A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 1, 1638-1653. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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June (5 of 5)
An intercepted letter of Mr. Edward Manninge to Mr. Thomas Jeffersen.
Your letter is well with me of the 25th of the last; and do perceive, you have received myne, and that my advice therein touching the several particulars wrott of wil be followed. However pray give me satisfaction in this particular, whether (now after the defeate of the Hollanders) a shipp might not saffely pass to Hamburgh. If so, then notwithstanding my former advice, send me a sortment of such kind of stuffs as are now in use, and accordingly of Stockings, both men, and woemen's, and children's of both kindes; for it canot be otherwise, then that they come to a good markett here, beeing suddenly sent away. I can take order to have them conveyed from Hamburgh to this place with much facility. So expecting your speedy answer, do comend you and your affaires to God's protection, with my cordiall well wishes unto your selfe, and rest
An intercepted letter translated out of French.
(fn. 1)The cardinal is now more absolute than ever, and is sure to have Bourdeaux before he be one month older. There is express order sent to monsieur de Vendosme and monsieur de Candale to make themselves masters of Bourg out of hand, though they are sure to lose the army; conceiving that if Bourg be once taken, the Spaniard can no wise enter into the river, having no place of retreat lest them, and so by this means will forsake and abandon Bourdeaux, which is already giving up the ghost, as is said at court. Monsieur de Vendosme writes, that he hath taken two frigates, that endeavoured to get into Bourdeaux: there were three, but one got away. The court is assured of a general revolt in Catalonia against the king of Spain, yea of Barcelona also; and that monsieur de Plessis Belliere makes no doubt, but he shall be able to raise the siege of Rosa, being stronger in forces than the Spaniards. I see don Joseph (who was formerly governor of that country) read a letter, which he received from thence, which made mention of all this. Certainly the court hath some men at Bourdeaux, who do give advise to the court of all what is said and done in the council there.
Is it true, that something is done for monsieur Barriere in England? That he hath some ships given him? This I was told by a person of as great a consideration as any is in France, who did assure me of it.
I am sorry I have not time now to send you a cypher, by reason I am going to a ball, that is to be before the court to night, which will be as handsome as that, that was given by the Portugal ambassador to the English Ladies.
William Tomson to general Cromwell.
(fn. 2)Hear hath been long discours, but now theare is reall intentions, that the Scotch king shall remove from this place, which is not ockationed by anie designe hee haeth to put in execution againest you in anie of his pretended to countries, but out of the adver tesment he haeth of such a peace to be concluded of beetwixt you and the French king, as may shortly force him from hence with les honour then by a seeming voluntarie act to leave this kingdome, by which hee gives some hopes to the little people about him, to think thear is a praie near hand, when the lyon begins to roouse.
My lord, your great judgment with the hand of God is fittest and best able to guide you on to the end, as it haeth brought you thus farr in all your great and noble undertakings; but if by the waie you will please to hear a penitent, whose heart God haeth touched with true sorrow for his former wicked life, I conceave thear is something of so great consequence to be doon to the securing your goverment for the present and future, whilest Charles, James, and Harrie are together, that not anie conditions you can at present draw from France can answer it; which when they are parted, is not possible to bee efsected; so that if you in your wisdome think fitt to hould on the French in such a neuterall waie, as may keepe the Scotch kinge from leaveing this place, I am confident, it might in short time prove a great blessing and quiet to your nation.
My lord, your lordship as a prudent person, not knowing from whome this comes,
haeth just cause to suspect thear may bee something in it not yet visible to your lordship.
I cannot at present give you other satisfaction, then to asure you by this, that God blessing
of mee, I will in September nex waite of you, when I will discours this busines at large
with you, and by your command and incurragement act such a part in it, as shall tell tell
posteritie I loved and honoured you; and this I beseech you will beleeve from
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
My being all this while at St. Germain's is cause I could not write to you. There I have seen letters from monsieur de Bordeaux, intimating, that there is a representative named for the fourth of the next month, composed of mechanical fellows and tradesmen; and that it is pity a kingdom should be governed by such men. That the advantages the English fleet hath had over the Hollanders is not near so great as they make it; and that they passionate a peace a great deal more than the Hollanders. I was present at the reading of this letter.
If Bourdeaux be taken, as they make no question of but it will be shortly, you shall see in what language they will speak to that commonwealth. And if that state relieve not Bourdeaux suddenly, undoubtedly it will be lost, and you will repent it. The English court, I assure you, hath a stroke in the French court, as by this ensuing business you may see. The king of Scots hath some power with them here. The Irish regiment, which was sent into Flanders under the conduct of one colonel Napper, but brought by him into France, was presently made an offer of to the king of Scots and duke of York. The men sent word to court, that they would not be commanded by this Napper at all, as being forced upon them in Ireland by colonel Ingoldsby. All the Irish here opposed this Napper also, and acquainted the cardinal, what inconveniency would ensue, if any English man should command an Irish regiment in France; for if this was once allowed of, none but English would pretend to an Irish regiment that should be vacant, and would carry it by the king of Scots intercession. The cardinal and Le Tellier promised, that none but an Irish man should command the regiment. The king of Scots hearing this, came to St. Germain's purposely about this business, and hath so work'd with the cardinal, that Napper is to command the regiment. I told Le Tellier myself, when he came out of the council, that this would reflect upon their negotiations in England, to make this Napper colonel of the regiment, against all capitulations with the Irish, because this Napper made an offer of this regiment to the duke of York and his brother, and said he came purposely to serve them. Tellier did but laugh at it. The duke of York is in a posture to go away to morrow, to serve voluntier in marshal Turenne's army. The king of Scots prepares for Holland. The new lord keeper governs all, and is now above my lord Jermyn.
Letter of intelligence.
I Had none of yours by this post. Upon Monday last the proposition of the diet was made, which contains three points: 1. The evacuation of the fort of Vecht in Westphalia, which the Swedes possess. 2. The evacuation of (fn. 3) Amberstein, Onbourg, and the Landstall of Lorrain. 3. That the free quarters of Lorrain and the prince of Condé be avoided.
The emperor gave thanks to the electors, princes, and ambassadors that came to the diet, offering to them his gracious favours, and desired them to propound their demands, and abbreviate what they could to avoid expence, to conserve justice and a peace with Germany and with the other crowns.
The French ambassador had yesterday his first audience from Cæsar, with no more pomp but with two coaches of the emperor, and two new ones of his own, with six horses to each coach: because he was not in condition to go beyond the Spanish ambassador, he did this humbly himself to be exalted.
The ambassador Wilmot is courting and courted. I gave you in several letters formerly full relations of all his negotiations. He has confirmed great promises for his master, whatever shall be performed. He hopes his master will come nearer to him shortly; which is all of news since my last.
An intercepted letter of Doleman to lord Craven.
I shall only assure you, that those that wish well to you and to the justice of your cause, are of a different sense, and shall leave the issue to time. Sir Gilbert Pickering is not now in town. Mr. Strickland is, and shall with the first receive your letter, as shall likewise my lord general.
An intercepted letter of W. Cromwell to lord Craven.
I have received the letter you honour me with by ensign Coen; and my request is to continue in your good opinion; for what in me lyes or may be performed in whatsoever may conduce to your lordship's honour or profit, none shall be more ready to serve you, desiring for my assistance sir Edmund Sayer and sir William Craven, who are both interessed in the business. What they shall informe and counsell to, I shall not in the least be wanting to my power, either to the generall, or to whomsoever else may be effectuall, by which I may manifest myself how much I am,
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Jusques à present aucuns ont voulu un peu colorer la derniere bataille; mais en sin est venu le vice admiral De Witte, qui a dit en pleine assemblée, tant des Estats Generaux, que des estats de Hollande; je suis (dit il) ici par devant mes souverains; que sert il de dissimuler? Il faut dire la verite, les Anglois sont nos maistres: nous sommes quité de la mer; jusques à ce qu'ayons d'autres navires. Aucuns sont d'opinion, que les principaux de Holland l'avoient instruit à parler ainsi, à sin de mouvoir tant plus les autres States General à to a peace mais le commandeur Ruyter en Zelande (estimé pour tres-vaillant) de même a dit tout net & rondement, qu'il n'ira plus en mer, si on ne fournit des meilleurs navires. On commence donc à croire, que la defaite ou retraite soit veritable; aussy nos poetes ne chantent, & les peintres n'ont plus d'inventions ni de couleurs pour colorer. Et le Sr Van Tromp des le commencement dans sa lettre a dit clair, si on ne se pourvoit d'autres navires, que l'estat ne doibt attendre que malheur & affront. Je ne sai qu'en dire. Il me semble, nos admiraux voudroient bien tousjours combattre comme aux Duyns l'an 1639, ou ils avoient 4 a 5 contre un. Mais où en trouverat on tant & de si grands navires? Tromp a designé 30 des navires, qui sont aveq luy en Zelande tout à fait inutiles; & vingt ou plus en sont prins ou ruines dans la derniere rencontre: ce sont 50, ergo il desire 50 grand ou tels comme sa navire Brederode. Et où les trouverat on? Si ses poetes & peintres les pouvoient si tost bastir, comme ils les composent sur le papir, ce seroit beau. Le roy de Dennemarck en sa lettre respond bien du traité, & du subside, & des deniers de redemtion; mais de prester ses navires, mot; il a trop de peur pour son propre pais; même Bergen en Norweegue tremble de peur.
Il y a toutesois à Sardam 4 ou 5 bons nouveaux navires. Item la ville d'Amsterdam en fait bastir 3 à 4, mais ce ne sont que 8 en tout parci parla. On en trouveroit encore jusques à 30, mais Tromp en veut 50; dit que les Anglois ont aussy 50 capitaux; mais si on proposoit à lui & les 4 autres hauts officiers (qui se sont bellement enrichis) d'en acheter chacun un, car ny les admirautes ny les directeurs ne sauroient; & les autres provinces sont impuissants; & la Hollande (par ceste cessation entiere du traffic) est pauvre. Je voi dans celle de yours, que l'on croit par dela, que le Sr Beverning ne vient que pour decouvrir la conditition, disposition, & humeur de council of state & que les autres 3 ne suivroient jamais. Mais desja par leur arrivement aures veu l'abus de la susdite croyance. Holland & tous good Hollanders auroient fort desiré, que celuy de Friseland ne fust pas venu, car ils croyent, qu'il vient plustost pour empescher peace, que pour l'avancer; & capt. general a desire, qu'il se hastat à y estre present, de peur que ceux de Holland & Zeland ne traitassant quelque chose au præjudice de prince of Orange. Aussy est un grand abus, qu'il y a le moindre traité ou apparence du traité entre States General & k. of Spain. La jalousie est plus grande que jamais entre ces deux. L'instruction tant du Sr Beverning, que des autres, par la resolution due 5 Juin, h. e. d'insister sur l'omission de la satisfaction præliminaire, demandée le 25 Juin 1652, & puis traiter sur les 36 articles, ou l'année passée on la laisse; voila tout. Je voy que council of state ont par foy intelligence fort abusive & chimerique.
Au Tessel sont 5 navires destinés vers Oostinde. L'on desire, qu'ils facent un ruyterdienst à præsent dans la flotte de Tromp, & (estant tout plein chargés & inutiles à combattre) qu'ils soient deschargés, & rendus idoines au combat. Mais les Bewinthebbers disent, qu'ils veulent bien permettre, que ces navires aillent aider Tromp, en avancant leur chemin, sans se discharger. Car cela causeroit trop de perte de temps, & de marchandise. Ce qui est traité aveq Denmark n'empeschera pas le peace. Car il faut que Denmark satisface a council of state, & aveq France n'est encore nul stadholder. Tant States General que Denmark travaillent encore fort pour tirer le 141 à stadholder, mais en vain. Le peuple icy est grandement porté à r'avoir le prince pour capitaine general. Vous saves ce qui est arrivé à Enckhuysen. A Haerlem estant à præsent Kermis, la Bourgeoise n'a pas voulu marcher, que sous drapeaux de la couleur du prince; le peuple se persuade & caquette, que les estats ont desja vendu l'estat aux Anglois, que les estats sournissent aux Anglois des navires, &c. Bref je ne voi pas, comment ira tout cecy. La populace constraindra les estats ou magistrats en sin, voire peut estre dans peu, à se soumettre derechef à un capitain general. Le 31 de ce mois sera le changement du magistrat à Middelborgh. On craint bien, qu'alors l'affaire se changera pour & à l'avantage de prince.
Le Sr. Beverning escrit, qu'il ne trouvoit pas les Anglois, quoy qu'ayant eu avantage par trop enfles à faire nouvelles demandes: & qu'il en esperoit bien mais qu'aveq regret il avoit veu tant de prinses sur la reviere faites sur les Hollandois, tant navires de guerre, que de marchandise.
La conjonction de la flotte de Tromp de Zeelande aveq le secours qui se præpare au Tessel, se fera par le moyen d'un bon & fort vent de Zuyd-West; car ce vent servira à Tromp pour descendre, & aux navires dans le Tessel pour sortir.
Le Sr. Beverning a ordre de proposer, & offrir aussy suspension d'armes; mais il escrit,
que le 128 n'y consentira pas: ains voudra qu'on traite en belligerant comme c'est l'ordinaire
des victorieux. Item il escrit, que quant aux points præliminaux, proposes au Sr. d'Heemsteede le 25 Juin 1652, les Anglois les passeront & præterieront bien, pour traiter des
points principaux, ou les Srs. Cats, Schaep & Perre l'ont laissé. Je suis
Vostre tres humble serviteur.
Les Embassadors. de States General. n'ont nul autre instruction que ce qu'ay dit; maise de temps en temps sur les Imergences & rencontres recevont ordre de temps en temps. 127 en sauroit plus, s'il avoit plus Mony.
Beverning the Dutch deputy in England to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, on the 27th last past I acquainted your high mightinesses with my arrival here, and with that little news, which in so short a time I could hear. The same day, after I had given notice of my arrival, I received a visit of sir Oliver Flemming master of the ceremonies of this republick, who informed me of several circumstances in relation to the arrival of foreign ministers in this government, the notification thereof, the request to be admitted to an audience, with the sequel thereof as now used, whereof I have minuted the particular in our memorial, and according thereunto I have thought it requisite to conform myself in every particular. In hope of the speedy arrival of the other gentlemen my fellow deputies I delayed to demand an audience till monday last, and the same being granted, I was fetched up in a barge of the government by the master of the ceremonies, on the same day about five of the clock in the afternoon, along the river till behind Whitehall, and afterward after a little interval in the withdrawing room, I was introduced in the chamber of audience, where, after having made a short speech in the name of your high mightinesses, I delivered a memorial, wherein I mentioned before all the rest your high mightinesses sentiments concerning the known three articles of June 25, 1652, which are the abstract in short of the known thirty six articles. Afterwards I extolled your high mightinesses zeal and inclination for the conservation and propagation of the true reformed religion, as also for the protection of the true of the facts, which point by the present government here is taken to heart and regarded in the highest degree. Being afterwards reconducted by the master of the ceremonies to my apartment or lodgings (which at that time was still near the bridge in Tower-street, but now in an handsome house which I have hired in Covent-Garden:) I there met with the greatest satisfaction messieurs Van Nieuport, Vande Perre, and Jongestall, to whom I immediately communicated the abovementioned proposition and memorial, which I had delivered, with what I had been able to do, during my abode here, in behalf of our negotiation. What we have done and resolved upon since, your high mightinesses will observe out of the inclosed. Wherewith, &c.
The Dutch deputies in England to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
Being arrived here last Monday, and having received of Mr. Van Beverning communication of what his honour had that day proposed to his excellency and delivered in council, we have unanimously thought fitt to give forthwith notice to the master of the ceremonies of our arrival, inclosing the copies of our credentials and powers with the English translation thereof, and thereupon in order to forward our negotiations as much as possible, we also thought it necessary to desire a second audience, which is appointed us on the second instant at five of the clock in the afternoon, wherein we made again a short proposition delivered in writing, containing effectually an approbation and ratification of what was proposed on Monday and delivered by way of a memorial, together with a serious request for an answer and expedition, whereunto by the president Mr. was answered; That his excellency and the council would carefully examine our proposals; and communicate their answers to us in a short time. Yesterday was appointed for devotion and thanksgiving for their victory, and this day is ordered for the last honour and burial of general Deane, and consequently, as we are informed, no council has been held, so that hitherto we have received no answer: however we do not doubt but we shall have the same within a few days. At least we beg your high mightinesses to be assured, that our zeal and carefull endeavours shall never be wanting to quicken the same by all possible means. As soon as we get the said answer, we will give your high mightinesses a circumstantial account thereof, and, as it is our duty, send copies of what is necessary. Your high mightinesses will have observed by our former, that the new representatives are expected here against the 4/14 of this present month: therein is made no alteration, but this week the judges of the Admiralty are also dismissed, as it is believed, to disappoint the advocate, who is expressly arrived here from Spain, with other private persons, to reclaim the Spanish silver, which is brought in here, and part whereof is already coined into money: but your high mightinesses be pleased not to confound that court with the other, which has the direction of the fleets, and is intrusted with the sea affairs. For as that board remains in full activity, so we can likewise assure your high mightinesses, that they hold their conferences with great application and diligence, not only to provide their fleet with all necessaries and keep the same in a good condition, but also to strengthen the same from day to day, since we are informed, that again twenty ships are gott ready to sail thither. It is also believed, that in a few days, the courts of Judicature that have sat in Westminster will be altered or dissolved, and that the same shall be henceforth divided into four chief country courts, and that the counties in the respective quarters shall be consigned unto them as the last appeal.
The Dutch ambassadors at London to N. Ruysch.
We have in this short time of our abode here about our negotiation clearly discovered, that the animosities of this government are so great, and go so high against Denmark, that it is to be feared, that that point only will altogether hinder the whole course of our negotiation: therefore we have thought fitt to signify so much to their high and mighty lordships, whether they would not be pleased to give us some nearer instructions, and think upon some expedients, which we might make use of, in case they should insist thereon positively. Their high and mighty lordships may likewise be pleased to take notice, that the colonel major and engineer sent from Yarmouth to the fleet with 1500 soldiers are come back again.
Whether the whole fleet doth lye yet before Texell and the harbours of our country, or whether forty ships are, as it is said here, gone for the north, we cannot advise their high and mighty lordships with any certainty. We hope that you have faithful and certain advice given you of the truth thereof by our own men there. We find ourselves likewise obliged to advise their high and mighty lordships, that men here have full knowledge, with all the circumstances, of the resolutions taken upon the fifth of June; and how much it concerneth our negotiation, and the service of the nation, that the affairs of the state, especially this we are now about, may be managed with all the secrecy that can be thought on: you should be all sworn to secrecy, their high and mighty lordships may easily judge the consequence thereof, that will accrue thereby to the state; the more since we are informed here, that we may rest assured, that all things will be in the government here. We have used the freedom, by reason the foregoing cyphers have been of old in use, and as we think, have not been changed, to make some alteration therein, for the service of our treaty; a copy whereof is here inclosed, being resolved to make use thereof hereafter. The deputies of Bourdeaux, seeing, that there is no likelihood to get any considerable number of ships for relief and assistance of the said town, have propounded to the government here, as we are informed, to be supplied by some of the biggest merchantmen, which lye here at present in the river, and that the Dutch prisoners should help to man them twenty five or thirty in each ship, the truth thereof we shall have very suddenly; and if so, we shall do our utmost to oppose it, it being an unheard of and prejudicial resolution.
We cannot omit to let your lordships know, that the Portugal ambassador yesterday night, after thanksgiving (fn. 4) did excell all the rest in making of fireworks before his door, to celebrate the victory of this government against our fleet, and to cause several verses to be made by his priest to be dispersed. They were written in red letters to the dishonour of our state; the same were presented to his excellency Cromwel, whereby their high and mighty lordships may perceive their inclination and affection to this state.
It was put to the vote, whether we should give a visit to the Portugal ambassador, and it was unanimously agreed to the contrary. All other ambassadors and publick ministers have been to visit us, and we them.
Bisdommer to the Dutch ambassadors at London.
This only serves to accompany the inclosed. We have little news to write; and what we have at present is none of the best. The English have taken three Straitsmen of great value, and they do keep the Texel and Vlie blockt up.
Last Tuesday there came in here, and are quartered, two companies of horse. The inhabitants in the countries are armed and mustered, as well hereabouts as all along the coasts of Holland, Friesland, and Groeningen. His excellency Grave William lies himself in the Texel with his company. Two English ships with 500 soldiers did endeavour to surprize the fort of Delssyl but running on shore with their vessels: they were taken prisoners by those of Delssyl. The lords deputies sent down from hence to Enchuysen to appease and examine the tumults and risings, are returned back again without effecting any thing, by reason those of the town would not suffer them to come in.
Letter of intelligence.
Endeavours are using to attempt a removal of your fleet from their coasts, which causetli strange apprehensions in these parts, in so much that three hundred horse have been brought in hither to hinder the people from grumbling; the like in several other places.
The Hollanders are in a distracted condition, being blocked up in the Vlye and the Texell by your fleet, that none can get out, and what come in are taken by yours; and (if reports are true) you have taken two ships from Brazil and three Streights ships, and are in pursuit of four or five more. Enchuysen, Horne, and Tregoes, refuse to obey the states commands; and this week they say that Grave William of Nassau was likely to be murdered in Amsterdam. The glory of that state is vanished away. The princess royal hath been in this town three or four days, but admits of no visits. I believe that on Monday next she goes hence, some say, to meet her brother at Liege.
Letter of intelligence.
Here is not much of news to be returned of any secret matters, but one Cusack, that has been governor of Ennisbuffin (fn. 5) may soon be there, or some other from the duke of Lorrain to the lord general Cromwell, with some propositions, that if his excellency shall give monies to Lorrain, and join with him, Lorrain will draw all his forces against Holland by land, and let the English assault them by sea. What say you to it? At least listen to him, for Lorrain was once resolved to do this, if it holds, as I believe it doth for many reasons, & sic terminat regius protector Hiberniæ. This is secret.
The prince of Condé parted for Stenay Wednesday last, to meet his army, which are said to consist of 16000 horse and foot. Count Fuensaldagna will part to morrow to Hainault, being his general rendezvouz, where count Garcias and all his officers expect him. He will be about 14000 horse and foot, and I believe I speak of the most with either of them. The archduke will go in person into this campaign, when more money is provided, especially if any thing of peace shall be moved with France, of which I see no appearance yet.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
The 30th of this last month marshal Turenne being arrived at Chalons in Champagne, and lodged himself and Mr. de la Ferté Senneterre in one of the suburbs of the city, the next they kept a council of war, and did not find half the forces, which they thought to have there before; the officers having spent all the monies they received for the recruits, and quitted the service, many of themselves being not contented with four half musters; upon which Turenne sent one Le Brun his own valet de chambre as an express to the king, complaining of the officers, and to know what he would do in that business. The first of this instant marshal de l'Hospital governor of this city came to the king, and represented to him many inconveniencies, which might arise by the fire at La Greve, which burned yesternight, because yesterday twelvemonth many lost their friends, and about the same time many were totally ruined, which might at this time cause some bruit among the people; and moreover, for the charges of the fire being upon the citizens. So he desired, if it were possible for his majesty to forbear it, not to trouble himself or the people with it. After the king and his council were a good while talking of it among themselves, they resolved to make the fire, notwithstanding that his majesty or any of the court should be there. However they resolved since to go and see the fire, all both king, queen, cardinal, and the whole court, and heard mass there yesterday about twelve o'clock, dined in the town-house, and were there till between ten and eleven of the clock yesternight. The fire began at eight, and lasted till one o'clock after midnight; the grearest and bravest fire that could be seen in the world.
The same day an arrest was pronounced in the council, that all his majesty's forces should have their winter quarters in the frontiers the next winter; and that their subsistance should be paid by the countrymen generally, except the officers of the court only, which shall not be obliged to pay any thing. But the duke of Longueville does oppose it in the county of Evreux, where he has some lands; and moreover he says he will not suffer madame de Bouillon, to whom his majesty was pleased to bestow that county after her husband's death in the king's service, saying plainly he will never obey it; which made the nobility of that county, which were in the army, return homeward, and quit his majesty's service.
His majesty hearing many complaints of the robbery of his regiment of guard about Paris, gave orders to the provost de l'Hostel to bring all the archers of the town with him abroad, and seek for such rogues, and hang the next, second, and third, that they could meet withal; but the captains of the guard knowing what days they had orders to be abroad, desired their soldiers not to stir out of the town those days, as they did; and the provost with his archers returned home, and told the king, they met no-body; so the captains excused their soldiers, and said that the parishioners were those that rob, and not those of the guard.
Madame de Senecey, first lady of honour of the queen, sold her place to the cardinal, which he bought for 100,000 livres, to give it to his sister being expected daily in court. The duke of York parted hence Thursday last with bag and baggage to the field, where Turenne is in Champagne, and said at his going out of Palais Royal to his brother the king, that now since he is forced to fight for his bread, that he hoped soon to fight for to gain his countries lost by his enemies; which made his brother very melancholy and many others. Both his brothers went with him two leagues off, as also Ormond, Inchiquin, Taaf, and three or four more. He had four mules to carry his baggage, and a quantity of good horses, and indeed had great courage more than those which stayed at home. He is declared by his brother admiral of the sea of Britain, and prince Rupert his lieutenant general, as I writ in my former. They do not want the honour, wherever the profit be.
The king caused three regiments of horse and foot to be commanded to Brye, to keep the passages there upon some running squadrons of Condé's forces, which do a great deal of harm both night and day about those places.
(fn. 6) The last letters from Rheims bring, that Mr. La Ferte Senneterre was about Rhetel to besiege it; and this week, he intended to open his trenches; and that marshal Turenne was between Condé and the archduke's forces, to hinder them to come in one body to relieve that place.
The letters from Verdun of the 30th last month bring, that there was 14,000 men about Verdun, which belongs to prince Condé. Many do not believe it, but well wishers do always, yet they did not then know their design.
Colonel Napper has gotten commission to command the last Irish regiment, that came hither from Ireland, but I hear he must fight for it, before he shall be in possession. At last the pope declared his mind against the Jansenists, and sent his bull of excommunication hither to his nuncio by the last post against the said Jansenists, that they shall not teach or meddle in that opinion concerning the five points, which were sent to you long since. The lord nuncio had audience last Thursday before the king, queen, Mazarin and the whole court, shewing them that bull, which they accepted willingly, and promised to observe it according to the pope's intentions. I do not yet know what they will make of it in the university, for I believe there may be a quarrell about it soon. The king, Mazarin, and court were resolved to go to the army, and part hence next Monday, but now I see they promised to stay three or four days, for they promised to hear a solemn mass the next Wednesday in rue St. Honoré, at the Capuchins in the honour last found out, newly nostre dame de la paix, who worked, as they said, some miracles in the walls of the Capuchins house. The queen and little duke de Anjou will stay still in Paris, which they do well for fear of the war. Preston has not yet touched his monies, and the last Tuesday there was great dispute in the council about him; and indeed the cardinal was very much against him, saying there was no monies to be had for him, and that he did not know any reason why he should get monies &c. Mr. Servien, surintendant de finances, said highly, he ought to have his monies, and his articles to be performed, as the king promised him, who sent for him, and invited him upon that score to come to France, and now that his majesty should not make good his word to a gentleman and a stranger, that lost his fortune by his coming hither; and said, sooner than his majesty's word should be falsified, he would pay the monies himself, and afterwards count it upon the king's score. Count Brienne and many others adhered to Servien in his reasons; and when the cardinal saw the most part were against himself, he said, there was no man more willing to give him his monies then himself; only his reason was for it, because the monies cannot be had at present to be given to him, which was but an excuse. He will, I believe, get something more on't; but afterwards, if he has not men, serviteur tres humble, no more. All the English named Court are cruelly against him.
An intercepted letter to Paris.
Free born John is turned over to the sessions in the Old Baily, and I believe will speedily be hanged. Our general conceives it not good for his army to be longer idle, and therefore hath told some of his mirmidons, that if he could be assured the prince of Condé would aim at liberty really, as he calls it, he would within this month land his army in France.
An intercepted letter from Paris.
Jenay point le temps presentement de vous escrire amplement. Je ne vois pas encore nul effect des promesses de mons. le cardinal; & pour vous dire la verité, je ne me suis pas beaucoup fié. Une personne de consideration, qui est bien mon ami depuis long tems, m'avoit parlé comme si mons. le cardinal avoit quelque jalousie de m o y. J'en scauray la verité demain ou apres demain; s'il luy fust possible d'avoir le fonds de mon ame, il auroit bien raison. Avant hier j'eu grande querelle avec le Cordelier, qui avoit trahi Ormont (fn. 7): il me fut impossible d'arrester la violence de ma hayne contre luy & ceux, qui l'ont employé. Mons. D i g b i e est la principale cause de cette trahison la. Si cela est venue aux oreilles de mons. le cardinal, cela auroit causé la jalousie, dont on m'avoit parlé, ou si quelqu'une des mes lettres, que j'escrivis à to the commander of the Irish. tomba entre leurs mains. Il est impossible pourtant de scavoir au vray, si sont les miennes, ou non. J'escrivis à to the commander of the Irish, s'il est vray, que Irish les quittent tousjours de i l u, à faire passer tous, par la f i l del' e s p é e. Le voyage du roy à Fismes pour faire passer l'armée est rompue, mons. de Turenne ayant escrit, qu'il ait trouvé mons. le prince plustot qu'il ne croyoit.
Bourg n'est pas encore prins, nonobstant les bruits, qui en courent que mons. de Vendosme l'auroit prins. Si Bourdeaux soit une fois sauvé, les affaires de mons. le prince seront en tres bon estat. Le delay de la flotte d'Espagne est estrangne.
L'arrivé de deputes d'Hollande en ce pays la embarrassent fort l'esprit de mons. le cardinal. Le monde ne veut pas croire icy, qu'ils s'accorderont. mons. le cardinal faira tous les efforts possible pour l'empescher.
Mr. John Benson to secretary Thurloe.
By my last I did acquaint youe with those things concerninge myselfe, wherein I waite for directions; as also the occurrances, which came then to hand; since which there is severall galliotts arrived heare out of Holland with diversitie of goods. They have order to lade all with hempe, pitch, and tarre, &c. and the like necessarys for there navy. There agent heare hath order to take up three shipps, who are to be laden with wood only for the buildinge of friggatts; so that there care is sett wholy in getting the commodities of these parts; which are usefull for there navy, in any other ships, which will venture now there owne fleet comes not, for which they give extraordnary fraights. I shall give notise of them, as they goe from hense. I suppose if two or three of our friggatts plied to and againe about the Boggersand, they could not misse any of them. Out of the Sound they, most of the captaines, with there shipps, could not thinke themselve secure enough from the English fleete, untill they were in Coppenhagen, being strucke with so great a terror, that the king with his counsell is so out of order, that they cannot resolve upon any thing; for there came expresses from the state of Holland, declaringe the last fight, wherein they cover there losses, and much heigteneth ours; and allso they affirme, that wee had been actually beaten out of the sea, but that there came in some of our great shipps, with whom they could not deale, having none of sufficient bulke and strenght to meete them; whereupon it was thought convenient to retire the navy, which they did with a small losse; and therefore doth desire of the kinge, according to the last league, to lend them six of his great shipps, with which they are confident, not only to beate us, but allso, as they say, to block us up in our harbour. He hath sate two dayes about itt allready, and as yett can agree of nothing; and I am assured by the same letters, that he cannot spare them, itt being his only strength for the defence of Coppenhagen. From Limbricke the king's forces dayly decayeth, many running away, as they find opertunity, and many deying of the plague. Chimiliske's sonn is yett alive, and not a prisoner. The Cossacks strength increaseth dayly by the comming in of the Tartars, so that if they advance into Poland, as 'tis supposed, they will carry all before them. Thus att present I am
Your verry servant,
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
I Received yours of the 3d instant, by which I see your fleet is still at the river of Texell, and the Holland fleet blocked up. Yet I have seen yesterday the contrary by letters come from thence to the palace royal, that the English fleet was beaten off from that river of Texell; which indeed I do not believe, being not the first lie come to that place before this time. You have not much of consequence from hence at this time. The 3d instant the Cordeliers here had a mass said with much ceremonies for those, which were killed in the suburbs of St. Anthony a year ago (fn. 8) in the battle; the bishop of Amiens, being of their order, assisting of the said ceremonies, as also many other abbots, among which abbot de la Riviere. Such solemnity was made in many other churches in Paris, where any of those, that were killed in the said battle, were buried. You may peruse the inclosed verses presented to the king at the last fire at the town house, which did not well please the citizens, if they durst oppose them. You may also see the pope's bull against the Jansenists printed, as also the king's declaration in confirmation thereof, with the points of controversy between both the opinions condemned by his holiness.
I have not signified to you as yet the formalities of the last fire at the town-house, which was an old man representing the times, having two wings turning towards his shoulders, and another false one in his hands, drawing a child out of a rock; one of his legs in the air, and the other upon a bowl, representing the world, and that child representing the truth, which was all; only the powder, that was within, which burned marvelously so high in the air.
The same day arrived to the king three couriers one after another from marshal Turenne, signifying how all his troops were disbanding for want of their payment; by which reason he was forced himself to retire from Ay towards within two leagues to Rheims, and for fear his enemies should force him to fight, complained in the said letters of powder, bullets, and ammunition; which caused his majesty to give orders to send him instantly all kind of provision, besides monies, which he had not at command enough for to satisfy them. The 5th of this month news came to the king, how mons. marechall de la Ferte, who blocked up Rhetel, was forced to retire to Chasteau Porcien; as also mons. comte de Grand Pré, governor of the said place, and that by several sallies made by the garrison of the said Rhetel.
The troops quartered about Sens refuse to go to the army of Turenne, according to the king's orders, till first they be paid, which, as some say, will cause the king to visit them, and see them satisfied; but others say, the king will not leave Paris this year, because the prince is strong, who might again march about Paris, leaving Fuensaldagna behind him for to disturb Turenne's army.
(fn. 9) Mr. Bertau, companion to the Cordelier, punished in Bourdeaux, having gotten off once out of the town, is returned again to endeavour to make the Bourdelois obey the king, their prince and sovereign, as they ought to do; but if he be catched, he may well suffer as the Cordelier, if not worse.
The letters from Boulogne, dated the 4th instant bring, that the garison of Ardres near St. Omer being in want of monies, went to the boucherie, and endeavoured to take away all their flesh without paying for it; on which the butchers rose up in arms, desiring to be paid. The soldiers stood in arms wholly against them, of which the governor hearing, went in the head of the citizens against the soldiers, where they had cruel blows, and the most part of the officers were killed by the citizens, and many of the citizens themselves; but at last the garrison were forced to leave the town; and when they were abroad, made a body of themselves, and were ruining, pillaging, and burning all the poor villages about the said town, where they received contribution before, till at last the peasants forced them to the woods, where they had provision of the said peasants bestiales; but the peasants came upon them unknown, and killed the whole to two men, who ran away by the means of their horses. So Ardres is without garrison as yet, only the citizens, who keep guard, till the king sends them orders to receive others. We have from Avignon by the last letters, that cardinal Bichi and the bishop of Lanore being in their own towne were in conspiracy to deliver the town, and have drawn many of the inhabitants upon their own side; to that effect also have sent for the duke de Lesdiguieres, governor of Dauphiné, to whom they were to deliver the town, and make him governor thereof; but their plot being discovered, the legat of the place mounted his horse, and so did all the people rise with him, with the rest of the burghers, and have broken their design; upon which the cardinal and bishop made their escape by much ado, and the most part of their adherents in that business were slain. We hear the prince of Condé's army are marching towards Fismes, being numerous and strong.
It is reported here, that the Spanish fleet is come safe from the Indies to some place in Spain, with eight millions of crowns, as we hear. King Charles is preparing always for his journey for Holland. Tho' you have commissioners there from Holland, I do not believe they look for peace effectually, by reason of their engagement with France, as I writ several times before; yet they will prolong the time with you, till king Charles be away with what help he can get here, for to be against you in some place by the assistance of Holland.
Colonel Napper has gotten his commission from the court to command the Irish regiment,
but Lacy being lieutenant colonel of the said regiment declared before the duke of Vendosme, that they would never accept of Napper, nor ever serve the king under his command,
which the duke writ to the court effectually; yet Napper received the moneys, being upon
the rate of four crowns a man, being an example that Preston brought to France, which
was never seen before, he having made his capitulation accordingly. Having nothing else
to trouble you withal, only to remain, sir,
Your faithful servant.
An intercepted letter from Paris, translated cut of French.
After I had sent my letters to the post I understand, that Rhetel is surrendered this morning (fn. 10), at eight of the clock, to mons. de Turenne, having made several batteries. Those that were in it are gone to St. Menehou. Madame the princess in gone to the waters of Bourbon, having a pass from mons. de Vendosme. I saw a letter from Madrid, which doth testify the ill usage, that the Irish receive there; and those that were once wholly Spaniolized, are now not at all of that inclination. I believe that their weakness is the cause of it, and the Irish will cause the ruin of Spain. I wonder that they should play the traitors, being they are well paid in Guienne. Mons. de Vendosme writes to the court, that the night he writ his letter, the Irish were to surrender their fort, having capitulated with their governor.
The king of Scots and his devilish ministers, who have no trade but to practice treason, do invent these foul machinations and practices. If this be true, that Vendosme writes, I must absolutely do that, which I writ to 81, as you will see in the other letter, which I newly writ.
An intercepted letter design'd for France.
Ned is with you by this time; therefore I will write no news. As wise as those are, that would have the king in action, I think it fit for him to lye still, and expect further events of things, and that his motion will rather be desperate than prudent. If, sir, a letter be lost, there is a very considerable letter lost of intelligence. I fear such arts are rather the practises of those, where you are, than those here. They are too secure to do such little thing. For my coming into France I cannot resolve, so the stirring in Scotland be to any purpose.
The substance of a letter of the Dutch ambassadors at London to the States General.
That they had spoken of mediation with the heer Lagerfelt, by way of discourse, when they gave him a visit; and did declare after a complimenting way, that the said office of mediation was acceptable to their high and mighty lordships, which the lord Lagerfelt did largely understand; and they did desire, that he should employ himself for that end and purpose, and confer about it with their lordships.
The lords commissioners understanding this, they came and gave him a second visit, whereby to give him to understand, that they had no order to do any such thing, and that it was ill understood of him the last time they were with him; but they must refer themselves to the answer, which had been given to the heer Appelboom, wherewith the heer Lagerfelt was satisfied. That the heer Stockart, commissioner of the cantons of Switzerland, had in his visit to them spoken and discoursed at large of his mediation; that his masters had first offered it to the government of England, as least doubting of the inclination of their high and mighty lordships, to whom his masters were resolved to send a solemn embassy. He complains now, that he had been delayed in England eight or nine months without any answer; that he had been in Holland e'er this else. He communicated his credentials.
That Dr. Peters of Hamburgh had declared in his visit, the cause of his being in England was partly to reclaim certain ships, that were taken; partly to consider of a form of a sea letter to be agreed on, that so the Hamburgh ships may henceforward pass without any molestation.
They desired letters of power and credence to the new representative, but without any superscription, to form them as they should see cause. Finally they said, there were very able persons on the behalf of Spain, France, and Portugal, Florence and the Hans Towns, and yet they were assured, that none knew of their negotiation.
These are the contents of the letter, that the lords commissioners writ to the greffier; and this in character, that they do not despair of a good issue, hoping they shall master the preliminary articles of the 25th of June; or that the English would not insist altogether upon them.