A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 1, 1638-1653. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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June (1 of 5)
The Spanish ambassador to the States General.
The subscribed ambassador of Spain doth pray and desire very earnestly the lords States General, not to proceed any further in the disposal and conclusion of the new treaty of alliance, which they have projected to make with the crown of France, before they shall have understood what weighty businesses he hath to impart to them upon this subject. That he will confer with their commissioners, if they please to do him the favour to send any to him, at such times as his sickness will give him never so little respite; assuring their lordships, that this will make for their own profit, and that they will find nothing but candour and sincerity in the proceedings of the said ambassador, who would be extremely sorry to see them fail on their parts of a reciprocal and good intelligence and communication upon this subject; and will likewise cause some overtures of ill consequence capable to furnish sufficient arguments for his majesty to find out reciprocal precautions and preventions, to which his majesty would never hearken nor think on till now, knowing that their lordships have found themselves well by not innovating any thing in matters so ticklish and dangerous since the publication of the peace; and that they will now by their ordinary prudence put all things into an equal balance, that so neither directly nor indirectly they will not put any marks of partiality between the two crowns, nor give occasion of offence and resentment to the king his master by any manner of damage whatsoever. Done at the Hague this 12 of June 1653. [N. S.]
Sommaire de ce que le resident de France a dit à mons. le B. de Gent, præsident en l'assemblée de messieurs les Estat Generaux.
Que le roy luy a fait savoir par plusieurs fois, & encor fait de nouveau par sa depesche du 16, avec charge de le communiquer en son nom à leurs seigneuries, que sa majesté faisant consideration sur les mauvaises consequences d'une plus longue durée du different, qu'elles ont aveq l'Angleterre, & des grandes avantages, que s'en promettent ceux, qui ne cherchent qu'à faire leur profit des troubles & divisions, qui arrivent, & que d'ordinaire ils suscitent parmi leurs voisins, & mêmes dans toute la Chrestienté; elle trouva bon deslors, que monsieur de Bordeaux fust envoye de sa part en Angleterre, de luy donner ordre reiteré encore depuis les changement y survenus, d'offrir sa mediation pour faire cesser les dits differents, qui sont entre les deux republiques; & que pour estre aveq plus de moyen & pouvoir d'avancer une chose si utile à l'une & l'autre, on s'est laissé entendre du desir d'estre allié des toutes deux. C'est ce, dont le dit sieur præsident a esté prié de faire rapport en l'assemblée de messieurs les Estats Generaux, qui par leurs prudences y feront, s'il leur plaist, les considerations, telles que le meritent les franches & sinceres intentions de S. M.
A memorial of the Swedish resident to the States General (fn. 1).
The resident of Sweden finds himself bound, in behalf of the queen of Sweden his gracious mistress, to give the States General of the United Provinces to understand, that by reason of a certain placart (or proclamation) which the said States General had caused to be published upon the 5th of December last past, concerning a forbidding to carry any counterband goods to the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, the free traffic and commerce at sea was not only invaded in general, but altogether disturbed and endangered, especially to the very great prejudice of the queen's majesty of Sweden, and her good subjects.
Now it is so, that the alliance renewed between her majesty and the States General in the year 1640 had no other scope and intention besides the free navigation and commerce; and to this end in the 7th article thereof (fn. 2), hath among other things this expresly, that all commerce, yea with the enemy of the confederates, shall be permitted to continue, except only to such fort or city, as shall be environed and assaulted by some formal siege, which the queen's majesty was willing to stand to.
By this the States General themselves cannot but judge, how little it agrees with the aforesaid alliance and good friendship, that the queen's majesty of Sweden, in place of a beleaguered city, should be deprived not only of trading and commerce with those three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, but also, under pretence of forbidding traffic in the forementioned places, to hinder and disturb their commerce in all other places.
Hereupon the said resident, by express order from the queen's majesty, desires the States General, that they would be pleased to give an act in writing, and declaration, by which, during the present misunderstanding between their high and mighty lordships and the republic of England, the queen's majesty's subjects ships and goods, though taken for counterband, may not by the ships of war of this state by any commission whatsoever at sea be made stop of, much less brought in, but upon the queen's passes and certificates, or of any of her majesty's governors and subordinate magistrates, be suffered to pass without hindrance to their appointed places.
The queen's majesty makes no question at all, but that she shall obtain the like act and declaration for her subjects to sail and traffic freely into the havens and ports of this state from the English.
These usings shall appear conformable to the alliance before cited, to all equity and good correspondence; it shall likewise in no kind lengthen out the quarrel between the two republicks, neither hinder the restoration of the peace betwixt them; the rather also, because it is found, that store of counterband goods, as to England, are brought thither from other places, yea, from these very countries, by the subjects thereof indirectly, where the said prohibition was made; so that it is made apparently to the vexation of her majesty's subjects of Sweden, as also of other nations, and to the perturbation of all trade upon the north and west sea; it being the persuasion of wise men even in this very state, and well affected to it, and that upon well grounded reasons, that the aforesaid obstructions ought not to be.
Whereupon the said resident nothing doubts, but their high and mighty lordships, upon the reasons before mentioned, shall be inclined to pass such an act, as is before desired; and he shall likewise wait for a good and speedy declaration of it.
The resolution of the States General on the aforesaid memorial.
A Memorial was read in the assembly on the behalf of the queen of Sweden, desiring that, during the wars betwixt them and England, her subjects ships and goods, as also the contraband goods, might not be arrested or molested, but permitted to proceed in their intended voyages, after exhibiting a pass or certificate from her majesty, her governors, or burgomasters. Whereupon, after deliberation, it was,
An intercepted letter of T. Robinson to Mr. Stoneham at the Hague.
Young sir H. Vane, notwithstanding the affronts (fn. 3) he received at the dissolution of the parliament, was invited, being in Lincolnshire, by a letter from the council; which invitation he answered by a letter extracted out of that part of the Apocalyps, wherein the reign of the saints is mentioned, which he faith he believes will now begin; but for his part he is willing to defer his share in it, until he come to heaven; and desired to be ex cused in yielding to their desires. Yet upon second thoughts he is come to London, and I believe will, like Tiberius, upon little entreaty accept a share in this empire.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
En response de la votre du 6 Junii/27 Maii je diray, que volontiers j'apprens la bonne inclination des Anglois pour la paix. De l'inclination des Hollandois il ne saut pas douter; des Zeelandois de meme: voire il n'y a pas une province, qui oseroit dire de ne la vouloir pas; car le commerce patist, & le peuple est obligé à contribuer. Cependant aussy nous avons abondance de tels, qui aimeroient mieux (en leur cœur) bellum internecinum, & ne feroient pas marry, que par ce moyen l'une republique tuast l'autre pour le profit des deux roys. La France semble d'envier telle fortune à l'Espagnol, & pourtant ce roy (de France) ne seroit pas marry d'estre allié de l'une & de l'autre; au moins telle chose a notifié icy par son resident. La Hollande eust fort desiré, que feulement deux, à favoir un de Hollande & un de Zeelande, sussent allies; mais la Frise, comme aussy trasicante province, a voulu en avoir un; & quoy que state of Holland ont fort craint, que cela ne deplust à council of state; (connoissant bien que Friesland eft soubs grave William) neantmoins pour avancer la chose ont concedé un de la Frise, un de Zelande, mais deux de Hollande; lesquels deux de Hollande sont desja nommé, le Srs Beverning & Nieuport: de Frise est nommé le Sr Jongstal; lequel est bien bon amis de grave William; mais toutefois se dit aussy ami de council of state: celuy de Zeelande n'est pas encore nommé. Sans doubte la Zeelande nommera quelcun, qui soit aggreable à council & republicans. Cy devant les States General se font feints fort abhorrents de France, mais juge, qu'elle soit necesfaire, & states of Holland n'en fera pas fort abhorrent. Quant aux trois points du 25 Junii, cela on juge raillerie, car il faudroit aussi, que les Anglois rendissent aux Hollandois 400 navires, qu'ils leurs ont prins. Le roy de Dennemarck a prests & au Sondt 22 navires; & le bruit eft, qu'il en appreste encore plus. Entre ces 22 il y en a 2 à 106 pieces chacun. Selon le traité, il ne doibt, que 20, & ce feulement pour garder le Sont, & en empescher le passage aux Anglois. Mais il est croyable, que par jalousie de Suedois, qui equippent un plus grand nombre, il femble, que le Dennemarck vueille augmenter le nombre.
L'on a supposé icy, que council of state auroit avancé aveq Sweden, une alliance semblable à celle que States General ont fait aveq Denmark; comme de même l'on craint bien, que conseil d'estat traitera aveq Spain. a Pégal que States General traitera France; mais je voy que council of state n'a pas tant d'égard a Sweden.
Jusques à maintenant on n'a pas encore fourni au Dennemarck le premier tiers des 192 m. patacons; & à fin que neantmoins il soit fourni promptement, la Hollande offre de le fournir seule; si on la descharge en contreschange de quelques autres postes dans l'estat de la guerre.
Si que jusques à present le roy de Dennemarck aye fort peu de satisfaction d'ici, & on luy a fait encore un autre; c'est qu'on luy a donné à entendre, qu'on a icy aboli & rescindé le traité de redemtion, à commencer depuis la feste St. Jean, sur quoi on luy escrit une lettre courtoise. A Middleborgh est mort le borgem. Veth, estant grand republicain, & adverfaire de Thibaut, lequel taschera bien de s'en prevaloir.
La reine de Sweede a lasché la pluspart du canon contracté en Swede; en contreschange, ceux d'Amsterdam ont relaxé un tel marchand Sweedois, nomme Grootjan, qui a esté prisonier à Amsterdam bien 2 à 3 ans.
L'on a requis le roy de Dennemarck de vouloir joindre aucune de fes navires à la flotte de Tromp; mais il ne s'est pas encore declaré la dessus; aussy il difficultera, voiant que cest estat veut la paix; & desja il n'a que trop offenfé les Anglois; & aimera mieux de retirer son espingle du jeu, que de s'engager d'avantage.
Les Orange party & royalists icy soustiennent fort & ferme, que Cromwell affecte le droit de Scotland. L'on en raille, disant que l'effigie de queen of Sweden pend en sa chambre: que la femme de Cromwell en soit jaloux; auroit dit Cromwell voudroit bien, que je fusse morte; car alors aussy tost il espousera cette queen of Sweden.
A Strasbourg est escrit un petit livre en Latin par Saumaise contre Milton; mais je n'en ay point de exemplaire. Graswinkel a achevé son livre du proces d'Amboyna; mais amore pacis je pense qu'on n'en permettra pas l'impression; comme aussy rien encore ne s'imprime de ce que Saumaise preparoit. Je reste,
Le roy de Dennemarck offre aux Estats Generaux 8 a 10 de fes plus grandes navires contre autant de petites, qui fuffiront pour garder le destroit du Sundt; & les grands feront meilleurs pour le combat. Mais cela sera au frais & peril de cest estat.
L'ordre avec le concept traite d'alliance à faire aveq la France (retrenché & repurgé de mots offensifs contre la republique d'Angleterre) ne sera pas envoyé à l'ambassadeur Boreel qui pari passu en même temps, que les deputes des cest estat iront en Angleterre.
Letter of intelligence from Dort.
I Came early this morning from the Hague, and the wind turning again, it is not possible for me to get thither time enough to write from thence. I cannot add much more to my last, because we hear not from our fleet; but one that is come into Goree faith, that there was mighty shooting at sea yesternight. It may be the fleets are met, on the success whereof lie the fortunes of either republics. I am confident God will own England's cause, and give my lord general and the present power hearts to prosecute so great mercies and advantages, as God hath and will give them again, I am confident; and let England be no more ventured with all its fortunes at one cast needlesly, as it is now, and hath been divers times before, only to please some base self-interested people's wills.
I informed you in my last, how I had sent down some people below, who I am confident will wisely carry the business to the best advantage. I expect an account from them every hour, and shall send it either by a boat on purpose, or else our old private way.
You would admire at the confidence of these people of victory, who are giving you conditions in their minds already, what havens and towns for security and satisfaction for all losses; and now are on their old rant again, that you shall never carry a gun to sea more, your merchant ships shall go all under the protection of their men of war. These things may be considered by you, and the only things to make you happy and secure.
Letters from their private people both from Germany and other places please them not; nor does the Dane answer their expectations as they could wish, but grows as jealous of his own condition; and as it came hither from a sure private hand, that the last week he hath been so cruelly frighted in his sleep, that he had lost his crown and his country, and was a prisoner, and censured to dye by the English; with divers such things, which some about him have endeavoured to put out of his head by great feastings and such like pastimes. The fall of that prince is look'd for speedily, if you carry the day against these. The Swede is the only politic prince, foreseeing and making herself ready against the day of change.
It is supposed by wise men, that you and she may divide stakes in the Danish game. Those things formerly proposed to you concerning some places there, are a little to be considered now, conducing so much to the good of England. I shall upon notice stir in it, and am confident it will take; but truly delays have so dull'd our spirits, that it doth put us almost out of all hopes.
I shall expect by this return, whether any progress will be had, and so shall either knock off or proceed. Now is the time, if the Lord own you in this battle, speedily to end all, and bring a flourishing peace to our nation, and to such other as God shall give into your hands. Did you but see what is here doing, you would know how much it concerns you to be vigilant; for this certain maxim is held by all states men, as England now stands, that there can be no medium for England, but to be either absolute fovereign, or slave; and there is no safety for these provinces, if beaten, but to fling themselves wholly upon you; and the more under your protection, the more happy and safe. These things are your interest if managed. All nations are at a stand, and though working, yet the whole wheel of affairs lies on this business. Warily mark Don Alonso; he hath large instructions and commission from Spain lately of double sense. All these mens hopes is, if beaten, that you will not pursue, but rest satisfied as before, and so give them time to work their ends. But to provide for all, ambassadors are named to come to the present power in England, and given out that no success of the fight shall alter the resolution of the state, but must treat on conditions, that you must do so and so. I could have given the whole issue of the business, which I have in writing, but it being at the Hague, I cannot send it now. These must be instructed as the old ones were formerly; the fight must be over, and the success known, and then let the event be what it will, it is apparent, that they intend peace. Truly they are a wary people, and manage their business with great policy: I hope you will be armed for them. They will treat with you for France and Denmark, as well as themselves, and bring them all in a league together. As cunning heads as in the world manage this business. You shall have advice; be wary: the number is four; Newport is one: farewell.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
We have no other news of the English fleet since my last, than that some presume that they are gone westward; although some say, that they have seen them within these two days about Santvoort near Haerlem. First it was said here, that one of their shipps with thirty two guns was stranded in the pursuit of a fisherman; but since it is said, it was a ship of Zealand, which the English had chased on shoar. The Eastland fleet of 500 ships lies in the Ulye, is kept in so long as the English fleet doth continue upon the coast.
There is likewise no news come as yet from admiral Tromp since he went, but is expected every hour with this westerly wind. It is strongly presumed, that both the fleets are engaged: all well wishers to peace do hope the contrary, as well to avoid the spilling of christian blood, as that neither party should have too great advantage over one other; for this victory, wheresoever it lights, will make them be insolent, and those that lose will still endeavour to have a revenge, before they will hearken to a peace.
The provinces here are all agreed to send to the government in England conditionally, that first of all the three articles of the 28th of June, 1652 last shall be laid aside, which were propounded to the lord of Heemstede; and presupposing, that the English shall wave those points, the thirty six projected articles will be propounded again to the government of England, which were treated on the last year by the lords Cattz, Schaep, and Perre.
And it is said, because France doth treat in England by the baron of Neufville, that the league might be made general between France, and England, and this state; but not leaving out the king of Denmark. There is not a word of the king of England.
It is finally and firmly resolved on, to send into England; the number of the persons, viz. four agreed on; two from Holland, one out of Zealand, and one out of Frizeland. Holland hath already made choice of two, Beverning, and Nieuport; on the behalf of Frizeland my lord Jongestall; but Zealand hath not yet made choice of one, but he will be chosen in the province.
This Resolution is not to be altred neither for good nor bad news, for we do expect every hour the success of a new sea-fight between the fleets of both commonwealths. The princess royal is gone for Breda, where the young prince is to stay. The princess goes for the Spa; others say for France.
Passengers, that came yesterday out of Zealand, say, they heard terrible shooting, and Tromp sent word to the states before he went, that he would do his endeavour to find out and fight the English fleet, wheresoever he should meet with them.
Admiral Van Tromp to the States General. (fn. 4)
High and mighty lords,
The 12th of this month before noon we came to the enemy near the height of Newport, strong ninety eight men of war, and fix fireships; the enemy was strong ninety five or a hundred sail, amongst which were seventy five or eighty lasty well-mounted ships and frigots; and about eleven of the clock we engaged each other, and the fight lasted till nine o'clock at night, at which time both fleets parted from one another. That day we lost captain Butler of Groeningen, who with his ship and part of his men was sunk; some of them were saved by us, and captain Cornelius Van Velsen was blown up with his ship, whereof only five men were saved. This day morning we caused all the captains and head officers of the fleet to come on board of our ship; and I found that most of them were so unprovided with ammunition, that we this day with fighting should not have enough to hold out. Amongst the rest the vice-admiral de Witt has so little, that he has not enough to serve him for three hours fight; and the commander de Ruyter has yet less. Notwithstanding I am resolved to assault the enemy once more this day, and then I shall be necessitated to make a retreat, if so be the enemy shall keep so long with us, till we come into the Wielingen. Your lordships are desired to use all possible means for the reinforcing of our fleet, and providing of ammunition and necessaries; and likewise to send commissioners to Zealand to give order to your business.
A letter of intelligence.
In my last you had a large account in extracts of the secret affairs here. At this time I cannot so well come by them, but I shall endeavour to comply hereafter with your desire. Briefly at present you shall understand, that Van Tromp has written a letter to the States General of the 8th instant, letting them know, that a small pink sent out by him to discover the English fleet returned to him safe with intelligence, where they were; and that he was ready to set sail to attack them, and destroy them, if he might, according to the orders given to him; which are the last news we had from or of him. By the extracts you had by the former, you had of three to be named to be sent to you to treat, but not in the nature of ambassadors. Since the three were declared, one from the province of Holland, the 2d of Zeland, and the 3d of Friezland; the two last were suspected as disaffected to a peace with your commonwealth, and the 4th by the instance of the province of Holland is named, as I take it, minheer Schaep, that was with you last year. The other three were never there, and they all will be gone suddenly towards you. They shall have instructions to communicate their business and negotiation to Mr. Neufville Bordeaux, the French minister there; and to comprehend France in the peace, without which you may not expect peace from hence; for the adjustation of the confederacy is near done, being very lately preffed violently by the French ministers here, and had been concluded, were it not for a paper presented by M. Le Brun the Spanish ambassador here to the states against the said confederacy, as oppugnant to the peace betwixt his majesty and this republic, the heads of which you shall have. The said M. Le Brun is very sick since his return from Brussels, which gives the more way to the French desires, which are now pressing here.
The king of Denmark must also be included in our treaty and peace with yours and others of our allies; so that the business is not so facile as some take it, and our wisest statesmen here see it well; and therefore, notwithstanding all our shews of a peace with yours, yet our ministers abroad have orders to ally and confederate all the princes they are with to these estates, and we are also preparing the best we can for the present war. France has a stratagem, and if it be for R. C. these states can hardly with safety make peace with you. Time will produce the sequel. You may see by the printed paper and picture annexed, how yet your aspersions for the late change continue. By this post I cannot give you more than what is here.
Letter of intelligence.
Yours by the last I received, and sent yours to Ratisbon, from whence I send the annexed to you. Your continued quietness there, after so great a change in governors, breeds no small admiration in the wiser sort of men here, who still discourse of nothing more than of the event of that change; and some of them would have an elective king there as in Poland; but I leave them to think what they please.
Some begin to boast here, how the Dutch are now become masters, having by their admiral Van Tromp conveyed safely their merchants ships to and fro, and after fail'd to the mouth of your river Thames, and whither they list upon the feas; but I presume it may not be long so, or your republic will lose the honour hitherto preserved. Of news here since my last we have not much. I gave you in my two last letters the numbers of what horse and foot march into this company under the conduct of prince of Conde and count Fuenfaldagna. Conde goes within four days to the campaign, and soon after Fuensaldagna. Conde makes up a new livery for this field. All the fields round about this city are full of waggons for the march; and all the cavaliers and officers are disgusted with count Fuensaldagna and secretary Navarr, being two imperious Spaniards.
The archduke takes the Spa waters, and uncertain when he goes to the field, if he goes at all this season. His discontents are great, and he is melancholly. The armies in Flanders march this season with the contribution of the country, the king having failed in his promised payments, and never failed as now, which, they say in Antwerp, is occasioned by your detention of the plate.
Lorrain has tandem with much ado set at liberty colonel Cusack, governour lately of Inifbuffen, but it is to get into his own service such of the Irish as are in the archduke's new regiments of Irish.
Admiral Van Tromp to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
My last unto you was yesterday in the forenoon at eleven a clock, being about turning, whereby to gain the wind, if it were possible, of the enemy, and to fall upon him advantageously in the heart of his fleet; but having tacked about, it became a calm, and the enemies having the wind of us, they bore up to attack us to their advantage, and fought till an hour after Sun set, and for want of foresight or skilfulness in many of the captains and their officers in the wars at sea, many of the captains fell foul with their ships of one another, and so were in disorder; also were encompassed by their best failing frigates, and so taken together [with] some ships sent to releive them; so that by report of the captains, that came aboard me this morning laying at anchor E. and S. S. E. from us, I have understood, that there are taken captain John Gideons Verburgh, a ship belonging to the admiralty of Amsterdam; Peter Schelling, of the admiralties of the north parts; Cornelius Laurence, one of the directors ships of Amsterdam; James Duym, one of the directors ships of Enckhuysen; Hendrick Pieters, one of the directors ships of Edam; and the ship Westergoe, Timen Claes being commander; which without any circumspection got amidst the enemies fleet and yielded. Whether now any more are taken or sunk, is unknown to us, feeing most of what I certify is by report, we lying constantly in the smoke of the cannon, and so could perceive little ourselves. However we miss the captains specified in this list. Whether they lost us in the night, or have chosen another harbour contrary to order, is unknown to us. Nevertheless we understand by our advice boat, master Teunis Willems, now newly arrived with letters from your high mightinesses of the 9th instant, that this morning he met seventeen of our ships before Schouwland, four whereof he had spoken with. We finding our ships much shattered, and having great necessity of ammunition; considering also, that the enemies this morning in our presence being recruited unto the number of far above one hundred stout ships of war, by joint advice of the head officers of the fleet, we have thought good to transport ourselves, with the present men of war, just within the ground of the Wielings, there to expect the lords deputed by your high and mighty lordships, as also of the courts of admiralty and directors, that in all things order be taken to furnish us with ammunition, and for the most with all necessiaries; to the end that the said fleet with all possible speed being made ready again, and considerably strengthened, may make head against the enemies; for through want hereof the state hath nothing to expect but affronts, humanely spoken, considering the present strength of the enemies. Touching your ship the Brederode under me, she hath received divers shot twixt wind and water, which, as much as possibly could be, we have stopped; but nevertheless continues to leak; that this night, notwithstanding all our pumps going, the water was increased unto five feet in the hold, so that by power and number of men, by the help of **** we kept her above water, and are now employed hereby to recover her, hoping to stop her; and that means not taking place, we shall be forced to carry her behind Rammakins, there to lay her aground. Wherewith, high and mighty lords, wishing your high and mighty lordships durable health, fortune and prosperity, expecting what God will please to send us, I remain,
Letter from Van Beuningen, deputy for the States General in Sweden, to the States.
High and mighty lords,
I Have been with the lord chancellor of this kingdom, pressing for the league offensive betwixt the two crowns and your high and mighty lordships; and after urging with all efficacious reasons the said league, I received no other answer but his allegations of the inconveniency of the war with England, and that the alliance made of old betwixt this crown and your high and mighty lordships is since made inconsistent by the subsequent alliance made with Denmark; and now to treat of a new one, many difficulties would arise not to be overcome. In brief, I must confess to your high and mighty lordships, that in his whole discourse he left not with me the least shadow of hopes to engage in the war against England, directly or indirectly, but to observe neutrality with both; and he confirmed the same after, demanding freedom for the ships of the subjects to this crown, as was desired by her majesty's resident at the Hague the lord Appelboom, as well for the contraband goods as others; and said that the queen was much displeased because of her subjects ships being taken by the English and Dutch, at which her majesty connived for a time, in hopes the wars should not continue, or some course taken otherwise for the freedom of her subjects; but neither having success, the queen has written to England as well as to Holland for free commerce, which England readily granted, and it is hoped that the States General would give no less satisfaction. And he said further, that your high and mighty lordships proclamation against contraband goods was not to keep such goods from England, but to vex the subjects of her majesty, when as from the very Netherlands the contraband merchandises were sent into England. To all which I answered, it was not at all the intention of your high and mighty lordships to aggrieve the subjects of this crown; and if the English ports did lye in the present war as yours, they would not permit such goods to pass, and that your high and mighty lordships were compelled to such acts by an unjust war forced upon you by the English; and so we set an end to our conference to no other effect. Other news here are none, but that the ratification of the treaty with Brandenburgh was dispatched last week; and the Spanish ambassador here has orders from Spain to repair presently unto that court, to which purpose the queen gave orders for a ship of war to be ready for him, &c.
From hence there is no news for the present, but that the ladings of those English ships, which were hitherto detained by his majesty, are now exposed to be sold, a great quantity thereof being bought already by one Marsellis, a rich merchant here.
The lord Wentworth being sent by the Scots king an ambassador hither to his majesty, and having had private conference with the ministers of state, was yesterday with great solemnity brought to the court to his audience, where having delivered his message to the king himself, he was entertained by the nobles, and afterwards with the same state guarded to his lodging again. His proposals, tho' not yet known, may be easily conceived, and therefore it is thought he will obtain but very small comfort here.
Mr. Edw. Bernard to Walter Strickland efq.
Beinge by a devine hand brought with safety into theese confines, I was desirous to imparte unto you that relation, that wee have had concerninge this greate fight betwixt the two fleets, which shal be presented thus:
Upon Thursday laste aboute three off the clocke in the morninge, beinge at Dunkerk, wee heard greate shooteinge, the which continued all that day without ceaseinge, untill the eveninge very late. The next day after the same manner the fight began, as we conjecture by the sound of the ordnance beinge perfectly to be heard at Dunkerke: the next day the Hollanders feemed to draw whomewards, for we could then perfectly see them at Newporte; to say, both the fleets engage, the which engagement continued very sore all that day untill very late at night. The next morninge, beinge Saterday morninge, aboute two of the clock in the forenoon, was heard much shooteinge by some that were then at Oostende, which appeared to be the English still in pursuite of the Hollander; since which there hath ben several fishermen off Blakenbergh on board of some Holland's men off warre, who doe report them to be in a lamentable totter'd and distracted condition; and that off 120 sayle, which they averr to be their strength before this engagement, they could not discover above 65 remayninge, and that your honours have not lost above five shipps. These fishermen reporte here, that some on board the Hollanders men of warr gave them this relation. In summe all doe conclude here, that you have given the Dutch a very greate blow. The number of men that the Hollander seems to have loste is incredible. In case they had not sheltered themselves under the sands betwixt the bancks, they had probably been utterly destroyed. Doubtles the Hollander will not fodainely attempt to fight you againe upon your coast. Since the world began, such a fight, as this hath ben, was never knowne. The very noyse of the gunns, which was heard very plaine for three days together in some of these parts, hath strucke a very great terror into moste of their hearts; insoemuch that the moste juditious amongst them doe begin to consider, and to contemplate, in case these two mighty potentates should joyne together, what would become of the kings of the earth. Doubtles Babilon is upon his fall, and that is likely to be the succes and issue of this warr with Holland; although it is stronge upon my hearte to conclude, that the Hollander is not yet low enough to helpe carry on the worke, that God hath cut out for them to doe. They minde onely the caryinge on off their trade. They judge that worke enough for them to doe; but I am confident God in his due time will fit them for higher employment. Here is greate talke, that the emperor should be fallinge downe into some of these lower confines, haveinge a pretence to some off the towns under the Hollanders jurisdiction. If something like this should succeed, I trust then God will put it into your hearts to take them into your arms, that you may both joyne as one man to pull down the whore and all her adherents. It is strange to observe the vayne conceits off the wife states of Zealand: they were very confident off overthrowinge your fleete, especially now they had noe merchants shipps to guard, upon which account they had strange thoughts off makeinge some attempts upon Ireland, as some off the greate ones here, haveinge had occasion of late to be in their company, have privately assured mee; the which they aver is upon knowing grounds by them reported. Doubtles this mercy is a very bigge-bellyed mercy, and hath many mercyes in the bowells of it. I wish the generall and others in authority had but hearts soe to prise aud valew the outgoeings off God for them, that they may make it their study, their busines, their all, how they may honor him, and act, and live up to devine injoyment; that justice may have its course amongst us. I feare our cause onely upon this account, that we shall fayle in this, and forget that God, that hath done all for us, and ben soe exceedinge good unto us. Sir, iff there be any thinge in these parts, wherein I can serve you or my country, experience will make a lively discovery to you, how much I am
It seems the States Generall have lately made an act to give way for the transporteing of pitch, tarr, hempe, cordage, and deale boards, and masts out of their owne country, soe that you will have commodityes come over to you in a greate abundance. I beseech pardon my boldnes, and excuse this trouble. I am
A letter of intelligence from Brussels.
At the writing hereof we have news brought us, that there hath been a terrible fight between the English and the Dutch fleet, which began on Thursday, and continued till Saturday; and that the English have gotten the victory against the Hollanders, who are retreated towards Zealand in a fighting posture. Many of the Dutch ships are said to be taken, sunk, and fired. The particulars you may expect by the next, the relations that are made being as yet very uncertain.
The letter sent by the States General to all their ministers abroad, after the sight with the English at sea.
We have thought necessary, to prevent all sinister information, to let you know by these presents, how the army of this state and that of England have fought the 12/2th and 13/3th of this instant, from the morning until late at night, and in the end were separated, without any notable advantage to the one against the other; the misfortune of ours being, that by a calm our ships could not get the wind of the enemy, otherwise they were resolved to go and attack them in the very heart of their fleet; and the enemy, notwithstanding the great advantage they had by the wind, have only fought ours with cannon shot at a great distance; so that in the end, by the advantage of the wind, they cut off five or six of our ships, and as it is thought, they have been sunk, blown up, or taken; as also some of the enemies are likewise said to be blown up and sunk. After the said fight, our fleet is happily returned into the mouth of the seas of this state, to the end the ships impaired shall be repaired and provided with ammunition and appurtenances. We have given order that as soon as the said ships shall be so provided and furnished, they shall return to sea, and find out and prosecute the enemy, and, with God's blessing, procure the greatest service which may be convenient for the country. Of all which we thought good to give notice, to the end it may serve you for information and that you may make use thereof where and when you shall think fit.
A letter of intelligence from Rome.
With this post I cannot lament, for I received three from you with it, and the confirmation of lord Cromwell's proceedings. Some do admire, but many praising such heroical resolution do commend his valour and true love to his nation. The lord have care of him. As for occurrents, take as followeth. The marriage betwixt the Maffeo Barberino and prince Justiniano's daughter does not please the Spaniards, and gives great distaste also to Principe Ludovisio, to principe Pamfilio, and his wife Rosana, and generally to all the Spanish adherents; for it is thought the Barberini's will govern by consent of his holiness. Cardinal Trivulcio and Pimentel departed for Gaeta, being both desired to it by that V. R. who are to confer business of importance. Don Carlo Barberino and cardinal Antonio will be here soon. We hear eight Dutch vessels left Naples searching for the English ships in these seas. Six Turkish Gallies were seen by Naples. In Abruzzo the banditti do great mischief. King of Hungary being elected king of Romanos, here are great preparations of artificial fire's and and other demonstration of joy. Donna Anna Colona, mother to Maffeo Barberino, is to bestow all the Jewels she got from her husband Principe Thadeo upon the Sponsa. They are valued 700,000 crowns. We hear king Charles is to have 10,000 men and money out of Germany for to invade England or Scotland. The Polonian army in three assaults took the garrison of Monaslereth having killed 8000 that where in it.
We hear the Venetian ambassador Capello returned back to Constantinople with some hopes of agreement. The Basha of Bosna was conducted in chains to Constantinople, for not having made the levies ordained him against Dalmatia. Three ships departed lately from Venice laden with ammunition and other necessaries for Candia. For the solemn presentation of the gennet, in behalf of the feudo of Naples, prince Avellino, I mean Spinola, is to exercise that function, if the new consultation of Gaeta do not ordain the contrary, of which per next and of what in that particular may occur.
The Spaniards have the place of armes in the Alessandrino, where all that army is to appear soon. The Diet of Bada is ended without fruit, resisting all those contadins, who already did besiege Berna. From Turin they say one Marascello di Grancey is to govern there. (fn. 5) The princes of Savoy do assist the French, and both went to Millefiori, for to register the French arms there consisting of 4500, and more from Navarre and Lyons, 1000 fanti foot, but all false. Mons. de Plessis (fn. 6) took his way towards Casal to confer there with that duke. Some say the government there is bad, but surely more do commend it; for my own part I drink to my lord C—'s health, and sir, your
Oliver Cromwell's summons to colonell William Sydenham to attend in Parliament.
Forasmuch as upon the dissolution of the late parliament it became necessary, that the peace safety and good government of this commonwealth should be provided for; and in order thereunto, divers persons fearing God and of approved fidelity and honesty, are by my self, with the advice of my councell of officers, nominated, to whom the great charge and trust of so weighty affairs is to be committed; and having good assurance of your love to and courage for God and the interest of his cause and of the good people of this commonwealth: I Oliver Cromwell, captain generall and commander in chief of all the armes and forces raised and to be raised within this commonwealth, do hereby summon and require you William Sydenham, esq; (being one of the persons nominated) personally to be and appear at the councell chamber at Whitehall, within the city of Westminster, upon the fourth day of July next ensuing the date hereof, and then and there to take upon you the said trust unto which you are hereby called and appointed to serve as a member for the county of Dorsett; and hereof you are not to faile. Given under my hand and seale the 6th day of June 1653.
Monsieur de Barriere, the prince of Condé's agent, to general Cromwell and the council of state.
J'ay creu, messieurs, que je ne devois pas estre plus long temps a vous tesmoigner la joye, que j'ay de heureux succes, qu'il a pleu à Dieu donner a vos armes contre vos ennemis; & en attendant, que j'en ay ordre de son altesse, M. le prince de Condé, comme estant tres bien informé de ses sentimens, vous asseurer, qu'il prendra une tres-grande part a l'avantage, que vous avez eu, comme il fera a tous ceux, qui arriveront a ceste republique.
Or, messieurs, comme j'avois attendu, quel seroit le succes de ce combat (quoy que je ne doutasse pas, qu'il ne vous fust favorable) a supplier V. E. & vos honneurs, qu'il vous pleut me faire I'honneur de me donner une responce sur ce que je vous dis il y a quelques jours, & que je vous donnay par escrit touchant le secours de Bourdeaux, j'espere, que vos honneurs, apres une si signale victoire, qu'il à pleu a Dieu de vous donner, escouteront les plaintes d'un pauvre peuple, qui vous tend les bras, & qui n'a plus d'esperance, qu'en vostre bonté & charité, & les tres humbles prieres d'un prince, qui sera toute sa vie recognoissant d'un tel bienfait. Mais comme je representay a vos honneurs, la ville de Bourdeaux est reduite à tel point, que si bientost elle ne recoit quelque soulagement, elle sera contrainte de faire un traité honteux & ruineux pour elle; que s'il plaisoit a vos honneurs de les reguarder de vostre ocil de pitié, vous pourries les retirer de ce peril, fans qu'il vous en coustast rien, ni sans vous engager à aucune rupture avec la France; laquelle ne pourroit pas seulement avoir sujet de plainte. Que s'il plait à vos honneurs me faire la faveur de m'escouter la deffus, je vous en diray les moyens, & faisant cela, outre la gloire que vous acquerra ceste action, vous feres une grande oeuvre de charité. Je suplie done tres humblement vos honneurs, de vouloir me faire savoir vos volontes la dessus, que j'atendray avec une grande impatience, puisque les jours sont des anneées a ceux, qui n'ont point de pain, comme ceux de Bourdeaux. Pour la fin, je prieray Dieu, qu'il continue & augmente vos prosperites.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
This post arrived, but I received nothing from you. I do not know what to say to it. In the mean time I must have patience. It's written by others, that the English and Holland fleet were fighting near Dover two days before they writ their letters: which of them had the victory, as yet they cannot tell. To-morrow being the octave of Corpus Christiday, we are to have great solemnity and processions in this city, as we had to morrow was sevennight. This day was sevennight the parliament being assembled ordered, that a reposoir or an altar should be made at l'hotel de Condé, and in as good order, as if the said prince were in towne; which was executed, and by his majestie's consent, notwithstandinge many oppositions made by the prince's adversaries, yet the king would not suffer, that the prince's armes should be applyed to the torches going before the Sacrament; only three fleurs de lyes; and for fear of any troubles his majestie sent two Swisses of his own guard de corps to guard the reposoir during the procession.
Friday following all the merchants of this town went with their complaints to the king, that the commerce was altogether broken with the countries about; that they durst not go out the town in any way, but they must be robbed by the regiment of the guards about Paris, which they supplicated his majestie to remedy, or they were altogether ruined. The king answered, he would soon send them all to the army, except two companies of the colonel and that of Mr. De Camps, which should be still near his own person; and to each of them he would give eight sols a day: which answer they liked very well, and took their leave, &c.
The 12th instant all the parish priests of Paris went in a body to the king, desiring his liberty for their prelate cardinal de Retz. There reason for it was, that the jesuits here pre tended to have some authority from the pope of full indulgences for any man or woman to come to themselves to confession; which the curates would not suffer, and were desirous to have their superior at liberty to correct the Jesuits. The king answered, that they should go to complaine of that to the arch-bishop of Paris. They replyed, he was not in town; and if he were, that he was sick, and in noe way able for his functions. The king said, he would consider of it; but it was the lord Nuncio that addressed them that way, because they were first with himself about that business. Yet the king asked them whether they had any hand in an excommunication from Rome against cardinal Mazarin and some in the court, or in any business that duke de Rétz pretended for the liberty of Mr. cardinal de Retz. They answered, tho' there was nothing after God they could wish more than the liberty of their prelate, yet that they would have no hand in things, which concerne the world, and less in augmenting the afflictions of France, having seen enough of it already, at which time they took leave and parted. The differences between the chevaliers of France and guard de Sceaux continue always.
Here is also great difference between the messrs. Surintendents, as I writ before, which have taken from the masters of requests their commission extraordinary, and given it to be reported to the treasurers generalls, a thing never seen in France yet; but they being put to question about it so hard by the councell, count de Servient said, it was Abbott Fouquet, that was cause of it, being brother to the procureur general, and one of the finances. Soe he set both the brothers by the eares, and with much difficulty the queen could agree them both together again, having many oppositions, which were mightily against the king and state, which the queen kept close; and indeed were it not shee did it, they were like to spoil themselves both for ever.
The 16th of this month marshal de Turenne parted to his army, went to Lagry, and from thence to Laferté. The king and cardinal, I hear, will follow him soon to see the army in a body. As for the queen and the little duke d'Anjou, I believe they will not stir from hence. Here is a flying report, that the pope and Mazarin will be soon friends, and that the cardinal will give his neices to two of the pope's nephews; also that by alliance cardinal de Retz shall be set at liberty; of which I am not sure yet, but a friend of mine asked it of the lord Nuncio here, who answered, he did not well know of it yet, only he thinks, notwithstanding the pope's oppositions against cardinal Antonio Barbarino, that he will be received in Rome, and if that be the cause, he is not yet certain of it. He says likewise, that Corsini the Nuncio at Avignon will come hither shortly, and that himself will depart for Italye.
The last news from Bruxells brings; that prince Condé parted the tenth instant to his army, having received in money 900,000 livres. Likewise that his majestie of Spaine hath bought the duke of Loraine's troops for the next season; and for assurance of the money promised to him for his troopes, engaged some dukedome till he should be paid. Yet wherever he will be, its thought he will not forget his old tricks and fourberie, which he used the last year. From Bourdeaux of the 9th instant they writ this: The 30th last month all our companies of burgesses have assembled, and took armes in the castle of Italy, where the duke of Enguien and prince Conti came to them; and the prince having made his speech before them, made much of all the officers, and protested he would dispatch other deputies to England to sollicite the relief thence expected, which proposition was received in the townhouse the next day. Le Sieur Peresmes arrived there from St. Sebastian with another Spaniard gentleman, who took shipping at Dunkirk with Mr. Count de Fiesque, which assures, the fleet of Spain would come in within two dayes upon that river of Bourdeaux. An advocate called Jurat, and a gentlewoman called Constance, accused of treason, were turned out of the citty by orders of the said Conti. They built a fort just before the fort de Lorin, which plays daily upon Vendosme's ships at sea. General Marsin parted with his troops towards Cap de Busch. The Bourdelois are making two great gallies and many small galliots, to be sent towards Medoc. Just now I hear, they beat one another at Bourdeaux gallantly; and the English relation of yesterday brings no less between themselves and the Hollanders at sea, tho' I had not one word good or badd.
King Charles is expected here from going to Germany by the court of France, which endeavours that he may go for Holland, they promising they will help him there or wherelse he shall be, which shall not be to your good there, be sure of it; and for that reason the princess of Orange does not come to France, as shee thought. Hitherto we do not fear the the Spaniard, nor prince Condé this year. You may see what the printed papers say of Bellegard; yet I think its not in our possession, till we perform our promises. I am of a mind, if you doe not content the catholiques in the three kingdomes, and agree yourselves, and they altogether, that you may repent it. If you join with Holland, all catholique princes will join against you, and France will with Spain. Be sure of it; tho' you little dream of it, there is something a working concerning that matter, as I am informed certainly: wherefore let all be prevented timely, which is all at present from, sir,