Survey of London: Volume 26, Lambeth: Southern Area. Originally published by London County Council, London, 1956.
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STOCKWELL PARK CRESCENT AREA
In 1806 the land covered by Stockwell Park Crescent and part of Stockwell Park Road, formerly part of Stockwell Manor, was purchased by Edward Shewell, who then lived in Clapham Road, from John Bedwell, (fn. 26) the heir of Benjamin Robertson (see page 91). Though the northern part of Stockwell Park Road was laid out about 1832, development was delayed until after Shewell's death and was carried out by William Cox of Kennington, who purchased part of the estate in 1838. (fn. 26)
Nos. 44 and 46 Stockwell Park Road and Nos. 2 and 4 Stockwell Park Crescent
These houses (Plate 57) are grouped at the northern junction of the two roads, and though not identical they have similar characteristics which suggest they are the work of the same builder. Nos. 44, 46 (fn. 54) and 4 were let by Cox in 1840 and No. 2 was let by him in 1841, for terms of 85 years, and as John Notley, a local builder, was a party to the lease of No. 44 he may have built all four houses. (fn. 36) They are all three-storey villas but whereas Nos. 44 and 46 are detached and have Ionic porches placed centrally, Nos. 2 and 4 are joined by a two-storey link containing their entrances. The side elevations of Nos. 44 and 46 and the fronts of Nos. 2 and 4 are stucco-faced and have an attractive late Regency flavour. The angles are emphasized by pilasters with incised Soanic frets, and the roof gable-ends are treated as open pediments containing small lunette windows. The other villas about the crescent are detached or in pairs. Some are stuccoed and treated similarly to Nos. 2 and 4; others are of stock brick and adorned with Greek detail—wreathed friezes over porches, Ionic columned entrances and hooded windows carried on consoles. The houses in Stockwell Park Road include many similar to those in the Crescent with a fair admixture of later houses which includes the large twin-gable fronted vicarage of St. Michael's.
Nos. 14–24 (even) Stockwell Park Crescent
These houses exemplify the plainer variety of brick villa in the Crescent. They were erected at the costs of John Mackenzie of Crown Street, Westminster, bookbinder, in association with Frances Harrison, spinster, both of whom had building leases from William Cox in 1840–1. (fn. 36) Nos. 14 and 24 each bear a tablet “BEN LOMOND PLACE 1841”.
That part of Stockwell Park Road south of Robsart Street was built on part of the Angell estate called Long Field towards the end of the 1840s. (fn. 55) South of its junction with Robsart Street there are two cottages ornés, Nos. 86 and 99 (formerly Nos. 74 and 91, originally Vernon Cottage and Rodney Cottage), which have ornamented barge-boards to the gables of their central entrances and to the second-floor dormer windows.
The Friendly Almshouses, Stockwell Park Road
The Friendly Female Society was founded in 1802 for the relief of aged women living within ten miles of St. Paul's. At first relief was given by means of small pensions to women living in their own houses, but in 1823 five almshouses for the accommodation of twenty women were built in the parish of Camberwell, and in 1863 seven houses accommodating 28 women were built on the east side of Stockwell Park Road. (fn. 56) They were built fronting the road, and not on the more usual quadrangular plan for almshouses. In 1940 and 1941 the houses were extensively damaged by enemy action, and in 1947–8 a new block was built to replace several of the old houses. Leslie Wyatt was the architect, and Messrs. Mitchell the builders. (fn. 57)
St. Michael's Church, Stockwell Park Road
The site for this church was freely given in 1839 by William Cox (fn. 58) to the Commissioners appointed by the Act of 1818 for building additional churches in populous parishes. (fn. 59) William Rogers' design for the church was approved early in 1840, and to ensure that the building would be “substantially and honestly executed” Rogers was careful not to bind the Commissioners to accept the lowest tender. John Jay, of London Wall, was the builder selected, the estimated cost being £4,819 16s. 4d. (including commission, and salary for a clerk-of-works), of which sum £2,000 were to be provided by the Metropolitan Churches Fund. (fn. 58) The building was consecrated by the Bishop of Winchester on November 18, 1841, and a district was assigned in 1845.
The church (Plate 14a, fig. 30) as originally designed consisted of a wide nave with galleried aisles to the north and south, flanked by side chapels. An apsidal extension at the west end now forms the chancel, but the altar was originally placed within the arcaded base of the hexagonal steeple at the east end, being almost obscured from the congregation by the high pulpit. The steeple, placed axially with Lorn Road, is flanked by small vestries and octagonal lobbies added shortly after the completion of the building.
In 1880 a faculty was obtained to re-orientate the internal arrangements. The altar was then transferred to the west end, the porch there being demolished and the doorway built up. (fn. 60) Open pews replaced the box pews and the west gallery was removed, the organ being re-erected in the south aisle.
There are two inscribed tablets set in the tower buttresses. The first records the renewal of the pinnacles and the repair of the exterior in 1896, and the second records the internal renovation of 1920, carried out by the architect A. R. Powys. The church was severely damaged by a flying bomb in June 1944 and after its restoration by Thomas F. Ford was re-dedicated in 1952.
In every respect this is a typical Commissioners' “Gothic” church—that is to say, a capacious preaching-box with galleries, built of brick and meagrely dressed with stone detail of a wiry Early English character. Architectural interest centres on the east elevation, closing the vista along Lorn Road. This is a symmetrical composition balanced about the tower and spire of hexagonal plan, one half of which projects beyond the east wall of the nave. Each face of the tower is gabled and contains in its upper part a group of three lancets, one large glazed light between two blind arches. The angles are emphasized by offset buttresses rising to octagonal pinnacles. The present somewhat abrupt transition from tower to spire is due to the removal, in 1930, of the flying buttresses and inner ring of pinnacles at the base of the spire. Each flanking face of the nave wall contains a lancet group similar to those in the tower, and the parapet is sloped to accord with the roof pitch. The east end of each side chapel was treated as a low tower with an arcaded top stage and corner pinnacles, but these embellishments have been removed.
The interior has a spidery elegance due to the use of slender shafted columns of cast-iron for the arcades supporting the galleries and roof. The structural timbers of the roof were originally exposed but they are now concealed by a false ceiling. The windows of single lancet form generally have clear glazing, the exceptions being the five windows of the apse and the west windows in the side chapels. The stained glass for these was designed by John Trinick.
STOCKWELL GREEN AREA
Though there are few buildings in the neighbourhood which are even a hundred years old the centre of interest for the history of Stockwell Manor and hamlet still lies in the Stockwell Green area. The “stoc” or wood probably disappeared in the 17th century but there is still evidence of the plentiful supply of water which gave the name of Stockwell its second component. On Stockwell Green there used to be a public well at the south-west corner (fn. 25) and there are still two wells on the site of Stockwell Congregational Church and two on the site of Hammerton's Brewery. The Barrett family's house in Stockwell Road opposite the Green was supplied with “remarkable fine water” from a spring nearby. (fn. 61)
This house was on the site of the old manor house which stood about sixty yards from the road and faced the northern extremity of the Green. Legend connects the manor house with Thomas Cromwell who may indeed have stayed there when it was in the hands of Henry VIII. In 1580 when it was leased to Henry Store for 1,000 years (see page 82) the house was surrounded by a moat and its gardens and orchards contained about four acres.
The leasehold interest in the manor house which had been acquired by Francis Gofton was sold by him in 1640 to Samuel Lewes with about 42 acres of land. (fn. 62) The house was demolished shortly before 1756 and the lease was purchased in 1770 by Isaac Barrett, wax-chandler. (fn. 63) Barrett erected a large mansion on the site, but this was pulled down in the middle of the 19th century. Some parts of the moat, which was alleged to have been 30–40 feet wide, (fn. 64) were still visible at the beginning of the 19th century. (fn. 61)
The chapel built by Sir John Leigh stood a little to the south of the moat. (fn. 61) In 1598, when it was excepted from the sale of the Manor to George Chute, it had lately been demised to John Turbervile. (fn. 14) It was apparently still standing in 1801 when it was described as “a very antique building”. (fn. 61)
Public Houses, Stockwell Road
There are four public houses in Stockwell Road which are still known by the names of older inns on whose sites they stand. The Swan at the corner of Clapham and Stockwell Roads was rebuilt at the end of the 18th century (fn. 61) and again quite recently. Both the Swan and the Plough, on the west side of the road, are men- tioned in a deed of 1781. (fn. 25) The Old Queen's Head was rebuilt in 1882, (fn. 65) but a water-colour drawing of the old inn shows it as a long two-storey weather-boarded building lying back from the road. (fn. 66) The youngest of the four and the least altered is the New Queen's Head on the west side of the road. It was probably erected at the same time as the houses adjoining it on the south in 1786. (fn. 61)
Stockwell College, Stockwell Road
This college was founded by the British and Foreign School Society in 1859, the foundation stone being laid by Lord Granville. It was opened in 1861 by Lord John Russell. In 1843 the Society had admitted 20 women students into the Borough Road Training College, and from that time the number had increased until it was considered desirable to establish a separate college for them. Some 75 students were transferred to new premises on the east side of Stockwell Road in 1861; new practising schools were erected and in 1864 a kindergarten school was added. Further enlargements were made in 1871 and 1884. In 1922 the practising schools provided accommodation for 700 children. Training in Froebel methods was a prominent feature of the work of the college. In 1935 Stockwell College moved to its present home at the Old Palace, Bromley; the old site is now covered by blocks of flats. (fn. 67)
Stockwell Park House and the Brixton Tabernacle, Stockwell Road
Part of the estate in Stockwell Manor leased to Henry Store in 1580 included 11 acres called Harris Field and Long Field. They were sublet by Store together with a house erected by himself, to Nicholas Juxe or Jukes of Lambeth, yeoman, for 996 years. In 1702 both fields were purchased by Nicholas Hookes who conveyed them in the following year to Elizabeth Angell. (fn. 68) This transaction probably represented a marriage settlement on Nicholas Hookes's daughter Caroline who married Elizabeth Angell's son John. On part of Harris Field opposite Stockwell Common at the west end of the present Stockwell Park Walk, John Angell erected a large house. (fn. 69) The house later became known as Stockwell Park House, and the pleasure grounds attached to it extended as far as Brixton Road; they included Harris Field, Long Field and ten acres of copyhold land held of Lambeth Manor. (fn. 70) John Angell junior lived in the house after his father's death and stipulated in his will that either Stockwell or Crowhurst should be the chief residence of the family. (fn. 71) In 1790 his heir's widow leased the house to Thomas James of Stamford Street. (fn. 72) There is a plan of the house and grounds drawn in 1803, when part of the garden comprising the ten acres of Lambeth Manor copyhold was sold. (fn. 22) By 1826 the house had been turned into a school; (fn. 73) it was pulled down about 1882 when Benedict and Speenham Roads were made. (fn. 74)
The Brixton Tabernacle, Stockwell Road, was erected on the site of the front garden of Stockwell Park House. Building began in 1883 (fn. 33) and the chapel was opened on May 11, 1884. It is a dull pedimented building of red brick, with detail suggesting Jacobean influence.
Nos. 40–46 (even) Stockwell Road
These are some of the oldest surviving houses in Stockwell Road and were erected between 1781 and 1788 (fn. 38) for Benjamin Robertson, (fn. 75) who purchased part of Stockwell Manor from Edward Thornycroft (see page 82). Originally there were nine pairs of houses and they were probably all erected by local craftsmen, two of whom were Joseph Buckmaster, plumber and glazier, and Samuel Burrows, plasterer, both of Lambeth. (fn. 76) Those remaining are plain grey brick houses, three storeys high above semi-basements, with plain parapets. Each house has a wing, of one or two storeys, containing a deep-set round-headed entrance. The gauged flat arches to the windows are of yellow brick. Benjamin Robertson also raised a botanical garden on part of his estate in Stockwell, though its exact site is not known. In his will, dated 1800, he left all his freehold estates to trustees, who included Adrias Hardy Haworth of Chelsea, William Acton of Kew, Alexander McLeay, secretary of the Linnaean Society, and Alexander Malcolm, a local nurseryman, to maintain and improve the garden which was to be called “Stockwell Botanic Garden founded by Benjamin Robertson Esq.” After Robertson's death, however, this devise was held to be void and by a decree in Chancery dated July 6, 1801 his real estate was ordered to be vested in his next-of-kin. It was consequently divided in 1805 between his sister Esther, wife of William Moore, and his other sister's son, John Bedwell. (fn. 25)
King George's House, Stockwell Road
This building was opened in 1905 as a residential club for young men; (fn. 77) it was subsequently used by the Y.W.C.A. and as a private residential club for ladies. Since 1937 it has been used by the John Benn Boys' Hostels Association for the accommodation of boys between the ages of 14 and 18 without a home in London. (fn. 78) The architect was Arthur T. Bolton and the builders were Rudd and Son. (fn. 33)
The building is skilfully planned in the form of a St. Andrew's cross, so that there are no internal courts and every room has a good outlook. As originally arranged it contained 208 bedrooms and many club-rooms including a dining-hall, lounge, library and smoking-room, together with such recreational facilities as a gymnasium, billiard-room, fives-courts, tennis-courts and a miniature rifle-range. This accommodation is arranged in a semi-basement and lofty principal storey for the club-rooms, with four uniform storeys of bedrooms above. The exterior is an impressive design, reflecting its author's deep interest in the work of Vanbrugh. It is almost entirely carried out in brickwork, generally stock, above a plum-coloured base and with red dressings. The large windows of the lower storeys are generally arch-headed. The flush-framed sashes of the bedroom windows are grouped in twos or threes within the framework of a giant order of Doric pilasters, the top-storey windows being contained within the high frieze of the triglyphed entablature.
Stockwell Primary School, Stockwell Road
This school was built for the London School Board. The contractor was W. Brass of Old Street, whose tender for a school for 828 children was for £8,416. (fn. 79) The school was opened on August 13,1877. (fn. 32) The architect was probably E. R. Robson, but T. J. Bailey remodelled the school in 1902. (fn. 31) It is a three-storey brick building with a narrow frontage to the road.
Nos. 15–19 (consec.) Stockwell Lane
Like Garden Close on the opposite side of Stockwell Road, Stockwell (formerly Love) Lane still retains a faintly rural air. It is a narrow thoroughfare with houses on the north side only. Nos. 15 to 19 are terrace houses of three storeys above a basement, having simply designed fronts of stock brick. The paired doorways are dressed with wooden architraves and hoods supported on moulded brackets. The rendered reveals of the windows suggest that they once contained flush frames, while the details of the internal woodwork point to a building date of about 1750. The wall face of the top storey appears to be later than the rest and might replace a roof attic.
Nos. 10 and 11 Stockwell Lane
These houses stand back at the end of the lane. They are a pair of two-storeyed cottages built of stock and plum-coloured brick; they share a front crowned with a pediment which has a recessed quatrefoil in its tympanum. The first-floor windows are underlined by a continued sill-band, and the doorways have neat fanlights.
No. 28 Sidney Road
This house stood at the east end of, and faced, Stockwell Lane; it was demolished in 1952 (fig. 31). At the time of its demolition it must have been the oldest house then standing in Stockwell, for it was probably erected early in the 18th century. It stood on part of the land let with the manor house to Henry Store in 1580, (fn. 80) and was probably built as two houses. (fn. n1) In the 19th century it was certainly used as two houses, which were called Grove House and Burnley House respectively. (fn. 80) They each contained a basement, two storeys, and an attic within a mansard roof. Sharing a uniform front of stock brick, each house was three windows wide; the flush-framed sashes were set in segmental-headed openings dressed with red brick. Burnley House had a doorway at the end of the front, which was framed by blocked architraves surmounted by a corniced hood resting on consoles; Grove House had an insignificant doorway on the flanking elevation.
St. Andrew's Church, Stockwell Green
St. Andrew's church is the oldest church in Lambeth apart from the parish church of St. Mary. In 1711, a year after the establishment of Commissioners for building fifty new churches in London, Westminster and the suburbs, (fn. 81) the inhabitants of Lambeth presented a petition to the Commissioners praying that an additional church might be built in the parish. (fn. 82) Sir John Thorny-croft, Lord of Stockwell Manor, offered to present two acres of waste ground, (fn. 83) and the consent of those freeholders of the Manor who enjoyed rights of common was obtained. (fn. 82) As a result of this offer the Commissioners resolved that “the new Church intended to be built within the parish of Lambeth, ought to be erected within the Liberty of Stockwell, upon the ground offer'd gratis by Sir John Thornicroft”. (fn. 84)
For some undiscovered reason this project came to nothing and it was not until 1767 that a piece of land on the estate of the Duke of Bedford was obtained, and Stockwell Chapel erected (fn. 85) (Plate 13a). The cost of erecting the chapel was met by voluntary subscriptions. In 1788 the land on which the chapel was built, part of Stack Yard Field, was conveyed by Francis, fifth Duke of Bedford, to the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of Winchester and the Rector of Lambeth and their successors upon trust for use as a chapel of ease. (fn. 85) In 1844 it was stated that the chapel could hold 800 people. (fn. 86) It was drastically remodelled in 1867 (fn. 87) and extended westwards by one bay so that the accommodation was increased to 1,043. (fn. 88) A tower was also built at the southwest corner at this time and the galleries were reconstructed. The architect for these works, which cost approximately £2,500, was Henry Edward Coe. (fn. 89) (Plate 13b). The building was opened on November 30, 1867, and consecrated on June 11, 1868, and dedicated to St. Andrew; a Consolidated Chapelry was assigned in the same year. Since then the fabric has remained in virtually the same form except that the grey brick of the exterior was rendered over in the 1880s (fn. 87) and the side galleries were removed in 1924 when an extensive restoration was carried out. (fn. 90)
When the church was remodelled in 1867 the plain body was elaborated with detail of an Italian Romanesque derivation, and the tower or campanile was erected in a similar style. The tower, which contains the entrance, is of three stages and supports a rendered pyramidal spire which is banded horizontally and surmounted by a stone gabled finial of squat proportions. The tower and the body of the church are covered in roughcast of a grey-brown colour, with red rendering above the upper windows and to the corner piers. The caves of the tower and of the church, which has a slated roof, are corbelled, and the windows are simply detailed with stone mullions and surrounds. The large circular east window over the altar has plate tracery and at its centre is a round light, containing a St. Andrew's cross, surrounded by eight large and eight very small lights.
The plain interior has a small Lady Chapel on the north side of the nave and a gallery across the west end. The sanctuary and nave are separated by an arcade of three simple round arches, the centre arch being of wider span.
Stockwell Congregational Church
Facing north-east towards Stockwell Green stands Stockwell Congregational Church, which is approached along a paved alleyway. Like St. Andrew's Church it is of particular interest because of its early foundation. Stockwell New Chapel was built in 1798, (fn. 91) but did not have a regular minister until 1801, when the Rev. Thomas Jackson was inducted as pastor; he remained there until his death in 1843. (fn. 92) He is buried in a vault in the graveyard behind the church and there is a tablet to his memory above the pulpit. The second minister to be appointed was the Rev. David Thomas. During his pastorate it was decided to enlarge the chapel. James Wilson was chosen as architect, (fn. 93) and the chapel was re-opened on October 8, 1850. (fn. 94) The building, which is of plain stock brick, was remodelled and extended on the south-east side. It was also refronted in stucco to a pretentious design with debased Ionic pilasters supporting a dentilled pediment, and a pedimented porch was added at the centre. At the same time a tower was built at the east corner, finished with a small dome surmounted by a finial; the top stage of the tower has splayed angles treated as pilasters. The interior has galleries on three sides. A tablet placed in the church on June 17, 1955 records the centenary of the marriage here on June 16, 1855 of William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army.
No. 1 Stockwell Green
On the opposite side of Stockwell Green from the Congregational Church stands a building in Jacobean style now used for commercial purposes. It was opened on March 8, 1848 as an Educational Institute at the expense of the congregation of Stockwell New Chapel. Besides being used for non-sectarian schools it was also used for meetings and lectures. (fn. 95) Despite mutilation and disfiguring painting, the front survives as an interesting and fairly scholarly example of Jacobean revivalism. From the brick face project three flat bays, each of two lofty storeys. The ground storey of the middle bay has been altered, but that on each side contains an arched doorway between Doric columns that support an entablature, and a dwarf intermediate stage with a three-light window flanked by tapered Ionic pilasters carrying a second entablature. In the second storey is a large rectangular window divided by mullions and transoms into three tiers of three lights. The quoined angles rise to a crowning entablature and a parapet ornamented with quatrefoils in panels. A similar window forming the second storey of the middle bay is surmounted by a curved and stepped gable.
Stockwell Brewery (Hammerton's) Stockwell Green
The plentiful supply of water around Stockwell Green made it a suitable site for a brewery. The date of establishment inscribed on the present brewery building—1730—is unsubstantiated. The earliest reference found to a brewery at Stockwell Green occurs in 1801 when it was said to belong to Robert Tyler and to be in the occupation of a Mr. Roberts. (fn. 96) Between 1831 and 1842 the brewery was put up for auction. It was said to have been established for more than 50 years and the trade was then about 12,000 barrels a year. There was attached to the brewery an “elegant freehold abode”, with a bathroom “worthy of an emperor”. (fn. 97) None of the early buildings survive. (fn. c1)
Nos. 21–34 (consec.) Stockwell Green
These houses are of little architectural interest. They were erected singly and in twos and threes, at various dates from about 1790 to about 1840. (fn. 38) No. 21, probably late 18th century, is a two-storeyed cottage with a plain stock brick front, the upper part recently rebuilt. There are three round-headed openings in the ground storey, the middle one being the doorway, and above, correspondingly, are three rectangular windows. No. 22 is a much altered house of around 1800, containing three storeys over a semi-basement. The original portion of the stock brick front has two rectangular windows in each storey, and a Roman Doric doorcase of stucco. Nos. 23 and 24 are paired houses with their entrances in wings. The body of each house has an extremely plain stock brick front with a wide segmental-headed three-light window in each of the three storeys. Nos. 25 and 26 were erected between 1819 and 1821 on land belonging to Hannah Hughes, widow. (fn. 98) They are paired houses of three storeys with fronts of stock brick dressed with stucco. There are two rectangular windows to each storey, those of the first floor descending to a sill-band. The arch-headed doorways are contained in side annexes. Nos. 27 and 27A are two-storeyed cottages built at a right angle to the roadway, and might well be of late 18th century date. Nos. 28, 29 and 30 form a composed terrace of three cottages, with two storeys above a semi-basement. The two windows wide fronts are of stock brick, and the doorcases, ground-floor window architraves, and crowning cornice are of painted stucco. The blocking-course is raised over the middle house and inscribed “VICTORIA PLACE”. They were built shortly before 1840. Nos. 31 and 32, dating from around 1815, are paired houses of three storeys with stock brick fronts. The ground storey of each house has two arched openings, the doorway having a stucco architrave, and there is a bandcourse at first-floor level. Each upper storey has two rectangular windows, those to the first floor opening to a cast-iron balcony of Regency character, missing from No. 31. No. 32 has a slightly recessed wing of three storeys, one window wide. No. 33 is a later house with a front of similar composition to No. 32 except that the upper windows are segmental-headed and the entrance is contained in the side wing. No. 34, a detached house of about 1810, has a stock brick front, three storeys high and three windows wide. The ground storey has been obscured by the addition of a shopfront, but the upper part is unchanged. The first-floor windows are archheaded and set in recesses of the same form, linked by narrow impost-bands.
Building on the Green itself began in 1876, after a dispute as to the rights of the freeholder, a Mr. Honey, to appropriate the land for building purposes. (fn. 99)
No. 22 Southesk Street
In Stockwell Grove and Southesk Street there are several groups of working-class cottages dating from the early 19th century; they are all small and of very economical construction. No. 22 Southesk Street is the best example; it is two storeys high with a single pitched roof sloping away from the front, which is carried up to a parapet. Despite the cheapness of construction, the simple stock brick front shows regard for the niceties of late Georgian taste. The sash-windows are pleasantly proportioned and the narrow arched doorway admits a six-panelled door below a radial-patterned fanlight, while a recessed panel relieves the blank upper face of the wall.
South Western Hospital, Landor Road
This hospital was built in 1869–70 by the Managers of the Metropolitan Asylum District under the provisions of the Metropolitan Poor Act, 1867, for the reception of patients suffering from fever and smallpox. It consists of two symmetrically arranged groups of stock brick buildings of two and three storeys joined by a wide central corridor. The blocks run approximately east and west across the long site, which extends north and south, and are plain and unprepossessing. The northerly group was designed by Thomas Henry Wyatt, and the southerly group by Frederick Marrable. William Howard was the contractor for both blocks. (fn. 100)
St. Andrew's C.E. Primary School, Lingham Street
At a public meeting in 1815 it was decided to establish a school to be known as the Stockwell and Brixton Auxiliary Parochial School; (fn. 101) it was to be managed on the Madras system and on the principles of the Church of England in union with the National Society. (fn. 102) The foundation stone was laid by the Archbishop of Canterbury on June 9, 1818, and the school was opened on October 25, 1818, with 150 boys and 100 girls. The cost of the building was £1,000. (fn. 101) The school was restored and enlarged at the end of the 19th century. (fn. 103) The original hall is now in the centre of the group with later buildings flanking it on each side. The Lingham Street façade is of two storeys in red brick with stone mullioned and transomed windows grouped in horizontal bands across the front; it is crowned with a heavily bracketed cornice and has swept parapets over its two terminal and two medial projections.
An Infants' School was opened in South (now  Southesk) Street in 1838; (fn. 104) the undistinguished stock brick building, which is no longer used as a school, still remains.