Survey of London: Volumes 31 and 32, St James Westminster, Part 2. Originally published by London County Council, London, 1963.
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No. 13 Golden Square
The sites of Nos. 13–16 were in that part of the Axtells' moiety of Gelding Close which William Partridge of St. Martin's, blacksmith, undertook to develop, and in August 1684 they were leased to him by Martha Axtell for fifty-one years at an annual rent of £11 3s. (fn. 1)
The first occupant of No. 13 was probably Sir Henry Ingoldsby, the parliamentarian (1691–4). Later inhabitants include (Sir) Edmund Prideaux (1695–1711), the dancer Elizabeth Gamberini (1753–63), for whom the house may have been rebuilt in 1753, thearchitects Henry Keene (1763– 1772) and his son Theodosius (1773–8), (fn. 2) and (Sir) Martin Archer Shee, the future President of the Royal Academy (1796–8). (fn. 3) In the nineteenth century the house was occupied at various times as a warehouse and later from 1873 to 1905 as an hotel. (fn. 4)
A survey made in 1905 shows that No. 13 was a double-fronted house containing a basement and four storeys. The plan was dovetailed in with that of No. 7 Lower James Street. On the ground floor there was a large deep room on the east side of the entrance passage, and a shallower room on the west. At the back of the passage was an openwell staircase, top lit, and west of this was a small back room lit from an area common to the two houses. This arrangement was repeated on the first floor except that the east front room extended over the passage and became the largest room in the house. The front, four storeys high and five windows wide, appears to have been of brick with stone or stucco dressings. The ground storey was rusticated, but this was probably a later stuccoing of the original plain brickwork. The doorway was central and the round-arched opening was dressed with a doorcase of Doric columns supporting entablature-blocks and an open triangular pediment. A pedestal underlined the main face of two storeys, which was of brick bounded by long-andshort quoins. The middle window in the first floor was dressed with an architrave and a segmental pediment, and that above had an eared architrave. The other windows were plain, with flat arches of gauged brickwork. Below the attic storey was a modillioned cornice. The return front to Lower James Street was decorated with blind windows, Venetian in the first three storeys, and a semi-circular arch in the attic.
In 1906 the house was demolished and the present office block built to the designs of William Woodward. (fn. 5)
No. 14 Golden Square
The site of this house, together with those of Nos. 13, 15 and 16, was leased in August 1684 by Martha Axtell to William Partridge for fifty-one years. (fn. 1) A house was built there by 1692, when Mr. Capel probably became the first occupant. In later years there were no inhabitants of note. In the nineteenth century the house was occupied for a time by a surgeon and later became a lodging house. (fn. 4)
The only item of evidence relating to this house is a photograph (fn. 6) of 1912 of the doorcase, apparently of wood and of mid eighteenth-century date. The door, with three panels on each side of a central bead, was surmounted by a fanlight and recessed within an arch with panelled reveals and soffit, and a narrow archivolt rising from simple impost mouldings. On either side was an Ionic plain-shafted column supporting an entablatureblock, linked by a high segmental pediment, consisting of the corona and cymatium of the cornice, of which the modillions and bed-mouldings were recessed back against the margin of the doorway arch.
In 1912 the building was demolished and the site acquired by the owners of the adjoining No. 13. A new building was then erected and finished in the following year to the designs of R. H. Kerr, as an extension to No. 13, which had been built in 1906. (fn. 7) The builders were Sabey and Sons of Islington. (fn. 8)
No. 15 Golden Square
The site of this house, together with those of Nos. 13, 14 and 16, was leased in August 1684 by Martha Axtell to William Partridge for fifty-one years. (fn. 1) A house was built there by 1689, when Lady Cope became the first occupant. The ratebooks suggest that the house may have been rebuilt in 1778 for Jephtha Galliard and Company. In the nineteenth century the house was occupied by various firms of solicitors. (fn. 4)
Together with No. 16, No. 15 was demolished in 1907–8 for the erection of a new building for Messrs. Burberry, who had rebuilt No. 17 in 1902. (fn. 9) The architect was probably William Woodward and the builders Trollope and Colls. (fn. 10)
No. 16 Golden Square
The site of this house, together with those of Nos. 13–15, was leased in August 1684 by Martha Axtell to William Partridge for fifty-one years. (fn. 1) A house was built there by 1689 and probably occupied by a Madam Ball until 1690, and then by Charles Chetwind, esquire, until 1714. (fn. 11)
The most notable inhabitant of this house was Angelica Kauffmann, the artist. She came to England in June 1766 and first lived in lodgings in Suffolk Street. A growing reputation and her father's arrival in England induced her in 1767 to take a furnished house, No. 16 Golden Square, which, though on the southern and less fashionable side, provided the necessary northern light for her work. Here she lived until 1781, when she left England. (fn. 12) The next occupant was another artist, Prince Hoare, who remained here until 1787. (fn. 13)
In the nineteenth century the house (which does not seem to have been greatly altered since its erection in the 1680's) was occupied by various commercial and professional firms. It was demolished in 1907–8 for the erection of Nos. 15–16 Golden Square, an extension to Messrs. Burberry's warehouse and offices at No. 17 (fn. 4) (see above sub No. 15).
No. 17 Golden Square
This site, together with those of Nos. 18 and 19, formed part of the ground which was jointly granted (on what terms is not known) before the partition of 1675 by Axtell and Emlyn to William Partridge of St. Martin's, blacksmith. Subsequently the latter covenanted 'to make uniform buildings', (fn. 14) and the engraving reproduced on Plate 120a shows that he (or possibly his nominee John Beales) (fn. 1) did in fact do so. The house appears to have been built by 1689 and occupied by Colonel Sylliard. Later occupants include Henry Temple (1704–7), possibly the politician of this name who later became the first Viscount Palmerston, and Edward Chandler (1720–30), then Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry and later Bishop of Durham. (fn. 13)
In 1775 Nos. 17 and 18 were demolished and a large double-fronted house was then built on the combined sites for John Norton, the surgeon, who had previously lived at No. 25 Golden Square, and who was the inventor of 'Maredant's Drops'. The house was later occupied from 1788 to 1793 by Norton's successor in practice, John Hayman, until he moved to No. 22. (fn. 9)
Hayman's trade card (Plate 134b) gives what is probably a reliable picture of the front of Surgeon Norton's house. It shows a front of four storeys, five windows wide, with handsome railings to the front areas and lamp-irons flanking the wide steps before the central doorway. The door was surmounted by a radial fanlight and flanked by sidelights, the latter placed between columns with fluted capitals. Each pair of columns supported an enriched entablature, united by an open pediment above the arched doorway. All the windows were set in plain rectangular openings in a brick face, dressed with a bandcourse at firstfloor level, where the tall windows had segmental balconies, and a frieze of fluting between paterae with a narrow cornice below the attic storey. Above the roof rose an octagonal lantern-light, presumably over the main staircase.
In 1812 the double-sited house was divided into two separate houses, possibly by Edward Howard, a conveyancer, who had lived here since 1810. He retained the eastern half, now again No. 17, until 1817. Later in the nineteenth century the house was occupied at various times by a tailor, an artist and picture-liner, and by a girls' school from 1859 to 1864.
The house was demolished in 1902 for the erection of the present office and warehouse building for Messrs. Burberry. (fn. 4) The architect may have been William Woodward, who probably designed the adjoining Nos. 15 and 16, also for Messrs. Burberry.
No. 18 Golden Square
This site, together with those of Nos. 17 and 19, formed part of the ground which was jointly granted before the partition of 1675 by Axtell and Emlyn to William Partridge. (fn. 14) A house was built there by 1689, and Major Clifford was probably the first occupant. There were no later residents of note. The house was demolished in 1775, together with the adjoining No. 17, for the erection of a new double-fronted house on the combined site (see above). This large house was divided into two in 1812 and No. 18 reverted to separate occupation. (fn. 9) It was in commercial occupation throughout most of the nineteenth century and was demolished in 1904. The present building was erected shortly afterwards. The builders were H. and E. Lea of Warwick Street. (fn. 15)
No. 19 Golden Square
This site, together with those at Nos. 17 and 18, formed part of the ground which was jointly granted by Axtell and Emlyn before the partition of 1675 to William Partridge. (fn. 14) A house was erected there by 1689 and occupied by Thomas Walker, esquire, until 1700. The only other inhabitants of note were Sir Edward Earby (1704– 1707) and Colonel William Crosby (1784–8). (fn. 16)
Thereafter the house was occupied by various professional tenants until 1863 when a firm of perfumers moved in. The house (which does not seem to have been greatly altered since the late seventeenth century) was demolished in 1922 for the erection of the present office and warehouse block. (fn. 17)