation of St. JOHN'S HOSPITAL, in this town; the oldest grant met with relating to it, is dated anno 16 Edward I. and it is there called Domus Dei & Sancli Johannis de Sandwico. Since the year 1293, it has been described in the evidences, by the name likewise of Hospitale. It is situated on the north-west side of the corn market, and consists of one large old building, containing a hall, and several rooms, both above and below stairs, for the brothers and sisters. Behind this principal building is a range of single rooms, called the Harbinge, in which travellers were formerly lodged and entertained.
This hospital was very early under the government of the mayor and barons, or jurats, of Sandwich, as patrons and governors; but although the patronage appears to have been by these evidences, in the mayor and jurats jointly, yet for the sake of harmony, the mayor for the time being, fills up all the vacancies that happen during his mayoralty. Like most others of early foundation, it was intended for the accommodation of travellers and strangers, as well as for the support of sixed residents; in it there were separate rooms for men and women, in which they were refreshed with diet and provided with comfortable lodging.
It appears by the antient register of the hospital, that the number of brothers and sisters in it were formerly fifteen, afterwards twelve, which latter number continued till the year 1737, when the hospital being in debt, and the revenue much reduced, the mayor and jurats found it expedient to reduce the number to six; and that two at the least of that number should be men, and as many at least women; which rule, however, has not been strictly observed, the present six being all women.
The revenues of this hospital were always small, arising from different benefactions to it; it received, however,a valuable addition in a benefaction of 2001. given in 1763, by the will of John Dekewer, esq. of Hackney, (a native of this town, and a liberal bene factor to it) to the mayor and jurats, in trust, for the brothers and sisters; which money has been since invested in the public funds.
The present revenue of it, consisting of the interest of the above legacy, and several houses and tenements, quit-rents, is now of the annual value of 47l. 12s. 10d. the clear yearly value of which, (the charging of repairs and collecting being deducted) is 38l. 2s. 10d. on an average, which make the annual income of each brother and sister about six guineas. (fn. 38)
ST. THOMAS'S, alias ELLIS'S HOSPITAL, was founded in honour of St. Thomas (Becket) martyr, about the year 1392, anno 16 Richard II. by Thomas Ellis, of this town, a wealthy draper. He served in parliament for Sandwich in the 43d year of king Edward III. and in the first year of king Richard II. and was mayor there in the years 1370 and 1382. (fn. 39) He was buried with his wife in the north isle of St. Peter's church, bearing for his arms, Or, on a cross, sable, five crescents, argent. He endowed it with the manor farm of Denne-court, in Woodnesborough, which he conveyed to feoffees, with the king's licence, for the use and benefit of twelve poor persons in this hospital; after which, Henry Greenshield, gent. of Sandwich, in the last year of king Edward IV. made an addition to this charity by giving to it by his will, land in Woodnesborough. There were afterwards several other benefactions of rents, lands, and houses made to it.
The commissioners under the statute of 37 king Henry VIII. made a return of this hospital of the clear yearly value of 10l. of. 4½d. beyond reprises; and archbishop Parker in the year 1562, certified it to the privy council to be of the yearly value of twelve pounds, and to consist of twelve brothers and four sisters, placed there for term of life, and relieved by alms and the revenue of the hospital. It has from the time of its foundation been vested in seoffees, the feoffment having been renewed from time to time. The seoffees are generally of the town, or the adjoining country, who when reduced to three, ought to create a fresh trust, and enlarge their number to nine, in conformity to certain rules established in 1725; by which regulations this hospital has ever since been governed, the vacancies being supplied by the seoffees in rotation.
The number of poor persons placed in it is twelve, according to the original institution, that is, eight men and four women, all single, by the name of the brothers and sisters of St. Thomas (Elly's) hospital. They are to be aged about fifty, and parishioners and inhabitants within one of the respective parishes of the town and port of Sandwich. (fn. 40) The present feoffees are now reduced to two only, viz. Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, and John Lynch, LL. D. archdeacon of Canterbury. The principal modern benefactor to this hospital has been John Michell, esq. of Richmond, in Surry, who was for almost twenty years successively returned in parliament for Sandwich. Upon the death of John Thurbarne, esq. sergeant at law, he took upon himself the care of the money belonging to this hospital, which being subscribed into the South Sea company, with the consent of the other trustees, in that fatal year 1720, came out again with a deficiency of near half the principal, amounting to about 200l. which loss he voluntarily sustained, and by his benevolence made good again to the brothers and sisters. He used his care and diligence, with the consent of the other trustees, towards the renewing and settling the present, trust, erected in the year 1725, and in composing the orders and rules for the good government of the hospital, and the well disposing of the revenues of it.
This hospital is situated in a retired situation, between New street and the Corn Market, a passage through the middle of it divides the house into two parts; on the south side is the hall open to the roof, beyond which are the womens apartments, two above and two below; the mens rooms are on the north side, four above and four below. The income of it is very considerable, consisting of the manor farm of Denne-court above-mentioned, and several small pieces of land, houses, tenements, and quit-rents, almost all of them in this town, amounting to the yearly sum of 162l. 11s. the reprises out of which, being quit-rents for their estates, are 6l. 7s. 4d.
ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S HOSPITAL is situated just without the town of Sandwich, on the south side of it on the angle, where the two loads join, coming from Eastry and Woodnesborough; notwithstanding tradition gives a much earlier period to the foundation of this hospital, yet it appears by a bull of pope In nocent IV. anno 1244, that it was then begun to be founded by Sir Henry de Sandwich, in honour of St. Bartholomew. for the support of the weak and infirm, and endowed by him for that purpose, so that the brothers and sisters should live in it under some order of discipline, and be maintained at table, and should wear a uniform habit. (fn. 41)
In the Custumal of Sandwich there is mention made of three priests, employed by the brothers and sisters to officiate in their chapel for the souls of Bertrine de Crawthorne, William Buchard, and Sir Henry Sandwich, who were probably all three benefactors to this hospital, in the order of time therein mentioned. Such as were most liberal in their donations to hospitals, and other religious foundations, acquired the name of first, second, and third founder, in order of time as they made additions to the foundation, and thus several of the family of Sandwich, from their respective benesactions to this hospital, were successively entitled the founders of it, and were from the first, the undoubted patrons of it, till Sir Nicholas de Sandwich assig ned the patronage of it to the mayor and barons of Sandwich, who from that time became governors of it; but great inconveniences arising from the confusion in the common assemblies, where the business of the hospital was decided, it was agreed, to leave the appointments in it, to the mayor and jurats only; and afterwards again, for the like reason, to the mayor only, who continues regularly to fill up such vacancies in it during his mayoralty.
This hospital is regularly visited twice a year by the mayor and jurats, who are stiled patrons, governors and visitors of it, for the passing of the accounts, and the better regulation of the government of it. The antient visitation of this hospital on the feast of St. Bartholomew, before the reformation, is related in the Custumal of Sandwich. Every year on that seast, the mayor and commonalty visited the hospital in solemn procession, the laity of Sandwich leading the way, some with instruments of music, other to the number of seven score and more bearing wax lights, provided for the occasion by the corporation, which lights were to be left in the chapel of the hospital, as an offering for the use of it throughout the year. After these sollowed the clergy of Sandwich, in their proper habits, chanting hymns and carrying tapers; the rector of ST. Peter's, or some other clergyman appointed by the mayor, celebrating high mass with much solemnity; some of the better fort of the commonalty, as Sir Nicholas de Sandwich and others, provided their own tapers and offered them there.
It does not appear that this hospital was actually incorporated by any royal patent, and made thereby capable of gifts and grants in succession, till Henry VIII. in his 27th year, by his letters patent, confirmed the dispensation which archbishop Cranmer had made to it, the only public instrument of foundation before being the bull before-mentioned, of pope Innocent IV.
The above mentioned dispensation of archbishop Cranmer, was obtained by the hospital, in pursuanace of the act of the 25th year of king Henry VIII. it authorised the master and brethren, and their successors, to hold the hospital, with all their then possessions, rights, &c. and future acquisitions, in as free and ample a manner as their predecessors had enjoyed their estates and privileges, reserving to the mayor of Sandwich, all his right and interest in the premises. After which, though there were several attempts made to suppress this hospital as a religious foundation for the king's use, under pretence of the statutes of 37 Henry VIII. and the 1st of king Edward VI. and a grant was made of it to certain lay persons, in fee farm, by king James the 1st. yet the corporation being well advised, disputed the matter, and upon a hearing, the hospital was found to be a lay foundation, and not within the meaning of the statutes above-mentioned, upon which the patentees gave up their suit; in 1636, a Venire facias was issued for the mayor and jurats to appear before the commissioners, on a commission on the statute for charitable uses, to shew by what right they took on them the government of the hospitals in Sandwich. The records of the corporation do not surnish the result of this enquiry, but the hospital of St. Thomas has not been since then under the government of the mayor and jurats, whilst this hospital and that of St. John, has continued under their superintendance to this day. The total number of brothers and sisters in this hospital seems to have been always sixteen. Formerly there was a limited number of each sex, namely, twelve men and four women; but at this time the men and women are presented indifferently, as the vacancies happen.
The scite of the hospital is surrounded by a sence, which incloses the farm-house, barns, stables, and other outhouses, a chapel, and fifteen small, but commodious houses, with gardens for the brothers and sisters. The other, or sixteenth tenement, was converted into a farm house for the residence of the occupier of the lands belonging to the hospital, when they were first hired out, and the person who is presented to that vacancy, to which this house would otherwise belong, is permitted to reside in Sandwich, with an allowance from the hospital in money, in lieu of it. The whole of the scite is held to be extraparochial.
The chapel is situated at a small distance from the house; it is a large and handsome edifice, in which and in the cemetery belonging to it, there were buried not only many of the brothers and sisters, but others of the town; there is in it an altar monument, covered with a slab of Sussex marble, on which lies the effigies of a man, completely cased in his coat of mail, with a smooth breast piece over his hawberk; there is a triangular shield over the body, and a broad sword lying along his left thigh. It is undoubtedly meant for Sir Henry de Sandwich, but the whole seems to be a cenotaph, designed to commemorate him as the founder of this hospital. An inscription on a rail over the figure points out this spot, as the burial place of Sir Henry de Sandwich, and Sir Nicholas his son; but upon a strict examination of the supposed tomb, a few years ago, when under repair, and of the ground beneath, so far as was searched, there was neither coffin, nor any other mark of sepulture found. (fn. 42)
When the reformation took place, and masses and commemorations for the dead were abolished, the chaplains officiating in this chapel were of course dismissed, as being of no further use in it; and it does not appear, that any regular provision has been made since, for the maintenance of a minister to perform divine service in it, for the use of the hospital. However, there were afterwards several different regulations and orders made from time to time for the providing of a minister to perform divine service in the hospital; but in 1636, a clergyman in orders was admitted a brother, and it was agreed that he should perform all ministerial duty belonging to the hospital, during his continuance as such; many years ago there was service performed in this chapel only once a year, on St. Bartholomew's day, but now a monthly sermon is preached there by one of the ministers of Sandwich, upon the most liberal terms.
The benefactions to this hospital have been numerous and ample, as the present terrier and rental of it shews; its present revenue consists of one large farm, let at 220l. per annum, several pieces of land and tene ments in Sandwich, and some quit-rents; and likewise a clear annual rent charge of sixty-two pounds, paid out of the tolls arising for the passage over the new bridge, between Sandwich and Stonar; this altogether amounts to the annual sum of 357l. 11s. 6d. The clear income, which is 335l. 8s. would allow to each member nearly twenty one pounds yearly, but the repairs being very heavy at present, they do not receive more than about seventeen pounds each, to which must be added the value of the house and garden, the carriage of coals and sand, wood and stubble from the farm, and the exemption from all assessments and taxes; which makes the whole benefit from the hospital, at a fair estimation, about four, or perhaps five and twenty pounds a year. The seal of this hospital is a small oval, representing St. Bartholomew sitting under a canopy; inscription, S. Sancti Bartholemei.
King Edward III in his 23d year, granted by writ of privy seal, to the brethren of this hospital, all the profits arising from the ferry over the haven, between Sandwich and Stoner, in support of the alms of the hospital; an exemplification of which grant was obtained in the 16th year of king Henry VIII.'s reign. The profits of this ferry continued part of the revenues of this hospital, till on pretence of the passage in the ferry boat being subject to many inconveniences, an act was obtained in 1755, for building a bridge across the haven, in lieu of the ferry boat, between Sandwich and Stonar, in which act there is a clause, which secures to this hospital, from the revenue of the bridge, the annual sum of Sixty-two pounds, being the last and greatest rent which had been made of the ferry.
ROGER MANWOOD, esq. barrister at law, and recorder of Sandwich, afterwards knighter, and chief baron of the exchequer, having promoted a subscription in 1563, among the principal inhabitants of this town, for the purpose of erecting a building for A FREE SCHOOL, upon a promise to endow it with lands of suf ficient value to support the building and maintain a master, solicited archbishop Parker for his approbation of his design, who afterwards became highly instrumental in bringing forward this foundation, by giving his countenance to it, and procuring, through Secretary Cecil's interest, the queen's licence for this purpose; by which she granted, that the mayor and jurats of Sandwich should be governors of the school, and be one body incorporate, by the title of governors of the free school of Roger Manwood in Sandwich; that they might sue and implead by that name in all courts; might purchase estates in fee to the value of forty pounds a year, and have a common seal, with other liberties usual in grants of that sort. (fn. 43)
The subscriptions at that time, towards the building of the school house, amounted to 286l. and upwards; and Mr. Manwood obtained from the dean and chapter of Canterbury, a grant in fee farm of a piece of ground, inclosed with a stone wall, sometime called St. Thomas's house, in Sandwich, near Canterbury gate, together with a piece of salts over against it, at a small yearly rent, which land in 1566, together with ninety acres in St. Stephen's, alias Hackington, and Northgate, near Canterbury, Mr. Manwood enseoffed to the mayor and jurats, by the name of the governors of his free grammar school, for the perpetual support and maintenance of it. On the above piece of ground, called St. Thomas's house, the building for this school was afterwards erected, and the school established, and it continues as such at this time.
Joane Trapps, widow of Robert Trapps, of London, goldsmith, by her will in 1568, gave to the rectors and scholars of Lincoln college, in Oxford, fiftytwo acres of land at Whitstaple, towards the finding of four scholars in that college, two to be nominated from this school, by the rector, &c. and two by the gover nors of it, and so by like turns for ever; in consequence of which the rector, &c. agreed to pay yearly to the four scholars 10l. 13s. 4d. towards the exhibitions, and charges of finding the scholars; and the governors of the school agreed, upon every avoidance of the schoolmaster's place, they would within twenty days give notice to the rector, &c. who should deliver in writing, under their common seal, to the mayor, or to the usher at the school-house, the names of two persons, fellows of the college, duly qualified, in order that they the governors should make choice of one of them within twenty days, or in default thereof, the nomination of such master should be in the archbishop, the see being full, otherwise in the dean of Canterbury, for the time being.
Thomas Manwood, gent. by will in 1570, gave to the governors of his brother Roger's free grammar school lands and tenements to the clear yearly rent of ten pounds, for an usher, or for other necessary matters of maintenance of the school, in such form as should be thought meet to the governors.
Sir Roger Manwood above-mentioned, then lord chief baron, as surviving executor of the will of Joane Trapps, widow, above-mentioned, in 1581, conveyed to the master and fellows of Gonvyle and Caius college, in Cambridge, a farm called Bodkins, in Swalecliffe, of the clear yearly value of 11l. 6s. 8d. in consideration of which, the master agreed to pay annually to four scholars of their college 10l. 13s. 4d. four marcs to each; to be nominated by the governors of this school, and by the master alternately. After which the heirs of Sir Roger Manwood refusing to pay the master's salary, there were several suits at law and awards concerning it, but in 1635 the matter was argued before the lord keeper, who directed that the master's salary should be paid in future by Sir Roger Manwood's heirs, out of the rents enfeoffed by him for that purpose, to the mayor and jurats; in conse quence of which the salary of twenty pounds per annum has been ever since paid with tolerable regularity by the proprietors of the estate, the present one being Sir Edward Hales, bart. of St. Stephen's.
Edward Parboe, esq. by will in 1640, besides many other legacies to the parishes, conduits, St. John's hospital, and the mayor and jurats, in Sandwich, gave to the latter, as governors of the grammar school, an annuity of ten pounds out of premises in Sandwich, of which four pounds was to be to the master of the school, and five pounds to the rector, fellows, and scholars of Lincoln college, Oxford, in augmentation, &c. of the scholars sent from Sandwich; and if none were sent, the money to remain in the governors hands, to accumulate for such scholars as should be afterwards appointed; the remaining twenty shillings to the mayor and jurats, for their charges in it; but it does not appear that the school was ever benefited by this bequest, or how it happened that it was not so.
In 1685 the mayor and jurats purchased a piece of land, on which were two stables, a kitchen and a cove, situate in St. Mary's parish, in Sandwich, in trust, for the sole use and benesit of the master of the school for the time being.
Sir Roger Manwood drew up in 1580, rules and ordinances, for the better government of this school, which are still existing, signed by him, and are still observed in the regulation and government of it (fn. 44) in which, among other rules for the internal government of the school, it is ordered, that the master should be elected by the governors, viz. the mayor and jurats of Sandwich, out of Lincoln college, Oxford, and to be A. M. if it might conveniently be, and allowed of by the ordinary, and that he and the usher, who should be appointed by the master, and admitted by the governors, should teach the grammar in the school. The overplus of all the lands and tenements, after the master's and usher's falaries were paid, and all other charges, reparations, and expences, to be equally divided between the master and usher. Of the scholars to be taught in the school, the children of the inhabitants of Sandwich to be freely taught, without any thing taken, but of benevolence at the end of every quarter, towards buying of books for the common use of the scholars; the rest of the foreign scholars to be taught for such price, and rate, as should be limited by the governors. And if there should not be so many grammar scholars as should furnish the school house, there should be a person, who could write well, who should teach the scholars reading and writing in the school, in the time of there being no usher therein, to be placed in it by the mayor and jurats, and to be paid out of the revenues of the school four pounds yearly, and such gains as by his diligent teaching he could honestly get. The master not to take to board, diet or lodge in his house, or rooms, more than twelve scholars, and the usher not above six, without leave given by the governors.
There is a common seal, of silver, belonging to the governors of this school, which is kept among the corporation seals of Sandwich. (fn. 45)
John Conant, A. M. was appointed in 1758; and is the present master of this school. (fn. 46)
THE CHARITY SCHOOL in this town has been supported a great number of years by casual contributions, and regular subscriptions begun about the year 1711, at which time the school seems to have commenced; the present establishment is thirty boys and thirty girls, under a master and mistres; the former are taught to read and write, and the latter employed in knitting and plain work; nine trustees are appointed every year, three from each parish, who, with the mayor, examine the children, and direct all the affairs of the school.
The attention paid to this school, and the visible good effects of it, have brought it to no small degree of reputation and prosperity, which has lately been increased by a bequest of 100l. by Mr. Sprat, of Fort St. George, in the East-Indies. This legacy has been invested in 3 per cent. consol. Bank annuities, in trust for the benefit of the scholars, and yields a dividend of 4l. 8s. upon a principal of 146l. 15s. 8d. The subscriptions of late years have amounted to about sixty pounds, and the collections at sermons to about seven pounds, which, added to the dividend, have been sufficient to cloath, as well as instruct the children.
The master of this school teaches likewise six other boys, for the rents of certain houses in sandwich, now of the yearly rent of 3l. 16s. given by the will of David Turner, of Sandwich, in 1665, to the mayor and jurats in trust, to be by them disposed of to a person who should teach to write and read English poor children gratis.
JAMES MASTER, esq. of East Langdon, by will in 1631, ordered that the rent of an acre of ground, which he had behind the vicarage of St. Clement's church, and abutting to the town ditch, amounting to 33s. 4d. by the year, should yearly be laid out in providing sea coal in summer, when it was cheapest, to be laid up and given among the poor of the three parishes, as the mayor, together with the overseers of the poor, should think to have most need; the coals to be given among them, some week before Christmas yearly, and this to continue for ever.
LAND IN St. Clement's parish, called St. George's lees, lying in two pieces, containing in the whole three acres, now of the yearly rent of 7l. 10s. was given originally to that parish, for the maintenance of a lamp in that church.
SIR HENRY FURNESE, bart. of Waldershare, who died in 1712, gave by will to the mayor and jurats 500l. to be laid out in the purchase of a freehold estate, in trust for them, to dispose of the rents and profits, with the advice of the town clerk and the churchwardens, upon the 30th of May yearly, being his birth-day, two fifths to the poor of St. Peter's, where he was born, and a moiety of the remaining three fifths to each of the other two parishes in Sandwich. Accordingly, in 1727, the mayor and jurats purchased a barn and lands, containing about nineteen acres, at Weddington, in Ash, now of the yearly rent of 24l.
THE RENTS, issues and profits of a small farm at Marshborough, in Woodnesborough, was given by the will of Mr. Peter Jarvis, merchant, of Leghorn, and a native of Sandwich, in 1715, in trust for the poor of the three parishes of Sandwich, to be paid yearly to them, and now of the yearly rent of 12l.
JOHN SPRAT, of Fort St. George, in the East-Indies, merchant, by his will in 1776, gave to each of the three parishes in Sandwich, 100l. the interest to be distributed to such poor of these parishes yearly, as the parsons and churchwardens of them might think proper, on the 25th of November in each year.—These legacies were placed in the public funds, in the names of turstees. The annual dividend to each parish is 4l. 10s. 8d. upon the principal stock of 151l. 4s. 6d. Old South Sea Annuities. Mr. Sprat was a native of Sandwich, and died at Madras in 1780.
SEVERAL tenements, shops, and pieces of ground, given to the poor of St. Peter's parish by different persons, amount altogether to the yearly sum of 16l. 17s. besides other small tenements. And two vaults under the church at the east end, are let at the yearly rent of 40s.
SOLOMON HOUGHAM, esq. of London, who was sheriff of Kent in 1696, and died the next year, gave by his will, in trust, an annuity, or yearly rent charge of 11l. out of Barton-field, in the parish of St. Paul, in Canterbury, to be paid to the churchwardens of St. Mary's parish, to be by them disposed of; 4s. in penny loaves every Sunday: and upon Christmas day yearly, 12s. in penny loaves, to be distributed at church after divine service, to such of the poorest of this parish, as the churchwardens should think fit; and in case of age and sickness, if any could not come, their portion of bread to be sent home to them.
JOHN DEKEWER, esq. of St. John's, Hackney, who died in 1762, gave by his will to the minister and churchwardens of St. Mary's, in Sandwich, 500l. to be laid out in the public funds, in trust, to repair and preserve the family vault and tomb, and the iron work round it in St. Mary's church-yard; and on every Sunday, after divine service in St. Mary's, in every week successively, to give 4s. in bread to the poor of this parish; and to lay out the remainder of the dividends in coals, to be given to the poor at Christmas eve yearly, at the discretion of the minister and churchwardens, &c.
THOMAS FULNETBY, gent. of Deal, in 1625, enfeoffed to trustees, four messuages near the Loopes, and overgainst the Beagrims, to make four dwellings of the premises, for four poor tradesmen of St. Mary's parish only, that have been born in it, and have long dwelt there; and in default of such tradesmen, then for such poor of the parish, as have been born, or long dwelt there, and the rents, &c. to be divided among them.
There were formerly THREE PAROCHIAL CHURCHES in this town, and a church or chapel likewise, supposed by some to have been parochial, dedicated to St. Jacob, which has been long since demolished; but the three former churches, being those of St. Mary, St. Peter, and St. Clement, Still remain; an account of all which will be given separately.
ST. MARY'S CHURCH stands in a low situation in Strand street, on the northern part of the town. The original church, built in the time of the Saxons, is said to have been demolished by the Danes, and to have been afterwards rebuilt by queen Emma, which building was burnt down by the French, and it was not long afterwards again rebuilt; notwithstanding which, it appears to have become dilapidated and in a most ruinous state in the time of king Henry VI. for in the 2d year of that reign, anno 1448, part of the steeple fell, in consequence of which it underwent a thorough repair, and then consisted of two isles and the nave; the latter was terminated by the high chancel, and the south isle by St. Laurence's chancel. It however, fell down again on April 25, 1667, and brought down with it most of the church; the western wall, portions of the south isle and its chancel only remaining; and though the church itself was soon afterwards rebuilt, as at present, yet it does not appear that any steeple was built till the year 1718, when the present low one was raised upon the south porch, and one bell put up in it. Before this, there were five small bells, which about the year 1639, had been formed out of three larger ones; the above five bells were sold, for the faculty had been obtained in 1669, to fell the useless timber and the bells, towards the rebuilding of the church, and they were sold, as it is said, to the parish of Eleham.
In an antient bead-roll of this church, there is mention made of John and William Condy, the first beginners of the foundation of the chantry of that name in this church; of Thomas Loueryk and his wife, who founded the chapel of our Lady, at the east head of it; and of the three windows of the north side of the church; of Thomas Elys and Margaret his wife, and Sir Thomas Rolling, vicar of this church, of whose goods was made the west window of it, and who made the vicarage of the parish more than it was before; and besides these, of several other benefactors to the windows and other parts of it. And there were divers other gifts made to this church, for its reparation, and for obits, and other religious services performed in it, as appears by the evidences belonging to it.
The inventory of the silver and jewels, belonging to the church before the reformation, sufficiently shew the costliness of the utensils belonging to it, and the riches of it. The silver, according to the inventory made of them, amounting to 724 ounces; and the habits of the ministers to officiate in it, the linen and books, were answerable to the rest belonging to it.
The present church of St. Mary consists of a north isle, and the nave, at the end of which is the chancel, which has an ascent of three steps on each side; between which entrances are the mayor's seat and other pews. The altar piece, table, and rails, are of wainscot and very ornamental. The sont is at the west end of the nave, it is a stone bason, having eight faces changed alternately with plain shields and roses, in quaterfoils; on the shaft are the letters cw. II. RS. DE. IC. POD. 1662.
In this church are numbers of monuments and inscriptions, all which are printed in Mr. Boys's Collections, P. 319, the whole too numerous to mention here, but among others at the west end of the nave, are memorials of the Smiths and Verriers. In the south space are memorials for the Petleys and for the Whites. In the middle space, on an old stone, are the remains of a cross story, resting on a dog or lion, and the remains of an inscription with this date, I. M. CCC. XXX. In the north isle are three grave-stones, on a rise above the pavement, with inscriptions shewing, that underneath is a vault, in which lie many of the family of Hayward, formerly mayors of this town; arms, Argent, on a pale, sable, three crescents of the field, In the chancel is a large stone, robbed of its brasses, which formerly commerated the deaths of Roger Manwood and his family; the place where it lies was formerly St. Laurence chancel. In the chancel is a monument of stone much defaced; on it are the figures of a manand woman kneeling, in a praying posture, for Abraham Rutton, formerly mayor, and Susan his wife, by whom he had seven sons and six daughters. He died in 1608; and for his descendant the Rev. John Rutton, obt. 1763, rector of this parish. Against the south wall, is a handsome monument of marble, with these arms, Argent, five chevronels, sable, and per pale, azure and gules, a lion rampant, argent; and an inscription for several of the family of Hougham. Against the same wall a tablet, for Mary, wife of Joseph Stewart, esq. obt. 1775; arms, Argent, a lion rampant, gules, over all, a bend raguled, or. Over the south door, a marble monument for Richard Solly, gent. thrice mayor, obt. 1731; and Anna his wife, daughter of John Crickett, gent, by whom he had ten sons and three daughters; arms, Azure, a chevron, party per pale, or, and gules, between three soles, naient, argent. At the west end of the nave is an altar tomb, with an inscription, shewing, that in a vault underneath, lie several of the Cricketts; another altar tomb, with an inscription, for several of the Nowells; arms, Three covered cups. By the gallery stairs, on an altar tomb, an inscription for Tho. Danson, preacher, of this town, who died 1764; on a raised monument of brick, an inscription, for several of the name of Jordan; this stands close before, and hides the altar part of a monument, under an arch in the north wall, to the memory of Sir William Loverick, of Ash, and dame Emma his wife, the daughter of Sir John Septvans, of that parish, who are said to have been the principal repairers, or builders of this church, after it had been burnt by the French, and were buried in king Henry IV.'s reign; on an adjoining tomb an inscription for the Maundys.
There are stones, pointing out the entrances into the vaults of Solly and Stewart, and there are inscriptions on a board, commemorating the benefactions of John Dekewer, esq. Solomon Hougham, gent. Sir Henry Furnese, bart. and Mr. Peter Jarvis.
Several names appear on the stones, on the outside of the east and north walls of the chancel. Sir Edward Ringely, of Knolton, was buried in Jesus chapel, in this church, on the left side of the altar. In the 35th of king Henry VIII. William, lord Clinton, is said to have been interred under a gilded arch in the south wall of this church, which arch was walled up in king Edward VI.'s reign, but it was visible some time afterwards in the church yard, perhaps it may be the same projectioin that now appears there, on the south side of the chancel. William Condie, who founded the chantry, afterwards called by his name, in this church, was likewife interred, together with his wife, in the south isle of the old church, near the lord Clinton's tomb; but there is nothing now to point out precisely the situation of their remains, nor those of Thomas Manwood, gent. who died in king Henry VIII.'s time and was buried under the belfry. Stephen Perot was buried likewise in this church in 1570.
There are several altar tombs in the church-yard, one of which is for the family of Dekewer; arms, Vert, on a cross, engrailed, or, five fleurs de lis, sable; in the first and fourth quarters, a caltrop, argent; in the second and third quarters, a lion rampant, of the last.
At a small distance south-west of St. Mary's church, was a church or chapel, dedicated to St. facob, supposed by many to have been a parochial church; there is nothing lest now to point out the situation of the building, the cemetery remains and is used occasionally as a burial place, for the use of St. Mary's parish. This church-yard seems to have got into lay hands at the suppression, for in 1578, it was enfeoffed by Edward Wood, to certain persons, for the necessary uses of the parish. The trust was renewed in 1604 and 1649. At the south-west corner was an hermitage, the residence of an hermit. The last hermit in it was John Steward, in king Henry VIII.'s reign, who was afterwards vicar of St. Mary's church, whose duty it was to minister to strangers and the poor, to bury the dead, and pray for the people in the chapel, which was destroyed, as well as others of the like sort, in the beginning of king Edward VI.'s reign. Great part of this building was standing at the latter end of Edward VI.'s reign; there was in it a brotherhood of St. Catherine, consisting of both brothers and sisters, which was benesitted by the will of John Wynchelse, of Sandwich. It appears that this church or chapel was under the management of the officers of St. Mary's parish, and that the building had been repaired in the years 1445 and 1478.
The church of St. Mary is a vicarage, the patronage of which has ever been part of the possessions of the archdeaconry of Canterbury, to whom the appropriation of the church likewise formerly belonged; it did so in the 8th year of king Richard II. anno 1384, when on the taxation of the spiritualities and temporalities ecclesiastic, in this diocese, the church of St. Mary's appropriated to the archdeacon, was valued at eight pounds, and the vicarage was valued at only four pounds, and on account of the smallness of it, was not taxed to the tenth. (fn. 47) The vicarage is valued in the king's books, in king Henry VIII.'s reign, at 8l. 1s. since which time, and it should seem during the reign of queen Elizabeth, the great tithes, or appropriate parsonage of this church, were given up by the archdeacon to the vicarage, so that the vicar has been since intitled to both great and small tithes within the bounds of this parish, which induced several of the incumbents to stile themselves rectors, but certainly wrong, for it is still a vicarage, the vicars of which are entitled to the receipt and possession of the great tithes, by grant from the appropriator.
In 1588 here were 385 communicants, and it was valued at forty pounds per annum. In 1640 here were the same number of communicants, and it was valued at sixty-eight pounds. It is now a discharged living, of the clear yearly value of forty pounds. It has been augmented by the governors of queen Anne's bounty, the greater part of the money from which has been laid out in the purchase of marsh land in Wood. nesborough. At present the vicar receives the tithes of about eighty-four acres of land. There were great disputes formerly, between the appropriators of Eastry and the vicars of St. Mary's, respecting the tithes of a small district of land called Puttock's downe; but the decisions were constantly against the vicars of St. Mary's, and the tithes now belong to Word, a chapel of ease to Eastry.
Besides the ordinary small tithes, the vicar of this parish, as well as the incumbents of the two other parishes in Sandwich, collect from every house a certain sum, under the denomination of dues; this payment is said to be a composition for all the house, gardens, barns, and stables, according to custom, since the 12th year of queen Elizabeth; and the vicar of St. Mary's receives besides, 6s. 8d. annually, under the denomination of tithe of the old Crane.
In 1776 there were one hundred and sixty-eight houses in this parish, and six hundred and fourteen inhabitants; and the rents of it were in 1787, according to the pound rate, at rack rents towards the poor, upwards of 3,500l. per annum.
Church of St. Mary.
|Or by whom presented.|
|The Archdeacon.||John Lodwick, clerk, July 4, 1661. (fn. 48)|
|John Piggot, A. M. Dec. 21, 1677, obt. 1689.|
|John Thomas, A. M. Jan. 22, 1689, obt. 1706.|
|John Rutton, A. M. 1713, obt. July 28, 1763. (fn. 49)|
|Egerton Leigh, March 9, 1764, resigned 1774. (fn. 50)|
|William Thomas, A. B. March 31, 1775, the present vicar. (fn. 51)|
ST. PETER'S CHURCH stands nearly in the centre of the town; it consisted formerly of three isles, and in that state was next in size to St. Clement's which was the largest church in Sandwich. In 1641 it was certified to the lord keeper by the mayor, &c. that the steeple of St. Peter's church was in a very ruinous condition; that it was a principal sea mark, and that it was beyond the parishioners abilities to rebuild it; the estimate of the expence being 1500l. The steeple fell down on Sunday, Oct. 13, 1661, and demolished the south isle, which has never been rebuilt. There had been two sermons preached in it that day; it fell down about a quarter after eleven at night; had it fallen in the day time, the greatest part of the town and parish would probably have been killed and buried under the rubbish, but no one was hurt and few heard of it. The rubbish was three fathom deep in the middle of the church and the bells underneath it. This church, as well as the other two, seems to have been formerly constructed entirely, or at least cased externally, with the stone of Normandy, well squared, and neatly put together. The east end of the chancel is a good specimen of the old work, and there are detached portions of the same fort of masonry in other parts of the building.
The present structure, which is evidently the work of different times, is composed of fragments of the older fabric, mixed with Kentish rag and sand stone, and slints from the shore. The south isle is said to have been built by Sir John Grove, about the year 1447, and Sir Simon de Sandwich, warden of the cinque ports in Edward II.'s reign, both having given liberally towards the new building of the steeple. The present steeple is a square tower, built with the old materials to the height of the roof of the church, and from thence to the battlements with bricks of the haven mud. There are eight small, but musical bells, cast in 1779; they cost 430l. 12s. 6d. which expence was in great measure defrayed by the metal of the former six old bells; and a clock, which is the property of the corporation, who keep it in repair.
In this church there are the following monuments and inscriptions, among others too numerous to mention.—In the south isle, now in ruins, are the remains of a handsome tomb under an arch in the wall, in which was interred the body of Sir John Grove, who flourished in king Henry VI.'s reign, on which were his arms, now obliterated, viz.Three leaves in bend, on a canton, three crescents. There has been another arched monument in this wall, but all the ornamental parts are gone. In the north isle are several gravestones, with memorials for the Jenkinsons, for Jeffreys, and for the Olivers. On a large stone, coffin shaped, is a cross resting on a small dog or lion, and round the verge of the stone some mutilated gothic square characters cut in the stone, for Adam Stannar, priest. Part of another stone, with similar characters on it, lies in the same space a little to the westward. On a brass plate in black letter is an inscription for Thomas Gilbert, gent. searcher, of Kent, who married Katharine, daughter of Robert Fylmer, of East Sutton, in Kent, and had six sons and three daughters; arms, Gilbert, Gules, a saltier, or, on a chief, ermine, three piles, gules. He died in 1597. In this chancel a gravestone for Mr. Henry Furnese, obt. 1672; Anne his wife, obt. 1696. (They were the parents of Sir Henry Furnese, bart.) Mr. John Blanch, merchant, obt. 1718; Elizabeth his wife, daughter of the above Henry and Anne Furnese, obt. 1737. A memorial for Mary, first wife of Mr. John Solly, mercer, eldest sister of Sir Henry Furnese, bart, obt. 1685; and Mr. John Solly, obt. 1747. Within the altar rails are memorials for many of the family of Verrier of this town. On a marble monument against the north wall, an inscription for the Olivers. Opposite the above, a mural monument with an inscription for Henry Wife, esq. obt. 1769; Elizabeth his daughter, wife of Mr. Wm. Boys, obt. 1761; Mary his wife, obt. 1772; arms, Wife, sable, three chevronels, ermine. An oval tablet of marble for Elizabeth, wife of John Rolse, jun. gent. of New Romney, obt. 1780. A marble mural monument against the south wall, near the door of the nave, for the Jekens and Youngs. A marble tablet underneath for Susannah Wyborn, formerly wife of the above named Mr. Thomas Young, but late of Mr. William Wyborn, brewer, of this town, obt. 1755. On a marble tablet against the north wall of the nave, an inscription for the Jekens. The gallery at the west end of the north isle was built by subscription, and is secured to the subscribers by a faculty. There are stones in the church pointing out the licenced vaults of Brown; the Jeken family; Solly; and Ferrier; the Thurbarne family, a hatchment over it has three coats of arms, viz. Thurbarne, sable, a griffin passant, argent, with impalements. In the south east angle of the north isle is a vault, now belonging to the heirs of Mr. Solomon Ferrier, but built originally for the family of Mennes, whose atchievment, helm, and crest are suspended over the place. The arms are, Gules, a chevron, vaire, or, and azure, between three leopards faces of the second. In an escutcheon of pretence, quarterly, first and fourth, the royal arms of Scotland, debruised with a batton, sable; second and third, a ship with sails furled, within a double tressure, story, counterflory. In the wall of the north isle are three arches, under the eastermost, between the second and third windows, on an altar tomb are the mutilated figures of a man and woman lying at length in the dresses of the time, their heads supported by double pillows, a lion at his feet, a dog at hers; in the front of the tomb are narrow gothic arches. The tomb projects into the church-yard; the second arch is behind the pulpit; the tomb was exposed to view in digging a vault in 1770; its front is divided into six compart ments, in each of the four middle ones is a shield, the first of which has three wheat fans, a crescent in the centre; the second a fess fusilly, between three griffins beads; the third has three lions rampant, and the fourth is void; over this monument in stones in the wall, are two coats of arms, that on the right hand being fretty, a chief; and the other the ports arms, three demi lious, impaling three demi ships. Under the westermost arch, which does not penetrate through the wall, is an handsome altar tomb of Caen stone, in the front of which are six small shields; there were arms in all of them, but the bearing and colours are nearly effaced.
Dr. Harris says, in the north isle were buried Tho Ellis, esq. of Sandwich, and Margaret his wife; Sir Simon Sandwich, warden of the cinque ports temp. Edward II. who was a great benefactor to the building of the steeple of this church. The Sandwich MS. quoted by Mr. Boys, says, that the former of these lies buried here, under a most antient monument, and that John Ive, esq. a worshipful merchant likewise, and Maud his wife, lie buried under an arched sepulchre in the wall; and that here likewife were buried divers of the worshipful men of the Sandwich's knights. Through the wall that divides the chancel from the north isle has been an arched door, now closed up; and another in the opposite wall, from an inclosed chapel at the upper end of the south isle, between which and the small house appointed for the chaplains of Ellis's chantry, was a door of communication, which, as well as the arch, is still visible; but they are now shut up with masonry. This probably was the chapel, where these chantry priests performed divine offices.
There are inscriptions on boards of the benefactions to the parish by Sir Henry Furnese and Mr. Jarvis. The figure of Sir John Grove has lately been removed by Mr. Boys from the fallen isle, where it must soon have been destroyed, into the church beside the font, at which time his remains were searched for; an arched grave was found under the monument containing a coffin with the date 1664, so that probably the remains of Sir John Grove were removed from hence at the time that the isle was brought into its present ruinous state. The outward parts of the figure having been much injured by the weather and the trampling of boys, its position has been reversed, and the other parts brought to view, where the sculpture is remarkably sharp and elegant.
The church of St. Peter is a rectory, and was antiently of the alternate patronage of the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, and of the mayor, jurats, and commonalty; but this was not without continual dispute made by the former, of the latter's right to it. At length this controversy was finally settled in the year 1227, anno 11th Henry III. when they mutually acknowledged each others right in future to the alternate presentation to it. After which, the abbot and convent continued in the possession of their interest in the patronage of this church, till the dissolution of their monastery in the 30th year of king Henry VIII. when it came into the hands of the crown, where their alternate turn of presentation to this rectory has ever since continued, the king being at this time entitled to it. The other alternate right of presentation has continued in the mayor, jurats, and commonalty, to the present time.
It is valued in the king's books at eight pounds. In 1640 here were communicants 825, and it was valued at eighty pounds. It is now a discharged living, of about the clear yearly value of fifty pounds. It pays five shilling to the archdeacon for procurations, and 3s. 4d. to the archbishop at his ordinary visitations.
The revenues of this rectory arise from dues, collected in like manner as in the other parishes in this town, from the house in this parish, and from the tithe of land belonging to St. Bartholomew's hospital, called Cowleez, containing about ten acres.
Church of St. Peter.
|Or by whom presented.|
|The Crown.||Thomas Dawson, A. M. ejected August 1662. (fn. 52)|
|John de Blay, March 2, 1671, resigned 1673.|
|The Mayor, &c. of Sandwich.||Gervais Howe, clerk, Aug. 21, 1673.|
|The Crown.||John Pigot, A. M. March 10, 1679, resigned 1690.|
|The Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, sede vac.||John Thomas, clerk, July 11, 1690. (fn. 53)|
|The Crown.||Gerard de Gols, 1713, obt. Feb. 22, 1737. (fn. 54)|
|The Archbishop.||George Oliver, August, 1737, obt. Jan. 1745. (fn. 55)|
|The Crown.||William Bunce, LL. B. Feb, 22, 1745, obt June 12, 1766. (fn. 56)|
|The Mayor, &c.||J. Conant, A. M. 1766, the present rector. (fn. 57)|
The CHURCH OF ST. CLEMENT stands at the eastern part of the town, on the highest ground in it; it is a large handsome structure, consisting of a nave and two isles; the steeple stands in the centre of the church, and is by far the oldest part of the fabric. It is square, and ornamented on each side with three ranges of pillars and circular arches; the lowest range has only six, the next seven, and the uppermost nine arches. It had formerly a spire and battlements, which were taken down between the years 1670 and 1673; it is built of Norman stone; the other parts of the church are formed principally of bolders, (that is, flints worn away by friction on the shore) mixed with sand-stone, and some Caen stone, probably from the ruins of the original building. There is a high chancel, and two side ones at the east end. Here were stalls, fitted with seats, for some religious fraternity; and in this church were the chapels of St. James, St. Margaret the Virgin, and St. Thomas the Martyr, the chancel of St. George, and Green's chantry; and there was a brotherhood in this church established for the procession of St. George, when his figure was yearly borne about the town. The nave is separated from the isles by light airy pillars and pointed arches. The cieling is of oak, in pannels, between arched beams centered with angels holding shields, with ornaments of roses and foliage. The font is an antient octogonal bason, and shast of stone; the eight sides are charged with shields and roses alternately. On the shields are, first, the arms of France, three fleurs de lis quarterly, with those of England; second, a merchant's mark; third, the arms of the cinque ports; fourth, the arms of Ellis. Above these squares, at the eight angles of the moulding, are grotesque faces, except at the dexter side of the first shield, where the ornament is a bird like a heron; and on the sinister side is a coronet with balls between spires, terminated with fleurs de lis; the whole of it is besides much de corated, and ornamented with different devices, leaves, flowers, fruits, satyrs faces, &c. There are five bells, not very tuneable, and consequently of little use, but to hasten the downfall of this venerable steeple in which they hang. They were cast in 1672. Among many others, there are the following monuments and memorials in this church:— In the south isle are gravestones for the Hawkers; for William Smith, esq. rear-admiral, obt. 1756; for Elizabeth, wife of Nicholas Spencer, gent. customer of Sandwich, obt. 1583. On raised monuments, inscriptions for Shelvy and Wyborne; for Boyman; mural monuments for Deveson; for the Haywards, and for the Sayers.—In the north isle, for Broughton, the Elgars, and Kites. On a painted board, inscriptions for the Wybornes and the Bradleys. In the chancel, on the south side of the altar, is a mural monument, with the effigies of a woman kneeling, for Frances Rampston, widow, who married afterwards Sir Edward Rede, ob. 1611. An oval mural tablet for Wm. Bunce, LL. B. vicar of St. Clement's and rector of St. Peter's, in Sandwich, obt. 1766, and Martha his wife; arms, Bunce, azure, on a fess, between three boars passant, argent, three eagles displayed, sable, impaling Odiarne, sable, a chevron, between three covered cups, or. On gravestones, inscriptions for the Odiarnes and Halsnod. A memorial for John Martin, A. B. vicar. He died in 1741. Round the verge of a large stone, with a shield of arms at the four corners cut in the stone, is an inscription for George Rawe, gent, sometime mayor and customer of Sandwich, and merchant adventurer of London, and Sarah his wife, obt. 1583. Two brass plates, with arms, Ermine, on a chief, gules, two escallop shells, or. Memorials for Bartholomew Combes, gent. a native of this town, and seven times mayor, obt. 1694. In the choir, a gravestone for Valentine Norwood, gent. obt. 1690. In the front of the gallery, in the south isle, are the arms of Oxenden and Burchett, and an inscription, shewing that Sir George Oxenden, bart. and Josiah Burchett, esq. representatives in parliament of this town and port, gave the altar piece and this gallery in 1723.
Many antient stones, deprived of their ornaments of brass, are scattered over the pavement. The burial ground of this parish is unusually large, and, including the scite of the church, contains within a very trifle, an acre and three quarters of ground. The Dutch residents, in the last century, were allowed to perform divine service in this church, upon the payment of forty shillings a year, and afterwards upon bearing a third part of all expences of repair.
The church of St. Clement is a vicarage, the parsonage of which has ever been part of the possessions of the archdeacon of Canterbury, to whom the appropriation of the church likewise belonged; it certainly did so in the reign of Edward III. when it was valued at eight marcs per annum. (fn. 58)
The principal income of this vicarage formerly arose from the tithe of fish brought into the haven; and from the resort of fishermen and failors to the town; but this resource diminishing in value, by the gradual decay of the haven, to increase the maintenance of the vicar, archbishop Parker, in conjunction with archdeacon Gheast, in 1570, augmented this vicarage with the tithes of hay and corn, before belonging to the appropriation, reserving to the archdeacon, in lieu of them, a yearly pension of forty shillings; but this increase having been made without the consent of Sir Roger Manwood, the archdeacon's lessee, a new agreement was entered into between archbishop Whitgift, archdeacon Redman, and Sir Roger Manwood, then lessee of the parsonage, by which these tithes were now again granted in lease to the vicar and his successors at the yearly rent of 7l. 6s. 8d. by way of recompence for the abatement in the fines paid at the renewals of the former leases.
In the registry of the archdeacon's court there is a return made of the state of this vicarage in 1615, that the parsonage and vicarage had no glebe land, more than a little garden, together with the backside and stable adjoining, belonging to the vicarage house, which paid three shillings yearly to St. Bartholomew's hospital.
That the tithe of wheat and barley, with other small tithe whatsoever, was as follows, viz. the vicar by composition had from the parson, tithe of wheat, barley, peas, beans, &c. and of his own endowment, hay, pasturage, wool, lambs; tithe of the Dutchmen's gardens, of all manner of herbs, roots, cabbages, and such like, for which, at his pleasure, the farmers of the grounds compounded with him; and in the town, the vicar had composition for all the houses, gardens, barns, and stables, in this parish, according to custom, ever since the 12th year of queen Elizabeth.
This vicarage is valued in the king's books at 13l. 16s. 10½d. and the yearly tenths at 1l. 7s. 8¼d. In 1588 here were communicants four hundred and sixty-eight, and it was valued at seventy pounds. In 1640 it was valued at 120l. and here were the same number of communicants. It is now of the clear yearly certified value of 77l. 10s. 4d. This must be nearly its full value, for the parsonage of it is let at this time for seventy-five pounds per annum. The vicar still pays the annual pension of 7l. 6s. 8d. to the archdeacon; 2s. 6d. procurations to the archbishop, and three shillings yearly to St. Bartholomew's hospital, for the vicarage house.
Besides the ordinary tithes, the vicar of this church, as well as the incumbents of the other churches in this town, collect from every house within the parish, a certain sum, under the denomination of dues, which payment is said to be a composition for all the houses, gardens, barns, and stables, according to the custom established ever since the 12th year of queen Elizabeth.
The lands within this parish amount to four hundred and thirty-three acres, which are rated at the annual value of 461l. and the houses and buildings within it, at 721l. In the year 1776, there were in it one hundred and sixty-six houses, and six hundred and thirty-four inhabitants. It appears that some part of the land at Stonar, was formerly bounded and taken into this parish.
Church of St. Clement.
|Or by whom presented.|
|Archdeacon of Canterbury.||Francis Fotherbye, A. M. inducted July 24, 1618, ejected 1642. (fn. 59)|
|The Crown.||Benjamin Harrison, Nov. 24, 1660, resigned 1666. (fn. 60)|
|Geo. bishop of Chester, as archdeacon||William Coleman, clerk, Dec. 1, 1666, resigned 1677.|
|S. Parker, archdeacon.||Mark Parker, A. M. July 21, 1677, obt. Sept. 1680.|
|Alexander Mills, A. M. Nov 1, 1680, obt. Nov. 1714.|
|Thomas Green, archdeacon.||John Martin, A. B. April 30, 1714, obt. March 18, 1742. (fn. 61)|
|William Bunce, LL. B. June 2, 1742, obt. June 12, 1766. (fn. 62)|
|John Head, archdeacon.||Wheler Bunce. A. M. July 8, 1766, the present vicar. (fn. 63)|
THE OLDEST CHANTRY in this town, of which there is any notice remaining, was founded about the beginning of the 14th century, in St. Mary's church, by John Condy and William his son; but it is not found to what saint it was dedicated. The patronage of it was given by the founders to the mayor and commonalty. This chantry was suppressed, among others of the like sort, by the acts of the 32d of king Henry VIII. and the 2d of king Edward VI. and the revenues of it given to the king.
BARTON'S CHANTRY was founded in some chapel, in or near David's gate; it was suppressed in the second year of king Edward VI. when a commission was granted for the sale of the chantry, as well as its revenues.
JENKYN GREEN founded A CHANTRY IN ST. CLEMENT'S CHURCH, and endowed it with lands. It was suppressed by the act of the second of king Edward VI. and the revenues of it were sold to the king's use. Thomas Clerc was chantry priest here in 1483. The feoffees of this chantry were the same as were appointed for St. Thomas's hospital, and both charities were dedicated to the same martyr parton.
The CHANTRY OF ST. THOMAS, usually called ELLIS'S CHANTRY, (and it is remarkable that the two capital endowments of Tho Ellis, were made in the course of five months) was the principal establishment of this kind in Sandwich, being dedicated to St. Thomas the Martyr, and founded IN ST. CLEMENT'S CHURCH by T. Ellis, a wealthy merchant of this town, who enfeoffed Thomas Rollyng, vicar of St. Mary's, and others, in two messuages, and 216 acres of land, and rent to the amount of four pounds in Eastry, Woodnesborough, Worth, Hinxhill, and Wynclesberg, for the endowment of it; and in 1392 the king granted a licence of mortmain, to assign these estates to three priests, or chaplains, to celebrate mass daily in this church, for the souls of the said Thomas Ellis, &c. These chaplains were to fill up the vacancies within three months after they should happen; upon neglect of which, the patronage was to be vested in the mayor and jurats of Sandwich; and on their failure for another month, in the archdeacon.
One of the priests of this chantry was bound to instruct the youth of Sandwich to read, and the place where he taught, was called St. Peter's school; the want of such a school in this town, after this fell to the ground on the suppression of the chantry, was so severely felt, there being none other, that it induced the principal inhabitants to endeavour to set forward another school of the like sort, which, by the care and liberality, chiefly of Sir Roger Manwood, they effected in the foundation and endowment by him of the present grammar school of Sandwich. The last of these chaplains was Mr. Green, a learned schoolmaster, whose house was at the east end of St. Peter's church.