Survey of London Monograph 16, College of Arms, Queen Victoria Street. Originally published by Guild & School of Handicraft, London, 1963.
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Originally Lancaster, whether as herald or as king, was retained by the earls and dukes of Lancaster. The title first appears in 1347 when Lancaster herald made a proclamation at the siege of Calais. Under Richard II Richard Bruges, first as herald, then as king, was retained by John of Gaunt, but on Henry IV's accession he was put on the Crown establishment and made king of the northern province. That arrangement was continued under Henry V and VI, but ceased by 1464 when Holme was made Norroy. Thereafter Lancaster reverted to the rank of herald. The title was still used under Edward IV. Whether or no Collyer and Ashwell were so named by that Sovereign Lancaster herald was sent to Burgundy in 1472 (C. L. Kingsford, English Historical Literature in the Fifteenth Century, p. 381) and to Milan in 1476 (Cal. S.P., Milan, p. 226, no. 335). Since the time of Henry VII Lancaster has been one of the six heralds in ordinary.
I. HERALD OF THE EARL OR DUKE OF LANCASTER
'Roger Durroit autrement dit Lancastre Roy de North d'Angleterre, Herault a Johan Duc de Lancastre' is said to have certified the pedigree of West of Sudbury in 1386, but that certificate is only known from Tudor and later copies of an alleged fifteenth-century confirmation.
Occurs in Issue Rolls, Michaelmas, 6 Hen. IV and Warrant for Issue, 16 April, 11 Hen. IV. 'John' Lancaster herald named in Issue Rolls, 2 March 1405 and 16 April 1410, must be mistaken for Richard Bruges, see above (5).
As William 'Geynys pursevaunt', i.e. Guisnes, witnessed will of John Keer, 23 August 1510 (P.C.C. 21 Fetiplace); probably appd 1509 on Wall's promotion; Lancaster 1516; new pat. 11 November, same year; d. c. October 1527. Owned College of Arms MS. L. 6 and also 'Jenyns' Ordinary' compiled c. 1380 and given to the College by H. F. Burke c. 1900. Ancestor of Jenyns of Ipsley (1619 Vis'n Warwickshire).
Arms granted 1517: Azure, a chevron or between 3 griffin heads erased argent, on a chief or a lion passant guardant between 2 roundels gules. Crest: A cat's head erased gules bezanty with a cross formy fitchy argent in its mouth.
Protégé of the Duchess of Buckingham; said to have been Calais, but if he was cannot have been appd before November 1529; Rouge Dragon 1530 and later Lancaster and Marshal to Garter Barker. As Rouge Dragon, said in Heralds' Partition Book to be 'the first that ever had wages', whence, coupled with the fact that that is the Partition Book's first mention of Rouge Dragon, Martin Leake inferred that until then Rouge Dragon was only a pursuivant extraordinary.
October 1536 sent north with proclamation to Aske and other rebels (his own report in Archaeologia, xvi (1812), 331 sqq.); 1537 sent to King of Scots; later accused of misconduct at time of Pilgrimage of Grace and degraded; 22 July 1538, tried at York, found guilty of treason and executed c. 2 August. He pleaded that in conducting the case against him Hawley and Treheron were moved by malice, bearing a grudge for his actions as Garter's Marshal, but the judge reported that he could not prove this and that the prosecution was conducted honestly (see also L. & P. Hen. VIII, xi–xiii passim; Wriothesley's Chronicle, Camden Soc., N.S. xi, 84).
Successively Guisnes, Rouge Dragon and Lancaster. 1537–41 sent on several missions to Scotland. In disgrace from about 1543; not named in Heralds' Charter 1549; made his peace soon after; 9 June 1550, commissioned by pat. to visit Wales and the Marches (not known to have done so); February 1551 obtained exemplification of his pat. as Lancaster, but soon in disgrace again. 26 May 1551, Edward VI noted in his Journal 'certain of the heralds, Lancaster and Portcullis, were committed to ward for counterfeiting Clarenceux's seal to get money by giving of arms'. The crime was declared treason and Lancaster was degraded and executed.
B. c. 1516, educ. Eton and King's College, Cambridge; probably s. of Nicholas Tubman, porter and barber Eton College, by his wife the College laundress; Hampnes by p.s. 21 September 1545, no pat. but called Hampnes in pat. of Rouge Croix 1550 although Hampnes not named in Heralds' Charter 4 June 1549; later Rouge Croix and Lancaster; 1553 sent to summon Duke of Northumberland and his band to disperse; 1554 granted Crown lease of Boveney and West Mill fisheries and house next Boveney Church; attended Duke of Norfolk against rebels in Kent; d. 8 January 1559, at Gravesend on way back from funeral of Sir John Baker of Sissinghurst; burd Gravesend.
Sometime servant to John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland and his s. Robert, Earl of Leicester. Portcullis 1553; attended Earl of Pembroke on French expedition 1557; 1584 accompanied Earl of Leicester to Low Countries; d. Amsterdam, 17 March 1586.
Younger brother of Sir William Paddy, physician to James I and Charles I (see D.N.B.); fifteen years servant to Gilbert Dethick; Rouge Dragon 1574 and Lancaster 1588; 1597 though senior herald and recommended by Dethick for promotion to Norroy was passed over and Segar appd; d. 1602, will dat. 13 March, pr. 19 April, Commissary Court, London.
Certified but did not concoct Mauleverer pedigree, which Round dubbed as astounding example of sheer, fantastic fiction (Family Origins, p. 170; Peerage and Family History, p. 308; cf. Misc. Gen. & Her., ii, 73; H. & G., ii, 304).
B. Kent (? Erith) c. 1542, s. of William Thynne, of Erith, Kent, Master of the Household to Henry VIII and Editor of Chaucer 1542; first cousin of Sir John Thynne of Longleat; educ. Tonbridge School; admitted Lincoln's Inn 1561; 1602 Blanch Lyon and, immediately after, Lancaster; d. c. November 1608.
One of the original Society of Antiquaries; author of many heraldic, genealogical, historical and antiquarian MSS. now in College, British Museum, Bodleian, etc. Fuller called him 'a gentleman painful & well deserving not only of his own office but all the English nation' (Worthies (1811), 1, 508). W. Dethick recommended him for eventual promotion to Norroy. Said to have been of great help to Camden in his heraldic work (Dallaway, Inquiries, pp. 224–5).
S. of George Charles, of London, butcher; said to have been Blanch Lyon but that lacks confirmation and Ralph Brooke, York, said he was made Lancaster without having served as pursuivant. Married dau. of Garter Segar, and d. 19 November 1613.
One of the most industrious and skilful heralds of his day; great copier of medieval rolls (C.E.M.R.A., p. 140); on his death Camden paid no less than £90 for his manuscripts. 1611 accompanied Norroy on Vis'n of Derbyshire and 1613 visited Huntingdonshire for Camden.
S. of Wm. Penson, Chancellor of Hereford (burd Cradley, co. Hereford), by Alice Whittingham (MS. Harl. 1408, 83); never pursuivant; on death of James Thomas, the senior pursuivant Thomas Knight was nom. Chester and Penson was to be Rouge Croix, but Knight was prevented by the plague from obtaining a patent and Penson surreptitiously got a pat. as Chester (instead of Rouge Croix); Knight protested and after inquiry the Commissioners of E.M. suspended Penson and gave the place to Knight; Penson resisted and the dispute was only settled on the death of Nicholas Charles when Penson was made Lancaster and Knight confirmed as Chester; d. 20 April 1637; burd in St Benet's, Paul's Wharf.
Of Streatham, Surrey; second but eldest surviving s. of Samuel Thompson, Windsor; Rouge Dragon 1624; thence Lancaster; 1634 deputy for R. St George and Borough Vis'ns of Lincolnshire and Derbyshire; with Owen, York, compiled a pedigree of Vaughan, Earl of Carbery (H.C.E.C., no. 162, pl. xlvi); d. on or about 12 September 1641.
Lancaster at Oliver Cromwell's lying in state, etc. (Prestwich, Respublica, p. 189), but probably had post earlier, perhaps on Ryley's removal to Norroy 1646. Ejected at Restoration when Ryley reverted to Lancaster. Married Ryley's dau. Dorothy.
B. c. 1613, fourth s. of Robert Chaloner of Lloran, co. Denbigh, and greatnephew of Thomas Chaloner of Chester, whilom deputy of Norroy. Served in Royalist forces; appd Bluemantle at Restoration and Lancaster 1667. Lived mostly at Roundway, Wiltshire, but d. London 14 November 1675; burd St Benet's, Paul's Wharf.
B. 1630 at Carnow Castle, co. Wicklow, third s. of Francis Sandford of Sandford, co. Salop, by Elizabeth dau. of Chalcott Chambre of Williamscot, Oxfordshire, and of Carnow Castle; 1641 owing to Irish rebellion came to Sandford; said to be B.A. of Trinity College, Dublin (W. B. S. Taylor, History Univ. Dublin, p. 483, but not in J. H. Todd's Catalogue of Graduates in...Dublin); 1661 Rouge Dragon and 1675 Lancaster; 1666 commissioned with Wenceslaus Hollar to make survey of City of London after the Great Fire; actively concerned as architect and supervisor in rebuilding College and 1672 charged by chapter to reside there for greater security; 1689 rather than proclaim King William resigned to Gregory King for £220; settled in Great Russell St, Bloomsbury; d. 17 January 1694, in the Fleet (? Newgate) for debt; burd in St Bride's upper churchyard.
Probably accompanied Dugdale on 1662 Vis'n of Shropshire, of which office copy contains some church notes by him and some of his earlier (1653, etc.) sketches; 1664 deputed by Bysshe to visit churches, etc., in London and Westminster; 1670 deputed by Dugdale to visit Flintshire.
Published A Genealogical History of the Kings of Portugal (1662); The Order ...at the Interment of the...Duke of Albemarle (1670) (engraved); A Genealogical History of the Kings of England... (1677), a most valuable work (2nd edit. enlarged by S. Stebbing, 1707); The History of the Coronation of .. James II (1687). In two latter works greatly assisted by G. King.
B. Lichfield 15 December 1648, s. of Gregory King of that place. At age 14 clerk to Dugdale, then Norroy, accompanied him on Vis'ns from 1663; 1667 servant to Lord Hatton; 1672 worked as engraver, cartographer, etc., in London; 1677 Rouge Dragon and later Lancaster; 1681–3 visited eight counties for Clarenceux; 1687 negotiated purchase for the College of Earl of Anglesey's MSS. including Philipot collections (advanced £25, half the cost); deputy Garter on several occasions; Secretary to Comptroller of Army Account; uncle to Laurence Cromp; d. 29 August 1712; burd in St Benet's, Paul's Wharf (M.I.).
Distinguished as herald and genealogist, draughtsman and cartographer, statistician and town-planner. Laid out King (now Soho) Square; it and Greek St named after him. His autobiography published in Dallaway's Inquiries. He richly deserved and was unfortunate not to obtain promotion to Clarenceux or Garter.
His second wife was Frances, sister of the first Earl of Coventry's second wife Elizabeth Grimes or Graham: King maintained that the sisters were descended from the Grahams of Norton Conyers, whose arms were displayed at the earl's funeral in 1699 and on his monument. But the second earl charged King in the Court of Chivalry with having 'devised fictitious ancestors' for his stepmother and said that she was really one of the first earl's household servants, sister of Richard Grimes, a common waterman. See H. & G., vii, 97, etc. The result has not been found. The Partition Book notes that he was under suspension in 1703, 1707 and 1710 but no reason is stated.
An attorney in Exeter but in 1727 of Dover (Kent), Lancashire and co. Cork. Portcullis 1700 and Lancaster; resd 18 May 1727, in favour of Stephen Martin Leake afterwards Garter. His portrait in the College.
(2) Granted 21 July 1727, after his resignation: Ermine, on a bend sable 3 garbs or with a rose gules in sinister chief. Crest: A garb or charged with a rose gules, the stalk & leaves vert entwined about the garb.
Of Ecclesfield Hall, near Sheffield, Yorkshire; younger s. of William Greene by Alice Smithson, a relative of the Duke of Northumberland. B. January 1702; d. 14 January 1743; burd in Ecclesfield Church (M.I.). Worked for some time for Law, the projector of the Mississippi scheme in France. After Laws' downfall was made Arundel and then Lancaster. According to S. Martin Leake he was a Jacobite, 'a generous, good-natured man & a good officer...but all was drownded in liquor. He could drink any thing, at any time, any where and with any body.'
Of Long Whatton, Leicestershire; b. Great Tower St, London, 31 October 1749, eldest surviving s. of Sir Charles Townley, Garter; Bluemantle 1774; Lancaster 1781; resd 11 July 1793 for £600 from Nayler, having for some years before lived entirely at Long Whatton; d. unmarried 25 November 1800.
B. 1774, s. of George Nicholas Beltz, sometime coal-merchant of St George's, Bloomsbury; F.S.A. 1807; Companion 1826 and Knight 1836 of the Guelphic Order. His mother, Elizabeth Guttridge, half-sister to the mother of G. W. Collen, Portcullis.
A first-class scholar; author of Memorials of the Order of the Garter (1841), A Review of the Chandos Peerage Case (1834), and many papers in Archaeologia, The Retrospective Review, etc. Helped Collen, his cousin and clerk, in editing Debrett's Peerage.
Arms granted 1804: Quarterly, (1 & 4) gules, on a chief per pale erminois & ermine a double eagle sable (Beltz); (2 & 3) or, on a bend wavy azure plain cotised gules 3 doves argent (Guttridge). Crest: On a torse argent & gules a mount vert & thereon in front of a fern-plant an ermine proper. Motto: Amara Lento Temperet Risu.
Arms: Quarterly with a crescent over all; (1 & 4) argent, a chevron between 3 fleurs de lis azure, in centre chief a tent proper lined gules (Bellasis); (2 & 3) argent, a fess embattled & counterembattled plain cotised between 3 annulets gules (Viall). Crest: On a wreath of the colours a mount vert & thereon a lion couchant guardant azure in front of a tent as in the arms. Motto: Bel Est Bel Assez; Loris Non Ureris.
B. 21 June 1913, third s. of Colonel Percy Gerald Walker, I.A.; educ. Dover and R.M.C., Sandhurst; Lieutenant-Colonel (retired) 14th Sikhs; M.C. 1944; Rouge Croix 1947; Lancaster 1954; M.V.O. 1953; Deputy Inspector of Regimental Colours 20 May 1957; Registrar 1960.
Arms (granted 1815): Or ermined sable, on a pile embattled azure a mural crown between 2 caltraps in pale or. Crest: On a mural crown encircled by a wreath of laurel an ostrich resting the dexter claw on a grenade fired, all proper. Motto: Nil Desperandum.