Survey of London: Volume 6, Hammersmith. Originally published by London County Council, London, 1915.
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XXVIII.—SUSSEX HOUSE, Nos. 12 And 14 UPPER MALL
Ground landlord, leaseholder, etc.
General description and date of structure.
Sussex House is a very complete and interesting example of an early Georgian building, dating from about the year 1726. It took the place of an earlier house of which there are records as far back as 1628, and may still contain some parts of the old structure. The house, as will be seen below, was divided, probably when in course of erection, to accommodate two tenants, and a second staircase was built to the west which, on reference to the plan (Plate 61), will be seen to be obviously an afterthought. This necessitated the making of an arrangement with the owners of the adjoining copyhold property, and in 1776 a piece of ground in addition to the site of the stair was acquired, and has since been let with the western house.
The original plan was arranged for four rooms on the ground floor, with a passage between the two front rooms and a staircase between those at the back. There are three floors and a basement, and the rooms are panelled throughout. The original and larger staircase is of good design, with three balusters to each tread, and good carved brackets to the stair-ends. It has an inlaid star pattern on the landing.
The front is symmetrically arranged and is built of warm-coloured stock bricks with pilasters, stringcourses, quoins and window arches of red brick. As was the usual practice at the period, the front is a 4½-inch veneer of brickwork very insufficiently bonded to the walls, and in consequence it has needed considerable repair. The central entrance doorway is of excellent design and proportions; it consists of fluted pilasters supporting a Doric entablature and curved pediment. The door inserted for the second house has a hood on shaped brackets, carved with flower and foliage; this door takes the place of the westernmost window of the south front. The western portion of the building was called formerly Sussex Cottage, but the two parts are now in use as one house.
Condition of repair.
Historical and biographical notes.
From information contained in the title deeds, and kindly communicated by Mr. A. M. Naylor, we find that in 1628 Francis Leasy was the owner of the messuage and one rood of land adjoining, the former being in the tenure of Thomas Greene and Mr. Stortwell. Francis sold the house to Samuel Leasy in the same year, and in 1645, in a description of the property, the rood of land is described as an orchard divided from the orchard of Francis Leasy on the east. In 1683 John Blainthard sold the house to William Reade, and in a deed of mortgage between Reade and Richard Hughes in 1692 the property is described as late in the occupation of John Pedder. In 1693 Tertullian Lewis purchased the house from Reade, and left it by will (dated 23rd April, 1699) to his son John Lewis. He sold it to Thomas Cox and Matthew Ailay in 1708, and they leased it to Jonas Durand. At the same time Thomas Cox purchased 200 gooseberry bushes from William Pedder, who apparently was till then using the rood of orchard land.
By an indenture dated 21st September, 1726, Jonas Durand and James Brissac agreed to sell to Nathaniel Bridgewater "all that new built capital messuage as the same was then divided into two tenements, and the parcel of land thereto belonging, as the same was then divided," therein mentioned to contain one rood then in the tenure or occupation of Mr. George Cooke and Mr. John Senex. This deed gives us the approximate date of the present structure and also proves that it was divided into two tenements soon after, if not during, erection. There can be no doubt about the identity of the property referred to in the deed, but it is puzzling to find the southern boundary described as land and buildings formerly of William Holden and now or late of Dr. Hutchinson, whereas the present boundary is the footpath connecting the Upper Mall with the Highbridge. We must either assume that the footway was not yet formed, or that it was at that time private property, as indeed the bank of the river along the Mall was also.
We have no further information until 7th January, 1777, when Henry Joseph and John Durand lease to Roger Thomas and Moses Hadley "two messuages or tenements, one of them formerly in the tenure of John Senex and the other of George Cooke, heretofore one dwelling house, except the staircase of the dwelling house formerly of George Cooke, which stair stands on a piece of copyhold ground purchased by Roger Thomas, (fn. 1) and all that parcel of ground adjoining containing one rood heretofore in the tenure of Cooke and Senex."
The John Senex may have been the cartographer and engraver of that name who died in 1740. In 1719 he was engaged as a bookseller in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street. (fn. 2) He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1728. His neighbour, George Cooke, bore the name of a family who were also engravers and booksellers.
Sussex House is said to have obtained its name as an occasional residence of Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (1773–1843), but it is more probable that it merely commemorates his association with the locality. He was a subscriber to Faulkner's work on Hammersmith, in which we find a reference only to his "Smoking Box" (fn. 3) (No. 17 Upper Mall). There was another Sussex House near Parr Bridge, (fn. 4) which was no doubt named for a like reason, although it has also been claimed as a residence of the duke. The Duke of Sussex laid the foundation stone of Hammersmith Bridge in 1825 "and dined with a numerous company at the Coffee house." (fn. 5)
In the Council's ms. collection are:
(fn. 6) Ground plan and south elevation (measured drawing).
(fn. 6) Entrance doorway and details (measured drawing).