Thoroton's History of Nottinghamshire: Volume 1, Republished With Large Additions By John Throsby. Originally published by J Throsby, Nottingham, 1790.
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COLLECTIONS Towards an historical description of that county.
This County of Nottingham, the Map shows to be of an Oval Figure, extending itself in Length, from Stanford-upon-Sore, bordering on Leicestershire on the South, unto Alkeley or Finningley, bordering upon Yorkshire on the North, near the Space of thirty-six English Miles; and about Half as much in Breadth, from the Lordship of Colinghame, bounding on Lincolnshire on the East, to that of Teversalt (not far from Maunsfield) adjoining to Darbyshire on the West; which last-named County was not so divided from this, but that they continued to have one Sheriff, till the tenth Year of Queen Elizabeth.
Three Hundreds or Wapentakes, viz. Rushcliff, Bingham, and Newark, containing betwixt a third and fourth Part of this County, lie on the South Side the River Trent, which entereth this Shire at Thrumpton; where it taketh in the River Sore, and continueth his course towards Lincolnshire, which (after it leaves Newark Hundred) it separates from Nottinghamshire, till it comes beyond Stockwith to Hockdik Water, the utmost NorthEast Part of it, near the Isle of Axholme. The rest of this County lies on the North Side of the Trent; it is also three Wapentakes, but was in the Conqueror's Time five, all contiguous to that River, which therefore may not improperly be said to water the whole Shire. Oswardebeck Wapentake is now the North-Clay Division of Basset-Law, which hath two other, viz. the South-Clay and Hatfeild, which make it equal to three Hundreds. Lyda Wapentake is now joined with Thurgarton, and called Thurgarton-aLee, heretofore Thurgarton and Lythe. Broxtow remains as it was. In the usual Division of this Shire, Basset-Law and Newark are equal to, or set against the other four Wapentakes, the Town of Nottingham being left out. The Soil is generally of the most fertile in England (except a great Part of the Forest of Shirewood, which was the most pleasant, but by the abominable Destruction of Woods, is now much otherwise) and likewise some of that which borders upon Darbyshire, Part whereof affords most excellent Coals. That Part of the ancient FOOSSE-WAY which lies between Leicestershire and Lincoln, enters this County near Willoughby-on-the-Woulds, and at Newark crosseth the Road from London to York.
That most eminent Record called Doomsday-Book, made in the latter End of the Reign of King William the Conqueror, which is our principal Light, in and before his Time, faith, That in Snotingham, the Water of Trent, and the Fosse, and the Way towards York, were kept so, that if any should hinder the Passage of Boats (fn. 1), and if any should plough, or make a Ditch in the King's Way, within two Perches, he should make an Amends by eight Pounds. And in Snotinghamscyre and Derbiscyre; the King's Peace, given with his Hand, or with his Seal, if it be broken, shall be amended by eighteen Hundreds, every Hundred eight Pounds; of this Amends the King hath two Parts, the Earl the third, that is, twelve Hundreds the King, and six the Earl.
A Tain (or Thane) having more than six Manors, doth not give Relief of his Land, except to the King only eight Pounds. If he have only six, or less, to the Sheriff he giveth Relief three Marks of Silver, wheresoever he remaineth, in a Borough or out.
If a Thain having Soc and Sac, forfeit his Land between the King and the Earl, they have the Moiety of his Land and Money; and his lawful Wife, with his legitimate Heirs, if there be any, have the other Moiety.
The Archbishop of York, upon his Manors, Godeva the Countess upon Nuverc Wapentake, Ulfenisc upon his Land, the Abbot of (Peter) Burgh upon Colingham, the Abbot of Berton, Earl Hugh upon Marcheton (Derbish.) the Bishop of Chester, Tocki, Suen. f. Swaine, Baron Siward, Azor. s. Saline, Ulfric, Elsi, Illing, Levin. s. Aluvin, Alvena the Countess, Goda the Countess, Elsi, s. Caschin upon Werchesoppe, Henry de Ferrariis upon Edvostone, and Dubridge, and Braylefordsham, Walter de Ayncurt upon Graneby, and Moretune, and Penniesleg. Of all these none could have the third Penny of the Earl, but by his Grant, and that as long as he should live, except the Archbishop, Ulsenisc, and Godeva the Countess.
1. King William. 2. Earl Alan (of Richmond.) 3. Earl Hugh (of Chester.) 4. (Robert) Earl Moriton. 5. The Archbishop of York. 6. The Bishop of Lincoln. 7. The Bishop of Bayon. 8. The Abbot of (Peter) Burgh. 9. Roger de Busli. 10. William Peurel. 11. Walter de Aincurt. 12. Goisfrid Alselin. 13. Raph (son of) Fitz-Hubert. 14. Raph de Limesi. 15. Raph de Burun. 16. Roger Pictavensis. 17. Gislebert de Gand. 18. Gislebert de Tisun. 19. Goisfrid de Wirce. 20. Ilbert de Lacy. 21. Berenger de Todeni. 22. Hugh (Son of or) Fitz-Baldric. 23. Hugh Grent Maisnil. 24. Henry de Ferrariis. 25. Robert Malet. 26. Durand Malet. 27. Osbern Fitz-Richard. 28. Robert Fitz-William. 29. William Hostiarius (the Usher.) 30. The King's Thanes.
I might here proceed to recite out of this most excellent Record, what Manors each of these had, and who had them in King Edward's Time before the Conquest, but to avoid Repetition, I shall only do it as I mention the several Townships in each Wapentake, and begin with the most Southerly; Rushcliff, there written Risclive, so called probably because the usual meeting Place of the Hundred, was at or near some Rushy Hill or Bank; it now contains another Hundred, which the Book of Doomsday in some Place calls Plumptree Hundred. In the Record called Nomina Villarum, made in the ninth Year of King Edward the second, Riseclive is returned but Half a Wapentake, and the King Lord of it, in which there is no Mention of the Town of Plumptree, nor of many other Villages, which yet lie promiscuously amongst those that are there named, so that we cannot certainly from thence conclude, that those omitted made up Plumptree Hundred.
Joan, the Wife of Thomas de Holland Chr. was found to be Sister and Heir of John, (a) late Earl of Kent, 26 E. 3. (and aged 25 Years) who died, seized of the Town of Allerton-under-Shirewood (as in that Place will also be noted) and a certain Wapentake of Riscl. and Plumptree, of the Towns there adjoining, with the Pleas of Court, then valued at 3s. 4d. per Annum, which I suppose was the Hundred Court. The several Townships which now constitute, or are contained in this Wapentake shall follow, beginning with Stanford before named, which is near the Town of Lughborough, in the County of Leicester, towards which it is like there was some Stony Ford, in the River Sore, upon which this Town of Stanford is situate, which occasioned its Name.
Before the Invasion of the Normans, Elsi had a Manor here, which was charged to the Danegeld or Tax of those Times, as ten Bovats or Oxgangs. The Land was then sufficient for two Ploughs, or was esteemed two Carucats, but afterwards it became the Fee of Roger de Busli, whom King William the Conqueror made the greatest Man of Lands in this County by many Degrees; for the greatest Survey taken in that King's Reign, shows, that in this small Shire, he had one Hundred seventy-four Manors, being the best Part of ninety Townships, besides very many other Towns, which were partly or wholly Soc to some of them. His Seat in this County was at Blyth, and in Yorkshire, at Tikhill. Here he had one (Plough-Land, or) Carucat, five Sochmen (or Freeholders) three Villanes (or Husbandmen) two Bordars (or Cottagers) having two (Plows, Plow-Lands, or) Carucats; here was Half a Mill, six Shillings and eightpence; and eleven Acres of Meadow; all which in the Time of King Edward the Confessor, were valued at thirty Shillings: But when this DoomsdayBook was made, viz. in the latter Part of the Conqueror's, but at ten Shillings, having Soc in Normentune., (fn. 2), (fn. 3), (fn. 4), (fn. 5)
(fn. 6) Robertus de veteri ponte and Idonea his Wife, by Fine 6 H. 3. released all their Right from themselves, and the Heirs of Idonea, in the Castle and Town of Tikhill, excepting six Knights' Fees and an Half, which they formerly held, to Alice Countess of Augi (or Cive) who confirmed the said Knights' Fees to them and the Heirs of Idonea, for the Service of one Knight's Fee: They lay in Bauteby, Sandebec, Kimberwurth, Sameby, Faldam, Stanford-upon-Sore, Peverelthorpe, Bradelwurth, and Torlakestcn. H. de Burgo, chief Justice, put to the King's Claim both for Demesnes and Services. It seems what lay in this Place came, according to this descent to the Family of Clifford: for it appears, that (fn. 7) Roger de Clifford Chr. died 13 R. 2. seized of one Knight's Fee, in Stanford-upon-Sore; which Robert de Swillington Chivaler then held, and that it was worth twenty Pounds per Annum, when it happened; and of one Fee in Torlaston, which Robert Barry Chr. then held, worth fourteen Pounds in all its Issues yearly, and of Half a Knight's Fee in Shelton, in the Vale: Which Thomas de Staunton Chr. and his Parceners then held, worth when it should fall C. s. per Annum, and of Half a Knight's Fee in Peverelthorp, which the Lord le Spencer held, worth when it happened 66s. 8d. per Annum. And that (fn. 8) Thomas de Clifford Chivaler died, seized of the same Fees, 15 R. 2. leaving Thomas his Son and Heir, who either died young, or else is mistaken for John, as by the Genealogy may be observed.
Those who held this Manor had their Name from the Place, for (fn. 9) Peter de Stanford is certified to have held one Knight's Fee here of the Countess of Ewe. And (fn. 10) Hugh de Stanford, 4 E. 1. recovered his Presentation to this Church, against the Prior of Wulvelcroft, because the Jury found that Richard de Trowell had presented to it alone.
Here was another Manor, which before the Conquest was (fn. 11) Alfag's, for which he paid to the Geld (or Tax) as ten Bovats. The Land of it was four Carucats, or PlowLands. Robert Fitz-William, whose Fee it was afterwards, had there one Carucat, or Plow, 4 Sochm, 7 Villans, 2 Bordars, having 7 (Plows, or) Carucats. There was the Seat of a Mill, and fifteen Acres of Meadow. This in the Time of King Edward the Confessor, was valued at 40s.
(fn. 12) William de Trowell paid one Mark for the third Part of a Knight's Fee, which he held in Stanford and Leek, of the Fee of Raph de Mortimar.
(fn. 13) The Jury found 32 E. 1. that Philip de Kyme held Trowell, and Stanford-uponSore for three Knight's Fees.
(fn. 14) There was a Partition of Lands here betwixt the Co. Heirs of Richard Pigot, 23 E. 1.
(fn. 15) The Manor and Advowson of the Church of Stanford, with the Appurtenances and 19s. 4d. Rent, in Great-Leyk and Brokilstow, were by a Fine, 3 E. 3. between William, the Son of Hugh Bigg, of Stanford, and Joan his Wife Compl. and Thomas de Hoppescotes, Parson of the Church of Apelby, and Roger de Astacton, Parson of Hokesworth Def. settled on the said William Bigg, and Joan his Wife, and the Heirs of William, viz. two Parts in Present, and the third, which Alice, who had been Wife of Hugh Bigg, then held in Dower, after her Decease. (fn. 16) This Manor, with the Appurtenances, except one Acre, and the Advowson of the Church, which Joan, who had been Wife of William Bigg, of Stanford, held for her Life, was by a Fine, 29 E. 3. between Rich. de Willoughby, the Elder Chr. Compl. and Benedict de Ulvescroft, Hugh Sammeson, and John, Son of Robert de Donington Deforc. conveyed to the said Richard and his Heirs; and the Advowson also, after the Death of the said Joan.
The Jury, 16 R. 2. found it not to the King's Loss, if (fn. 17) Thomas de Sutton, and Richard Baxter, of Wulvescroft gave two Mess. and six Acres in this Stanford, then held of Roger Swillington, to the Priory of Wulvescroft, one of which Messuages was charged with the yearly Payment of 20d. to the Priory of Bermondsey.
Sir Richard Illingworth, Knight, had this Manor, as in Boney may be noted in the Time of E. 4. (fn. 18) King Philip and Queen Mary, by their Letters Patent, dated the ninth Day of November, in the fifth and sixth Year of their Reign, granted to Robert Raynes, the Queen's Goldsmith, the Whole Demesne and Manor of Stanford. And 11 Mess. 14 Cottages, one Horse Mill, 50 Acres of Land, 100 of Meadow, 300 of Pasture, 3 of Wood, 1000 of Furz and Heath, with all their Appurtenances, in Stanford, and the Whole Fishing, and Liberty of Fishing in the Water of Sore, and the yearly Rent of 6s. 1d. 0b. q. in Stanford aforesaid, and the yearly Rent of 15s: issuing out of the Lands of — Barlow, Esq. in Boney, which were lately Parcel of the Possessions of Thomas Kniston, Gent. attaint of High Treason. And the Advowson and Right of Patronage of the Rectory and Church of Stanford; and the third Part of a Wood, called Boney Wood, in Boney; containing by Estimation, ten Acres, and Parcel of the Possession of the said Thomas, all which were then extended at 29l. 3s. 5d. ob. q. To have to the said Robert Raynes, and the Heirs male of his Body, lawfully begotten. Nicholas Raynes succeeded, and Robert Raynes, Grandchild of the first Robert had it. Anno Dom. 1641. He was a thristy Man, and built his House on the Top of the barren Hill, whither he intended to remove the Town also, but his Son Robert was not like him: So that 'tis now become the Possession of Thomas Lewis, Alderman of London, lately High-Sheriff of this County.
The Church is in the King's Books, 9l. 7s. 6d. and Mr. Thomas Lewis, Patron at this Time. But in an old MS. of Mr. John Marters, Rector of Normanton-upon-Sore, made a little before the Dissolution of Monastries, of the Values and Patrons of the Rectories and Vicarages in this Diocese of York. This Rectory is twenty Marks, and Mr. Yngleworth, Patron.
Upon a Tomb in the Chancel (fn. 19) Hic jacent Radulphus Illingworth Ar. and Agnes uxor ejus, qui quidem Radulphus ob. 1. die Mensis Augusti, Anno 1498. quorum animabus propitietur Deus.
In the Window over that Tomb.---Arg. a Fesse on both Sides, Flory between three Anchors sable, quartering Arg. a Fesse gules, two Bars engrayled sable; then the first again, and then sable a Fesse, between three Stars Arg. all which together impale with Ermine a Cross engrayled sable, and also Arg. a Chevron Azure betwixt three Staples fable. The first alone impales in the same Window with Arg. a Fesse gules and two Bars sable. And Erm. a Cross engrayled sable, impales alone with Arq. A Chevr. Azure betwixt three Staples sable.
In the Month of AUGUST, in the Year 1790, I BEGAN my excursions in Nottinghamshire, following the track of Thoroton. The day seemed to smile upon my undertaking; all around me was industry; the glorious sun animated the labors of the morning: Here the sickle and the scythe were levelling the yellow harvest; there a line of cheerful females were employed turning over the ripened corn to meet the sun-beams, while the loaded waggons were hastening home, with treasures for the storehouse or the barn.
"Soon as the Morning trembles o'er the Sky, And unperceiv'd, unfolds the spreading Day; Before the ripen'd Field the Reapers stand, In fair Array; each by the Lass he loves, To bear the rougher Part, and mitigate By nameless gentle Offices her Toil. At once they stoop and swell the lusty Sheaves; While thro their chearful Band the rural Talk, The rural Scandal, and the rural Jest, Fly harmless, to deceive the tedious Time, And steal unfelt the sultry Hours away."
Which is over the river Soar, and parts Leicestershire from Nottinghamshire, is pleasing: The banks of the river, on the Nottingham side, are adorned with trees, set too regular, if on a plain, to strike the eye of taste; but the line of the eminence being irregular, diversifies the studied formality of the planter, and creates beauty, towards which the stream below, contributes not a little.
The Church, which is beautifully embowered with trees, has 3 bells (see plate page 13, fig. 1.) a nave and two side aisles, neatly pewed. The Chancel is large. In it rest the remains of Robert Lewes, Rector, who died in 1686, aged 72. John Price, Rector, who died in 1665. Richard Alleyne, Rector, who died in 1767, aged 62. Francis Thwaits, Rector, who died in 1721, aged 74. Daniel Pogson, Curate of Loughborough, who died in 1739, and Mr. Richard Lewes, who died in 1670, aged 60. The Tomb mentioned in Thoroton for Radolphus Illingworth, &c. remains, but much defaced. The outlines of a man and woman are figured thereon, praying. Here is a brass figure on the floor not noticed by Thoroton, no inscription: The upper part of this figure is represented, fig. 7, page 112.
Over the family pew is a monument to the memory of Thomas Lewes, son and heir of Thomas Lewes of this place, he died in 1695, aged 61. (fn. 20) His wife Anne, daughter of Sir. Matthew Andrews, in the county of Surry, Knight, died in 1694.
Another is placed to the memory of Francis Lewes of Stanford, Esq. which was erected "As a pledge of the tender and affectionate regard of his widow Sophia Lewis." This gentleman was son of the abovenamed Thomas, by Anne his wife. He married Sophia daughter of Sir Samuel Dashwood, Bart. and died in 1743 in the 52 year of his age.
The best monument here, is to the memory of Charles Lewis, Esq. with this inscription. (fn. 21)
In a dark recess, in the north wall lies an old clumsy figure, wrought out of freestone: The dress is in the Indian gaudy stile, painted in various colours. A sketch of this terrific warrior is here represented.
The Patron is Charles Vere Dashwood, Esq. Incumbent the Rev. Mr. Hurst. Living in Bacon's Liber Regis. 9l. 7s. 6d. yearly, tenths 18s. 9d. a Rectory. Deditated to St. John Bapt. Archiepis. pro Syn. 6s. Archidiac pro prox. 6s. 8d. Val. in Mans. cum alebi. ibid. perann, 2l. dec. garb. &c.---Thomas Lewis, Esq. presented in 1686. Francis Lewis, Esq. in 1722. Charles Lewis, Esq. in 1755. Samuel Phillips, Esq. 1768, 1771. Charles Vere Dashwood, Esq. in 1775.
The seat of Charles Vere Dashwood, Esq. It stands on a rising ground, about a mile from the village, and 13 from Nottingham, a pleasing view of which is seen from the turnpike-road, leading from Loughborough to Nottingham. I have often viewed it with pleasure; but I approached this seat with some unfavorable impressions at seeing the park or paddock, on the back part of the house, environed by plantations of young trees, which wholly intercept the sight of some beautifully formed, and as well-disposed ones I ever beheld. A break or two in the line leading from the steward's farm might please. The annexed view I took on the bank of a fine sheet of water below the house; but while I was thus employed I was miserably tortured by the gnat-flies. Here, by varying your position, might be taken some good Field Pictures, removing, or rather leaving out, some offensive plots of cultivated ground, and fence, which meet the eye on the fore ground: Instead of which I have taken the liberty to substitute in their place, some native verdure. I observed in another place that this Mansion was built by the present owner, Charles Vere Dashwood, Esq. It was begun in the year 1771, and finished in 1774, on the scite of ground whereon stood a large stone building. The present building is mostly of brick: The architect and undertaker Mr. Anderson. The apartments in general seem more calculated for convenience than magnificence. The dining-room contains some family pictures. Smith, who is now at Rome, has painted Mr. Dashwood and family, whole lengths, in one piece: The likenesses may be good, for they are mostly like one another; there is a doll-like painting dash upon the cheeks of the figutes which is offensive Mrs. Marnom, sister to Mrs. Dashwood, is also painted by Smith. Of portraits Miss Sophia Dashwood's is the best. There is a moon-light piece of some merit, and a sea piece.
In the library is a landscape, with two horses, by Mr. Boultbee, in his best manner; but they are not in a favorable place, for in the same room is a horse by Stubbs. Here is also a portrait of Mrs. Dashwood, by Romney, an admirable fox-dog, and two landscapes by the Rev. Mr. Carr, in water-colours.
There is an excellent look-out from a window in the withdrawing-room: The forest hills in Leicestershire, bound the prospect with a line of beauty. In some parts it is broken or diversified with pleasing objects: Quarndon woods and Mountsorrel are seen on the left; Loughborough is seated in the middle of an amphitheatre; behind it Mrs. Tate's house at Burley; and on the right Garendon park and mansion are conspicuous. The little village and church of Stanford, aid the scene. The passing clouds cast some broad shades upon the foreground of the picture, which contributed much to the beauty of the whole. If in this delightful view there be a fault, it is its being overcharged with objects. Mrs. Dashwood's dressing-room is adorned with some good prints: A portrait of a dog and fowls deserves a frame. In another room I saw a number of good prints stuck against a wall, spoiling. In an attic story I saw, or thought I saw, Lord Middleton's house, and Nottingham castle. Let it be remembered that the housekeeper, at Mr. Dashwood's, possessed that courteous manner to a stranger, which is easily obtained by servants in a well-bred family. I observed above that this dwelling was environed by a plantation of young trees: At leaving the hall I took a nearer view of it, and found a fine carriage ride, nearly a mile in length, in the middle of it, which must be exceedingly agreeable in the spring, before flies are troublesome. Here Mr. Dashwood and his young ladies, often taking an airing when in the country. (fn. 22)