The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 12. Originally published by W Bristow, Canterbury, 1801.
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Minutes of the Records and Accounts of the Chamber
MINUTES, collected by Mr. Bunce, from the ancient Records and Accounts in the Chamber of Canterbury, of Transactions in that City, during the Time of the Bailiffs, viz. from A. D. 1234, to 1448, when the Mayoralties begin.
1272. The records of the Court of Burghmote (held under the charter of king Hen. III. who grants that a burghmote may be holden in the city once in fifteen days) are written in Latin, on small rolls of parchment. In 1352 the ordinances of the Court are sealed with the seal of the baihiss. In 1463, all its orders are recorded on paper rolls, and so continue until 1542, when they are first entered in books. At this time deeds are inrolled, and the wills of citizens and their wives (who by ancient usage have power, notwithstanding coverture, to devise their freeholds in Canterbury) are proved and registered in this court. In 1557 this custom discontinues. The Court of Burghmote, it seems, has been assembled by the sound of an horn, nearly, if not ever, since its institution.
1367. The Sac Friars, aut Fratres poenitentiae Jesu Christi, who came into England about 1250, in 1367 have their residence in St. Peter's parish, in this city, south to the common street, on the opposite side to the Grey Friars, but farther westward. The late Rev. and learned Mr Pegge, whose paper, on the subject of the Sac Friars, was read before the Society of Antiquaries, 20th Feb. 1772, and which is to be seen in vol. iii. p. 125, of the Archalogia, doubted, as is apparent from a letter of his, now in the city, chamber, written to the late Alderman Jacob in 1736, respecting those Friars, if they and the Grey Friars were not the same; but they most probably were of different orders, as they lived separate, and had distinct residences in this city for many years. At the time of the dissolution of the friery, the Sac Friars held their house by lease under the Corporation of Canterbury, which afterwards, by grant from the crown, came to Sir James Hales, knt. who, in 1551, passed it, by the description of his messuages and houses late lesacked Friars, in the city of Canterbury, with other estates, to the Mayor and Commonalty, in exchange for the further Dungeon hills and city dyke the reabouts; who very soon sold the house and land, of these Sac Friars, to a Mr. Bingham. The rolls of the chamber, of the date of 1367, particularly describe the estate.
1393. The account of the jurats, or twelve sworn men of the chamber, for this and the ensuing year, states the names of Six bakers, who are appointed searchers of the mill at Eastbridge, for each working day in every week, throughout the year; who are sworn to observe their days of search, taking each his day, and to grind all the corn, that they bake in this year, at the mill of Kyngesmelle, and not elsewhere; and not to bake black bread, called home-baked bread, sub pæna 40s. Eight other bakers are also sworn that they will not bake any corn, of their own preparing, nor of another's, elsewhere, than at the mill of Kyngesmelle; and that they will not bake any white bread for sale, sub pæna 40s.
The King's mill is letten, this year, at the rent of 100 quarters of wheat, to be delivered monthly. The quarter of wheat, said to be of eight bushes, between 1393 and 1450 fluctuates in price, and sells at the Canterbury market for not less than four shillings, nor exceeding twelve shillings the quarter. This appears from the account of the money received, during that period, by the sale of the corn rent of the mill.
The rental of the Bayliffs, in 1393, consists of the mill at Eastbridge, one tower at the waterlock, Ware-lane, in St. Mildred's, a tower at Newingate, the King's Mead, in Northgate and Hackington, the Aldermanry of Westgate, let at 20d. a year, John Lord's house in Saint George'sstreet, which adjoined westward to the White Friars gate, a piece of land by the castle, the house of the brothers of the sac in St. Peter's, and of the Gravel-pit Field of four acres in Wincheap. The yearly rents of all which estates, exclusive of the mill, amount to 41. 1s. id.
The customs of the city, respecting the freedom by birth, which is granted without fine to the chamber, as at present, and by marriage, on paying 11½d. on admission, are in all respects the same as at this day. There are no instances of persons admitted, by apprenticeship, at this period, nor until 1520.
The accounts of the jurats and cofferers, previous to 1393, are written in Latin, on parchment rolls, and from that year in books. In 1501 they are first entered in English. —The business of the chamber, at this time, is conducted by 12 jurats, 4 cofferers, the common clerk and sergeant of the chamber, 2 supervisors of repairs, and 3 keepers of the chest.
1398. The accounts mention a gift of 3l. to the men of Chester, who guarded the king's house (Richard II.) at his last coming hither; also a payment of 1l. 6s. 8d. for divers matters expended in chancery, and before the king's council for letters patent of murage, granted towards the fortisications of the city, with consent of the bayliffs, 12 jurats and all the commonalty of the same; also a benevolence, of il. 6s. 8d. sent to the lord Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, and lord Henry duke of Lancaster, on their return from exile.
In a very antient paper, in the chamber, not dated, the whole circuit of the city of Canterbury is said to contain 3784 acres, whereof 1000 acres are underwoods. But either Westgate ward is wholly omitted in the estimate, through mistake, or it is included, in the computation, with some other ward, although not speciually mentioned to make part thereof. The manor of Caldicot contains 318 acres.
1402. The sum of 1l. 6s. 8d. is expended in an entertainment given to the Judges and their associates, justices of gaol delivery at Canterbury, appointed by the king and council; and the cofferers pay 8s. for the letters patent for that purpose, with 1l. 3s. 4d. for gifts to the justices and their clerks.
1406. The Bailiffs purchase the Lion, in St. Mary Bredman's; and, in 1408, make several considerable alterations therein, and in the Moothall adjoining. In that year the accounts mention a payment, for carriage of gunnery from the old chamber to the new chamber of the twelve Jurats, also great repairs done at the old hall, and to the south chamber next the Street. In 1427, the hall is first called the Guildhall. In 1439, it is rebuilt: The contract for which, with two chambers to the south and one to the north of it, dated 20th December, 1439, is in the city chest. The north chamber is rebuilt in 1689, at the expence of 72l. 13s. and the south end in 1697.
1411. The wages of the Burgesses to Parliament are paid by the cofferers of the chamber, at the rate of 2s. a day, each burgess, while on duty in parliament, and absent from his family. In 1445 the wages are reduced to 12d. a day. In 1447 increased to 16d. In 1503 again paid at 2s. In 1513 reduced to 16d. In queen Mary's reign, the Corporation refusing to pay these wages any longer, they are raised, by assessement on the inhabitants at large, and so provided for until abolished.
1428. The crooked lane, in St. George's, leading from the cloth-market, near the east gate of the Augustine Friars, towards St. Mary Bredne's church, is first letten to the prior of that friery. In three years afterwards another crooked lane, opposite that church, extending from the new stone wall to a wooden gate in Shepshanke lane, is also letten to him. Piknot lane in St. Andrew's, the land since called, though improperly, Sutton's Friars, from its adjoining the Black Friars, other parts of Quenygate-lane, the Barbican, near the gate of the Castle, (where, in 1553, a cross stood) the hermitage and hog market, the latter of which extends from Newingate to Redyngate, within the walls, the old Dungeon-field, and the greater part of the dyke surrounding the city's walls, are now first letten to tenants.
1434. The city give a present to the Cardinal from Rome, of two dozen of capons, price 1l. 4s. 8d. while here, with other nobility, on their journey into France to make peace; and of six couple of pheasants, at 2s. a couple, and 2 trout, which cost 4s. 10d.
1445. This account observes, that the queen of king Henry VI. being here on her devotions at the tomb of the martyr, is received by the bailiffs at the hall in the Blean, at Harbledown. and by them is presented with a gift of 21l.
N. B.— The foregoing notes close Mr. Bunce's observations, of a general public nature, during the time of the Bailiffs. The like occurrences of the city from the beginning of the Mayoralties, in 1448, as they are to be collected from the records and accounts of the chamber, form the next part of this collection. In all matters that arise from the accounts, and not records, the reader will be pleased to consider the year, in the margin, as connected with the year immediately following it, in course of time; as every account is from Michaelmas in one year, until Michaelmas in the following year, (the time for which the chief magistrate is elected to serve) without distinguishing in which year. the circumstance alluded to may have happened. This is to be observed in respect to the subsequent as well as present notes.
1448. KING HENRY VI. by charter, dated 22d August 1448, grants that the citizens of Canterbury, on the feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross then next, instead of Bailiffs, may chuse one person of the same, to be Mayor of the city for the government thereof; and so, from year to year, shall chuse their mayor for ever; who, on the feast of St. Michael next after his election, shall take his oath of office. On the 14th of Sept. 1448, John Lynde, who the year preceding was one of the bailiffs, is elected by the freemen the first mayor of the city; and, on the 29th of the same month, is sworn into that office.
The court, now holden before the mayor, (called the mayor's court) and, prior to this year, before the bailiffs, is of very antient establishment. Much business is done there, and many actions are tried in it. Its proceedings, at this time, are recorded in Latin on parchment rolls. The presentments of the leet, or view of frank-pledge, held from three weeks to three weeks, before the aldermen at the gates of their wards, and which is likewise a court of great antiquity, are entered in Latin on parchment rolls; but none are to be found earlier in date than 1362.
1449. The title of this year's account mentions, that a certain hermit, named Bluberd, who headed an insurrection, was taken by the mayor and citizens of Canterbury, and sent to the king at Westminster, and there adjudged to be hanged and decapitated, and that his head was placed over the Westgate of this city.
1461. King Edward IV. by charter makes the city of Canterbury a county, independent of the county of Kent; also releases to the citizens 16l. 13s. 4d. of their fee farm rent, and grants to them the profits of the escheatorship. — Thomas Vaghan, esq. alderman of Westgate ward, pays 40s. and is admitted and sworn to the liberties of the city.
Besides the visit which king Edward IV. made to this city in 1461, soon after the commencement of his reign, when he renewed the city's charter as before-mentioned, he paid many more afterwards to the tomb of St. Thomas the Martyr, in the cathedral. At his first visit in the above-mentioned year, the Corporation gave his Majesty a present of cattle, &c. which in the accounts of the chamber for 1461 and 1462, are thus charged:—" Paid a butcher for 20 we" thers, bought and given to the king, 2l. 6s. 8d. Paid " him more for two oxen, also given to the king, 2l. 6s. 8d. " Paid for four swans for the king, 13s. 4d. Bought several " capons for the king, at 2s. the couple." The next suc" ceeding year's account contains the following articles:—" Paid for making le Hale in le Blean, against the coming " of the king to Canterbury, Is. For one plece of Sand" wich cord, bought for the hall, 4d. and paid for china, " bought and given to the king, Is. For red wine, 18d. " For one flagon, one pint and an half of tyre, 13d. For " one flagon and one pint of malmsy 18d. For one potel " of red wine, and one of tyre Is. For two flagons and " one pint of red wine 19d. For two flagons and three " quarts of red wine 23d. For one flagon and one quart " of red wine 10d. For two flagons and three pints of red " wine 19d. (all given to the king, and amounting in cost " to 12s. 6d.)" The accounts for the year 1464 and 1465 " mention as follow, viz. "Paid for one saddle, with " harnels, and one silver gilt cup, weight 30¾ ounces, at " 6s. per ounce, given to the king of England (Edw. IV.) " at the time of his journey, when he came as far as Can" terbury to the tomb of Thomas the Martyr, 17l. 7s. 9d. " Gave to the king in gold, at the same time, 13l. 6s. 8d. " Paid William Bigge, who was then mayor, for divers ex" pences by him incurred, in receiving the king at Canter" bury, 2l. 5s. 4d. Paid for work done atle Hale Royal " in le Blean, at the last coming of the king to Canter" bury, 2s. 4d. For 100 of trashes, for the same hail, 3d. " For a horse to bring raw cloth from Fulham to the same " hall for the king, 4d. Paid other expences for bread and " wine for the king, and articles for the hall to the amount " together of 17s. 10d." The accounts for 1469, 1470, shew that king Edward IV. and his queen were in Canterbury, and were received as before at the hall, (in other ac counts termed Tentorium Tent, or Pavilion in the Blean, and said to be at Harbledown) when the Corporation presented their Majesties with wine as before, with two dozen of choynes, cost 1s. bread 4d. and other articles. Their Majesties came here in 1471, viz. at Easter and Michaelmas, and each time were received as before. Among other charges the accounts mention a payment of 6s. for three tons of beer given to the king, and of 2s. 2d. for the carriage of it to the hall; also of 2s. 7d. for three men, two days each, working at the hall; and 10d. paid two days keeping and opening the gate at the hall. In 1475, while the king was on a visit here, the city gave an entertainment at the Chequers to the earl of Essex, treasurer of England, and many other noblemen and gentlemen, with wine and other costly fare, the whole expence of which, including a porpoise, which was a rare dish in those days, and 8d. paid to the cook for dressing the dinner, amounted to the large sum of 15s. 8½d. The king came to the city by night, on which occasion the porch of the church of St. Andrew was illuminated with four pounds of wax lights at the expence of 1s. In 1481, his Majesty paid his last visit here, in company with the Prince, and was provided with necessaries at the hall in the Blean, (which at this time the Corporation are said to hold on paying a composition of 6d). It should seem from these accounts, that the king and queen used to reside in this hall during their stay in these parts, as there is frequent mention of keepers and labourers employed, at the expence of the Corporation, during his Majesty's stay there. When the king was last at Canterbury the Corporation presented his Majesty with a double gilt silver bowl, weighing 32 ounces, at 6s. 8d. the cunce, in which were put nobles and royals to the value of 20l. Total of the gift in value 32l. 12s. 10d.
1462. In the accounts of this year are the following charges, viz. paid for bread and wine, as a gift to the duchess of York, 3s. for one pottle and one pint of red wine, given to her 7½d. for 100 of oranges 2s. 8d. for one flagon of tyre 1s. 4d. one flagon of rhenish wine 1s. one flagon of red wine 8d. given to the duchess of Exeter, for two flagons of muscadella 2s. 8d. and one flagon of white wine 8d. given to the ambassador of the duke of Burgundy, for bread, &c. 6d. and for wine 2s. IId. given to the lord chancellor of England.
1463. Mention, in the pleadings of the Mayor's court, that the Steward's court of the liberty of the lord prior of Christ-church, Canterbury, called the high court at Canterbury, is held within the priory of the same church, in the parish of St. Paul, and in the ward of Burgate.—Hawkeswood's tenement, in Allhallows lane, (since called Best's-lane) parcel of the Three Tuns, afterwards converted into a storehouse, and so used for many years by the corporation, comes into their possession this year, and has been since sold by them.
1466. Courts of Pie-powder are held in the city, but are discontinued about 1604. This court is mentioned in a paper in the chamber, to have been holden, time out of mind, before the mayor, de hord in horam, under the title of Pleas of the Court of our Lord the King of Pie-powder, of the city of Canterbury, held after the usages and customs of the city. Bullock-lane, in St. Mildred's, is letten to a tenant, and inclosed, and afterwards sold.
1468. The mayor is paid 4l. to conduct soldiers to the assistance of the earl of Warwick, against the great fleet of France, being in the sea called the Downs, by Sandwich. The year following the city pay 30l. 17s. to soldiers, at the rate of 8d. a day each.
1470. The city contribute 251l. to king Edward IV.—This year four men are paid for watching at the Northgate, for the safety of the whole city, for 15 days, at 4d. a day. The other gates are watched in like manner. The accounts notice a payment of 7s. for carriage of the great gun from Blackheath to Canterbury; and 5s. 7d. paid to four armed men for guarding the same, also 8d. for carriage, of the brazen gun from the Court-hall to the gates of the city and back again; and 2l. 16s. 8d. for the Mayor's living at London, while attending the king in council, with the lord Warwick and other lords; and 2l. 13s. 4d. to Wm. Sellowe, for being council to the mayor at that time. In the year following, Mr. Sellowe is paid for a journey to London, for redemption of the liberties of the city. The king's messenger carries away the greater seal, which, on the succeeding year, is returned by a herald.
1473. The Mayor and Mr. Sheldwych are paid 2l. for riding to London to the king, for conservation of 16l. 13s. 4d. which the king, of his special grace, late granted to the citizens, and a second time in Parliament resumed to himself.
1474. The Grand Jury, at Sessions, present the chamberlain, for that he amendeth not the bridge without Redyngate; and for lack of making the bridge in the inside of the same gate, as in time past it was, &c. N. B. The sessions presentments are to be read as of the year in the margin, or the next year in course of time, for the reason before assigned.
1478. An Act of Parliament passes, for repairing the streets of the city. The long depending disputes, between the abbot of St. Augustine and the corporation, are terminated this year; and a writing obligatory is sealed between them.
1481. The tollinger is allowed 10s. for satisfaction of the loss which he sustains, in the time of the exchange of the market, from the women of Whitstaple, for the space of one month, and until their anger abates, and they do sell their fish in the new market.
1483. An Act of Parliament passes, by which the Aldermanry of Westgate is granted to the city, and Queningate-lane, with the postern and bridge, is passed to the prior and convent of Christ-church. By an act in 1485, the same Aldermanry is restored to Sir George Brown's heirs, and Queningate-lane, &c. revert to the Mayor and Commonaity. The king afterwards unites the Aldermanry of Westgate with the city, which before was the property of private persons.
King Richard III. visits the city, soon after his coronation; and, refusing the city's gift of 50 marks in money, the Corporation present his Majesty with four large fatted boars, twenty fatted rams, and twenty of the fattest capons, cost 11l. 8s. 7d. The purse, in which the money was intended to be presented, (worth 1l. 6s. 8d.) is given to bishop Langton.
1492. The deed of composition is sealed, between the prior and convent of Christ's church, and the Mayor and Commonalty of Canterbury, concerning their respective jurisdictions; when Queningate-lane, and the city's wall, from St. Michael's church to Northgate, are given up to the prior and convent, and the boundaries of the manor of Caldicot defined.
1494. The Corporation present a purse of gold, containing in nobles 13l. 6s. 8d. to the lady Elizabeth, wife of king Henry VII. in the first year of her coming hither after her coronation, viz. 10th April, 1494, with a piece of plate, weighing 18¾ oz. price 5s. an ounce, together in value 18l. 10s. 9d. The Corporation, at this time, receive 3l. 17s. 2d. a year, for the toll of the fishermen, at their shambles and shops standing in Burgate-street.
1498. King Henry VII. by charter, called Novæ Ordinationes, extends the number of Aldermen from 6 to 12, and reduces that of the Common-council from 36 to 24; also ordains that, for the future, the Mayor shall be elected by in-dwelling freemen only.
The Sheriff of Canterbury holds a court, once in every lunar month, through his year of Sheriffalty. Its proceedings relate, chiefly, to outlawries; but there are instances of actions of debt depending in this court.—All applications. to the burghmote, which is a court of record, are by petition in writing. Fines are levied, in this court, of estates in the city, and writs of dower and assize fresh-force are prosecuted there. The Mayor holds view of frank-pledge, as clerk of the markets.—The four serjeants at mace are considered as keepers of the peace, in the wards to which they are assigned, and, as such, are called at every sessions. Waits or musicians are employed at a salary of 1l. a year, with a gown for each person.
1500. The King and Queen's foot soldiers are paid ten shillings on their Majesties coming to Canterbury in April, the king's heavymen 3s. 4d. in regard and not of right; and in like manner the king's clerk of the markets is paid 3s. 4d. by reason that the Mayor holds an inquisition, as clerk of the market, in the presence of the king and by his instruction.
The following are the expences of two persons, who are sent to London on the city's business, inserted with a view to shew the travelling charges of the times, viz. drink 2d. two horses 2s. supper at Sittingbourn 4d. fire 1d. drink in the morning 1½d. horse-meat 6d. ferry 1½d. two horses to Gravesend 8d. drink 1d. dinner 4d. barge hire 6d. hire of two mantles 2d. a wherry to Westminster 4d. drink 1d. a wherry 1½d. spent going from Lambeth 1d. at London 2d. supper for five persons 1s. drink in the morning 2d. fire 1d. two beds at Billingsgate 3d. ofter Id. shipman to call them Id. their breakfasts 10d. at Welling 4d. at Dartford 5d. supper at Gravesend 11d. malmsey 1½d. fire 2d. two beds, 2d. expences in the morning 2d. horse-meat at Gravesend. 10d. horse to Rochester 4d. at the wherry 3½d. at Rochester 2d. four horses there 2s. 8d. for carrying the mails from Lambeth to London 4d. the like by water to Faversham 1s. and from thence to Canterbury 10½d. total expence 17s. 2d.
The charges of an entertainment given the same year at Mr. Mayor's house. Pay for a dinner made for Master Poynings, when he came to the city by the king's commandment, viz. a dozen and an half of bread 18d. a bushel of flour for baked meats 1s. a vessel of beer 18d. two gallons of bastard 2s. 8d. three of red wine and three of claret, at 8d. a gallon, 4s. 4d. a gallon and a pottle of malmsey 2s. for good ale 8d. a fack of coals 3½d. sugar 8½d. eggs 6d. milk and cream 1½d. salt-fish 4d. a cod 4½d. another cod and whitings 18d. a turbot and three eels to roast 2s. apples 1d. ginger, mustard and white salt 4d. meat oil 2d. rose water 1d. for divers spices 2s. 7½d. to the apothecary at the Bullstake for dates, prunes, almonds, comfits and other spices 2s. 3d. for making the same dinner 16d. in wood 6d. total 1l. 7s. 3½d.
Extracts from a bill of expences, paid in the same year, on the account of the mayor, his brethren the aldermen and several of the commons, who travel to London, on the affairs of the city. Pay at the beacon, by commandment of Mr. Mayor, in alms Id. to three council at Serjeant's Inn, 3s. 4d. each; afterwards, when the Mayor caused an examination of all the company, to ripen them against they came into the Star Chamber, in bread and drink and for house room 16d. at Westminster-hall to each council 3s. 4d. at the tavern in wine 4d. at the Harp, in Fleet-street, with Mr. Mayor and his company, in bread and drink 3d. at Westminster for Sir Matthew Browny's breakfast, first two geese 16d. a neck of mutton 3d. bacon 4d. chickens 5d. for dressing and roosting of the meat 5d. and pay 1l. while Mr. Mayor is in London and weening to the city that he may speak with the king.
Extracts from another bill in that year. For a horse from Canterbury to Rochester Is. for a horse from Rochester to London I6d. breakfast at Dartford and horsemeat 4d. supper and drink at London 6d. dinner and supper 8d. a bed for seven nights 7d. The same morning met with Master Recorder of London, coming to the temple; besought him to be a good master to the city, and retaining him 6s. 8d.—The same day, at noon, at my lord Dawlaney's place, there waiting Thomas Wainslet and others, 'till the said Mr. Recorder had supped, and when he came out, the said Mr. Wainslet besought him to speed them, for the time of the forfeit passed not three days; who answered, that he was sore occupied and might not attend it so shortly; whereas we took him, and then he bade us wait on him on the morrow in the Temple.
1501. Expences attending a banquet, given in the Courthall. For making of two vestments and for the tower in the hall 10s. for 12 ells of canvas, for the three vestments 3s. for painting of the same 3s. for meat and drink for two men and for candle by the space of six days and six nights 6s. 8d. for the king's garments and their henshemenny's, silver papers, gold papers, and sinoper papers for the same, and monks frocks, with other things necessary thereto, 6s. 8d. for heading the henshemen and gilding of a star five shillings.
Expences of a like banquet in the same year. To six carpenters for two days and a half's work 7s. 6d. for two hoops for the castle 2d. nails 8d. a painter for painting the castle in the Court-hall and his colours 3s. 4d. for painting the drapery for the best of one of the three kings of Bolougne, the cloth of which is in Mr. Wode's hands 3s. for the dinners of three workmen 4d. for two sawyers a day and an half 18d. a dozen of bread is. a kilderkin of beer 18d. a dozen of candles Is. a gallon of wine 4s. 2d. three gallons of wine 2s. 6d. two gallons of wine 20d. for wine for my Lord of Saint Austyn's servants and the servants of the lord prior of Christ's church, that drank not in the hall, the which were had to Mr. Prior's house at the breaking up of the banquet 7d. a rynge of ale 14d. pay the same night, at the Swan, for the supper of the players, and others that were occupied about the banquet 3s. 4d. spent on them in wine 10d. to two men for taking down the scaffolds and setting up the bar in the Guildhall 1s. for brushing of the cloths and making clean of the hall 2d. total 1l. 15s. 5d.
Expences of an entertainment given in that year. For a dinner, made for the lord chief justice and Mr. Poynings, at the Mayor's house; first, in mutton and veal 2s. 3d. lamb and marrow bones 2s. 1d. milk and curds 8d. 3 capons 3s. two dozen of pigeons 10½d. butter 6d. cloves and mace 9d. cinnamon and ginger 7d. pepper 3d. raisins and currants 8d. three pounds of sugar 1s. prunes 4d. dates 8d. comfits 4d. rabbits 14d. two bushels of meal 2s. a stand with ale 4d. a kilderkin of beer 18d. wood and coal 8d. for dressing the dinner 10d. for Mr. Poyning's horsemeat at the Chequers, 5s. 3d. for a pottle of wine at the Chequers, spent on his servants. 5d. for a gallon of red wine and claret at John Goldsmith's, with Mr. Mayor and his brethren, at the departing of Mr. Poynings, 10d. total 1l. 6s. 11½d.—Pay the same year, at the shooting for the Lords and Gentlemen, for three gallons of wine 2s. at the wrestling, for the same Lords and Gentlemen, 4 gallons of wine 2s. 8d.
Pay 19s. 11d. for making the king's tent and hanging the same with new cloth. Give to the lord prince Arthur, at his first coming to the city, viz. a gilt cup, weighing 23 ounces, at 4s. 2d. the ounce, and 14l. 6s. 8d. in nobles, put into the cup; and pay to the pursuivant, bringing the commission for the aid, 20d. to the king's beafers 20d. to the king's minstrils 20d. to the king's footmen 6s. 8d. to the Prince's footmen 6s. 8d. to the King's and Prince's horsemen 4s. 4d. and to the clerk of the markets 6s. 8d.
The accounts of the chamber, for 1503 and 1504, contain the following articles of expence, attending the pageant of St. Thomas the Martyr. "Paid to carpenters hewing and " squaring of timber for the pageant 8d. For making St. " Thomas's cart, with a pair of wheels, 5s. 8d. Paid a " carpenter and his fellows making of the pageant, by four " days, taking between them, by the day, finding them" selves, 14d. 4s. 8d. For two yax-roughs, weighing four " pounds and an half, 5d. For 114 feet of board, bought " for flooring the same pageant, 2s. 8d. For nails 7½d.—" For tallow for the wheels 1d. For ale spent 1d. To 4 " men to help to carry the pageant 8d. And to a man for " his horse hire 4d. For two bags of leather 18d. Paid a " painter for painting the awle and the head 6d. For gun" powder, bought at Sandwich, 3s. 4d. For fetching of " board from Northgate 2d. For linen cloth for St. Tho" mas's garment 6d. For a dozen and an half of tin silver " 9d. For glue and packthread 3d. For two calf skins, " 14d. In size bought 1d. For eight dozen of cades " points 8d. In gold size 1d. For colours to mill the " glue½d. In a reward given to Thomas Fleaks for forging " and making of the knight's harness 6d. To John a Kent " for the hire of a sword 4d. And for washing of an albe " and an amys 2d. For candles 1d. Total 1l. 5s. 10d." " The same accounts for 1513 and 1514 contain similar " charges, and for a pair of new gloves for the saint, also " for painting the head and angel of the pageant, and for " standing of the pageant in a barn, to the amount together " of 13s. 2d. Also in 1521 and 1522, a payment of 1s. " for a staff and banner to bear before the mores pykes and " the gunners, on St. Thomas's eve."
1509. Jeremy Oxenbregge is bound apprentice to William Rotlonde, and his indentures are inrolled in the chamber. In 1520 he is admitted to the freedom of the city, by virtue of such apprenticeship and inrolment; and is the first person who obtains the liberties of the city by apprenticeship. The fee paid to the chamber for inrolment is 2s. 1d. and for the admission 4s. 1d. the same as at the present day.
1512. The tent, on the Blean, is prepared for king Henry VIII. when he makes his voyage into France, and three kilderkins of beer are provided; pay 8d. for carrying the beer to Tunforde, at the which manor of Tunforde the king changes himself; pay 11s. 2d. for wine had thither, and given to the king and his lords, for the which the city have great thanks. Pay to John Alcocke for a cup of silver and gilt, with the city's arms engraved thereon, weighing thirty-one ounces and an half, price 4s. 10d. the ounce, given to the lady Catherine, queen of England, on her first coming to the city; and present to her Majesty 13l. 6s. 8d. in new nobles, put into the cup. Give to the king's trumpeters 6s. 8d. to the herald at arms 6s. 8d. to the pursuivants 6s. 8d. to the henshemen 6s. 8d. to the king's footmen 6s. 8d. To the queen's footmen 5s. to the trumpeters of the lord steward, in reward, 3s. 4d. pay 3s. 6d. for a kilderkin of beer, given to the king's guard at Harbledown, and 10d. to a person going to Ashford, to provide two great oxen to be presented to the king.
The town-clerk is paid 3s. 8d. for riding to London to the lord-admiral for gun-powder for the city. Pay 1d. for carrying the guns from St. George's-gate to the storehouse; to a pursuivant 3s. 4d. for bringing a commission, that Frenchmen shall wear white crosses. A certificate is sent to the privy council, stating how many men the city can send to the war, and how many harness. A standard for bushels and gallons is provided from London. The common pound is placed at Westgate, where it has continued ever since.—The pillory is removed from the storehouse to the corn-market, and kept there affixed for many years.
1513. Pay 2s. 10d. for making the tent in the Blean, against the king's coming, on his Majesty's going to Dover, with his sister the queen of France, and for bread, ale and beer at Harbledown, for the mayor, aldermen and commons, when they ride to meet the king's grace. Rewards are given to the king's servants on his return from France, viz. To the waits 6s. 8d. to the footmen, trumpeters and henshemen 6s. 8d. each, to the French queen's footmen, at St. Augustine's, a crown, valued at 4s. It appears, that the queen resided at St. Augustine's abbey, but that the king was in the precincts, as the account contains a charge of 3d. for candle and coal, when the mayor and aldermen went into Christ's church on the king's coming from beyond sea.
Posts and rails are set up at St. Michael's gate; pay 2s. 6d. on account of the city's soldiers, for 3 yards of green cloth, to make the guards of their coats; 2s. 6d. for corvyshe shoes 2d. for bowstrings to the shoes, and 2s. for red cloth, for the crosses to their coats.
1514. Pay 6s. 8d. to the king's footmen, when his Majesty came from Dover, after the shipping of the French queen his sister, 9th August, 1515; pay 6s. 8d. to the king's waits; 1s. for a horse, for Humphry Wales who rode to Dover, to know the Duke's pleasure, how Master Mayor should receive the French queen; also 6s. 5d. for a great base, 10 lobsters and 3 turbots, given to the French queen; pay 1s. for the town clerk's horse, he riding with Mr. Rotland to Dover, to meet the queen; give to her footmen 3s. 4d. pay Mr. Rotland's expences of 3s. 4d. riding to the road of grace, against the king's coming, to know his pleasure, if Mr. Mayor shall wait and receive his Majesty on his entering the city.
1515. An Act of Parliament passes for cleaning and deepening the river. A dyker is paid for making a dam, and turning the stream, at the end of the town-wall, by St. Mildred's church, for making of the King's mills.
1516. Pay 4s. for one gallon of ypochras, given to the ambassador, who brings over the cardinal's hat from Rome, 20th November; also 5s. for three couple of capons, and 1s. for spiced bread for him; pay 6s. 8d. to the pursuivant, who comes from the king with a letter to Mr. Mayor, giving knowledge of the birth of the prince, 19th Feb.
1517. The king and queen are in the city this year.—The new cut near the hospital of poor priests is made with consent of the Corporation. The shoemakers, curriers and coblers of the city are first incorporated. About this period several others of the handicraftmen are forming themselves into companies or fraternities.
1518. The town clerk is paid 7s. 2d. for riding to Londen for a commission, that no victual be taken nigh Canterbury for the king's coming; pay 2s. 8d. for the hire of a horse, for two days, to Charing, with a messenger, to enquire by what way the king's grace will come to the city.—The king and queen are here with the lord cardinal. A pair of butts for archery is erected over the city's dyke in Northgate. A new cage is built by the pillory at the corn market.
1521. Pay 1l. 10s. 7d. for carriage of sand for the streets, against the king and emperor's coming to the city.—All the city officers have new gaberdines on the occasion, cost 6s. 8d. each. Pay 5d. for three long bags of canvas to put in the king's money, also 1s. for a riband of silk, to bind the keys of Westgate, when delivered to the emperor; pay 2d. for mending one of the roads of the canopy, broken at my lord cardinal's coming home from beyond sea; the canopy is hired from the sexton of St. Dunstan's in the East) pay 2l. 14s. 4d. to the king's footmen, for the discharge of the canopy, which they claim to be theirs of duty, and which by great means and entreaty is had again; pay 5d. for bread and ale at the meeting of the king at Harbledown, to the trumpeters 6s. 8d. 10d. for a great box of comfits, that should have been given to the emperor, 1s. for horse hire, for a person going to Dover, to bring knowledge to Mr. Mayor, of the emperor and king's coming, 2s. for preparing the canopy, for white lyre and silk points, and 1s. for gilding the staves of the canopy, that were hurt by the king's footmen, for haste in cutting off the canopy from the staves.
Pay 5l. 0s. 9d. for making one of the little crosses, in the top of the cross at the bullstake, also for repairing and painting the cross, except gold to the same, and for gilding the stars. A pursuivant is paid for bringing letters from the privy council, for keeping the watch, nightly, within the city. A hall is built at the Dungeon, against the coming of the king's commissioners, for the inquiry of every man's value, &c. and fish are provided from Stodmarsh to be given to them. The customs of the city are proclaimed at the cross, the beginning of every year. Fish shambles are built at an expence of 12l. 15s. 4d.
Honorable mention is thus made of entertainments given, this year, by one of the mayors of the city—" Be it had in Myende, that Mr. John Briggs, being " maior of the citie of Cauntbury, excising the Mistrers of " bruyng booth of Ale and Bere for the Releyf of the Co" mens of the said citie, occupy'd th' office of Mayoraltie, " well and worshipfully; and, in the Monday aft xii day, " hadde the Lorde Prior of Saint Gregories, being suffri" cane to the Lord Archbishop of Cantbury, the Lorde " Prior of Christ Church, and, bycause the Lorde Abbot of " Seynt Austeyn's was gone to Rome, one Mr. Dovoy, " Wardeyn of Seynt Lawrence, and having the rule of the " seid Monastry of Seint Austeyn's, wh. dyvs other Gentil" men, all the Aldermen of the said cetie, and other wor" shipfull psones to din at his dwellying House, in Seint " Georg's, and ther were welcome, and fared honorably, " as ensuyeth, 1. Brawne and Mustard, Chewetts, Swanne, " Pig, Pork. 2. Creme of Almons, Venyson, Creme, " Lambe, Tels, Fesannt, Partriches, Dowcetts. 3. Jely, " Curlew, Ptrige, Greylings, Oxbirds, Larks, Tarts. 4. " Blank Manyoy, Quyncs, and Orangs, Marche payne, " Cardcyns. 5. Wasers, Ipochras. And the Tuysday hadd " all the Aldermennys' wives and other Gentilwome; and " Thursday the coen Counsell, and other honest psones, " and the honest curats of the cetie, and hadd like fare; and, " on Thursday night, all his neighbours and other honest " psones, and hadd worshipfull fare."
1524. The following is a copy of an order from the Star Chamber, for punishing a man guilty of perjury.—" After " my duty of recommendation remembered, it may please " you to know, that this day, in the Star-Chamber, where " were no men, but only my lord cardinal's grace, and six" teen or seventeen lords of the council, the clerk of the " council and I; I informed my lord's grace of the demea" nour of John Cok, of Boughton, according to the tenor " of your letters, written in the 23d day of this month; " where all the said lords condescended and agreed, that the " said Cok shall be delivered to Master Mayor of Canter" bury; to the intent that Master Mayor shall cause him, "at the next market day, when most confluence of people " is there assembled, to wear a paper, written with these " words, 'This is a false, perjured and forsworn man,' " and so to ride thrice about the market-place, which is the " bull-stake, and from thence into the corn-market; and " after that to stand where he shall be most seen, 'till the " market is done, upon some table or stall to be set for him, " as he may be seen above all other men; and, when the " market is done, to be led to Westgate, and there to be " put out of the city, with his said paper over his head, " whereof, if he be proud, he may go so home and shew "himself among his neighbours. Wherefore, for execu" tion hereof, it shall be good that ye advertize Mr. Mayor, " that the Sheriff, with all the serjeants and other officers, " with their bills and other great weapons, be about the said " lewd person, because it may be the more famous in ex" ample of others. Ye know the order of Westminster " Hall in like case; and because this punishment proceedeth " of so high a decree, it requireth to be the more seriously "done. I trust to see you at Canterbury this hallow-tide, " but I am not sure thereof. Written in Grey's Inn, be" fore dinner, the 25th day of October. Signed Cristoser " Hales, and directed to the right worshipful Master Hales, " one of the Barons of the King's Exchequer, and is un"derwrote thus: The punishment of the which said John " Cok was done according, as is abovesaid, the Saturday "following in Canterbury, &c. in every thing, &c"
1533. Pay 10s. for twelve capons for my lord of Canterbury, at his inthronization, 6s. for a dozen of teal, 2s. 1d. for five load of sand, laid in the streets, for the said lord to go upon bare from the house of Mr. Christopher Hales, the king's attorney, where the said lord changes himself.
1535. Pay 14s. 8d. the expences of bringing an heretic from London, and for one and an half load of wood to burn him 2s. for gunpowder 1d. a stake and staple 8d. Receive 11s. 8d. from sale of John Barley's harness, viz, a breast, a back, a gorget of mail, and another of steel, a salet, and a two hand sword.
1536. The Corporation keep several swans on the Stour, and a person is employed, with a yearly salary, to look to them. St. George's gate is the prison for the fremen of the city. No person is allowed to buy or sell less than six eggs for a penny, on pain of 12d.
1537. An indenture of composition is interchanged between the Corporations of London and Canterbury, that on paying 4s. a year, the freemen of Canterbury shall be free from all tax, taliage or custom, for their merchandize conveyed to London. The Grand Jury present the wife of John Tyler, for Living viciously, and for the which her husband hath forsaken her; and the Jury desire she may be banished by the feast of St. James next, under the pain of open punishment in the ducking stool.
1539. The Grand Jury present William Sandford, parson or the church of St. Peter, for maliciously tolling the avie-bell, in said church, after the evening song done; with a view to set up, again, the Bishop of Rome. A void piece of land, on the west side of the corn market, is letten to a tenant. In 1553 a house is standing on it. It was formerly the way to the Speech-house, or Moothall, which stood where the corn-market now is, and was called Speechhouse-lane. Friar Stone is executed in the city.
1542. Three bells are sold to the parishioners of Nether Hardres, out of the church of St. Mary castle. On the dissolution of St. Augustine's monastery, the city are supplied with paving and building stones from its ruins, on paying a tritle to the gatekeeper. The inquest of the city present many persons, who have not large bows or shatts, nor exercise shooting; also the wards of Burgate, Newingate and Worthgate, for lack of butts in their wards.
1543. Pay 15s. for stuff, bought at London, for the play, also 1l. 3s. 3d. for stuff, and making of cloaths for the tormentors in the play, 10d. for drink, given to the players at divers times in the Court Hall, and 3s. 4d. to my Lord Warden's players, who played in the Guildhall.
The Corporation receive from the king a grant, which is said to be half gift and half purchase, (and so it should seem from the smallness of the consideration money,) of the mill called Abbot's Mill, and of all the houses and dry rents, in Canterbury, late belonging to the abbot and monks of St. Augustine's monastery, now dissolved.
1544. An Act of Parliament passes, which confirms the liberties of the city. The common clerk is to have one shop, adjoining the Court-hall, called the Fyle; upon condition, that he shall there, or one for him, do the duty of his office, and instruct children. During winter, every dark night, the aldermen, common council, and innholders are to find one candle, with light, at their doors, sub-pœna 6d. and the other inhabitants are to do in like fashion, upon request; and, if any lantern be stolen, the offender shall be set in the pillory, at the Mayor's discretion; the candles are to be lighted at six, and continue till burnt out. Mention in the accounts of the exchange in Canterbury, and the houses of the Jews in the Corporation's possession. A man is drowned in the well at the Rushmarket. The city have a common beam to weigh with, in the accounts called the Trove or Thrawbeam, (Tronagium) hanging in the cornmarket; which was in constant use for some centuries, and oftentimes letten to tenants with the tolls of the markets.
1548. Nicholas Fyshe is paid 1l. 6s. 8d. for stopping the gate in the wall, in the Old Castle, (supposed by some to be the antient Worthgate of he city). The town clerk is sent to the privy council, at Richmond, touching the rebellion near Canterbury; and a person goes to London for artulery to desend the city against the rebers.
1550. A reward of 2s. 6d. is given to one of the king's pursuivants, who brings letters to be certified how many of the inhabitants are dead of the sweat. Suit is made to the lord archbishop of Canterbury, for the plate of the churches. The charges of burning Arden, and for the execution of George Bradshaw, amounting to 23s. are paid. Mention of a trial, about this time, at Westminster, concerning the city's customal.
1553. A person is paid 5s for riding to Maidstone, to know the state of the commotion, began there by Wyat and his accomplices. Labourers are employed to fetch guns and other ammunition from the Archbishop's palace, for the city's defence. George Tosts rides to London, with letters to the council, for certain affairs of the city, concerning Wyat's rebellion. Receive 3l. from Sir Thomas Moyle, towards repairing the city walls, for defence of the city against the rebels; also 6l. 13s. 4d. of the dean and chapter of Canterbury, for the like purpose; and, out of the treasury chest of the chamber, by the appointment of the Burghmote, 19l. 19s. 5d. and gifts from other persons to the amount of 16l. 17s. 4d. whereof the sum of 42l. 7s 5½d. is expended this year, in repairing and building the wall of the city, between the postern of St. Mildred's church-yard and worgate, and somewhat on the other side of Worgate, towards Redyngate. A pursuivant brings letters from the queen's majesty, of thanks to Mr. Mayor and the citizens for their truth and sidelity, borne unto her grace, in the time of Wyat's rebellion.
1555. Every Alderman, within one quarter of a year after he is sworn, is to provide one gown of scarlet colour, to be surred with black boge only, 'till called to the office of Mayor; when he shall wear such furrs, on his gown, as have been accustomed to be worn by the Mayors of this city.
1556. The Mayor, before Christmas yearly, is to provide for his wise, the Mayoress, one scarlet gown, with a bonnet of velvet, made for her to wear, according to the antient usage of the city, under the penalty of 10l.
1558. On the 8th of July queen Mary passes through the city, and is presented by the Corporation with a purse, containing 20 angels, amounting to 10l. Her Majesty departs from Canterbury, towards the house of Sir Thomas Moyle, and rides through Wincheap; and before her grace rides Mr. Mayor, bearing the mace of the city, 'till he comes to the lane, leading to the meadow, late of Sir James Hales, at which place Sir Thomas Moyle, sheriff of Kent, requires him to lay down his mace; which the Mayor denies to do; but says, that he will bear his mace, as far as the liberty of the city goes, which is to the utter part of the stone wall of St. Jacob's, and so does: All which way the Sheriff of Kent gives place, and wears no rod; and, at the utter part of the said wall, the mayor takes leave of the queen's majesty, and she departs, giving him most hearty thanks.
1559. Mr. Manwood is sent down from the Council, to take the verdict of the inquest, charged to inquire of the murder of one Skrodder, servant to the lord warden. Robert Waynflet rides to London to the lord warden, to satisfy him, that we cannot sit upon wilful murder, by our charter, without commission of oyer and terminer. The constables of the several wards pay 3l. 16s. 1d. towards the suit between Sir T. Fynch and the city, concerning jurisdiction at the Moat.
1562. Morning prayer is to be said every day, being no holiday, at six in the morning, in the parish church of our Lady, in the High-street; unto which prayer shall come Mr. Mayor with his brethren, and the rest of the house of Burghmote, having no lawful let.
The July present the wise of Stephen Colyer, for that she is not of good name, nor same, but liveth viciously; for the which she hath been divers times banished, out of one ward into another, and in conclusion banished by all the Council of the Shire of Cantebury; and that, notwithstanding, she is abiding in the city, viciously and idly using herself.
1563. A letter is received from the Privy Council, appointing Commissioners to take a view of Ridingate, and signify to the Mayor and Aldermen, that they cause it to be widened, sufficient for carriages to go through it. The Jury, who passed on the lives and deaths of John Hart and others, for several felonies, are to be disfranchised of their liberties, and their shop windows shut up, and are to go to Westgate to ward, for the acquittal of those felons, contrary to evidence.
1564. Every Alderman and Commoner, and as many of the inhabitants, as the Mayor shall appoint, shall provide one armed pike, to be kept for use if needful. A person named Skreene, is hanged this year.
1566. Sir Thomas White, by indenture, secures payment of 100l. to the city of Canterbury, and the like sum to 23 other cities, payable to each city once in 24 years for ever, to be lent out to young freemen in sums of 25l. each for ten years, on security without interest. Pay for a drinking given on fishing the town dyke and river; and for half a porpoise, weight 26 pounds, at 3d. per pound, given to Mr. Serjeant Lovelace.
1567. Pay 16s. for measuring and setting out the river, to try the level of the same, between Canterbury and Fordwich. A company of the Walloons or Strangers, is allowed to inhabit within the liberties of the city, by order from the queen's council, under the direction of the Burghmore.
1569. Pay 10l. 14s. for entertaining the judges of assize. The city appoint three council, called the learned council of the city, to act on the city's behalf, with a yearly see of 2l. each. A man is paid 1s. who wades in the town ditch, when the carp are taken. A present is given to the archbishop of Canterbury of 12 couple of capons, and 100 of pippins; and to the bishop of London, of two March-panes, one gallon of ipochras, one of sack, one box of wasers, and 100 of pippins.
1570. Assizes are holden at Canterbury this year. The first wine licence is sealed, and the see paid to the chamber is 6s. 8d. The Grand Jury present that, as touching religion and such things as belong thereto, they know no one within this city, but behaveth himself according to the queen's proceedings in that behalf; saving that, within the cathedral church and cloysters, at the sermon time, there have been and are divers that walk, keep prattle and talk there, to the great offence of good people; which the Jury wish might be reformed. As to shooting, the Jury find that, in this point, there are very few, or none, within the city that are excuseable; and the cause thereof, they think to be the daily use of bowling.
1571. Pay 9d. for writing papers for witches, and to the keeper's man for ringing the bason. The Grand Jury present Mother Hudson, of the parish of St. Mary Dungeon, for that they vehemently suspect her to be a witch. They also present persons, as regraters of butter, cheese, poultry, and other victuals. Presentments for regrating and forestalling are common from the earliest period.
1572. The Corporation receive a letter from the Privy Council, for displacing of the Mayor from his office, and for a new election. Two beadles are appointed for the whole city, viz. one to be in Northgate, Burgate, and Newingate, and the other in Westgate, Worgate, and Redyngate; who are to make diligent search, at the least twice in every day, in their wards, to see that persons, able, do work; and, if any are found loitering, idle, or begging, they are to be had before the wardens of the hospital; who shall take order with them: and the beadles are to look to hedge-breakers and wood-carriers, and all other disordered persons, and bring them before the said wardens.
1573. Queen Elizabeth keeps her court at the abbey of St. Augustine, near this city. The corporation receive the queen, on her coming hither, and present her majesty servants a gift of 30l. in a scented purse. Her majesty's servants have the following presents made to them, viz. to the kings of heralds 2l. to the serjeants at arms 1l. to the queen's footmen 2l. to the trumpeters 30s. to the messengers 1l. to the coachman 10s. to the surveyors of the ways 10s. to the porters 13s. 4d. to the black-guard 10s. to the captains and knights-marshalmen 1l. to the drummers and flutes 5s. to the musicians 6s. 8d. to Walter, the jester, 3s. 4d. to the clerk of the market 1l. to his man 6d. to the queen's beroyd 10s.
At this period sines are paid to the chamber, for licence to kill bulls, without previously baiting them at the Bullstake, according to the custom of those days. This year several persons are executed in the city.
1575. Queen Elizabeth grants to the Mayor and Commonalty of Canterbury and their successors, the hospital of poor priests in this city, now the common workhouse, with all the estates appertaining thereto.
1577. The corporation provide candles for the morning prayers and lectures at Christ's church. Elizabeth Burrel, widow, is executed for murder, and her goods are seized by the chamberlain to the city's use; but which, afterwards, are given to her children. A suit is now depending, concerning lands of the hospital of poor priests, in Ickham; and in 1588, the corporation receive 121. as costs, in the common pleas, from a Mr. Gason, their opponent, in that suit.—This year assizes are holden in the city.
1580. A mark is painted at the Dungeon for the calivershot to fire at. The Grand Jury present three persons, dwelling in St. Andrew's, for keeping open shop; being unmarried and under the age of 30 years.—The cattle market is to be kept, from henceforrh, in the street without Newingate, viz. from the nunnery gate, down through Rothercheap, unto St. Michael's gate, now called Burgate, and in no other place in the city; and tolls are enacted to be taken at such market.
1582. Queen Elizabeth makes her second visit to the city. Gravel is dug to lay in the streets, while her majesty is here. The corporation give a purse of 20l. with a silver cup, to the queen; and to her majesty's footmen 2l. to the yeomen of the bottles 10s. to the trumpeters 30s. to the serjeants at arms 1l. to the surveyors of the ways 10s. to the yeomen of the rolls 6s. 8d. to the knights marshalmen, 13s. 4d. to the black-guards 10s. to the porters 10s. to the coachmen 10s to the clerk of the market 30s. to the noblemens' trumpeters 5s. and 5s. for a table of the prices of victuals, while her majesty continues here, and puting up the same. At this period the tanners of the city have a market for their leather, on the south-west side of the Whitstable market.
1587. Jane Harvey is executed for thest. Pay 20s. for one March-pane, wrought and fair gilded, given to the lord Leicester, with four pounds and two ounces of persumed quinces, a quantity of perfumed cherries and spiced comfits. Pay 23s. for two gallons of white ipochras, given to the lord chief baron's son and daughter on their marriage. Edward Holland is allowed 13s. 4d. in consideration that, every sessions, and at all other times, when required, he shall attend the mayor as his cook; and be ready to serve such of the aldermen, the sheriff, and common council, as shall have need of him; who are further to recompence him.
1588. A large sum is laid out in scouring the river Stour, and a level taken, with a view to make it navigable. The money is raised on the inhabitants by an assessment. A toll is taken, at this time, in respect of travelling waggons, coming through the city with merchandize, which is demanded by antient custom, and this year is revived. In the early accounts mention is found of tolls received for like carriages.
1592. Sir Roger Manwood, by his will of this date, founds and endows an hospital at Hackington, near this city, and appoints the mayor and aldermen visitors thereof. Give 1s. to the prisoners at Westgate, when Mr. Mayor and his company come from solemnizing the funeral of the lord chief baron Manwood, at Hackington. The corporation, in the course of this year, expend upwards of 700l. on the river, and in the following year a further sum.
John Bois, esq. (afterwards Sir John Bois, knt. and founder of Jesus hospital, in Northgate) is admitted to the freedom of the city; and is to continue Legis-Peritus, and bear the name and office of Recorder of the city. He is the first Legis-Peritus, called by the title of Recorder, and is appointed Recorder by the charter of king James.
1594. Mention of locks in the river, at Sturry and Barton, and that lighters go between Canterbury and Fordwich. The rates of all manner of wages, to be paid in the city, are settled by the Mayor and Justices at the Sessions, by order from the Privy Council. A printed copy of these rates is now in the city's chamber, and, being a very curious paper, is intended to form a part of these collections.
1598. A sessions is held, 8th August, for making the first subsidy. At this time assessments are raised, weekly, for the maintenance of the poor. All lands within the circuit of the city, except woodlands, are rated at 2d. an acre, and woodlands at 1d. an acre. A carved post is set at the Guildhall door, at which rogues and idle persons are punished. A yearly pension of 40s. is paid to a person, for keeping of Westgate clock.
The hospital at Eastbridge is said to have been founded by archbishop Becket, who came to the see of Canterbury in 1161, and died in 1170, but the precise year is not known. In 1230, it was united with Cokyn's hospital, (to which it adjoined) dedicated to St. Nicholas and St. Catharine, and so continues. The hospitals of St. John, in Northgate, and St. Nicholas, in Harbledown, and the priory of Saint Gregory, in Northgate, were all founded by archbishop Lanfranc, who was made archbishop in 1070, and died in 1089; the exact year of either foundation don't appear.
1607. The king's engraver makes a new seal of silver in two pieces, cost four guineas, that the Statute-Merchant may be acknowledged in Canterbury, agreeable to charter. The Corporation expend 29l. 18s. 6d. in desending the citizens from appearance on juries, at Westminster; being urged thereto, by occasion of the trial of Robert Ladd, who was indicted for murder, and whose indictment was removed by habeas corpus.
1609. King James I. grants his charter of privileges to the citizens of Canterbury. The expence of obtaining this charter is 369l. 8s. 4d. part whereof is raised by assessment on the inhabitants. A sword is now, first, borne before the Mayor of the city; the cost of which, with the scabbard, is 10l. 6s. A commission of oyer and terminer issues for the city and county of Canterbury.
1613. The court hall is prepared for the king and prince. Pay 5s to the five waits, for playing the loud music on the top of All Saint's church, at the coming into the city, by Westgate, of the prince, his sister the lady Elizabeth, and the Palsgrave her husband. Their reception, by the Corporation, is thus recorded: "They were received at Westgate " by the Mayor, all the aldermen and common council, the " mayor and the aldermen in their scarlet, and commons in " their best attire; when the prince was presented with a " fair silver cup gilt: and the palsgrave and his wife the " like, of several makings for fashions; when Mr. Matthew " Hadd, then recorder, made upon the delivery of the pre" sent two several orations, first to the prince and his sister, " the lady Elizabeth, sitting in one coach, and another ora" tion to the palsgrave and the duke, sitting in another " coach; with all the shot, to the number of eighty, with " halberts, &c. in their red soldiers' coats, new hats and " feathers, half on the one side the street, and the other half " on the other side, guarding them from Westgate to the " further gate of Christ's church; when they went into the " dean's house to lodge, where they continued nine days." Pay 14d. for bread, beer and wine, the morning prince Charles goes from hence, and 7d. for bringing, from Christ's church to the court hall, a pike that was lent, upon request of the dean, to hang out at the top of Bell-Harry steeple, to know when the wind did shift well, for the palsgrave and the lady Elizabeth his wife, to take shipping at Margate.—Pay for bringing down a proclamation, commanding noblemen, justices of the peace and others, to repair out of cities into their own counties, to keep good hospitality. A motion is made, in the exchequer, for discharge of the city from the king's writs for homage, which yearly issue on account of Abbot's mill.
1617. A bason and ewer of silver gilt, weighing 126 ounces, are purchased at 6s. 7d. an ounce, with the city's arms engraved. The Corporation had a silver bason and ewer in use before this time; which, in 1587, is said to weigh seventy-six ounces, a quarter and half a quarter of one ounce.
1620. A handsome conduit is erected, (fn. 1) at the expence of George Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury, behind St. Andrew's church, for the benefit of the inhabitants. The fish shambles are taken down, and placed in the present fishmarket. The court hall is hung with tapestry, at an expence of 331.
1624. A quo warranto issues against the city. At this period the price of beer is set by the court of sessions; the brewers are ordered to sell their strong beer at 8s. the barrel, and no more. A watch keeps guard at Westgate, to prevent London goods from being brought into the city, because of the plague raging in London.
1625. On the 13th of June, king Charles the First consummates his marriage, with the princess Henrietta of France, at the abbey of St. Augustine, near this city. The king and queen are received by the corporation with usual ceremonies; and the following gifts are made to the attendants of their majesties. To the gentlemen ushers, daily waiters, 5l the great usher of the privy chamber 5l. the serjeants at arms 3l. 6s. 8d. the gentlemen ushers, quarto waiters, 1l. the sewers of the chamber 1l. the king's harbingers 3l. 6s. 8d. the king's state marshal 1l. the yeomen ushers 1l. the grooms and pages Il. the footmen 2l. the four yeomen of the mouth 2l. the porters of the gate 1l. the serkeant trumpeters 1l. the trumpeters themselves 2l. the surveyors of the ways 1l. the bottle-men of the field 10s. the coachmen 1l. the yeomen harbingers 1l. the yeomen ushers for the sword 6s. 8d. the king of heralds and pursuivants at arms, at his Majesty's entering the city, 5l. the king's musicians, the antient fee, 10s. the king's drum and fise 5s. the jester 10s. and to Mr. Waller, deputy clerk of the market, for the virge, as a courtesy from the city in forbearing to execute his authority here, 30s—John Gason, esq. engages with the mayor and commonalty, to make the river Stour passable with boats, between Canterbury and Fordwich.
1626. A fine of 20 nobles is set on the mayor and commonalty by the court of chancery, in a suit, depending in that court, concerning the river. The duties of the common beadle, appointed by the magistrates of the city, are said to require, that he shall daily walk the street of the city, and attach all such rogues, roguish vagabonds, beggars and idle persons, as do refort to the city and suburbs, to the shame and disgrace of the city; and those persons shall see punished, or set on work, or drive out of the city; by which means the city and suburbs will be purged of many idle, sturdy and dissolute rogues, to the great good and benefit of the city, and the poor and inhabitants of the same; and that at such times as it may please God to visit this city with the insection of the plague) he, by his place, may do many good ofsices, both in attending the searchers to the insected houses, and back to their own houses again, and by walking before the bodies of insected persons to their graves; in which, he being known to be employed, people in the streets, who otherwise would not do it, may avoid the danger of the searchers and other dangers, in those times, which would tend to the hurt of many persons.
1629. At the quarter-sessions, the chamberlain's clerk, whose duty it is to read, and truly to expound unto the great inquest, the true sense and effect of all indictments and presentments, preferred in Latin, into English, whereby the inquest may proceed to find such bills, is fined 10l. for causing an indictment against John Boys, gent. for the murder of Thomas Alcock, gent to be indorsed "billa vera", which the jury had directed and agreed, should be indorsed for manslaughter only. A fine is received from a person, for beginning market before the bell is rang.
1630. Tents are to be made for the relief of the insected with the plague, and set up in the lower part of the Dungeon, where most out of fight of passengers. Assessments are raised on the inhabitants for the support of infected persons. The like in 1637, 1647, 1665, and 1672.
1631. A well is made, and a pump put down, at the fish market. Order is taken for ending disputes between the waits of the city, who play their music in the morning in the streets, between the seast of All Saints and the Purification of the Virgin Mary, and for settling the number of boys they are to keep.
1633. Susan Whetnal is executed in this city, as is Mary Screene, convicted of selony. The sessions direct the mayor and aldermen, calling unto them proper and experienced persons, to place poll-bays at the several mills within the city's liberties.
1634. In this year thirty two actions are tried in the mayor's court of the city. It is recited in an order of sessions, that the river Stour, within the liberties of the city, hath, in former times, and until of late, been plentifully stored with the brood of sundry kinds of fish, and especially, with the fish called the trout, (this river being apt for increase and breeding of that kind of fish) whereby the mayor and magistrates, as occasion required, have received a great commodity, and sometimes presented the same to great persons, coming to the city, as a gift; that kind of fish being greatly in request, &c.
1638. The salary of the mayor is set at 100l. The mayor and commonalty grant to Arnold Spencer all the powers, privileges and authorities, vested in them by act 6 Henry VIII. for deepening and cleanfing the river. A wharf is directed to be made by the side of the river.
1640. Mr. William Somner presents to the mayor and commonalty his book intitled, "The Antiquities of Canterbury." In the year preceding, the corporation had voted this gentleman the freedom of the city, as a mark of their respect. A quay is to be made by the river, and the terms of wharfage are ascertained.
1641. King Charles the First is again in the city. Gratuities, to the amount of 4l. 10s. are given to his Majesty's attendants. The sessions order, that Mr.Sheriff shall return an able Jury of Freeholders, to enquire as to the concealment of the great inquest, in not finding the bill against Mr. Ventris, upon the statute of 3 Hen. VII. c. I.
It appears that the Protestant Walloon Congregation, living in this city, came into it about the beginning of queen Elizabeth's reign, by order of the State—And as, by reason of the war in picardy, Artois and Flanders, many other Walloons are now resorting to the city, and more are daily expected, it is agreed, that if they do conform to the government of the city, and to the orders of the congregation of Walloons, they may, for the future, live under the government of the mayor and aldermen of the city, as that congregation hath done for sixty years and upwards; it being sound that, by their trade, they have been beneficial to the city. And a book is to be provided, in which their names shall be entered, with their testimonials, &c.
1642. The old muskets and calivers, in the town hall, are to be delivered out to 36 persons to be stocked, &c. at their charge; who are to engage to restore them. The city is to be speedily fortified, and ordnance and ammunition provided. The city gates are to be mured up, turf and earth dug, and all such things done for fortifying the city, as shall be necessary. The sum of 400l. is allowed by Parliament towards this work. The ammunition purchased, consists of 10 barrels of gunpowder, 100 weight of match, 2 fnkins of musket bullets, I firkin and I rundulet of pistol bullets, 1100 and I quarter of iron bullets, for ordnance, and I blundering musket.
1643. In July, the ordnance on the Dungeon are to be watched day and night by the housekeepers of the city, and the fort made desensible, and fit for a watch, in wards in order one after another, viz. four in the day time, and ten in the night. In October it is directed, that there be twelve watchmen for the day, and 14 for the night; of whom 3 shall be at St. George's gate, 3 at Westgate, 2 at St. Andrew's church, and 6 to walk the rounds in two companies. The ordnance, at the Dunjeon-hill and Old Castle, are afterwards ordered to be dismounted.—In 1647, and the following year, all the ordnance of the city, likewise the posts, timber and boards set at the gates belonging to the fortifications, are disposed of for the city's use.
1646. The chamberlain is to provide a sufficient hanging, before the town-hall door, for keeping the hall warm, at public meetings. Complaint is made of the great abuse, that happens by stamping and uttering farthings, tokens, or pieces of metal, and advice taken for remedying the same.
1648. A new quay is erected at Hopper's mill. A sermon is first preached before the mayor and his brethren on the election of the mayor; which, in the ensuing year, Thomas Ludd, one of the common council, intending to perpetuate, directs shall be paid for, as far as IIs. annually, out of his estate.
At the sessions in this mayoralty, John Alcock, late of St. Paul's, in Canterbury, labourer, is indicted for feloniously killing one Thomas Slawter, at Canterbury, in the parish of St. Paul, and ward of Burgate, by Striking him on the head with a crab-stick; and being found guilty by the jury, it is presently asked of him, if he knows any thing to say for himself, wherefore the court here to judgment and execution of him, of and upon the premises, ought not to proceed: who says, that he is a clerk, and prays the benefit of clergy, in this behalf, to be allowed; and there upon comes James Lamb, clerk and ordinary, and the book being delivered unto the said John Alcock by the court here, the said John Alcock reads as a clerk; therefore it is considered by the court, that the aforesaid John Alcock be burnt in his left hand, according to the Statute, &c.
At this period the mayor and aldermen wear scarlet gowns, with tippets of velvet, at the sessions, and at other times black gowns. During the interregnum, in the presentments of the grand inquest, the inquest are called jurors for the keepers of the liberties of England, by authority of parliament.
1657. Mr. John Cogan founds an hospital for the widows of clergymen in St. Peter's, in this city, adjoining to Cokyn's hospital, before mentioned to have been united with Eastbridge hospital, and in 1696 it is further endowed by Dr. Aucher.
1658. Part of the duty of the common beadle of the city is, that he shall go with the hospital boys, upon the Lord's day, to the Mayor's, and attend him to church; to correct all such as shall be sent to the house of correction; and to whip those who shall be so adjudged by the court of sessions.
1659. King Charles the second, at the restoration, visits the city, and is some time at St. Augustine's palace. His Majesty is received by the corporation with great respect, and presented with a gold cup of the value of 200l. (being the voluntary gift of the citizens raised among themselves by subscripition) as a token of loyalty and grateful respect for his Majesty. The mayor and commonalty give to four of his majesty's coachmen 4l. to sixteen footmen and pages 8l.—to five grooms 50s. to six footmen of the duke of York's, 3l. to six footmen of the duke of Gloucester's, 3l.
In the following year, the king and queen-mother come to the city, and are loyally received by the citizens. Their attendants have the following gifts, viz. the gentlemen ushers, daily waiters, 5l. the gentlemen ushers of the privy chamber 5l. the serjeants at arms 3l. 6s. 8d. the king's harbinger 3l. 6s. 8d. the knight-marshal 1l. the gentlemen ushers, quarter waiters, 1l. the sewer of the chamber 1l. the yeomen of the wardrobe 16s. 8d. the wardrobe Il. the yeomen ushers 1l. the grooms of the great chamber Il. the pages of the presence 10s. the king's footmen 6l. the king's porter at the gate 1l. the serjeant trumpeter Il. the trumpeters 2l. 16s. the yeomen of the mouth 2l. the coachman 10s. the yeomen harbingers 1l. the way-maker 1l. the yeomen of the field 10s. the jester 10s. the queen's coachman and footman 1l. the duke of York's footman 1l.—pay to Henry Hales, by order of Mr. Mayor, for his journey to Sittingbourn, to bring intelligence of the king's coming 10s. to him more, for his journey to Dover, to attend the king's motions, and from thence to bring notice thereof to the city, 4s. to three labourers, to carry goods for his majesty's service to his lodgings, at Mr. Best's house, 3s. 6d. to five watchmen to watch his majesty's coach in the night, and to keep the gates 5s. 6d. with other expences for wine, &c. for the mayor and his brethren, and the city's drummers, for 5 days service, at half a crown a day, amounting in the whole together, to 53l. 19s. 6d.
1661. A. Committee is appointed to enquire into the true value of every spiritual living in Canterbury, and who are patrons and incumbents thereof; and to advise, in what manner the parishes may be united, in the most useful way. The corporation receive a letter from king Charles II. dated 16th Sept. 1661, recommending Wm. Turner, the then mayor, to be continued in that office or the year ensuing; but the citizens do not think proper to re-elect Mr. Turner.
1662. Mrs. Ann Smith's hospital, in the borough of Longport, is founded and endowed this year. The Corporation give a bonquet to the lord bishop of Chichester, at the Dean's house, the expence of which is 16l. 6s. exclufive of 1l. 16s. for 3 gallons and I quart of canary, and 3 gallons of French wine had at the banquet.
1663. The Grand Jury present a dresser of flax, for watering several loads of flax, in a dyke adjoining to the common river, and permitting the corrupt water to run and few into the river, to the great destruction of the fry and brood of fish.
Assizes are holden this year, in the yard of the Old Castle, before Sir Orlando Bridgeman, and Sir Samuel Browne, knights, two of the king's justices, at the special request of the inhabitants of Canterbury, to try a question, between the citizens and the Walloons, who deny contributing to the assessments for the relief of the English poor of the city.—A temporary court-house is built, for the trial of writs of Nisi-prius, which is hung with two hundred and twenty yards of white cotton, and with black bays. The Judges are entertained, partly by the corporation, and partly by the citizens, at an expence altogether, including the court-house, of 93l. 15s. 11d.
1668. The corporation pay forty shillings for matting, and nailing the same down on the seats and pews in Christ's church, where the Mayor, Aldermen and CommonCouncil, and the wives of the aldermen, at this period, have seats.
1669. The Mayor and Commonalty purchase plate, intended as a gift to the queen, in her passage through Canterbury to Dover; and prepare a banquet, and are at other expences; but her Majesty's Stay in the city is so short, that the plate is not presented to her, but is returned at a loss of 10l.
1673. The city give a banquet to the duke and duchess of York, and to the prince and duchess of Modena, on the 24th of November, 1673; consisting of the following articles, viz. canded eringo, three pounds and an half, cost 21s. dried suckets of all sorts, seven pounds and an half, 25s. green citron, twelve pounds, 48s. dried past 8 pounds, 26s. 8d. dried pears and pippins, 16 pounds and an half, 26s. quince past, four pounds and an half, 17s. canded lettuce, one pound, 4s. dried apricots, four pounds, 32s.—raspberry past. five pounds, Il dried plums, five pounds and a quarter, 26s. 3d. rock candes, two pounds, 12s. savoy ambers, three quarters of a pound, 9s. smooth almonds, six pounds and three quarters, 13s. 6d. macaroons, 7 pounds, 10s. 6d. iced march-panes, 7 pounds, 14s. prince biscuits, 7 pounds, 9s. 4d. drop cakes, 3 pounds, 6s. a large marchpane, 25s. 12 quarts of canary, 24s. 9 gallons of claret and white wine 36s. Total charge of the banquet, including glasses, &c. 21l. 10s. 11d.
The great question, as to the city's jurisdiction in the borough of St. Martin, is determined this year, on a trial at law, between the Chamberlain and George Bingham, in favor of the right of the city over that borough.
1675. An information is filed against the city, for refusing to contribute to the repair of Boughton highway; which being tried in the county of Suffex the year following, and the Jury finding for the defendants, the city is acquitted from that charge.
1677. The prince and princess of Orange and duchess of York are in the city, and lodge in the house of William Mann, esq. prepared for them by the mayor. The Corporation give them banquets of sweet meats, &c.
1679. Every inhabicant, within the city and liberties, is to watch, in his own person, by turns, or provide a sufficient man in his stead: and the watch is, every night, to consist of 16 able men, who are to watch from ten at night, until four in the morning. Their stand is at the door of St. Andrew's church.
1681. A new large and fair silver gilt mace, to bear before the Mayor of the city, is purchased, weighing 1210z. and four penny weights, at 10s. the ounce. The weight of the old mace is 59 0z. twelve penny weights, which sells at 8s. 4d. an ounce. The price of the new mace, including all contingent expences, is 62l. 10s.
1683. The earl of Winchelsea grants a warrant to Mr. Mayor, giving authority to him to hunt and kill a buck in the park at Eastwell, when such of the aldermen and common council as chuse may be present.
1684. The mayor and commonalty surrender all the liberties, privileges and franchises of the city to his Majesty king Charles II. who grants a new charter to the city, at the costs of 248l. 10s. 2d but which is not now acted under by the Corporation, and is a mere dead letter among their archives. The fine for the freedom is set at twenty pounds, at which sum it has continued ever since. Two labourers are paid for carrying the wooden horse from the town-hall to the bridewell.
1685. Dr. Kay is paid 4l. for reading divine service to the Corporation, in the parish church of St. Andrew, every burghmote day during this year, and Il. to the parish clerk. A fine of 100l. is set on any alderman, who, being elected to the office of mayor, shall neglect to appear on the Michaelmas day following, having notice of his election, and be sworn into the office. Sir William Honywood, bart. M. P. is elected mayor, and, waving his privilege, takes the oaths and the office. The iron bar, in Iron-Bar-lane, is to be provided by the chamberlain, according to antient custom.
1686. Sir William Aucher, bart. M. P. elected to the office of mayor, delivers to the mayor an order from the king in council, for discharging him from that office, and is discharged accordingly. The keeper of Westgate prison is repaid 10s. being arrears of the duty called hearth-money for the several chimnies in Westgate. The mayor and commonalty take possession of the leasehold estate, called Calais Grange, in the Isle of Thanet, under the will of Mrs. Elizabeth Lovejoy, deceased, in trust for the poor of the city, &c.
1687. Henry Lee, esq. now mayor, by order of the king in council, and a special commission, is removed from the office of mayor, and J. Kingsford, sen. esq. is elected mayor in his room. Many of the aldermen and common council are also displaced, and others chosen in their stead.
1688. John Kingsford, esq. mayor, by virtue of the king's letter, on the 14th of Sept. is continued mayor for the year ensuing, with the consent of the freemen, who, out of loyalty to the king, unanimously elect and continue Mr. Kingsford in that office.
By virtue of the king's proclamation, for restoring to corporations their antient rights, the charter of king James is restored to the city, and Mr. Kingsford being removed from his office, Henry Gibbs, esq. is chosen and sworn mayor in his room, for the remainder of the year.—All the aldermen and common council, who were displaced in 1687, are, in like manner, restored to their offices.
Thomas Turner, gent. makes a present to the city of one great light or lucidary, such a one as is in Cheapside, London, with all the iron-work and materials thereof, which is to be fixed at the Bull stake, and lighted with oil, for the general benefit of the inhabitants.
1689. The following expences attend the proclaiming of king William and queen Mary.—At the Red Lion tavern, five hams and one gammon of bacon, cost 3l. two dozen and an half of neats' tongues, 3l. 15s. two ribs, a loin and a rump of beef, 2l. two dozen and two of fowls, 2l. 12s. lobsters 6s. oysters 12s. anchovies 15s. oranges and lemons 12s. bread and beer 2l. 17s. faggots burnt 6s. 4d. glasses broken and tobacco 16s. 2d. wine drank by the whole company 9l. 2s. sweetmeats, had of Mr. Freebody, 2l. 8s. 8d. Mr. Mayor gives to the soldiers on that day, 5l. to the ringers at the cathedral 5s. Total 34l. 7s. 2d.
1690. The Corporation receive king William, on his coming to the city, and present his majesty with a banquet of sweetmeats; the cost of which is 20l. The king's surveyor is paid 1l. and the coachman 4l. which he claims as a fee, because his majesty is in the city. The year following the queen dowager, Catherine, passes through the city.
1694. The Corporation expend 25l. 5s. 6d. in a banquet of sweetmeats, given to their Majesties, king William and queen Mary, during their stay in Canterbury, and in fees to their attendants. The room and entry, leading into the the Guildhall, are laid into the hall, for its enlargement, it not being, otherwise, sufficiently large to hold the Freemen.
1695. King William is in the city. The next year his majesty again passes through, in his way to the continent.—A man is paid 7s. for riding as a guide to his majesty to Queaks, in the Isle of Thanet. October 6, 1696, the king is in the city, on his return from Flanders. The way between Newingate and Ridingate, within the wall by the Little Dungeon, is levelled.
The mayor and commonalty grant a lease, for 41 years, to Thomas Rogers, gent. of all their powers, privileges and authorities, vested in them by act 6 Hen. VIII. to enable him to make the river Stour navigable, from Fordwich to Barton, or Browning's mill.
1696. An inquisition is taken before the Coroner of Canterbury, on view of the bodies of Anth. Buckeredge and Finch Rooke, gents. who were both killed, in a duel fought by them with swords, in the North-Holmes, in Northgate, Canterbury.
1714. A deputation, from the mayor and commonalty, wait on his majesty king George I. to congratulate the king on his arrival in Britain. The common shambles, at the west end of Jewry-lane, are removed.
1719. The alms-houses, called Harris's, in Wincheapstreet, are founded and thus endowed. Thomas Harris, of Canterbury, hop-merchant, by his will, dated 14th Dec. 1719, devises unto trustees his five dwellings, with the gardens appertaining, in Wincheap-street, in the parish of St. Mildred, in Canterbury, which he designs for alms-houses, and wherein he has placed five old men and their wives, to live there during life, rent free; in trust, that such old persons, as are or shall be placed therein by him, shall continue to dwell there during life, rent free, they keeping their several dwellings, and the sences of the same in good repair: And, as they shall die, the trustees shall place in those dwellings, as they become vacant, such other poor person and persons, as the trustees shall think proper, there to dwell for their lives, rent free; and so shall continue in charity for ever. And he directs that two of the dwellings shall be, from time to time, filled up with two poor persons, of the parish of St. Mary Magdalen, in Canterbury; other two, with two poor persons, of the parish of Thanington, in Kent; and the remaining dwelling with one poor person, of the parish of St. Mildred, in Canterbury; all of them to be of the age of 50 years, at the least, and who do not receive alms of any of the said parishes. And, for the better maintenance of those poor persons, the testator gives to the same trustees his messuage, farm and lands, cailed Marly, in Kingston, in Kent, in trust, from time to time, to pay and dispose of all the clear yearly rents and profits thereof (after repairs, quit-rents and other necessary deductions are allowed) unto and amongst the said poor persons, dwelling in the said alms-houses, to be equally divided amongst them; and so to continue for ever. And the testator directs that, as often as the trustees shall be reduced to three, such three shall convey the said alms houses, messuage, farm and lands, to a competent number of new trustees, upon the aforesaid trusts, that so the charity may be perpetuated. The late alderman Barham, of this city, as heir at law of his father, who was the surviving trustee, under the above trusts, dying seized of the see simple of these alms-houses and of the estate at Kingston, the premises became vested in the instant niece of alderman Barham, as his heiress at law, whose trustees or guardians have now the entire management of the concerns of this hospital.
1728. King George II. is waited on by the mayor, aldermen and common council, in his way through Canterbury. An Act of Parliament passes, by which the hospital of Poor Priests, and all the estates appertaining to it, being the property of the mayor and commonalty, with their consent, vest in certain persons who are incorporated and called guardians of the poor, in trust for the poor of the city; and hencesorth the hospital is used as a General Workhouse for such poor, comprizing within it a bridewell, which is under the direction of the city magistrates. The guardians are obliged, by bond, to maintain and educate 16 poor blue-coat boys, of the city.
1733. Sir John Hales, bart. at a great expence, conveys water to the city, by pipes from his spring head at the Old Park, and makes a gift of the same to the citizens; which they receive thankfully, and celebrate with ringing of bells and much festivity. The mayor and commonalty vote the freedom of the city to Sir John, to be presented in a silvergilt box, which he declines to accept; but, in return for the intended compliment, sends them a buck from his park.
1746. The conduit, standing by St. Andrew's church, is illuminated in honor of the marriage of Sir Edward Hales, bart. who, afterwards, generously continues his ancestor's benesaction of water to the city.
1754. The old conduit, by St. Andrew's church, is taken down, the lead of which seils for 124l 13s. 2½d. New reservoirs of water are placed in the towers of St. George'sgate. Margaret Mantle is executed for the murder of her male bastard child, and her body given to the surgeons for dissection.
1766. His present Majesty, king George III. grants his charter to the mayor, aldermen, and commonalty of Canterbury, and their successors, of liberty of a market, toll free, within the city, on Wednesday in every week, for ever, for the buying and selling of hops, wholesale and retail, in bags, pockets, or otherwise.
1769. East-bridge, otherwise called King's-bridge, is altered and widened. The curious old arches, standing over the river, by Abbot's-mill, are taken down, and the materials used in that work. The tower in the Dungeon-field, next to Wincheap-gate, is removed.
A portrait of Thomas Hanson, of London, merchant, cost 24l. 14s. 6d. is placed in the Guildhall, at the expence of the Corporation. This gentleman, by his will, had given 15col. stock to the mayor and commonalty, in trust to apply the dividends among the poor, in the hospitals of Maynard, East-bridge and St. John, in this city, in sums of 500l. to each hospital.
1778. At the request of the late Mrs. Bridger, of this city, six small tenements are built by her friend the Rev. Mr. Byrche, without Newingate, which are intended as almshouses for six unmarried women, and to be endowed accordingly.
1781. The centre of Burgate, or Borough-gate, also called St. Michael's-gate, which was rebuilt about the year 1475, and to which John Franyngam, John Nethersole and Edmund Minot, whose names are written, in large and legible characters, on the north side of the gate, were principal benefactors, is now taken away. John Frennyngham, who I suppose to be the same person, was twice mayor of the city, viz. in 1462 and 1468.
1782. Ridingate, Redyngate, or Road-gate, the oldest of all the city gates, and said to have been standing before the conquest, being in a very decayed state, is taken down. In 1791 it is rebuilt by alderman Simmons, at great expence.
1787. An Act of Parliament passes, for paving, watching and lighting the streets of the city, and the city is soon afterwards new paved, &c. at the same time the entrance at Northgate is widened about four feet. The Black Friars gate, in St. Peter's-street, long famed for its curious flint facing, is taken down. A bridge, for weighing hay and straw, is erected by the mayor and commonalty, without Saint George's-gate. A pass-master is appointed, with a yearly salary, who by his office is to consider of the wants and necessities of the travelling poor, and relieve those who need it.
1789. The building erected by Mr. Somner, over the Bullstake market, last used as a theatre, is taken down, and the mayor and commonalty make a commodious marketplace for sale of butter, poultry, &c. there as heretofore.
1790. Alderman Simmons begins his improvements on the Dungeon field. The corporation subscribe 100 guineas, towards building an hospital, intended to be called the Kent and Canterbury Infirmary; the first stone of which is laid on the 9th day of June, 1791; and, in 1793, the building is compleat for the reception of in-patients.
An Act of Parliament passes, for making a new road from St. George's gate in Canterbury, to Gutteridge bottom, and for repairing and widening the road from therice to the Dover turnpike road, in the parish of Barham, in Kent.
1791. The antient Roman arch, in the wall of the Old Castle-yard, by historians said to be the old Worgate, or Worthgate, of the city, is removed away, and a new road, or entrance, made from Wincheap, across the Castle-dike and yard, into the city by Castle-street. To effect this improvement, the corporation exchange their land, by the castle, called the Coulton-field, with Samuel Balderston, esq. for a sufficient part of the Castle-yard, which they afterwards give up to the public for that purpose.
A mill, upon Sir Richard Arkwright's model and principles, for working cotton, is erected in this neighbourhood, by Mr. John Callaway, an ingenious and useful citizen; who now first introduces the manufacture of cotton into this county, and thereby gives employment to a great number of the industrious poor of Canterbury, in sraming, by a judicious admixture of silk and cotton, a dress of extreme elegance for the ladies, well known throughout the kingdom, by the name of the Canterbury Muslins.
1792. The right hon. William Pitt, by invitation from the mayor, aldermen and common council, accompanied by the right hon. Henry Addington, speaker of the house of commons, the recorder of Canterbury, and the members for the county of Kent and city of Canterbury, is sumptuously entertained by the corporation, at dinner in the Guildhall, and takes the oath of a freeman of the city.
A metal bushel Winchester measure, a gallon and a quart measure, compared with the king's standards in the exchequer, are placed in the Guildhall, for the accommodation of all persons, who may wish to ascertain their measures thereby.
1793. The gaol at Westgate, undergoes a very large repair and alteration. The gate itself, Mr. Somner says, was re-edified, in king Richard II.'s days, by archbishop Sudbury, who was called to the see of Canterbury in 1375, and died in 1381. The mayor and commonalty purchase the house and ground called St. Radigund's, by Abbot's mill.
1794. The court of burghmote vote 100 guineas towards raising volunteer companies of insantry, for desence of the city and suburbs. A committee survey St. George's steeple, and report it to be in a dangerous state; in consequence of which it is soon afterwards taken down.
1798. The court of burghmote voluntarily contribute 300l. in aid of goverment, for the defence of the country; and engage, annually, to advance the further sum of 200l. during the continuance of the war.
In this and the following year permanent infantry barracks, for upwards of two thousand privates, with accommodations for a suitable number of officers, are built, at the expence of William Baldock and Thomas Delasaux, esqrs. adjoining the cavalry barracks in Northgate, in this city.
His royal highness George, prince of Wales, is at Charlton place, in this neighbourhood. The mayor, recorder, aldermen, sheriff and common council, in their robes, at tended by all the city officers, wait on his royal highness, with an address, and request the honor of his acceptance of the freedom of the city, in testimony of their personal respect and reverence for his royal highness. The copy is presented in a gold box, and very graciously received. The prince, in consequence of an invitation from Matthew William Sankey, esq. the mayor elect, honors the city and the mayor with his presence, on the 29th of September, when the mayor assumes his office; and, with the lord lieutenant of the county and city, the recorder, the members for the county of Kent and city of Canterbury, and a large company of noblemen and gentlemen, is entertained, at dinner, by the mayor, at the Assembly Rooms, in a stile of magnificence highly creditable to the loyalty and hospitality of the chief magistrate.
Adeputation, consisting of the mayor, the chamberlain and other members of the court of burghmote, in their robes, attended by the city officers, wait on his royal highness prince Wm. Frederick of Gloucester, at the prebendal house of the Rev. Dr. Walsby, in the precincts of the cathedral, where the prince is on a visit, and present his royal highness with the freedom of the city, inclosed in a gold box, as a mark of their high respect for the public and private virtues of his royal highness, which the prince is pleased to accept very graciously.
A manuscript register, in two volumes, of all the loans and charitable donations to the poor of Canterbury, also of sundry documents respecting the hospitals of Eastbridge, Maynard, Jesus, Poor Priests and Cogan, in Canterbury, and Manwood's and Smith's in the county, is presented to the court of burghmote by one of its members; (fn. 2) which the court is pleased to receive favourably, and orders to be placed among the records of the city, there to remain, both for the use of the court, and for the information of the citizens; by whom the register may be reserred to, at all times, without fee, on application to and in the presence of the chamberlain or town clerk.
1799. A deputation from the court of burghmote, robed and attended by the city officers, wait on the right hon. Charles, lord Romney, lord lieutenant of the county of Kent, and of the county of the city of Canterbury, at the feat of George Gipps, esq. M. P. at Harbledown, in this county, and present his Lordship with the freedom of the city, in a gold box. His Lordship politely accepts the freedom, and shortly afterwards comes into the city, and takes the usual oath of a freeman:
1800. The King's mill, at Eastbridge, is taken down by alderman Simmons, the lessee of the corporation, and a dwelling-house is erected by him on its scite. The mayor and commonalty sell the building and scite of the corn-market. The watch-house, which formerly was in the front of St. Andrew's church, and since in the corn-market, is removed to the building westward of the new shambles, in that parish, late the loft for the hay engine.