A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 1, 1638-1653. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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May (2 of 2)
Holland's provincial advice upon the affairs of France delivered at the generalty.
Upon debate it is found good and assented, that the articles formerly drawn up in writing and containing the matter and ingredients of the alliance to be made with France, after precedent reassumtion and determination of them by their high mightinesses, together with the blotting or severing thence all such articles and clauses, as are tending to an offensive league against the present government of England, and would not be consistent with the treaty to be made in England, shall be transmitted to the lord ambassador Boreel; and he therewithal made acquainted in what terms the affairs of this state are constituted at present with the government of England, and what overtures or inducements for peace there were made, and given, as well by that government as by this state; furnishing him likewise with all such former acts and papers, as may serve to that purpose; with express charge and order to impart the same to the king, and the chief ministers of France; and to declare besides, that their high mightinesses, in the present perplex conjunctures of times and affairs, found good and expedient in all confidence to consult about those matters with his majesty, as their ancientest and most considerable ally, and in this constitution desire his majesty's wholesom advice; adding, that their high mightinesses had before the date of the aforesaid overtures and inducements to peace, drawn up certain articles of renewing alliance with his said majesty, containing among other matters divers offensive articles and clauses against the aforesaid government of England, to the end the same might be brought to reason by the way of arms; and that their high mightinesses continue still in the same intent and disposition of alliance with his majesty, except only (in case of success in the aforesaid peace) the said offensive articles and clauses, so as the same may be consistent with the said peace, and the treaty made in behalf thereof; and in case of no success thereof, which God forbid, with insertion of the said offensive clauses and articles to go on and conclude, founding in all the matters aforesaid the intentions of his said majesty and the principal ministers there, and giving speediest advertisement thereof to their high mightinesses eventually, and according to the exigency of affairs further to deliberate thereupon, whether the former transactions shall be sitting then to be undertaken by the said lord ambassador alone, or by some lords extraordinary ambassadors assisting.
Advice of Holland touching the English affairs.
Besides, that those, who in pursuance of what is said before, are to be sent for England, shall be ordered likewise to communicate and confer particularly, and with all confidence, about the matter or subject of the negotiation to be committed to their charge with monsieur de Neusville, residing there at present for the king and crown of France, or with such as may yet farther be sent thither from the said crown; and therewithal to employ their utmost endeavours and offices towards the present government of England; to the end that the said government may be brought, as well with the crown aforesaid as with this state, into a good understanding and perfect amity; yea, if it were possible, that there might be made and concluded a common league betwixt the king of France and the republic of England and this state, upon the grounds formerly mentioned; and that for the better advancing of the said affair, the lord ambassador Boreel shall with all speed be made acquainted in what terms the affairs of this state stand for the present with the government of England, transmitting unto him such former acts and papers, as may be serviceable for that purpose: That he shall moreover be supplied with the matter and ingredients, upon which this state is desirous to make an alliance with the republic of England, ordering him to communicate the same with the king of France and the chief ministers there; and to desire of them, that the said monsieur Neusville may be charged by his majesty to use all confidence towards those, who shall be sent from this state for England in manner abovesaid; and to direct the affairs with mutual communication; as also to help the adjusting of a common league upon the grounds before intimated, provided that herein there be used that circumspection, that in the advancing and accomplishing of the negotiation to be entred into on this states behalf with the government of England and the interest or negotiation of France, there be an equal improvement, it being likewise from this moment to be determined, that in case the negotiation in England prove fruitless (which God forbid) this state then shall with utmost endeavour seek to conclude a renewing alliance with France upon the articles drawn up heretofore; and that to that end the same shall be farther reassumed, perfectly debated, and from this instant finally determined.
And if so be, that through God's blessing the agreement betwixt both the republics take effect, that then according to the event and occasion of affairs the renewing of the alliance aforesaid (putting out the words offensively against the government of England) shall be such as may consist with the treaty to be made with England.
Advice of Zealand.
The deputies of the lords the states of Zeland, having by special and reiterated order from their lords principals, for years and days successively and incessantly urged at the generality the advancement of renewing the alliance with the crown of France, in whose friendship and nearer alliance the state is not only most highly concerned, but likewise of old, since the creation of this government, especially engaged and obliged; and judging therefore, as heretofore they have often declared, that this necessary and useful affair cannot nor ought to be any longer delayed or put by, without disreputation and blemish of the government; they have for this reason, and to manifest and acquit themselves of their duty, held it necessary to declare in writing, as their provincial advice, that they do approve of the articles drawn up formerly to this end, and that the same ought to be transmitted to the lord ambassador Boreel to treat with the aforesaid crown of France, in conformity thereof, to adjust, and further the same to the conclusion exclusively, and further order (with this proviso nevertheless, that thence be blotted and set apart the points touching the offensive and defensive proceeding against the republic of England therein contained) the same to be communicated with the king, and his privy counsel, with all secrecy and circumspection, roundly declaring, that in case this state should not happen to agree and unite with the republic of England, about the offered alliance upon honourable and reasonable conditions, that the state then was uprightly and disposedly resolved to agree and conclude about the same with the crown aforesaid, imparting therewithal the points, whereupon this government intends to agree with these of England; and desiring that monsieur de Neusville, at present in England, or such as may come there in his majesty's behalf, be charged with mutual communication and faithful confidence to meet those, who are to be sent thither from this state, helping with like endeavour and purpose to manage things, that there may be found out and adjusted a common league betwixt the said crown and these of the republic; and to this end the like charge shall be given in most serious terms to the deputies of this state thitherwards, and especially that they shall employ all their possible and utmost endeavours, that in case God Almighty should be pleased to bless the treaty betwixt both republics with good success and agreement, the said crown may be comprehended in the same alliance, which shall be enjoined them with that earnestness, that in case, after all conceivable means, and reasons to be applied and used in that behalf, the same should beyond expectation fail to be obtained; this state being made acquainted therewith, such resolutions shall be taken then, as according to the disposition of time and constitution of affairs shall be found fitting.
The declaration made by the joint deputies of the principality of Guelders and county of Zutphen, and delivered as their provincial advice at the assembly of their high mightinesses, June 4th, 1653. [N. S.]
The articles drawn up about the treaty of alliance to be made with his majesty of France ought to be reassumed and determined, and forthwith without any farther delay transmitted to the lord ambassador Boreel, with charge and order thereupon to enter into effectual treaty with the ministers of his majesty, and to adjust a good treaty to the conclusion exclusively; only with this proviso, that certain offensive articles therein contained against the present government in England be severed from the treaty aforesaid, until it shall appear, what will be the issue of the treaty with the governours in England; that in case the same may not be brought to reason and union with this state, the aforesaid now provisionally severed articles may be treated upon as before; and in the mean time communication shall be made to the ministers of his aforesaid majesty, as well at that court as at London, there now being or coming, of their high mightinesses intentions, and the drawn articles to be treated upon with the present government in England; and the aforesaid drawn thirty six articles for a treaty with England, together with the ensued enlargement or further instruction shall be reassumed, and according to the disposition of this time framed and determined, and consequently by some qualified persons sent into England with sufficient charge and authorization to found the governors there about them; and if it be possible, to determine a treaty to conclusion exclusively; and the same [persons] shall be obliged in treating thereof, to confer with the ministers of the crown of France there being, and by all possible means and ways to labour, that there may be made a common good league and alliance betwixt the said king and crown of France, the republic of England, and this state, upon the ground laid down to this purpose in the aforesaid articles; and in case that those of England, against expectation, could not be brought to it, that in any case there should be included in the treaty, to be made betwixt the two republics of England and these United Netherlands, the kings of France and Denmark; of all which treating their high mightinesses shall from time to time be advertised by their ministers.
And the commissioners of the said principality of Guelders and county of Zutphen reserve their liberty to their lords principals, to take such farther or other advice upon the matters aforesaid, as they shall find requisite for most service of the countries.
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
Asi wrote you in my last, the fire, that lay smoakinge, begane to flame; so now it breakes out more and more, as commonly upon such occasions it falls out; for seeing our shame and losse can noe longer be concealed, whilst your fleete continue to blocke up our havens, and we apply noe speedy remedy, whose worke it is; thereupon every faction breakes forth, each propoundinge what best suits his fancies and interest, to heale a wounde, that seemes to others incureable. The most part would now have the prince of Oringe for statehoulder, being confident if their advise had bin sooner followed, we had never come to this passe. And the other party, that would have the States Generall to rule, are as confident, that they that have made this disruption and breach with England to gett up the interest of the prince of Orange, have bin the causers of all this misery. But now startes up a third party, tho' the fewer in nomber, that would have the cytye of Amsterdam to governe all, especially for Holland, whoe think it impossible for anye to advance their interest of trade as well as those, that are most experienced in the same; which factions breake not forth only in the cyties, but also in our fleete, where is much contest and division; as commonly in a generall loss it falls out, each reprochinge other for cause of this losse, which doth much hinder the advance of our preparations; yea Tromp himself hath declared for the prince of Orange; and on the contrary, De Witt, who is the greatest man next unto him, hath declared for the Lovensteyne heeren, that is, for them of Amsterdam and Holland, against the prince of Orange; about which busynes, and the state of our fleet, De Witt is gone to the Hague, where wil be enough to do to make all factions center in one, to oppose so prevalent an enemye. In the mean time, they of Euckuysen have patcht up their breaches with three general articles. The first is, that one of the majestrates shall sitt in the counsell of officers for the militia of that cytye. Secondly, that they shall admitt noe garrison into their town. Thirdly, that the majestrate shall give their voice for a state-houlder; wherewith the fire being quenched heere 'till another occasion; 'tis broken out also at Harlen, where upon St. John's day their trainebands marching through the cytye, one of their own companies had gotten an orange flagge (orange white and blue) and besides their bodies and hatts were drest with orange colours (that whole companyes) and besides they wore upon their breast a heart, in the middle whereof stuck an orange; which the majestrates hearing of, sent some suddenly unto them, who took the flagge from ancient bearer and carried it unto the towne house, which made a great stand and murmer amongst all the trainebandes; and much agitation there was betweene them and amazement amongst the lookers on; but at last they sent to the burgemasters, that unlesse they had their ancient againe, they would not march forwards, and after diverse agitations they had their antient returned them, who with great joy and shoutes then marched forward in their usual cuirquet, cryinge viva le Orange in dispite of Brittainie and Spaine, which motto was also written upon the hartes they wore uptheir brests; and what further passed amongst the majestrates heereabouts we expect to heare.
But all the speech is aboute a state-holder, which till it be accomplished, I doubt heere will be noe quiett; but seeing the child is too yonge, they will have a lieutenant in his steade till he be fitt to governe. And unless Amsterdam, and five or six other cyties doe oppose the same, 'tis thought this work will be soone accomplished. But it seemes Amsterdam doth engage against a stadte-holder, haveinge lately feasted some (or all) of those lordes, which the last prince tooke prisoners, and brought them to the castle Lovenstyne; and the report goes, that they seeinge many townes of Holland declaring for a stateholder, are for feare come to dwell or shelter themselves at Amsterdam. And the drummers, that beate for seamen at Amsterdam, who use to cry cut for the States Generall under the command of admirall Trompe, do now leave out Trompe, and cry out only for the states under the guidance of vice admirall De Witt; which causeth heere many thoughts, and divers wonder at it. And heere are the more seares, because to day at Amsterdam the drummers crying out as aforesaide, the common people being gathered about them, fell a quarrelling with them, urginge them earnestly to cry out for the prince of Orange; which when they exskused, they tooke away the drums from them; wherein I believe these majestrates will take a severer course then other townes have done; which the time will learn.
Now the month beinge come, that our East India shipps are expected, we are in greate care for them; and the company hath sent out some twenty small boates every way to meete them; and tis thought they have order to goe into St. Marten's in France, or into Norwaye; but none knowes certaine, only four of the chief, who have taken an oath of secrecye. To day was also greate sadnesse upon the exchange at Amsterdam upon the news that came of some twelve or fourteen eastland shipps, that were loaden with pitch, tarr, hemp, &c. taken by the English coming into the Vlie. Also we heare yours have taken two Straites men, and were in pursuite of four more rich shipps; as also we expect two shipps from Sweden with 600 peeces of ordnance to lay upon our new built frigatts; divers of which are now readye; and stay only for these ordnance, which tis reported your fleete have also taken (at least one of them, which one shipp-master that escaped certainely reports he se the English take her) which would be a very greate losse to this state at this time. Allso we heare yours have taken a Guinne shipp or a Brasill shipp, which hath turned all the joy of some twenty shipps, that arrived heere safe into divers havens last week, into greate sorrow for this present losse, and the feare of more dayly, if your fleete continue there; so that all our hope are upon a good accommodation with England by our imbassadors with you, which the Lord grant, &c.
Here is also come out in print a notable dialogue betweene one Hartte and his companion Sadd-heade, wherein is notably sett forth between them the present state of the times heere. Also two acts from the States General for referring the judgement of them that behaved not themselfes well in the last fight against the English, to the admerall Trompe and his councell of warr, who makinge their excuse that some chief officers were absent (meaning I suppose admerall De Witt and some others) in the last act the states ordered, they should vigerously proseede against the said offenders, notwithstanding the absence of anye.
Heere is also the Spanish imbassador's complaint against the states come forth in print for breach of artickles; but tis five sheetes; too bigge I suppose to sent per post; if not, write word, if you will have it, &c.
This day the post brings news out of Poland, that (fn. 1) Chimiliski's son, with the help of the Cosacks, hath driven out the new hospodar, imprisoned his father in law, and beheaded his chief favourite. It is thought he will do the like by him, and keep the country of Wallachia for himself, which puts the Pole to new councils.
An intercepted letter.
Yours idibus Maii, and the later 5 kal. Junias cam welcom at their severall times. If it shall be within my power to requite Mr. Carr's care, forwardnes, direction, and paines about my desired Aug. with any service here, I shall be most ready to affoard it, as I pray tell him from me, with my acknowledgement and many thanks. In the interim, be sure, that he be not at any pecuniary chardge about them; and whatever you lay out towards them, or their jorney this way, shall be faithfully repayd with thanks, by God's help, when I once come to have a sight of them, and see what in the whole they com to cost me. You did very well to consider the leangth, and tumbling of the jorney, in packing them up. Let me know, I pray, by the next, when they set out thence, and which way they are ordered to com, and with what direction, that I may get Mr. Causseld to hearken after them, when the time coms. I told you long since, that coming bound, they must not be directed to a stationer, for feare of being forfeited by a statute here, but to som particular man, that may own them, Mr. Causfeld, Mr. Thomas Blount (liveing where Haddock doth) or some other. I am confident your fine beads are with your aunt Mary some daies e're this. I shall hear shortly, how welcom they wer to her. I expected some news in the letters concerning the king of Scots, which was strongly reported here a fortnight or three weeks ago to be gon for Holland; and now the fresh reports are, that its lowly spoken in the court, that he is to marry one of Cromwell's daughters, so to be brought again to his three lost crownes. This is also muttered here, but not believed, Cromwell professing himself a constant enemy to monarchs, and that the height of his ambition is to be a vassall of the commonwealth, altho' it's thought by many he is at his witt's end, not content with what he hath gott, nor knowing how to get absolute hold of the sceptre, or to content all, the soldiers being much divided by their several interests. It is sayd again, he hath sent for all the soldiers to come up; and what will be done when they come (if indeed they do come) I cannot divine. Our citty is earnest, either to have the old parliament brought to sit again, or to have a new one. Crumwell will never yeald to the first, but rather punish the motioners: what he will do to the second, time must shew. Adieu. Yours ever,
Orders of the States General concerning their treaty with England.
After deliberation had, it was thought sit and understood, that upon the declaration of those of the present government of England, made by a letter bearing date the 6th of the last month old stile, how that they, notwithstanding the change of affairs lately happened in the said commonwealth, did yet bear good inclination to these United Netherlands, and had sincere intentions for the quenching of this present warr, that was broken out between both nations. Wherefore this state, notwithstanding the said alteration, is resolved to endeavour with the said government, by all amicable means of treaty, to get out of the said war: but whereas, in the said letter, reflection was made upon the three mentioned articles propounded formerly by, or in the behalf of those of the late parliament of England aforesaid, to the deceased lord of Hemstede, as extraordinary ambassador there from this state, which were judged by all the provinces unanimously to transgress so far the rules of equity, that this state ought in no wife to give any attention thereunto; and in case those of the other side should persist now by the said articles, that then no good success can be expected from the said treaty; that therefore this be made known to those of the said government, and that the reasons serving thereunto be barely represented. Likewise that it be understood of them, whether they would not be willing, setting aside the aforementioned articles, to sall upon the treaty chiefly, and that both sides use therein such moderation as is becoming good Christians, that so, through God's gracious goodness and mercy, the present misunderstandings may be ended with a good and firm peace, together with a new and perpetual alliance: and that to this end, some two or three sit persons, who do throughly understand the affairs of the government, and the interest of the state, without any qualification, only provided with sufficient credentials, authority, or power, be sent with all speed into England aforesaid to make the forementioned declaration and representation, and withal to sound the inclination of the said government upon what the lords Catz, Schaep and Vander Perre did propound the last year, as extraordinary ambassadors from this state in England aforesaid, whether the same might not serve now for a foundation of the treaty that is to be entred into; also to endeavour thereupon fully to agree with those of the said government, and to adjust and advance the work so far, that the same with the last solemnity of signing by order of their high and mighty lordships being confirmed, a firm and well contrived peace may be accomplished; and thus to prepare the way by a preparative accommodation or adjustment, that so afterwards the treaty may be perfected, and finally concluded on, without any delay, by public plenipotentiaries.
Furthermore, that communication be given to the king of Denmark, or his agent here residing, of what is above mentioned, in regard of the alliance lately made with his royal majesty; with assurance and confidence, that their lordships in what is aforesaid, and in the progress thereof, will punctually govern themselves according to the contents of the said alliance, and especially according to the last article but one of the said alliance; and the said lords, that are to go for England, shall be commanded, as they are commanded by these, precisely and punctually to acquit themselves hereafter in the foregoing negotiation, and so generally to proceed with that circumspection and care, that thereby no prejudice do accrue to the treaties and alliances, made with other kings, commonwealths, princes, potentates, states, and towns.
That furthermore, those who are to go for England as aforesaid, shall be ordered by their instructions, to communicate particularly and confidently concerning the point of negotiation, which shall be recommended to them, with the lord Neufville de Bourdeaux, residing there on the behalf of the crown of France, or any other that may be sent thither hereafter from that crown and king; and especially they shall endeavour, by all possible means that can be thought on, to make a good understanding between the crown of France, and this state, with the government of England, and also, if it be possible, to obtain a common confederacy between the said crown, government of England, and this state; and if so be the business cannot be brought so far, and that God almighty do give a blessing to the treaty between the said commonwealth and this state, that an agreement be made, that then the same endeavours shall be used, if desired, that the crown of France may be comprehended in the said treaty of alliance. That also for the further promoting and advancing of the said business, communication shall be given to the lord ambassador Boreel of what is aforesaid, and that he be made acquainted upon what terms the affairs of this state do stand with the government of England, for which end there shall be sent to the said lord ambassador Boreel the letters, which have been lately written, as well by the said government of England as this state, together with the late acts that have been made by this state tending thereunto, with order withal to desire of the king of France, that the said lord Neufville, or those who shall be sent hereafter into England, on the behalf of his said majesty, be likewise given in mandatis to proceed with mutual communication and faithful assurance with those who are there, or shall be sent thither from this state; and also that they do help to labour, that a common alliance may be obtained and concluded upon the terms formerly mentioned.
And that those who shall be sent into England as aforesaid, shall write an answer to their lordships to all that is aforesaid, of what shall be by them negotiated and effected, together with what deficiencies they do meet withal in the executing of their lordships intentions, that thereupon such resolutions may be taken, as shall be found to consist, and be most convenient with the opportunity of time and constitution of affairs.
The States General to general Cromwell.
Nous avons trouvé convenable en la conjuncture presente des affaires en Europe, d'envoyer vers la republique d'Angleterre le Sr Hieronimus de Beverningk deputé ordinaire en nostre assemblée de la part de la province d'Hollande & Westsrise; vous priants & requerants de. toute nostre affection qu'il plaise a vostre excellence de favoriser sa negotiation, comme ne tendant à autre but, qu'au bien & avancement de la cause commune des deux nations; en quoi vostre excellence nous obligerez grandement à tesmoigner par effect es occasions, que nous sommes de bien bon cœur.
Mons. de Bordeaux, the French resident in England, to mons. de Brienne, secretary of state in France.
Les bruits, qu'on fait courir du general [Cromwell,] ne sont pas vrais: il affecte bien une grande pieté, mais pas une particuliere communication avec le St. Esprit; & n'est pas si foible, que de se laisser prendre par des flateries. Je scais, que l'amb. de Portugal lui en aiant fait sur ce changement, il en fit raillerie.
A letter from the Hague.
Before I acquaint you with any of the occurrences of this weeke, I must begge your pardon for the last passage of my last weekes letter, which was, that there were commissioners comeing away from hence to treat, &c. As I was ready to close up my letter, comes a gentleman to me, and sayes peremptorily, that it was so. It being late, and the post ready to goe away, I had not time to examine the truth of it, but tooke his word, having had reports of it the same day, and so set it downe, and when I had made up my letter, put it into the post-house. I had not been halse an hour from thence, before I knew from Nieuport's owne mouthe there was no such thing; and that they had gone no further in that busines than the proposall of it, as I intimated before in my letter. But the post was gone, and it was too late to correct that error, though I hope there could be no prejudice in such a mistake. The truth is, as I now understand it, that it was proposed that before they should send to treat with them in England, they should know from other princes and states, with whom they were in league, how farre they would owne them or assist them, in case they should make a warre against the English; or whether they would declare against them as enemies, in case they should conclude a peace with them; and with this proposall are the deputies of the provinces repaired to their principalls in each province, to have their resolutions: mean time they expect the propositions they have sent into France may be agreed upon. How Van Tromp was returned home with his fleet, I told you in my last; and what recruitts he had received from hence, viz. twenty eight or thirty sayle. On Sonday last they gave publique thankes in their churches for the successe of their fleets: and that night or Monday morning he set sayle towards the Downes, thinking to fall on those shipps that lay there, before the English fleet, that was gone northward, could joyne with them. On Tuesday night he sent to the states how he was got before Dunkirke, and hoped to be in the Downes next morning. This is the last tidings wee had of him. There went after him four shipps more from Zeeland, and he is in all a hundred and four sayle, besides fireshipps. His orders are to fight the English; which he resolv'd to doe, though both their fleets were joyned against him: on Wednesday night or yesterday morning the English fleet came by the Texel again, and had a fair north easterly wind; and by this time I believe they have met and engaged one another; both, it seems, being resolved to fight. Yesterday the princesse dowager entertained the queen of Bohemia and the princesse royall at a dinner. 'Twas to congratulate the successe the Dutch had in bringing both their fleets home. The treatment was the sumptuosest, as a gentleman, that has seen the courts of the most princes in Christendome, told me, that he had ever seen. The p. royall is next weeke for Breda; so for Spa in Germany, where shee expects to meet some friends, and perhaps her brother. I had none from you this weeke. Pray hasten me a bill of exchange. Sir,
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
When Bonel was already in sea, they did begin to consider, that he might give advise to those in the Downs and to Bodiley (fn. 2), that Tromp was with his whole fleet before the Maese and Goree. There was sent a galliot immediately after the said Bonel to call him back to have entertained him well, and then to have dismiss'd him, after Tromp had been out at sea: but he could not be overtaken. Now others say, that Holland did expresly send word by Bonel to give notice to Bodiley to look to himself.
Tromp hath a most gallant fleet of about one hundred sea ships (the ship Brederode nor the Garland could not be gotten ready, but are to follow) and will make the same bravado that the English have made here; but will make no landing. Here is advice by a private man of war, that the English fleet is cruising between Shetland and Norway.
They have been very busy this week about the business of England and France. Holland hath many reasons why they will have a peace; and they have advice from England, Orange party that there is the same inclination, and therefore now the sooner the better. But 145 and royalists do all what they can to hinder it; and because they can do no otherwise, they produce the alliances with France, desiring, that the said alliance may be concluded pari passu.
But notwithstanding all this, Holland will carry it; for Holland hath given such content and satisfaction concerning the alliance with France, that the other provinces have nothing to object against it; so that in all likelihood, they will resolve to send into England, and that after this manner of N. 1 (fn. 3), and for France they will resolve according to N. 2 (fn. 4).
But it is to be wished, that the English for their parts would likewise cooperate; for in case they will insist upon the three articles in the former treaty proposed to my lord of Hemstede, this will come to nothing; for this state hath endured and suffered so much damage by this war, that those here have cause to demand reparation. Tromp hath sent to know, whether he might not land five or six thousand men, burn some villages, fetch away their cattle, &c. They sent back to know of him, whether he could maintain his loss? Saith no. They likewise sent to know, whether the English here could not do the like? Saith yes. Upon these two presupposals he was forbidden to do it. It is said here, that there are ships in the English fleet, that are royalists; that there is great division in the English fleet. Holland hath a good opinion of the English, and that they will have peace, but Orange party Orange party say no. Orange party would laugh at those of Holland, if the English would not have a peace.
(fn. 5) At last they have broken and abolished here the treaty of redemption, so that they have writ to the admiralty, not to exact any more the redemption money after St. John Baptist next; and they have writ from hence to Denmark, that they may make them pay for their postage after the term aforesaid, as formerly according to the treaty of the year 1645 made at Bromsebroo; and as well the controller as the searcher are discharged in the Sound. Behold then this treaty crush'd, as you may see by this picture, wherein Cromwell is set forth to crush the parliament. I remain
A letter of intelligence.
Yours by the last I received at my return hither from Augusta (fn. 6), where I have been at the time of the election of the king of the Romans, as you had from me the last post before this. Your news at this time amuseth and amazeth all the princes at this assembly, protestant and catholic, in the change of your government. The copy of the lord general Cromwel's and his councel of officers declaration is already translated into Latin, printed, and sent to the emperor and electors; and truly you would not believe, what a noise is made here by it, and much expected to follow. R. C.'s ambassadour Wilmot construeth it to be very good for his master, this change confirming to him his own party, and gaining for him another, which hitherto hath been against him and his father. This he gives out, and much more to that effect.
I dined yesterday with Wilmot, and I find he has not done much here as yet, but bona verba, which puts him in great hopes. And truely were it not for the secret opposition of the Spanish ambassadour here, upon the accompt of p. Rupert's piracy against the Spaniard, more had been done for R. C. than has been, or I think shall be. The said Wilmot told me, he doubted or rather feared the lord general Cromwell would grant some liberty to the catholiques in England and Ireland, which would from his master withdraw all the catholique princes and estates, and especially in Germany. By him also I find, that here is some competition betwixt him and the resident, or rather envoy of the king of Poland, who solicitcth earnestly the emperor and princes for aid against the Cosacks and Tartars. Now the question is, which of these two seeking for aids shall be first heard and serv'd by the diet, each hoping to carry it before the other. My opinion is, that if the Spanish ambassadour hinders it not, Wilmot will carry it, though the Polish minister offers all aid to R. C. after peace with the Cossacks, which he says must be shortly, if he get aids.
The catholic princes are in great numbers at this assembly, and do exceed in votes the protestant by twenty; so that if any thing comes to question in matters of religion at home or abroad, the catholics will surely carry it.
Upon the last of May (as in my former) the king of Hungaria and Bohemia was elected king of the Romanes at Augusta (fn. 7), where the emperor and electors are yet; and this afternoon at three of the clock are in the great church of Ratisbon, the pope's nuncio, the bishops, clergy, princes, and nobility present at the Te Deum, being the second time it was sung solemnely. Great joy is made by many, and others are sorry for this election, if they could help it; and the news will not be welcome to cardinal Mazarin and his friends. A second cause of joy the emperor had the same day, for the last of May also his empress was delivered of a female child in this city. The day of the election should be the 24th of May; but the plenipotentiary of the elector of Brandenburg would have his master to be paid for half a million, which the emperor owes to him before the election. But the electors at length told the plenipotentiary, they were not come to Augusta to pay monies, but to the election of a king; and if he would please to be present, well; if not they were sufficient without him, and would elect; so he seeing their resolution was present, and the king elected. Some princes of the empire being instigated by France did oppose this election, and believed the queen of Swedes would not by any means consent to it; but they were mistaken, for when they thought to have her for them, she wrote in the favour of the king of Hungary. The copy of her letter you have herewith de verbo ad verbum printed.
The emperor is expected here this day. The electors of Moguntia (fn. 8), Trevers, and Cologne goe from Augusta to Monacho to visit the duke of Bavaria, his mother and his wife being thither invited. The emperor, empresses, and king will also go thither, before they depart from Vienna, which shall be, as they hope, in August or September next.
The coronation of the king of the Romans is expected to be for certain this month in this town, but yet the certain day not known; some say the 12th, 16th, 20th, 24th, or 30th. The electors would willingly depart after the coronation, only the emperor and Moguntia to stay here with the princes, who are in person in great numbers; and they fear the emperor will depart after the coronation. When the empress shall arise from her childbirth, she will be also crowned. A guard is setled for the new king of Romans of fifty Halberts and fifty horses, with other domesticks befitting a king of the Romans.
The ambassador of Spain here, Marques Castil Rodoriguez did work much in this election, and does his master great honour. He goes with four coaches of six horses, 20 Walackes with their muskets, 12 pages, 24 lacques and all very well cloathed. He now makes a new livery, and is here; but the day of the election all went out of Augusta, except the emperor and electors. The duke of Bavaria, his mother, and wife, are expected to the coronation.
The proposition of the diet shall be as soon as the queen of Swedes gives to Brandenburg the places she is obliged to restore by the peace of Munster, which shall be the 11th instant, and a post must come to certify it, before the proposition be made. Eight curriers are sent to Tyrol, Italy, Flanders, and to all the hereditary lands. A cousin to the ambassadour of Spain goes to Spain with the news; and another to Sweedland, Holland, Demark, &c.
From Poland here is nothing lately, but their diet goes on. The Turk is quiet with Hungary. The emperor sent to Constantinople three curriers in favour of the ambassadour Capello. There is no more at present from, Sir,
An intercepted letter to the lord Wentworth at Copenhagen.
I am now compelled (untill you shall please to give me another addresse) to write directly to you, Mr. Bridgman beinge either dead or desperately sick (by what I received yesterday from Amsterdam, I believe the former.) I have sent you two letters (with one from France in each of them) by him, one to Oldenburgh, and one by the same post the same way this cometh; soe then this is my 5th; and I have received one from your lordship from Amsterdam, and one from Oldenburgh. My last tould you, that the southerne sea fleet, with Trumpe his fleet of warre, was safely returned, which these people account as great a deliverence as we were wont to do that in 88. Trumpe his fleet beinge sett out in haste (uppon the importunity of Amsterdam, which had been broke, if the southerne fleet had miscarried) and consequently ill provided, and weake in respect of the English fleete. But now these people are full of hart againe, havinge furnished Trumpe with all that he wanted, and recruited him with his greate ships (left behinde before) and soe many others (besides seventeen of his defective ships left at the Tessell, and one at Helfordsluce) that uppon Tuesday last he sett sayle hence from the mouth of the Muse with 102 good shipps well manned and provided to his content, and five fire-ships. There first designe was to surprize Bodely, and such other ships, as were in the Downes; but I have little hope, that will succeed, Bonelle, the English expresse, being suffered to goe to England the Sunday before, when the designe to the Downs was talked of (he shipped at Shevelin) Such a grosse oversight (to say no worse of it) as wee would not have made in the middle of our negligences. His further orders are to block up the Thames, and there to stay untill the returne of the English fleet, and then to fight them. Within six dayes they sent him eleven other ships, and five other fire-ships; and within ten dayes after, they proposed to recruite him with twenty shipps more. If these orders shall continue unrevoked, wee may expect shortly a hopefull battle at sea; but here is great endeavouringe to recall him upon some letters, which Dolman hath sent this post, assuringe his freinds, that the English (if sought to) will admitt an equal treaty. The motion made uppon Wednesday to recall him did not then succeed, but the party make account they shall shortly prevaile in it. My greatest hope is, that whilst they debate it, the north-east wind (which hath blowne here strong these last three dayes and soe continues) will bringe back the English fleet (which nine dayes since was between Shetland and Norway, as we understood by some vessells, that saw them, and were aboard them) and soe enengage them past a possibility of retreate. By the way I am to observe to your lordship, that these prisoners (fishermen) say, the common discourse of the seamen was, that if they missed Trumpe and the southerne fleet (which they did then beate after plying to and againe) they were to goe to the Sound; but this intelligence was but (at the best) the language of the common saylors, and it is unreasonable to believe, that when they heard of the returne of the admiral's fleet (as propably they quickly did) they would trifle away their time and strength uppon any designe that part of the world could afforde. The timinge of the sending the expresses to England (for, as I wrot in my last, they have voted not to send ambassadors, nor to treate uppon the propositions, which resolution continues firme) is now layde by; and indeed they can find noe persons (soe far as I can heare) willinge to goe of that errand; but if the fleets fight not, and the English will wave the three propositions, they will quickly returne to their ould hant, and resolve to send ambassadors. This post brought nothinge (through my hands) to your lordship from France. That I receaved was, that Cromwell would not confer with Neufville, which (with the good receite he gives the Bordellois foure commissioners) makes the French suspect the issue of the negotiation, and inclineth them to conclude a league with this estate; that Bellegarde was to be delivered the 6th instant (to-morrow:) That the French king escaped a great danger from a carabin, which lay uppon the table (after some chase) and casually went of, the bullet comming close by the king's clothes: That the earle of Bristoll was gone towards Guienne, very hopefull to give a good account of the businesse: and that our king's remove was againe under debate, and like to be resolved before the next post. Mr. Crofts is gonn into the country (to a house he hath hired) discontented about some stables. There is somethinge else, which if I had sent you a cypher, I would add; but it is rather a curiosity then of reall importance; and truly I am not well enough to make a cypher now, but against the next weeke I hope I shall. Jo Kent adviseth me from Venice, that the Dutch fleet (which was at Legorn) is gonn to the mouth of the Streights, to watch the goinge forth of eight English ships lately parted to England from Venice, which were to touch at Corfu, where eight Dutch ships lay in an island hard by expecting them. He addes, that they now hope for a peace with the Turke, he havinge strangled the chiefest men, which opposed it.
Since the writinge of this letter I heare for certaine, that the English fleet uppon Wednesday morning arrived at the Texell, and stayed there castinge anchor that night, which was probably to gett intelligence, where the Dutch fleet was. Two vessels with intelligence are sent away to Trumpe, and now we dayly expect a battle; but whether the English are gone (yesterday) to seek the Dutch, or whether the Dutch will first come back to their own coast, is the question. I believe the former, it beinge more advantageouse to the English to fight on their owne coast.
Resolution of the States General.
In the assembly was read a certain memorial of the lord ambassador Brun, desiring a pasport for a transport of 3000 men from Ireland to Flanders, which are coming over in the ship called John and Francis, whereof capt. John Fox is master, and in the Frigat called the Cassadore, Philemon Powel commander; requesting that orders may be given in case the same by tempest or stress at sea should happen to come into any of the ports or creeks of this state, that the same may be favourably treated, according to the treaties of peace. Secondly the said lord ambassador did complain, that the rent-master Tempelaer had given new vexations to the nunns of the abby of Postel, even to that degree, that he attempted to force the pourveyor of turff of the said abby, to pay for the said turff to him the rent-master or collector a second time, threatning in default thereof to act against the said pourveyor by way of execution. Which being consulted upon, the provinces have demanded a copy of the said memorial, which is granted unto them hereby.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
This is to let you understand, that I received no letters from you these two last posts, which I much admire, the post being arrived without any trouble all ways; but I must have patience, till I hear further. We have not much news at this time, by reason of our last holidays, which hindred our news for the most part from all places.
The next day being Thursday, Mr. Fouquet the procureur general came in his majesty's name to the great chamber, to tell them the court was working to end the process of Mr. Fouquet Croisy; (fn. 9) but yet I cannot believe they will try him for his life till they be sure to be stronger in the field than prince Condé. The fourth of this instant a peasant came from Italy to the lord Nuncio here, with an excommunication upon all those in court, excepting his majesty, the queen, and the little duke d'Anjou: when that will be put to effect, I do not yet know; for it's kept yet private, to see whether they will mend themselves. (fn. 10) The same day his majesty received letters from the duke of d'Epernon, being at the seige of Bellegarde, signifying how he gained the Demylune and a counterscarp, tho' they were beaten off again; yet that they went in upon another breach, and were working of a mine under the walls of the town, and that they did hope they should get the place within eight days time, upon which cardinal Mazarin answered, he would warrant his majesty to be master of Bellegarde before the next Thursday, which was the last. Since that time we heard nothing from Bellegarde. Thursday last in the morning, being the fifth of this month, letters came to the king from Mr. Humieres, governor of Compiegne, signifying he heard his majesty was to come to that town, and that cardinal Mazarin was about to turn him out of the place, and give it one of his own creatures, which he said, he would not suffer, all his goods and estate being thereabouts, and his predecessors there ever before him; and now that he himself should be turned out for nothing; so he desired his majesty not to take it ill, and that he would send for relief to prince Condé sooner than give the place to cardinal Mazarin's creatures; and that we hear certainly he did; and that now the town is garrisoned by the prince's forces, and he governor, but it seems, if the king can take the place, he shall no less lose than his head.
(fn. 11) The king and his council seeing that duke d'Amville would not grant his dimission of the government of Limosin high and bas Marche on giving him 150,000 livres in ready mony with the government of Fontainbleau, and leave to sell it to whom he pleased, they resolved if Turenne can take those governments by force, they shall be his, because the government of Fontainbleau is his already, and they were to give it to the duke, that Turenne might have the duke's governments above-mentioned. But the said duke must be wary, or else he shall lose the whole. We hear cardinal de Retz offered a great sum of mony to some of his guard to escape, which came to the cardinal Mazarin's cars, before they could end their affairs, who had all the guard at Bois de Vincennes changed, and others put in their places; and the cardinal to have less liberties than he had hitherto; since which time he is a little indisposed.
(fn. 12) His majesty hearing of late, that the duke of Savoy was to take the king of Spain's party, being not able to defend himself, sent for the forces he has in Piedmont, that they might march to Guienne, and from thence to Champaigne.
The duchess royal dowager is retired to Nice de la Paille. The duke of Orleans is expected at Orleans, if not there already. The king permits him to put any governor he pleases in Pont St. Esprit, as also in Carcassonne.
From Languedoc we have, that the parliament of Toulouse deputed to the court here, desiring the king to order away the troops of Mr. De Plessis Belliere, which trouble much the city, and ruin all round about. They be not yet arrived here, if that be true.
That parliament have taken notice of four presidents, to chuse one of them in lieu of their first president, that died of late, which the king's council thought very strange against all the laws of the kingdom, because they had not the chusing of the man themselves.
These five or six weeks past the prisoners of the Bastille were working under the walls of the place to escape all together; but yesterday morning some of the officers hearing of them working went down, and found there colonel Ruggsby's man, and another French gentleman, that liveth in the same chamber with Ruggsby, who both were turned presently to the Casscos; and indeed if they had but only the space of two or three days, the way had been ready for them; so they must have patience as yet.
I am of mind not to write any more, 'till I hear from you, which I hope shall be by the next. (fn. 13) All the Irish do quit the Spaniard, by reason he does not perform with them, as I writ before. The duke of York will have enough of them. Preston has not yet gotten his monies, neither his son parted for Portugal for want of the monies promised to both, which they cannot receive from the court here.
Letter of intelligence.
Since my last, here is very little of news. Condé is preparing and will suddenly march into the field: so will count Fuensaldagna, as you had in my former. It is conceived, Condé will endeavour to relieve Bellegarde, and after march into Guienne if he can.
The archduke is yet highly discontented, by reason of count Schwartzenberg and the Jesuit's being separated from him, as you had before; and it is thought he will not stay long here, but return into Germany; which if he does, all the Germans swear, they will never serve more here.
In summa, all the officers here are discontented, and complaining of count Fuensaldagna and secretary Navarr, and so is the whole nation here; the Spaniards only are pleased, and that but in part also.
Here is a merchant of London, one Owens, who seems now to follow the wars, and
quit merchandizing. He has agreed to transport 3000 men hither for the prince of Condé.
One colonel Dwire would be a partner with him, according to some contract made; but
Owens receding, the colonel gave him a box upon the ear, and kicked him. It seems
Owens was loth to fight, and contrived his arrest, to save his life more than his honour;
which is all the news since my last, from,
After the departure of the French ambassador, mons. Chanut (fn. 14) from hence, many of the Frenchmen do begin to leave this court; among others, the physician of the queen's majesty, mons. Bourdelot, being a Frenchman also, and a great promoter of that nation here; who being presented by the queen's majesty with her picture, and a gift of 10000 rix dollars besides, is to depart presently after the holydays, and to return for France.
We have news here by several letters of a great sea fight betwixt the English and Hollanders, and being the victory thereof is ascribed unto the said English, it causeth great perplexity amongst the Hollanders here but the certainty and particulars thereof being not yet known, are expected by the next.
An intercepted letter to king Charles II.
Most gracious sovereign,
As I am credibly informed, there is one, who must surely be one of your majesty's privy council, that hath 800 l. per annum from your enemies in England, that every fortnight transmits in an extraordinary fair hand all your designs and transactions to the council of state (so called) here. The relation comes from one, who served Thurloe, their then and now secretary; and that did from time to time, as well when your majesty was in Scotland, as before and since, make copies out of the originals, having left that employment since the now called state took entrance; who I doubt not (if it may stand with your majesty's pleasure) will be ready to wait upon your majesty, accompanied with myself. And although I have a wife and three children, I shall attend and prosecute any service conducing to your majesty's honour and the safety of my country, not any whit at all fearing the adventure of my life, and that with honesty and secrecy, having also a secret in writing of letters, to keep them from discovery, which I intend only for your majesty. I shall touch no more on this for fear of the miscarriage. The party that writes to your enemies subscribes N. N. for his name, and the last letter this party discoverer wrote out was six weeks since, the party that writes hither desiring at the foot of the letter to have 500 l. consigned unto him: by this happily your majesty may find the party out. I shall not take that boldness on me to advise your majesty, being already enforced to this boldness of writing being a thing of so great concernment, but shall ever be
Your majesty's most humble and faithful subject and servant.
An intercepted letter.
To answer what particulars I left unanswered in my last, I must begin with Fair Weather, whose letter I cannot get a sight of, something out of it being only communicated to Mr. West, but the letter never given him. In short, it contains only insignificant advertisements, which I think are as much of his invention as of truth. Therefore I pray let me know, why you think they may be mischievous. Crafts his brother in law is called Howard; for he is the brother of his wife. The Scotch you mean, as I conceive, was marryed to a sister of Craft's his wife; but I cannot imagine, why you think him a knave; for I confess I think him very honest. I find not that Crafts is doing any thing here, but there is one going from hence to him; whereof you shall hear more by the next I write, after I know you have received this. If he that guides Cousins would undertake Mr. Wrest's business, hee should do well to treat with Mr. Dungan or Mr. Croaker about it. There is no doubt Mr. Rowland will send any commoditys necessary, or that shall be desired by Mrs. Southwell, Mrs. Smith, and Mrs. Slertcher, whether he agree with Mr. West or not, provided he doe not continue with Mr. Tho. Umphires, as I am confident he will not.
A younger brother of Mr. Boucher, whose name is Richard, sends word, that Mr. Boucher will restore to Mr. West as much as he can of his goods; and that Mrs. Byron, Mrs. West, and Mrs. Daly will do the same upon a reasonable composition; for which I am sure Mr. West will be obliged to the fear they have of the English power, if he gets any thing. When I know you have received the inclosed paper, I shall say . . . .