The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 11. Originally published by W Bristow, Canterbury, 1800.
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The churches within the city and suburbs
There are, within the walls of this city, twelve parish churches now remaining, and there were five more, which have been long since demolished; and there are three churches now situated in the suburbs of it, and there has been one demolished—Of those now remaining, there were only two, viz. St. Martin's without, and St. Alphage's within the walls, which were not of the patronage of some religious house or abbey, in or in the near neighbourhood of the city, and these two were in the patronage of the archbishop. (fn. 1)
It may be thought strange, that the number of churches in this city has decreased so much, and that so many of them have been united to others, and yet together, even at this time, make but a very moderate income to the incumbents; this has been supposed, in general, to have been occasioned by the great failure of their former profits, which they enjoyed before the reformation, of private masses, obits, processions, consessions, or the like; all which then fell to the ground, and lessened the income of most of them to a very small pittance. However, as will be seen hereafter, some of these churches were become desecrated and in ruins, and others were united long before the above time; which seems to have been owing, in great measure, to many of them having been built by the bounty of well disposed persons, in hopes of a future support and endowment, which failing, and the repairs and support of the fabric lying too heavy on the parishioners, they suffered them to run to ruin; and there being no susficient maintenance for the priests, they became desecrated, or were united to some other neighbouring churches. Indeed it appears plain, that poverty was the sole cause of their decay; for in their most flourishing state, the benefice of each of these churches was so low and poor, that they were for that very reason excused in all taxations, being of less value than the stipends of poor vicars, which had been advanced above five marcs a year. (fn. 2)
The decrease of the value of church benefices was
equally felt in other cities and towns, as well as this,
which occasioned an act of parliament to be passed at
Oxford, in the 17th of king Charles II. for uniting
churches in cities and towns corporate; in conformity
to which, in 1681, a petition was made to the archbishop, under the names and seals of the major part of
the mayor and aldermen, and justices of the peace, of
this city, who being informed of the archbishop's intentions of uniting the parish churches of it, according
to the above act, they did thereby give their free consent, that those within the city should be united, viz.
ST. PAUL'S and ST. MARTIN'S,
ST. MARY BREDMAN'S and ST. ANDREW'S,
HOLY CROSS WESTGATE, and ST. PETER'S,
ST. ALPHAGE'S and ST. MARY'S NORTHGATE,
leaving all things necessary to the perfecting of this union, according to the tenor of the above act; which instrument was dated March 6th, that year, and signed by Jacob Wraight, mayor, and P. Barrett, recorder, &c. To this was added a petition of the dean and chapter of Canterbury to the archbishop, as being perpetual patrons of the parish churches of St. George, St. Mary Magdalen, St. Paul, St. Mary Bredman, and St. Peter, within the city and liberties, for the uniting of those churches with each other and with others adjoining, in manner as above-mentioned in the former petition, which was given under their common seal, dated March 13th the same year. Upon the receipt of these, the archbishop issued his decree, reciting the two petitions for uniting the several above-mentioned churches, the particulars of which will be found under the description of each of them; which decree was dated at Lambeth, on March 24, 1681. To which the inhabitants of each parish signed their consents, by their several instruments, dated December 19th, 20th, and 21st, the same year. After which, by a decree of the archbishop's in 1684, with the consent of the mayor, aldermen and justices of the peace of this city, and of the king, under his great seal as patron, he united the church of All Saints with St. Mary de Castro, already united to it, to the parish church of St. Mildred; further particulars of which will be found under the latter parish. It should seem the decree of the archbishop in 1681, for the uniting of the churches of Holy Cross Westgate, and St. Peter did not have its full effect, for on April 6, 1692, there were two petitions, one from the mayor and eight others, and another from the dean and chapter to the archbishop, similar to the former ones, for this purpose; and the archbishop's decree, dated at Lambeth, the 13th of that month, united these churches; and with the same particulars in every thing else as the former decree in 1681. (fn. 3)
ALL SAINTS church is situated on the north side of the High-street, almost adjoining to Kingsbridge. It is a building, which, notwithstanding the late repair of it, has no very sightly appearance, being built of rubble stone, and covered with plaister; seemingly of about king Edward III.'s reign. It consists of two isles and two chancels, having a turret at the west end of the south side, new built in 1769, (fn. 4) in which is a clock and only one bell.
The old steeple projected so far into the street, that when Kingsbridge adjoining was widened at the above time, for the accommodation of the public, it was found necessary to take down the steeple of this church, and to re-build it as at present.
It appears by the survey of the king's commissioners, taken anno 2 Edward VI. that there were lands given by Thomas Fryer, by his will for a yearly obit, to be kept within this church for ever, and that there was rent given by John Coleman, by his will, for another obit for the space of twenty years, from 1536. (fn. 5)
This church's cemetery or church-yard was acquired and laid to it but in modern times, as it were, says Somner, for in king Henry III.'s time, and afterwards in king Edward III.'s time too, it was in private hands, as appears by several deeds of those times, and did antiently belong, in part at least, to Eastbridge hospital. It is situated on the north side of the church, and being on higher ground, has many tomb and head stones remaining in it.
The patronage of this church, which is a rectory, was part of the possessions of the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, with which it continued till the general dissolution of monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII. in the 30th year of which, it was, with the rest of the possessions of it, surrendered into the king's hands, where it has remained ever since, the king being at this time patron of it. This church, with that of St. Mary de Castro, before united to it, was in the year 1684, united by archbishop Sancrost to that of St. Mildred, in this city, with the consent of the mayor and aldermen and justices of the peace of it, and of the king, patron of it.
In the antient taxation, in king Richard II.'s time, this church was valued at four pounds per annum, but on account of the slenderness of its income, was not charged to the tenth. (fn. 6) This rectory is valued in the king's books at seven pounds per annum. In 1588 here were one hundred and thirty-five communicants. In 1640 it was valued at thirty pounds, communicants one hundred and five.
John Coleman, of this parish, who lies buried in our Lady's chapel, in this church, by his will anno 1535, gave his garden, which lay opposite the parsonage of it, to the parsons of it and their successors for ever.
|Or by whom presented.|
|Abbot and Convent of St. Augustine||William Byde, in 1467. (fn. 7)|
|Alanus Hydmarsh, in 1476. (fn. 7)|
|Richard Knepe, in 1535. (fn. 8)|
|William Blossom, obt. 1550. (fn. 9)|
|Roger Squyre, in 1550. (fn. 10)|
|The Queen.||Henry Fisher, Sept. 26, 1579, hellip;resigned (fn. 11)|
|Richard Hayes, March 2, 1590, resigned 1608.|
|The King.||Philemon Pownell, clerk, Feb. 10, 1608. (fn. 12)|
|William Watts, in 1634.|
|Richard Burney, clerk, Sept. 28, 1661. (fn. 13)|
|Humphry Bralesford, A. M. Sept. 3, 1684.|
On the 29th of which month, this church was united to that of St. Mildred, in this city, to the list of the rectors of which, hereafter, the reader is referred for an account of the rectors of these united churches.
St. ALPHAGE church is situated in the north part of the city, on the west side of Palace-street; it is a large handsome building, consisting of two isles and two chancels, having a square tower steeple at the west end of the north isle, in which are three bells. (fn. 14)
By the return of the king's commissioners, anno 2 Edward VI. it appears, that there were lands given by Isabell Fowle, by her will, for a priest to celebrate masse within this church; also for one torch yearly to serve the high altar for ever. That there was lamp-rent likewise given by John Sellowe, for one lamp, to burn yearly before the image of St. John the Evangelist, within this church for ever. (fn. 15)
This church, which is a rectory, is exempted from the jurisdiction of the archdeacon. It has been from early times part of the possessions of the see of Canterbury, and still remains so, being at this time, with the vicarage or church of St. Mary Northgate, united to it in 1681, (fn. 16) of the patronage of his grace the archbishop.
The church of St. Alphage is valued in the king's books at 8l. 13s. 4d. and the yearly tenths at 17s. 4d. the church of Northgate having been united to it since, being valued separate from it. (fn. 17) In 1588 it was valued at 30l. Communicants 120. In 1640 it was valued at 40l. Communicants the like number.
|Or by whom presented.|
|Robert Islep, in 1405. (fn. 18)|
|John Lovelych, LL. B. obt. Sept. 6, 1438. (fn. 19)|
|John Piers, in 1461. (fn. 20)|
|John Elys, in 1467. (fn. 21)|
|The Archbishop.||Robert Elys, in 1476.|
|Robert Proveste, obt. Jan. 22, 1487. (fn. 22)|
|John Cussham, in 1490.|
|John Parmenter, in 1501. (fn. 23)|
|Thomas Davyes, in 1518, obt. 1540. (fn. 24)|
|Umphrey Jordan, in 1540 and 1549. (fn. 25)|
|John Atkins, obt. Feb. 1580. (fn. 26)|
|John Alderston, inducted March 1580.|
|Joshua Hutton, in 1594, resigned 1596.|
|John Sheppard, inducted 1597, resigned 1599.|
|David Platt, A. M. inducted Oct. 1599, obt. Sept. 1642.|
|Richard Pickis, obt. January, 1660. (fn. 27)|
|Edward Fellow, A. M. inducted June 1661, obt. 1663.|
|John Stockar, A. M. inducted September 24, 1663, obit. 1709. (fn. 28)|
During his time this church appears to have been united to that of St. Mary Northgate, so that he died rector of both churches, and his successors have since been rectors of this and vicars of Northgate.
|Thomas Wise, S.T. P. inducted April, 1709, obt. July 24, 1726. (fn. 29)|
|Herbert Taylor, A. M. inducted August 1, 1726, resigned 1753. (fn. 30)|
|John Airson, A. M. 1753, resig. 1761. (fn. 31)|
|George Hearn, clerk, collated May 1, 1761, the present rector. (fn. 32)|
ST. ANDREW'S church Stands in a small recess, about the middle of the High-street, on the south side. It was built in the room of the antient church of the same name, which stood at a small distance, in the centre of the street, the passage along which was through two narrow lanes on each side of it. This church was an antient structure of only one isle, and one chancel, having a spire steeple at the west end; in it were many monuments and inscriptions; the former of which, when this church was pulled down in 1764, an act of parliament having been obtained for this purpose, for the accommodation of the public, by laying open the street, were at first deposited in the undercroft of the cathedral; but when the new church was finished, they were placed in the vestibule of it; an account of them will be given below. Among these were the several monuments of the rectors of this parish, from Dr. Cox in 1544, to Mr. Paris, who died in 1709, both inclusive, and were for the most part buried in it. Among these it is observable, that there were two ancestors of the famous dean of St. Patrick's, viz. Thomas Swist, his great-grandfather, and William his son, who were successively rectors of this church from 1569 to 1624; the former of them having expressly desired by his will, that his bones should rest in that church, where his people so entirely loved him. (fn. 33)
This church being thus taken down, a new one was erected, though not till some years afterwards, on a spot of ground bought for the purpose, of sufficient size for a small cemetery likewise adjoining. (fn. 34) This church, which is a neat building of brick, with a steeple of the same materials, in which hangs one bell, was opened by licence from the archbishop, for the performance of divine service, on Dec. 26, 1773, and was consecrated, with the church-yard, on the 4th of July following. (fn. 35)
It appears by the return made by the king's commissioners, anno 2 Edward VI. that there were obit and lamp lands given by the wills of several persons for the keeping of their several obits yearly, and finding lamps within this parish church for ever. (fn. 36)
This church is a rectory, the patronage of which was part of the possessions of the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, with which it continued till the final dissolution of it in the 30th year of king Henry VIII. when it was, with the rest of the possessions of that monastery, surrendered into the king's hands; whence it was afterwards granted by the king, in his 34th year, in exchange, and with other premises, to the archbishop of Canterbury; (fn. 37) but upon its being unieted in 1681 to St. Mary Bredman's rectory, (fn. 38) (which was of the patronage of the priory of Christ-church, and on the dissolution of it had been given to the dean and chapter of Canterbury); that being the mother church to the smaller parish, the right of patronage of these united churches was decreed to the archbishop and the dean and chapter of Canterbury jointly; that is to say, two turns to the archbishop, and one turn of presentation to the dean and chapter. In which state the patronage of it continues at this time.
This rectory, with that of St. Mary Bredman united, is valued in the king's books at 22l. 6s. 8d. (fn. 39) and the yearly tenths at 2l. 4s. 8d. (fn. 40) In 1588 it was valued at sixty pounds. Communicants two hundred. In 1640 it was valued at eighty pounds, the like number of communicants.
|Or by whom presented.|
|The Archbishop.||John Cox, S. T. P obt. 1544. (fn. 41)|
|William Morphet, ind. Dec. 22, 1565.|
|Henry Morray, July 3, 1570.|
|Thomas Swift, A. M. March 18, 1572, obt June 12, 1592. (fn. 42)|
|William Swift, A. M. July 8, 1592, obt. Oct. 24, 1624. (fn. 42)|
|Edward Aldey, A. M. Nov. 6, 1624, obt. July 12, 1673. (fn. 43)|
|Arthur Kay, S. T. P. July 18, 1673, obt. — 1701. (fn. 44)|
During his time, these two churches of St. Andrew and St. Mary Breadman appear to have been united; a list of the future rectors of which may be seen hereafter in the account of the latter, which is the mother church.
ST. GEORGE'S church is situated on the north side of the High-street, near the gate of the same name; it is a large handsome structure, consisting of two isles and two chancels, having a well built tower steeple, with, till lately, a pointed leaden turret at the northwest corner of it. (fn. 45) There are four bells in the tower, and one formerly in the turret. (fn. 46)
This church, which is a rectory, was part of the possessions of the priory of Christ-church, in Canterbury, and at the dissolution of it was granted by Henry VIII. to the dean and chapter of Canterbury, in the patronage of whom, together with that of St. Mary Magdalen, in Burgate, united to it in 1681, (fn. 47) it remains at this time.
It appears by the return of the king's commissioners, anno 2 Edward VI. that there were obit lands given by the wills of Edward Parlegate, Thomas Rayley, John Williamson, and Thomas Cadbury, as well for the observation of their obits, as for the maintenance of one lamp in this church for ever. (fn. 48)
This rectory is valued in the king's books at 7l. 17s. 11d. and the yearly tenths at 15s. 9½d. (fn. 49) In 1588 it was valued with St. Mary Burgate, at 80l. Communicants three hundred. In 1640 it was valued at only 50l. (fn. 50)
Thomas Petit, esq. of St. George's, Canterbury, by his will in 1626, gave 50l. to be disposed of to young married couples for ever, the poorest, as near as might be, of four parishes, one of which should be that wherein he should die, which by the register, appears to have been in this parish of St. George; a more particular account of which is given in the History of Kent, under Chilham.
|Or by whom presented.|
|Prior and Convent of Canterbury.||John de Natyndon, about 1330. (fn. 51)|
|John Lovel, — obt. April 24. 1438. (fn. 52)|
|John Williamson, LL. B. in 1490 and 1519. (fn. 53)|
|Edward Broughton, in 1523. (fn. 54)|
|William Bassenden, — 1558. (fn. 55)|
|Dean and Chapter of Canterbury.||Mark Saunders, November 12, 1574.|
|Thomas Wilson, A. M. July 21, 1586, obt. Jan. 1621. (fn. 56)|
|Thomas Jackson, A. M. presented April 1622, obt. 1661.|
|Blaze White, A. M. May 7, 1661, resigned 1666. (fn. 57)|
|Elisha Robinson, A. B. October 1, 1666, obt. January 30, 1670. (fn. 58)|
|Bean and Chapter of Canterbury.||John Sargenson, —ob. 1684.|
|Francis Master, A. M. presented July 10, 1684, obt. 1686.|
|John Maximilian Delangle, S. T. P. July 3, 1686, resig. 1692. (fn. 59)|
|John Cooke, A. M. March 9, 1692, obt. 1726. (fn. 60)|
|William Ayerst, S. T. P. Dec. 10, 1726, resigned 1729. (fn. 61)|
|John Head, A. M. Feb. 10, 1730, resigned 1760. (fn. 62)|
|Thomas Forster, A. M. July 21, 1761, obt. Sept. 13, 1764. (fn. 63)|
|Francis Gregory, A. M. December 11, 1764, resigned May 1777. (fn. 64)|
|James Ford, A. B. 1777, the present rector. (fn. 65)|
ST. MARGARET'S church stands on the west side of the street of the same name. It is a large building, consisting of three isles and three chancels, having a tower steeple at the west end of the south isle; there are three bells in it. (fn. 66)
It appears by the survey of the commissioners, anno 2 Edward VI. that there were lamp lands given by the will of John Wynter, and Joanehis wife, for the maintenance of a lamp within this church for ever, and there were obit lands given to this church by the will of James Ase, for one obit, to be kept in it for ever. (fn. 67)
In this church is held an ecclesiastical court, in which the archbishop once in four years visits the clergy in the neighbouring parts of his diocese; besides which, there are two other visitations annually held in it by the archdeacon, or his official, one for his clergy, the other for the church wardens only; the parishes exempt from his jurisdiction being visited by the commissary, at such time as he is pleased to appoint. In this church likewise, and in a court he has in the body of the cathedral, causes for fornication, defamation and other ecclesiastical matters, are tried before surrogates, appointed to that office. This church, which is a rectory, was part of the possessions of the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, and was in the year 1271, being the last of king Henry III. given by them at the instance of Hugh Mortimer, archdeacon of Canterbury, in pure and perpetual alms, to the hospital of Poor Priests, in this city, with which it remained till the suppression of it in the 17th year of queen Elizabeth's reign, (fn. 68); after which the patronage of this rectory became vested in the archdeacon of Canterbury and his successors, with whom it has continued ever since; the reverend the archdeacon being the present patron of it.
This rectory is now of the clear yearly certified value of 63l. 10s. (fn. 69)
|Or by whom presented.|
|John … in 1216.|
|Thomas Wyke, 1373.|
|Philip Taylor, in 1521. (fn. 70)|
|Nicholas Langdon..… obt. 1554.|
|Hugh Barret, inducted July 27, 1554.|
|The Archdeacon||Blaze Wynter, March 16, 1575.|
|The King, by lapse.||Philemon Pownel, clerk, Sept. 21, 1626. (fn. 71)|
|Francis Rogers, S. T.P.…ob. July 23, 1638. (fn. 72)|
|Thomas Ventris, clerk, A. M. August 10, 1638, ejected 1662. (fn. 73)|
|William Hawkins, 1662, … obt. May, 1674. (fn. 74)|
|William Lovelace, 1674, … obt. August, 1683. (fn. 75)|
|Thomas Johnson, 1713,…obt. Nov. 6, 1727. (fn. 76)|
|Henry Shove, A. M. Dec. 15, 1727, resigned 1737.|
|Thomas Leigh, A. M. 1737,… obt. April 18, 1774. (fn. 77)|
|Gilman Wall, A. M. 1774, the present rector.|
ST. MARY BREADMAN'S church, is so named to distinguish it from the others in this city, dedicated to St. Mary, which surname it had from the Bread Market, formerly kept beside it. (fn. 78)
This church stands on the south side of the Highstreet, near the centre of it. It is a very antient building, seemingly of the early part of the Norman times. It is rather small, consisting of two isles and two chancels, having a tower steeple at the west end of it, in which hangs one bell. (fn. 79)
This church, as well as those of St. George and St. Peter, were antiently of the patronage of the priory of Christ-church, as were likewise St. Michael Burgate, and St. Mary Queningate, both long since demolished; all which five churches, together with that of St. Sepulchre, were confirmed to the priory, by the bulls of several succeeding popes, and each of them paid to it an annual pension; this of St. Mary Breadman paid yearly sixpence.
After the dissolution the patronage of it was granted to the dean and chapter of Canterbury, who possessed the entire presentation to it till the year 1681; when the church of St. Andrew adjoining, of the patronage of the archbishop of Canterbury, being united to it, the future right of presentation to these united churches was decreed; two turns to the archbishop, and one turn to the dean and chapter; in which state it continues at this time. This church of St. Mary Breadman, though it has the smallest parish, yet is esteemed the mother church to the other. (fn. 80)
|Or by whom presented.|
|Prior and Convent of Christ-church||Richard Langdon, anno 25 Edward III. (fn. 81)|
|Thomas Alcock, obt. on Holy Cross day, 1500.|
|Robert Richmond, obt. July 18, 1524.|
|Dean and Chapter of Canterbury.||William Mellrose.|
|The Queen, by lapse||James Bisset, March 12, 1590.|
|Dean and Chapter.||Nicholas Benart, in 1604.|
|Matthew Wariner, January 29, 1637.|
|The Archbishop.||Arthur Kay, S. T. P. July 18, 1673.|
At which time these two churches of St. Mary Breadman and St. Andrew appear to have been united, viz. in 1681; so that he was collated to both of them united, as were the succeeding rectors. Dr. Kay died in 1701, and was succeeded by
|The Archbishop.||John Paris, A. B. collated Nov. 7, 1701, obt. Nov. 5, 1709. (fn. 82)|
|Dean and Chapter||Robert Cumberland, A. M. presented Jan. 19, 1709, obt. Nov. 6, 1734. (fn. 83)|
|The Archbishop.||William Wood, A. M. collated Dec. 1734, obt. February 13, 1736. (fn. 84)|
|Isaac Terry, A. M. inducted Feb. 20, 1736, obt. Dec. 1744.|
|Dean and Chapter||Francis Walwyn, S. T. P. presented May 9, 1745, resigned 1757. (fn. 85)|
|The Archbishop.||John Duncombe, A. M. collated Jan. 25, 1757, obt. 1786. (fn. 86)|
|William Gregory, A. M. collated 1786, the present rector. (fn. 87)|
ST. MARY BREDIN, usually called Little Lady Dungeon (fn. 88) church, is situated at a small distance north westward from the Dungeon, whence it takes that name, and Watling-street. It is a very small building, seemingly antient, consisting of a nave, and small isle on the north side of it, and a chancel; at the north-west corner is a wooden pointed turret, in which hang three small bells. (fn. 89) You go down into it by several steps, which makes it very damp.
This church was built by William, surnamed Fithamon, being the son of Hamon, the son of Vitalis, one of those who came over from Normandy with William the Conqueror. This William was, no doubt, the patron of this church, which he had built, and most probably gave it to the neighbouring nunnery of St. Sepulchre, where it staid till the dissolution of that house in king Henry VIII.'s reign, when the patronage of it was granted anno 29th of it, when the nunnery and the rest of the possessions of it, to the archbishop of Canterbury, subject nevertheless to the payment of 3s. to the vicar of this church; all which were again reconveyed by the archbishop to the king in his 37th year, in exchange for other premises, (fn. 90) and he granted them the following year to the Hales's, lords of the manor of the Dungeon, whose burial place was within this church; since which the patronage of it has continued in the possession of the owners of that manor, down to Henry Lee Warner, of Walsingham abbey, in Norfolk, the present patron of it.
Upon the decline of the church of St. Edmund of Riding-gate, not far distant, of the patronage likewise of the same nunnery, it was in 1349 united to this of St. Mary Bredin, with the consent of the prioress and convent. (fn. 91)
It was held for a long time as a donative, that is, from about 1670 to 1732, and a curate was licenced to serve in it; but in the latter year the Rev. Curties Wightwick took out the seals for it, and was presented to it as a vicarage, by the lord chancellor; on his resignation in 1751, it was again held in sequestration, and continues so at this time.
|Or by whom presented.|
|William Dobbynson, in 1556. (fn. 94)|
|Thomas Panton, in 1572. (fn. 95)|
|The Queen, hac vice.||John Milner, A. B. March 27, 1596, resigned 1599.|
|Richard Hardres, esq. of Hardres||John Taylor, A. M. Feb. 24, 1599, resigned 1601.|
|Christopher Cage, Dec. 6, 1606, resigned 1610. (fn. 96)|
|John Shepherd, Sept. 8, 1610, and in 1636.|
|William Lovelace, in 1663.|
After which this vicarage seems to have been considered as a donative, and a perpetual curate was appointed to it; however, in 1737 I find it held as a sequestration, for it was then committed as such to
|Henry Shove, clerk, who was appointed to it on January 15, 1737.|
|Thomas Leigh, clerk, succeeded him on Oct. 1737.|
and continued so till Curteis Wightwick, A. M. (fn. 97) was presented to it by the lord chancellor, on Nov. 23, and inducted the 26th, 1742; he resigned the vicarage in 1751, when it was again put in sequestration, and Thomas Leigh, clerk, was again appointed to it, after whose death Gilman Wall, A. M. was appointed on Jan. 20, 1775, and is the present sequestrator of it.
ST. MARY MAGDALEN'S Church, in Burgate, stands on the south side of the middle of Burgate-street, being rather a small building, consisting of two isles and a chancel, having a square tower at the north-west corner, in which are three bells. (fn. 98)
This church, which is a rectory, was part of the possessions of the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, and continued with it till the final dissolution of the monastery in the 30th year of king Henry VIII.'s reign, when it came into the King's hand, who granted it soon afterwards in his 33d year, to his new-founded dean and chapter of Canterbury, where the patronage of this church, since united in 1681, as mentioned before, to that of St. George's, remains at this time.
One Richard Wekys, butcher, of this parish, in 1471, was a great benefactor to this church. The steeple of it was new built in 1503; towards which one Sir Harry Ramsey, of St. George's, was a benefactor. (fn. 99) John Fremingham, esq. who was mayor in 1461, gave by his will, among other acts of piety, twenty nobles to this church. (fn. 100)
By the return of the king's commissioners, anno 2 Edward VI. it appears, that there were lands given by Edmund Brandon, by his will, for one priest to say the masse of Jesus weekly within this church for ever. That there was light-rent given by J. Brande, for a light, as well to burn nightly before the body of Christ, as also at the celebration of divine service within the church for ever. (fn. 101)
This rectory is valued in the king's books at 41. 10s. and the yearly tenths at 9s. (fn. 102) In 1588 it was valued at twenty pounds. Communicants ninety-three.
At a visitation holden anno 1560, it was presented that there belonged to the parsonage-house, a piece of ground called Maudelen crost, which had been wrongfully detained by Mr. Hyde, auditor of Christchurch, to the great impoverishment of the parsonage. (fn. 103)
|Or by whom presented.|
|Thomas Fysher, Oct. 10, 1553. (fn. 104)|
|The Queen.||Thomas Panton, July 9, 1580. (fn. 105)|
|Dean and Chapter of Canterbury.||Thomas Warriner, Dec. 15, 1585, obt. 1606.|
|George Marson, March 6, 1606, resigned 1631.|
|The King.||John Marston, A. B. Oct. 28, 1631, obt… (fn. 106)|
|Dean and Chapter.||William Lovelace, A. M. Sept. 26, 1660, obt. Aug. 1683. (fn. 107)|
In whose time it seems, this rectory and that of St. George were united, and on his demise John Sargenson was presented the first to these united churches, and died possessed of these rectories in 1684; a list of whose successors may be sound above, under the account of St. George's church.
ST. MARY NORTHGATE church is built partly over the city gate, called Northgate, and partly on the west side of it, from which is a staircase to go up to that part over the gateway, in which divine service is performed. It consists of only a body and chancel, being remarkably long and narrow, having a square tower steeple at the west end, rebuilt of brick, in the room of the old one, which fell down a few years ago.
Under the choir, or chancel of this church, is a vault, with an open space or loop-hole in the wall, fashioned like a cross. It was sometime a hermitage, but is now belonging to the parsonage. (fn. 108)
This church, which is now a vicarage, was part of the antient possessions of the prior and convent of St. Gregory, in Canterbury, (fn. 109) with whose consent as Patrons of it, archbishop Stratford, in the year 1346, endowed the vicarage of it as follows: that the vicar and his successors, vicars in this church should have all and all manner of oblations in the church of Northgate, and in every other place within the bounds, limits or tithings of it, of whatsoever sort made, or to be made, or accruing to it, or in it, or liable to increase in future, the oblations or obventions of the hospital of Northgate alone excepted; and that the vicars should receive and have all tithes of wool, lambs, pigs, geese, apples, pears, hemp, flax, beans and other fruits and herbs, growing in orchards or gardens, and the tithes of mader (fn. 110) arising within the parish; and also all other small tithes of whatsoever sort belonging to this church, and all other profits, which the vicars of it had been used to take in former times, except all great tithes (estimated of the yearly value of four marcs) belonging to it, which the religious had reserved to themselves; and that the vicars should undergo at their own costs and expences, the burthern of performing divine offices in the church and the finding of the books and ornaments of it, of the processional tapers, and of one lamp which ought to burn in the chancel of it, and the administring of bread, wine, lights, and other things there necessary for the celebration of divine rights; and also the payment of tenths, and the imposition of any other matters which should happen to be imposed on the English church, for the moiety of the tax of this church; but that the religious should acknowledge for ever, and undergo the burthen of rebuilding and repairing the chancel of it, within and without, and the payment of the tenths of this sort and the imposition of whatsoever sort for the other moiety of the taxation of it, and all the other burthens, ordinary and extraordinary incumbent, or which ought to be incumbent on it, and which were not allotted above to the vicar of it. (fn. 111)
After this, both the appropriation and advowson of the vicarage continued with the prior and convent of St. Gregory, till the dissolution of it in the 27th year of king Henry VIII. when coming into the king's hands, both of them were granted, among the rest of the possessions of the priory, to the archbishop of Canterbury and his successors, where the appropriation still remains, his grace the archbishop being the present possessor of it.
The advowson of the vicarage likewife passed by the above grant to the archbishop and his successors, and this vicarage being in 1681, united to the adjoining rectory of St. Alphage, (fn. 112) as such, still continues in his grace's patronage, who has ever since collated to that rectory, with the vicarage of Northgate united to it.
This vicarage is valued in the king's books at 11l. 19s. 4½d. and the yearly tenths at 1l. 3s. 11¼d. (fn. 113)
Richard Mascall, of Christ-church, in Canterbury, in his will, proved 1703, (fn. 114) recites, that whereas he had by deed indented and inrolled in chancery, and dated in 1692, and by other conveyances purchased of Joseph Wells, yeoman, of Ash, one annuity or yearly rent charge of four pounds, issuing out of the manor of Mardall, in Hothfield and Ashford; he then gave one moiety of the same to the poor people of St. Mary Northgate for ever, to be distributed among the most indigent poor people of it, by the minister, church wardens and overseers of the poor of it, within ten days after they should receive the same; and the other moiety he gave to the parish of Chart next Sutton Valence, for the purposes therein mentioned, with power of distress, on non-payment, &c. and reimbursement of all costs and charges, from time to time, out of the said manor, lands and premises; and he directed a copy of the deed to be kept in the book of accounts of the parish officers of St. Mary Northgate for ever, and the original deed to be kept in the parish chest of Chart Sutton, there carefully to be preserved for ever.
|Or by whom presented.|
|Thomas Skeene, in 1346. (fn. 115)|
|Walter Garrarde, in 1476, obt. August 26, 1498. (fn. 116)|
|William Kempe, in 1520. (fn. 117)|
|William Page, in 1523.|
|The Archbishop.||William Lovell, S. T. B. Dec. 3, 1572, obt. 1581. (fn. 118)|
|Thomas Webbe,… August 10, 1581.|
|John Stybbynge, jun. March II, 1583.|
|William Okell, resigned. (fn. 119)|
|Anthony Kirkbye, …June 15, 1597, resigned 1609.|
|Elias Meade, A. M. Nov. 30, 1609, obt. 1612. (fn. 120)|
|Thomas Tatnall, A. M. April 30, 1612.|
|Sampson Kennard, A. M. May 29, 1612, obt. 1635. (fn. 121)|
|Daniel Bollen, A. M. Dec. 2, 1635.|
|John Stockar, A. M. Sept. 24, 1663, obt. 1709.|
During his time, viz. in 1681, this church and that of St. Alphage appear to have been united, so that he died rector of both churches, being the first that was so inducted to them; a list of whose successors may be found before, under the account of St. Alphage's church.
ST. MILDRED'S church is situated at the southwest extremity of the city, near the Old Castle and the river Stour, in the church-yard belonging to it. This church is a large handsome building, of three isles and three chancels, with a square tower steeple on the north side, in which are five bells. This church and a great part of the city, was, according to Stow, burnt in the year 1246, anno 30 Henry III. but as it should seem not entirely so, for at the west end of the south isle there is a very fair Roman arch, remaining over the window, and by all appearance the work of those times. (fn. 122)
This church is a rectory, the patronage of which was part of the possessions of the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, with whom it continued till the dissolution of that monastery, in the 30th year of king Henry VIII. when it came into the hands of the crown, where it has continued ever since, the king being the present patron of it.
This rectory, with that of the antient desecrated church of St. Mary de Castro, or of the Castle, is valued in the king's books, at 17l. 17s. 11d. and the yearly tenths at 1l. 15s. 9½d. (fn. 123) In 1588 it was valued at fifty pounds. Communicants three hundred and sixty. In 1640 it was valued at seventy pounds.— Communicants one hundred.
Archbishop Sancrost, by his decree, dated Sept. 29, 1684, united the rectory of All Saints, in this city, with St. Mary de Castro, of the king's patronage likewife, to this of St. Mildred, (fn. 124) in which state it continues at this time. It is now about the clear annual value of eight pounds. (fn. 125)
The neighbouring church of St. John, becoming desolated after the reformation, tacitly devolved to this church of St. Mildred, and it has ever since been esteemed as part of this parish. (fn. 126)
|Or by whom presented.|
|The Crown||John Balbourne, in 1503. (fn. 127)|
|Humphry Garth, in 1540. (fn. 128)|
|John Hill, inducted Nov. 20, 1567, obt. 1601.|
|Richard Allen, S. T. B. May 16, 1601. (fn. 129)|
|—Man, in 1654.|
|Richard Burney, Sept, 8, 1661, resigned —. (fn. 130)|
|James Ardern, clerk, A. M. May 26, 1662, resigned 1666.|
|Simon Lowth, A.M. Oct. 8, 1666, obt. 1672. (fn. 131)|
|John Sargenson, A. M. Oct. 2, 1672, obt. 1684.|
|Humphry, Bralesford, A. M. September 3, 1684, resigned 1708.|
|John Andrews, A. M. April 5, 1708, obt. 1710 (fn. 132)|
|James Henstridge, A. M. Nov. 22, 1710, obt. December 4, 1745. (fn. 133)|
|Theodore Delasaye, February 4, 1746, obt. July 26, 1772. (fn. 134)|
|Anthony Lukyn, August, 1772, obt. Nov. 12, 1778. (fn. 135)|
|The Crown.||William Theophilus Montjoy Webster, presented Dec. 24, 1778, obt, April 17, 1788. (fn. 136)|
|Edward William Whitaker, presented May, 1788. the present rector. (fn. 137)|
HOLY CROSS WESTGATE church, so called both from its dedication and situation, stands just within the city gate, called Westgate, on the south side of the street, almost adjoining the city wall. It is a large church, but low, consisting of three isles and a chancel, having a square towar at the west, end in which are five bells.
In allusion to the church's name of Holy Cross, there was formerly over the porch, or entrance into it, a crucusix, or representation of our Saviour's crucisixion, as may be learnt from the will of Richard Marley, dated 1521, who appointed to be buried in the church-yard, before the crucifix, as nigh the coming in of the north door there as conveniently might be, and ordered his executors to see gilt well and workmanly the crucisix of our Lord, with the Mary and John, standing upon the porch of the said north door; (fn. 138) but this crucisix has been many years since removed, and the king's arms placed in its room. (fn. 139)
There was antiently in this church a chantry, to which belonged a priest, called Thesus masse priest, who had been accustomed to say masse, and to help to maintain divine service in this church, and was removeable at the pleasure of the inhabitants. It was not known by whom it was founded, but by tradition, with the help and devotion of the parishioners, who bought several lands and tenements to maintain this chantry; the valuation of which, as appears by the return of the commissioners for the visiting of chantries, and such like foundations, in the 2d year of Edward VI.'s reign, was found worth 11l. 9s. 8d.
To this masse there belonged a fraternity, called from thence the fra ternity of thesus masse, or Jesus brotherbed, founded by whom was not known, within this church. There were divers men and women, who, through devotion, gave to this brotherhood, some four-pence, some eight-pence yearly; for which they were named brothers and sisters; which money was bestowed upon lights in the church; and upon one masse and dirige, for the brothers and sisters departed, who were recommended to our Saviour's mercy, by the priest at masse. The names of this fraternity were entered on a bead-roll kept for the purpose. Both chantry and fraternity were suppressed, with all others of the like kind, in the 2d year of Edward VI. though it appears to have been without a priest for some time before. (fn. 140)
The present church was built in king Richard II.'s reign, in the room of one of the same name, which stood over the antient gateway of Westgate, and was of course demolished, when archbishop Sudbury, in that reign, pulled down that gate, which was become ruinated, and built the present one. The king's licence for the purchase of the ground, for the scite of the present church, and the cemetery, being dated March 10, anno 3 Richard II. (fn. 141)
This church was part of the antient possessions of the priory of St. Gregory, in Canterbury, (fn. 142) to which it was appropriated, but no vicarage seems to have been endowed in it, till archbishop Startford, by his instrument under his seal, dated at Saltwood in the year 1347, and of this translation the 14th, endowed the vicarage of this church as follows: John Sorges being then vicar of it, THAT it being affirmed on the part of the religious, that they had in time past acknowledge the burthens of the payments of the tenths, and other impositions whatever, for the taxation of this church, and also all ordinary burthens incumbent on it, and that they had received nothing of the fruits, rents, profits, or obventions of it, during the time of the above-mentioned vicar, although in the times of the other vicars of it, they were accustomed to have, and take from it a certain pension of money; the vicar likewise asserting, that all the commodities of the church were scarce adequate, in those times, for his sufficient maintenance, and the burthens incumbent on this vicarage; wherefore the archbishop, having duly considered the premises, and examined into the same, in the presence of the parties, and with their consent, decreed and ordained, that the above-mentioned religious and their successors should receive and have in future, the tithes of all and singular the gardens within the bounds and limits of the parish of this church, wheresoever situated; and also the tithes of a certain mill, commonly called Shefsote's mill, situated within the parish of this church; but that the said vicar and his successors, vicars there, should have and possess two small houses below the church, situated on both sides of the same, of antient time belonging to the vicarage of it; and that the vicars of the church should likewise receive, possess and have for ever, in the name of their vicarage, the rest of the tithes, as well large as small; and also the oblations, and fruits, rents, issues and profits, all and singular, belonging to the said church, or which should belong to it in future, by any cause or occasion whatsoever, the same not being allotted to the religious, as above-mentioned. And that the vicars of the church should acknowledge and undergo at their own costs and expences, the burthen of serving the church in divine services, and the providing and finding of bread, wine, lights, and other things, which should be necessary for the celebration of divine rites in the same, such as were to be sound and provided, either by right or by custom used in the diocese, by the rectors and vicars of places; and likewise the washing of the vestments and ornaments of the church, and the finding or producing of straw, with which the church should be strewed in such manner, and as often as should be necessary; but the burthen of rebuilding and repairing of the chancel of the church, and the finding or producing and repairing of books, vestments, and ornaments of the same, which ought or were used to be found, produced, or repaired of right or custom, by the rectors of churches, and moreover the burthen of the payment of tenths and other impositions whatsoever, which should or ought in future to belong to the said church, according to the taxation of it, or otherwise; and also the rest of the burthens, ordinary and extraordinary of it, of whatsoever sort incumbent, or which ought to be incumbent on the vicar, for the time being, and not allotted above, the religious should undergo for ever and acknowledge; reserving, nevertheless, to himself and his successors, archbishops of Canterbury, the full power of augmenting and diminishing the vicarage, if at any time it should seem expedient to him or them. (fn. 143)
After this, both the appropriation and advowson of the vicarage of the church, continued with the prior and convent of St. Gregory, till the dissolution of it in the 27th year of king Henry VIII. when coming into the king's hands, both of them were granted, among the rest of the possessions of the priory, to the archbishop and his successors, where the appropriation still remains; his grace being the present possessor of it.
This church, or parsonage appropriate, in the antient taxation, was valued at 100s. (fn. 144)
The advowson of the vicarage likewise passed by the above grant, to the archbishop and his successors; but in the time of archbishop Sancrost, anno 1681, by the mutual consent of the archbishop and of the dean and chapter of Canterbury, patrons of St. Peter's church, being that of the adjoining parish, the latter has been united to this of Holy Cross Westgate, (fn. 145) so that the patronage is now become vested in the archbishop and dean and chapter alternately; in which state it continues at this time.
There was an inquisition, ad quod damnum, taken at Canterbury, anno 16 Richard II. to enquire, if it would be to the king's prejudice to grant to Simon Tanner, and others, a licence, to give and assign one messuage, and one garden, with appurtenances, in the parish of the Holy Cross Westgate, to Robert Raynhull, vicar of this church and his successors. (fn. 146)
The vicarage of Holy Cross Westgate, is valued in the antient taxation at four pounds per annum, but on account of the slenderness of the income was not charged to the tenth. It is valued in the king's books at 13l. ob. and the yearly tenths at 1l. 6s. 0¼ d. (fn. 147) In 1588 it was valued at 30l. Communicants two hundred and eighty.
ABRAHAM COLFE, by his will proved in 1657, gave six penny loaves, to be distributed every Lord's day, to five poor godly men or women of this parish, and one man or woman of the French congregation, inhabitants here, who attend the whole time at their respective churches, one penny loaf each, of good wheaten bread; the poor persons to be changed every Sunday; charged on the stock of the Leathersellers company, in London, amounting in money to 1l. 7s. And 6s. 8d. yearly, to be equally divieded to the prisoners of Westgate, St. Dunstan's, and Maidstone gaols, in money; and for want of such, to those in the house of correction, in bread, charged on a house and orchard in Broadstreet. Which charities were by his will vested in trust, with respect to the former five, and to the prisoners in the dis ferent gaols, in the vicar and churchwardens of Westgate, and with respect to the latter one, in the minister and elders of the French congregation.
JOHN SMITH, clerk, parson of Wickhambreaux, that help and means might not be wanting to such persons who were prisoners, either in the custody of the gaoler of the gaol of the city and county of Canterbury, or in the custody of the gaoler of the gaol of the county of Kent, kept in the parish of St. Dunstan, at such time as such prisoners were to suffer punishment for their offences, to bring them to repentance, and to induce them, after their trials, to lead a better life; therefore, for the instruction of such as should be in either of the said gaols, he had taken order, for the reading of divine service, and preaching of sermons to them, in manner as hereafter mentioned, with reasonable allowance for the preacher's pains, granted and confirmed, by indenture dated July 25th, in the 19th year of king Charles I. anno 1638, for the performance and accomplishment of it, to Hamon Lewknor, esq. of Acrise, and seven other seoffees and trustees and their heirs, one annuity or yearly rent of five pounds, issuing out of two pieces of marsh land, containing ten acres, called Shereives Marsh, in the parish of Wickhambreaux, to have and to hold unto the said trustees, their heirs and assigns; the annuity to be payable four times a year, at the sessions-house, in the Castle, at Canterbury, with power of distress on non-payment. The said annuity to be paid to and received by the said Hamon Lewknor and the others, upon the special trust and considence, that they should therewith provide and procure the usual divine service of the church of England, to be read four times in the year, and a sermon to be preached at each of those times, by a licensed preacher, unto the prisoners who should from time to time be in the gaol of the city of Canterbury, as near before the several quarter-sessions in and for the city as conveniently might be; the service and sermons to be read and preached in the church of Holy Cross Westgate, if consent could be had; if not, then in some convenient chamber in the house, wherein the gaoler or keeper dwelt, and that the feossees should likewise procure and provide the like services; and sermons should be read and preached at the like times unto such prisioners, as should from time to time be in the aforesaid gaol for the county of Kent, then kept in the parish of St. Dunstan, at the like times: the same to be read and preached in some convenient chamber of the house, where the said gaol was, for the better instruction of such prisoners; and that the feoffees should pay to such preacher, each time for his pains ten shillings, and should further deliver to him 2s. 6d. to be thus bestowed by him; six-pence to the gaoler for preparing the room, and two shillings among the prisoners so instructed; which money so to be paid to the preachers, should be paid unto them on demand, at the Register's office, for the archdeaconry of Canterbury, where it should be before-hand left for the that purpose; and that after his death the sole nomination of all such services, and preach such sermons, should be vested in the archbishop, his commissary, or the archdeacon of Canterbury, or such of them as should be living and abiding in or about the city of Canterbury, so that such readers and preachers so nominated to read and preach in the gaol of the city of Canterbury, should be living and abiding within the deanry of Canterbury, that so they might attend the same with the least trouble; and those to read and preach in the gaol of the county of Kent, in St. Dunstan's; to be living and abiding either in the deanries of Bridge, Westbere, or Eleham, or any of them; and that every such licensed preacher should have a month's notice thereof, at the least, and better to provide himself for the purpose.
And the survivors of the said feoffees, their heirs or assigns, when they should be decreased to the number of four only, that then they so surviving, or the heirs of the survivors of them, should convey the said annuity to four others of worth and quality, living in or near the city of Canterbury, and to their heirs and assigns for ever, for the like trust, intent, and purposes, and not otherwise. And for the better preservation of this deed, that one part of it should be with the consent of the archdeacon, deposited in the registry of the archdeaconry, to remain there among the writings in the custody of the register, by which it might be kept in memory, from what deanries the preachers were from time to time to be chosen, and that they might, in convenient time, be provided; and the register or his clerk might shew the same to such persons as should require it, or make such copies as should be desired, on payment of the usual fees, &c. for the same.
In the year 1680, all the feoffees were deceased, excepting Henry Oxinden, then Sir Henry Oxinden, knt. and bart. of Wingham, who was then become the only grantee and trustee. He, by indenture, in the above year, and intended to be inrolled in chancery, assigned it over to Sir James Oxinden, of Dean, and eight others, (fn. 148) and their heirs and assigns, in trust only, for the continuing and preserving the above trust, and for no other intent or purpose whatsoever.
|Or by whom presented.|
|John Sorges, . . . in 1347. (fn. 149)|
|Nicholas Chilton, … .obt. 1400. (fn. 150)|
|Robert Raynhull, … . obt. 1416. (fn. 151)|
|Patrick Gerrard, … . obt. 1458. (fn. 152)|
|John Rotley, resigned in 1460. (fn. 153)|
|Clement Hardinge, L L. B. … . . (fn. 154)|
|Thomas Pedecocq, . . obt. May, 1501. (fn. 155)|
|Dunstan Petle, in 1527. (fn. 156)|
|Thomas Wellys,... 1522. (fn. 157)|
|The Archbishop.||John Sweeting, Dec. 13, 1582, and in 1586. (fn. 158)|
|The King, Sede vac.||John Bungay, A. M. April 2, 1611, obt. 1617. (fn. 159)|
|The Archbishop.||James Lambe, A. M. Nov. 1, 1617, obt. 1662. (fn. 160)|
|John Ardern, A. M. May 26, 1662, resigned 1666. (fn. 161)|
|Simon Lowth, A. M. Sept. 20, 1666, resigned 1679. (fn. 162)|
|Christopher Hargrave, A. B. August 19, 1679, resigned the same year.|
|Charles Kilburne, A. M. ind. Oct. 9, 1679, obt. Jan. 14, 1737. (fn. 163)|
On the resignation of Christopher Hargrave, in 1679, this rectory and that of St. Peter, being the church of the adjoining parish, appear to have been united, and Charles Kilburne was inducted to both these united churches, as were his successors following.
|Thomas Buttonshaw, 1737, … resigned 1741. (fn. 164)|
|William Miles, A. M. October 1741, obt. Oct. 16, 1746. (fn. 165)|
|Robert Ayerst, A. M. Jan. 19, 1747, resigned 1786. (fn. 166)|
|John Gostling, A. M. 1786, the present rector. (fn. 167)|
ST. PETER'S church is situated at a small distance from the north side of the street of that name; the church, which is not large, consists of three narrow isles and a chancel, with a square tower at the west end of the south isle, in which are three bells. (fn. 168)
By the survey of the king's commissioners, anno 2 Edward VI. it appears, that there were lands given by William Bigge, mentioned before, for one obit, and a lamp to be maintained within this church for ever. And that there were light-lands given by Thomas Ikham, likewise mentioned before, for the maintenance of two tapers before the sacrament in this church, and other works of charity for ever. (fn. 169)
The parsonage-house was given to Thomas, then rector of it, by one Richard de Langdon, of Canterbury, with the king's licence, anno 25 Edward III. (fn. 170)
This church, which is a rectory, was part of the possessions of the priory of Christ-church, in Canterbury, and at the dissolution of it, in the 30th year of king Henry VIII. came into the king's hands, who granted it in his 33d year, by his dotation charter, to his new-founded dean and chapter of Canterbury; since which, in 1681, archibishop Sancroft, with the mutual consent of the dean and chapter, and of the archbishop of Canterbury, patron of the adjoining rectory and church of Holy Cross Westgate, (fn. 171) this church of St. Peter has been united to it, so that the patronage of these united churches is now become alternate in the archbishop and dean and chapter; in which state it continues at this time.
This church, in the antient taxation, is valued at four pounds per annum, but on account of the slenderness of its income, was not taxed to the tenth. (fn. 172)
This rectory is valued in the king's books at 3l. 10s. 10d. and the yearly tenths at 7s. 1d. (fn. 173) In 1588 it was valued at twenty pounds. Communicants one hundred and fifty-three. In 1640 it was valued at forty pounds. Communicants one hundred and twenty.
|Or by whom presented.|
|Thomas.… in 1321. (fn. 174)|
|Thomas.… in 1351. (fn. 175)|
|John Syre, . . obt. 1436. (fn. 176)|
|Thomas Sterlyng, in 1504 and 1519. (fn. 177)|
|William Grene, in 1524. (fn. 178)|
|John Colley, obt. February 22, 15—. (fn. 179)|
|Robert Thompson, in 1546. (fn. 180)|
|The Crown.||Nicholas Patyfere, Feb. 5, 1582, resigned 1605.|
|Pean and Chapter of Canterbury.||Rufus Rogers, A. M. 1605, obt. Feb. 1651. (fn. 181)|
|The King.||Duell Read, clerk, September 7, 1672.|
|Dean and Chapter.||Richard Burney, inducted 1673, resigned 1679. (fn. 182)|
|Charles Kilburne, A. M. ind. Oct. 9, 1679.|
On this church and that of Holy Cross Westgate being united, in 1681, he was inducted the first to both of them so united, and he died in 1737, rector of both churches; a list of whose successors may be found above, under the account of Holy Cross church.
HENRY SWORDER, of this parish, by his will in 1504, ordered, that his three messuages, next to one of his, situated next the corner, beside the shell in St. Peter's-lane, be founded for ever for three poor people to dwell in, they keeping sufficient reparations; these have been for a long time vested in the parishioners, to place in them such poor people of their parish as they should in their discretion think proper; and in 1599, anno 41 Elizabeth, it was agreed on, at a meeting of them, that whoever should be placed in any of these houses, should pay at their entrance 6s. 8d. towards the reparations of the house they were to enter into; and also should pay yearly to the churchwardens six-pence every quarter, for so long time as they should continue therein, and that the churchwardens should have power to distrain for the same.
BESIDES the above-mentioned churches at present remaining within the walls of this city, there were five others, which have been long since demolished, and their districts united to the present churches and parishes above described. These churches were
ST. EDMUND'S church, being dedicated to St. Edmund, king and martyr, and usually called St. Edmund of Ridingate, from its situation near adjoining to that gate; was built by Hamo, the son of Vitalis, who was one of those who came over from Normandy with William the Conqueror, and gave it to the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, whence it was granted in the year 1184, to the prioress and convent of St. Sepulchre's, just by, to hold in frank almoign, they offering as an acknowledgment of the abbot and convent's former right to it, 12d. yearly, upon the altar of St. Augustine, on the same saint's day, as a rent towards the repair of their organs. (fn. 183)
This church, upon the declining of it in the year 1349, was united to that of St. Mary Bredin, not far distant from it, (fn. 184) by the then commissary of Canterbury, especially authorized for that purpose, by the ordinary, that is, the prior and convent of Christchurch, in the vacancy of the see, on archbishop Bradwardine's death, with the consent of the prioress and convent of St. Sepulchre's then patrons of it. (fn. 185)
The remains of this church have been wholly removed a long time since, insomuch that there have not been the least traces of the scite of it to be found for many years past. (fn. 186)
ST. MARY DE CASTRO church, so called from its situation near the castle, and to distinguish it from the other St. Mary churches in this city, has long been desolated, the chancel only of it being left standing, to the repair of which one Roger Ridley, by his will anno 1470, gave four pounds. (fn. 187) Time was, when it was as absolute a parish church as any about this city, (fn. 188) and though before the reformation it seems not to have been in a very flourishing condition, (fn. 189) yet that change in religious ceremonies was very probably the cause of this church's still further decay and desolation; for offerings, altarages, and such profits, of which this benefice chiefly consisted, and from which the maintenance of the incumbent was in great measure drawn, being by this change abolished, there was not from other matters a sufficient competency left for him, so that it became soon afterwards deserted, and was united to St. Mildred's, (fn. 190) and has been ever since esteemed as part of that parish. (fn. 191) To this church was united, in 1449, the neighbouring small church of St. John, long since likewise desolated, a further account of which will be given hereafter.
The abbot and convent of St. Augustine were patrons of this church of St. Mary, before the dissolution of that monastery, (fn. 192) since which the patronage of it has of right become vested in the crown, and continues so at this time, the crown having presented to it so late as the year 1637. The following is a list of such rectors of it as I have met with.
|Richard —, in 1231. (fn. 193)|
|Thomas Pycard, anno 27 king Edward I. (fn. 194)|
|Simon —, anno 1321 (fn. 195)|
|Richard Allen. S. T. P. July 26, 1637. (fn. 196)|
ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST'S church, called from the slenderness of its income, St. John the Poor, had a parish called St. John's belonging to it. It stood much about the upper end of that lane leading from Castlestreet, called St. John's-lane.
This church coming to ruin, was, with the consent of the patrons, the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, united in 1349, by the prior and convent of Christ-church, ordinaries during a vacancy of the see, to the church of St. Mary de Castro before mentioned; (fn. 197) the profits of the former then amounting to forty shillings, and the latter to five marcs; (fn. 198) the church of St. Mary being made the mother church. by virtue of which union, John Skippe, clerk, was admitted to both churches, on Nov. 11, 1349.
After which, I find no further mention of this parish church of St. John; (fn. 199) but it seems to have been included in that of St. Mary de Castro, and as such united with it to the church of All Saints, as has been already mentioned before. The remains of it were for a long time used as a malthouse, or in tenements, and continue so at present.
The book of St. Laurence's hospital makes mention of some portions of tithes, belonging to this church, by the following entry, viz. That the hospital received all the tithes of four acres of land in Market field, and the rector of St. John, in Canterbury, received of two acres, eight sheass; and of two other acres, seven sheass, in all one copp. And the hospital received two parts of the tithes of six acres of land lying at Stone street, towards the south, and a narrow way toward the north. And the rector of St. John, in Canterbury, received a third part of the tithes. (fn. 200)
ST. MARY OF QUENINGATE, was a church so called from its situation near that antient gate, in a lane called Queningate-lane, within the city wall. I find it in old records called both a church and a chapel.
That such there was, is most certain, as may be traced in the records of Christ-church, now of more than 580 years old, which priory had the patronage of this church given to it, by Hugh Magminot (together with eleven mansions in Canterbury) (fn. 201) and which was, among others, confirmed to it by a bull of pope Alexander III. and by many bulls of the like sort afterwards. By the above records, it appears likewise, that the rector of this church in 1381, made an exchange of it, and St. Michael church in Burgate, to which it was an annexed chapel for Portpool chantry, in St. Paul's; the profits of this church and chapel amounting to no more than four pounds yearly; further than which, I find no further mention of it, nor any trace of the scite of it. (fn. 202)
ST. MICHAEL BURGATE, was another church, situated, as appears by its name, in Burgate-street, and probably on the north side of it near the gate itself, and within the city walls. Upon its dissolution, the parish of it was united to the church of St. Mary Magdalen, in Burgate. (fn. 203) The patronage of it belonged to the priory of Christ-church, to which it paid an annual pension of two shillings, and it appears to have been confirmed, among others, to that priory, by the bull of pope Alexander III. and of divers succeeding popes. (fn. 204) When it was desecrated, is not known, (fn. 205) but probably it was long before the reformation; the scite of it, as well as that of St. Mary of Queningate, having been seemingly afterwards included within the bounds of the precincts of the priory, now of the dean and chapter. (fn. 206)
BESIDES THE CHURCHES before described within the walls of this city, there are three at this time without them, viz. St. Dunstan's, St. Paul's, and St. Martin's, each in their respective suburbs; and there was another, viz. that of St. Sepulchre, adjoining to that nunnery, which has been long since desecrated; the former of these, St. Dunstan's, being in the county at large, has already been taken notice of under the hundred of Westgate, in which it lies, in the History of Kent, I shall therefore proceed to describe the others.
ST. PAUL'S church stands on the south side of the street of that name, within the city liberty, at a small distance without Burgate, in the high road to Deal and Sandwich. It is a small mean building, consisting of two isles and two chancels, having a square tower at the west end, in which hang three bells. (fn. 207)
This church, like others in this city, of the patronage of the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, had no particular cemetery or church-yard of its own, but in like manner buried in the common cemetery within the precincts of that abbey; after the dissolution of which, being deprived of that privilege, the parish was obliged to resort for this purpose to the church-yards of other churches in the neighbourhood, until the year 1591, when having purchased a piece of ground on the south side of Longport-street, a saculty was that year obtained for confirming it as the burial place of this parish; as it remains at present.
This church was part of the antient possessions of the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, to which it was appropriated, and a vicarage erected and endowed in it in the year 1268, anno 52 Henry III. by Hugh Mortimer, the archbishop's official, with the consent of the patrons, and of Hamo Doge, then rector of it, who presented, with their consent likewise, Virgil de Alcham, chaplain, to the vicarage of it, who was by the said official instituted canonically to the same; saving nevertheless to Master Hamo, rector of it, and his successors, eight marcs of silver yearly, from the fruits of the vicarage, at the four principal feasts of the year, in equal portions; and that the vicar should pay the procurations of the archdeacon, and should sustain all other ordinary burthens; but that he should have and receive in the name of his vicarage, all obventions, oblations, chance payments, and all other rights to this church, in any manner belonging or appertaining (except grain and beans in the field) according to which, at that time the vicarage was taxed; sealed with the seal of the official's office, anno 1268. (fn. 208)
After which, the appropriation and advowson of the vicarage of this church continued with the abbot and convent, till the dissolution of the monastery in the 30th year of king Henry VIII.'s reign, (fn. 209) when they came into the king's hands, who soon afterwards, in his 33d year, settled them by his dotation charter, on his new-founded dean and chapter of Canterbury, who are the present possessors of this appropriation. But since the above time, by the mutual consent of the dean and chapter, and of the archbishop, patron of the adjoining rectory and church of St. Martin, this vicarage of St. Paul was in 1681 united to it; so that the patronage of these united churches is now become alternate in the archbishop, and the dean and chapter, (fn. 210) in which state it continues at present.
On the abolition of deans and chapters, at the latter end of king Charles I.'s reign, this rectory appropriate came into the hands of the state, and was surveyed by their order in 1650, when it was returned, that it consisted of the tithes of corn and hay, and other profits belonging to it, estimated to be worth 100l. per annum, being then let by the late dean and chapter, anno 1641, to George Best, gent. for twentyone years, at the yearly rent of five pounds, but that the premises were worth over and above the said rent 97l. and 7d. per annum. (fn. 211) On the restoration in 1660, this parsonage returned again to the dean and chapter, and in 1678 there was a terrier taken of it, (fn. 212) by which it appears, that it consisted of the tithes of the farm, then belonging to the earl of Winchelsea, in the occupation of John Sutton, containing by estimation, 120 acres, except the Hoath, which was bought heretosore of Mr. Smith, and was parcel of the manor of Barton; the tithes of twenty acres of wood-land; the tithes of twenty acres of land lying in Moate park, then in the occupation of William Ginder; the tithes of sixteen acres of land, lying within the park, late lord Camden's, and then of Edward Hales, esq. in the occupation of Wm. Holmes; the tithes of the farm called the Old Park, containing by estimation sixty acres of land, in the occupation of John Sutton; all the residue of the lands within the parish, were parcels of and belonging to the tithery of St. Laurence.
In the year 1594, Andrew Peerson, clerk, prebendary of Canterbury, died possessed of the interest in the lease of the parsonage barn of St. Paul's, commonly called Caldcott barn, with three acres of land about it. George Best, gent. was lessee of this parsonage, as above-mentioned, in 1650. He was owner of the house and estate of St. Laurence adjoining to it, in whose successors, owners of it, the lease of this parsonage continued down to the late lord viscount Dudley and Ward, whose tithery in this parish will be mentioned hereafter, in whose heirs the interest of it remains at this time.
This vicarage was antiently valued at 66s. 8d. only, but on account of the slenderness of its income, was not taxed to the tenth. (fn. 213)
It is valued in the king's books at 9l. 18s. 9d. and the yearly tenths at 19s. 10½d. (fn. 214) In 1588 here were one hundred and ninety-six communicants. In 1640 it was valued at forty pounds, the like number of communicants. There is paid to the vicar, by the dean and chapter of Canterbury, in lieu of tithes of land in St. Laurence, 5l. per annum, and another 5l. as an augmentation of the vicarage.
OF THE FOUNDATION of the hospital of St. Laurence, near this parish, in the year 1137, by Hugh, abbot of St. Augustine's, he granted to it, in alms, inter alia, as part of its endowment, THE WHOLE TITHE of wheat and peas of all the land, which adjoined to Langeport, of their demesne on the left side of the highway which led from Canterbury to Dover, which land was within this parish of St. Paul. These tithes, which consisted of those of the lands that were parcel of the manor of Barton, after the suppression of the hospital, came, with the rest of the revenues of it, into the hands of the several grantees and possessors of it, (fn. 215) as are mentioned hereafter, in the account of that hospital, who in succession became possessed of them down to John, viscount Dudley and Ward, and are usually known by the name of St. Laurence tithery; who, though he alienated the mansion of the hospital, with the lands contiguous to it, yet he retained the possession of this tithery, of which he died possessed in 1788, and his heirs are now entitled to it.
In the year 1348, in the visitation of Thomas Bradwardin, archbishop of Canterbury, on a complaint made by Thomas Carlton, vicar of St. Paul's before the archbishop's commissary; that all the small tithes of the manor belonging to the abbot, &c. of St. Augustine, vulgarly called Langeport, alias Barton, in St. Paul's, howsoever arising, to the said Thomas, as vicar, had belonged from old time, and ought then to belong, as well of right as custom; and that Tho mas Wardrobe, farmer of that manor had, to his great detriment, unjustly withdrawn, and held all manner of tithes of this kind. He therefore sitting to determine the same, and all parties having been summoned and appearing in Christ-church, on Sept. 27, anno 1349, and Richard Scholdon, monk of St. Augustine, and the master of St. Laurence's hospital, having then there produced to him certain muniments, which being diligently inspected and read over, it sufficiently appeared to him, that these tithes wholly belonged to the hospital, and ought in future so to do; he therefore proceeding lawfully in the said matter, at the instance and prayer of the said vicar, dismissed the said Thomas Wardrobe, farmer, as asoresaid, so far as related to the premises. In testimony of which, he had put his seal at Canterbury, on Dec. 10, in the year asoresaid. (fn. 216)
SIR HENRY PALMER, of Bekesborne, by his will in the Prerogative-office, Canterbury, anno 1611, gave 10s to be yearly paid out of his manor of Well-court, to the minister and churchwardens of this parish, towards the relief of the poor of it.
SIR EDWARD MASTER, of Canterbury, by his will in 1690, gave 5l. towards the purchasing of a piece of ground for the enlargement of the church-yard, lying in the Borough of Longport, belonging to this parish of St. Paul; to be paid to the churchwardens of it, when they should have procured such piece of ground, adjoining to the church-yard, for that purpose.
|Or by whom presented.|
|Abbot and Convent of St. Augustine||Hamo Doge, the last rector, resigned 1668. (fn. 217)|
|Virgil de Alkham, the first vicar, in 1268. (fn. 218)|
|Thomas Charlton, in 1349. (fn. 219)|
|Edmund Ovynde, in 1490.|
|Robert Spersall, in 1511. (fn. 220)|
|Roger Downvyle, in 1523. (fn. 221)|
|John Clarke, in 1523 and 1554. (fn. 222)|
|William Walsall, in 1562, obt. Sept. 18, 1621. (fn. 223)|
|Dean and Chapter of Canterbury.||William Frye, Dec. 19, 1621, obt. Feb. 1626.|
|William Fordan, in 1637.|
|William Lovelace, in 1659.|
|William Jordan occurs again after the restiration in 1661, obt. 1681. (fn. 224)|
|Owen Evans, A. B. January 9, 1681.|
On the uniting of this church, in 1681, to that of St. Martin, he was inducted the first to these united rectories. He died in 1743, rector of both. A list of whose successors may be found hereafter, under the account of St. Martin's church.
There having been at different times, several altercations between the city's franchise of liberty, thouching the extent of the city's franchise or liberty, in this parish and hereabouts; to clear up all doubts relating to it, a composition was entered into between them, with the king's consent, in the year 1268, being the 42d year of king Henry III.'s reign, at Westminister, before the king there. (fn. 225)
The parishes of St. Andrew, St. Mary Magdalen, and for some time St. Paul, which before the dissolution of St. Augustine's abbey, buried in the cemetery of it, being all churches of that abbey's patronage, had the church-yard of St. Mary de Castro's church (of that abbey's patronage likewise) assigned to them in lieu of that cemetery, for the burial of their dead there; a privilege in which St. Mary Bredman's parish did and does now, but by what right is unknown; that church being of the patronage of Christ-church, partake of, with the others, but all, or some part at least of the burials there, was received by the poor of Maynard's spittal, who in return for it antiently kept it in repair, and for default, anno 1560, were presented by St. Andrew's; since which the case is altered, each parish jointly keeping in repair the inclosure. (fn. 226)
ST. MARTIN'S church is situated at the eastern extremity of the suburb of its own name, standing on the side of the hill, a little distance from the north side of the high road leading to Deal and Sandwich, and within the city's liberty.
This church seems indeed very antient, being built, the chancel especially, which appears to be of the workmanship of the time, mostly of Roman or British bricks; the noted reliques and tokens of old age in any kind of building, whether sacred or prosane. (fn. 227)
It consists at present of a nave or body and a chancel, (fn. 228) having a square tower at the west end of it, in which hang three bells. The chancel appears to have been the whole of the original building of this church, or oratory, and was probably built about the year 200, that is about the middle space of time when the Christians, both Britons and Romans, lived in this island, free from all persecutions. The walls of this chancel are built almost wholly of British or Roman bricks, laid and placed in a regular state, in like manner as is observed in other buildings of the Romans in this island, of which those in Dover castle are an instance.
This, as Mr. Somner observes, is an infallible token of an old British or Roman building; but he continues, when these materials are put into a wall (however plentiful they may be) here and there promiscuously, without rule or order, they seem to be only a sign of the materials having been taken from the ruins of some other building, and were used as they came to hand by the workmen of some later time; (fn. 229) which observation may, without doubt, be applied to the body of this church.
In the midst of the nave or body, there is an antient circular stone font, much enriched with ornamental sculpture. It consists of a cylindrical stone of near two feet six inches high, and as much in diameter; it is but a shell, so that the bason is sufficiently large to dip a child. The outside is embellished with four series of ornaments; the lower one is a simple scroll; the next a kind of hieroglyphical true-lover's knot; the third small Saxon arches, which shew the architecture, intersecting each other; the upper one a kind of lacing in semicircles inverted, intersecting one another. All the ornaments are very small and much enriched. (fn. 230)
This church, so much celebrated for the great antiquity of it, is supposed by some to have been the resort of St. Augustine and his fellow labourers for their devotions at their first arrival, and by licence of king Ethelbert, granted to them, in favor of queen Bertha his wife, who had this church, built long before, as Bede says, (fn. 231) by the believing Romans, and dedicated to St. Martin, allotted for the place of her public devotions. Others suppose that the chapel where St. Augustine first celebrated masse, was that of St. Pancrace, within the precincts of the adjoining monastery. (fn. 232) However this may be, it is in general admitted, that this church having been in early times a Christian oratory made use of by the believing Romans, was repaired and re-consecrated by Luidhard, bishop of Soissons, who had attended queen Bertha from France, when she married king Ethelbert, and was dedicated by him to St. Martin. Whom it was dedicated to before, is not known, but most probably it was to the Virgin Mary; for St. Martin was not born till some time afterwards. (fn. 233)
This church, which is a rectory, is exempt from the jurisdiction of the archdeacon; it was part of the antient possessions of the see of Canterbury, (fn. 234) and the patronage of it continued solely in the archbishop, till the church was united in 1681 to the neighbouring church of St. Paul, by the mutual consent of the archbishop, and of the dean and chapter of Canterbury, the patrons of the latter; (fn. 235) from which time it has continued in the alternate presentation of the archbishop and the dean and chapter, the present patrons of it.
This church is valued in the antient taxation at ten pounds. It is valued in the king's books at 6l. 5s. 2½d. and the yearly tenths at 12s. 6¼d. (fn. 236) In 1588 it was valued at only twenty pounds. Communicants seventy one In 1640 it was valued at forty pounds. Communicants seventy.
It appears by the survey of the king's commissioners, anno 2 king Edward VI. that there were lands within this parish given for obits, to be kept in this church for ever, by divers persons. (fn. 237)
SIR HENRY PALMER, of Bekesborne, by his will in 1611, gave 10s. to be yearly paid out of his manor of Well-court, to the minister and church wardens of this parish, towards the relief of the poor of it. (fn. 238)
DAME MABELLA FINCH, baroness of Fordwich, by her will proved in 1669, gave to Mr. Osborne, minister of this parish, in which she then dwelt, and to his successors for ever, during the time he and they should continue as such, but no longer, for his and their better maintenance, one annuity or yearly rent charge of 10l. yearly issuing, and to be received out of her manor or farm called Ridgeway, in Chislet, and Reculver, containing 340 acres, and her lease of Ozengell grange, in St. Laurence, held under the dean and chapter of Canterbury; and she ordered the sum of 100l. to be paid into the hands of Mr. Bingham and three such other of the ablest inhabitants of this parish, to be by them and the churchwardens and overseers of it, and their successors for ever, employed for the use and benefit of the poor of this parish; they giving security to her executors, as they or the major part of them should approve of, for the keeping and employing the said money, and for the due payment of the profits of it. (fn. 239)
|Or by whom presented.|
|The Archbishop of Canterbury.||John de Henney, in 1321. (fn. 240)|
|John Bourn, in 1330. (fn. 241)|
|John Brown, in 1492. (fn. 242)|
|Giles Talbot, in 1509, obt. May 1524. (fn. 243)|
|John Hitchcock, in 1539. (fn. 244)|
|—Frencham, resigned 1578.|
|John Mug, March, 1578, obt. 1587.|
|John Stubbs, A. B. May 1587.|
|Richard Genveye, inducted 1592, obt. 1612.|
|William Osborne, jun. in 1665. (fn. 245)|
|William Osborne, A. M. induct. 1693, obt. August 1693.|
|Owen Evans, A. M. 1693, obt. March, 1742. (fn. 246)|