A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 1, 1638-1653. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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July (2 of 5)
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of their high and mighty lordships the States General of the United Provinces.
There being once again produced in the assembly the letters of the king of Denmark of the 4th of July, after deliberation it was thought fit and understood, herewith to desire and authorize the lord Keyser, their high and mighty lordships commissioner, going with the first for Denmark, with communication of the resident de Uries, to enter into and to pass with his majesty, or such as his majesty shall please to appoint, an act of rescission or annullation of the treaty of the redemption of the tolls in the Sound made in the year 1649, between his majesty and their high and mighty lordships; that afterwards it be agreed and concluded upon on both sides, that during the said redemption, in regard of the Netherland ships and goods loaden in them, which shall for the future come to pass the said Orisont or Sound, shall be punctually observed the treaty concerning it made in the year 1645. All articles of former treaties made between his majesty and their high and mighty lordships, and especially also the articles of the said treaty of redemption, which by the annulling thereof do not come immediately to cease, shall remain in their full force and vigor. And since at St. John last, according to the said treaty of redemption, there should have been paid on the behalf of their high and mighty lordships to the said king the sum of 150 thousand guldens, and on the other side there would then remain in the hands of his majesty the sum of 500 and 75000 guldens in overplus, advanced by their high and mighty lordships to or in the behalf of his said majesty, upon the said treaty, which must be reimbursed to their high and mighty lordships upon the rescission of the said treaty; their high and mighty lordships have further authorized the said lord Keyser, and do hereby authorize him, with communication as before, to agree and conclude with his said majesty, that the said reimbursement be made at yearly terms of 50000 carol guldens at each term, whereof the first fifty thousand guldens shall be reduced in part of payment of what is due to his majesty for the first term at St. John, which is yet unpaid by their high and mighty lordships: for the former 500 and 75000 guldens the said king shall enter into a legal bond for the use and benefit of the said lords states, and that the following terms of fifty thousand guldens yearly with the interests thereof shall be duly paid by their high and mighty lordships.
Extract out of the secret register of the resolutions of their high and mighty lordships the States General of the United Provinces.
Upon what was propounded by the lord Keyser, designed commissioner of their high and mighty lordships to the king of Denmark, in the assembly, after the deliberation had, it was thought fit and understood, that the said lord Keyser shall observe the resolution of the 12th of this month, upon the conjunction of the king of Denmark's ships with those of this state; and likewife that of yesterday upon the rescission of the treaty of the redemption of tolls in the Sound the 9th of October 1649, concluded between his majesty and this state; and there shall likewife be delivered to the said lord Keyser for his further information the proposition of the resident Charisius, concerning the said rescission and annullation formerly made to their high and mighty lordships. and all that which since that time hath been writ by his said majesty or the resident de Uries concerning it, or that which hath been propounded by the said lord Charisius, and resolved upon by their high and mighty lordships; as also the copy of the letter of the said resident de Uries, concerning the conjunction of eight or ten royal Danish ships, and other letters, that have been writ concerning it; as also their high and mighty lordships resolution taken upon that subject; and likewise there shall be imparted to the said lord Keyser (besides the credential powers, act of indemnity, & ad omnes populos, the letters of address to the lords there, and of the passage as they shall require it, and also the ordinary character of their high and mighty lordships.
Herewith the council of state is also desired to give an order to the said lord Keyser for the sum of two thousand guldens; and all other bills of exchange, which he shall draw, the lords of Holland are desired to make payment thereof.
Likewise the said lord Keyser shall have power given him, to send for captain Frederick Connicks to wait upon him in his voyage, without any prejudice to his charge and wages of captain of the directions of Amsterdam.
Furthermore it is resolved, that a letter be writ to the lords commissioners of the admiralty at Amsterdam, that they would provide two well failing galliots to be at the disposal of the said lord Keyser, to carry packets from him to this state, or from the state to him.
And the respective provinces are herewith likewise desired, to appoint some speedy order for the payment of thesecond term of the subsidy money, which is due to the 24th of this month, and that there be a letter sent in very serious terms to the admiralty of Amsterdam, that they would speedily furnish upon account of the last term of redemption money, expired and grown due at St. John last, the sum of one hundred thousand guldens. And the said lord Keyser is herewith likewise desired, that he would take the pains to dispose the said Admiralty to the speedy dispatching of this.
And the said lord Keyser is herewith likewise authorized, that he may agree to the said king of Denmark, that in case he will condescend to the conjunction of his majesty's ships with those of their high and mighty lordships, his said majesty may make use of Dutch mariners aboard his ships, they being for this end dispensed of some former placarts of their high and mighty lordships, which are published for the prohibiting hereof. And furthermore there shall be sent weekly copies of their high and mighty lordships resolutions concerning the affairs of Sweden, Denmark, England, and the sea, mentioned in their high and mighty lordships resolution of the 30th of September last past.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
The post of this day arrived not yet, by which I expected yours. You may see by what follows our news at present. The tenth instant the pope's nuncio and the ambassador of Venice visited his majesty and council, to communicate to them three propositions in the behalf of their masters touching the general peace betwixt France and Spain; the first proposition to give the duke of Lorain all his estate wholly; the second, that the prince of Condé maý be settled in his own places, as well as he was before he took arms against his majesty; aud the last, that no mention should be made in the treaty of the peace of the king of Portugal. These propositions were rejected by the king and his council, finding no great reason in them convenient to their mind and profit, as to establish two princes being enemies to the crown, and fall out with another, the king of Portugal, without any occasion, who came under their protection in time of his necessity. The ambassadors returned with thanks, but nothing done in their advices.
The eleventh instant his majesty desiring the duke of Amville to lodge in the Louvre near his own chamber, has given orders to princess Palatine to quit the part of the house, where she was, that he might come and live in it, which place notwithstanding belongeth to Mr. Guitaut, captain of the queen's guard, who liveth where the duke of Amville did before he was disgraced; but the queen hearing of the removing of princess Palatine, went presently to the king, and told him, she did much wonder, that his majesty gave such orders to remove the said princess. The king answered thus, madam it's my will, that Amville should live in the Louvre, and near my self. The queen said to him, in doing so he shewed himself much discourteous against the ladies, to use them in that manner; and that he ought to be more sweet and humane to them than so, to gain their love and affection. But he did not fail to reply, saying, madam, that shall be so, because I am the master, and will have it. Which the queen hearing wondered much, and returned to her chamber much discontented.
(fn. 1) The twelfth of this present, monsieur de Maisons, president au Mortier of the parliament, received orders of the king to retire out of the city with all his family, except madamoiselle his daughter. He was sollicited by some people for the dimission of his office and place, but he refused it. He parted that same day towards Normandy to live in the abbey of Conche, which appertains to one of his daughters.
The same day messrs. de Portcarre, and Lebuce, counsellors of parliament hitherto banished, arrived in this town; the king having sent for them: its thought he will call home the rest by the time as please him. His majesty ordered 60000 livres to be given to the duke of Orleans, in hopes his highness might be pleased to come and live near himself shortly.
The duke of Amville, as some say, is to marry the dutchess dowager de Nemours: others say the young dowager de Chaune, otherwise La Vidasme d'Amiens. The twelfth instant all the captains and officers of the regiment of guard were advertised to make themselves and their companies ready against the first orders for to march towards Champaigne; of which the most part parted Monday last. The king's baggage parted yesterday, and himself (fn. 2) this day; as also the cardinal and the court; but the queen and duke d'Anjou stay in Paris. The queen said the last Monday to them that were present in her chamber, that it was believed in Paris, that there was division in court; but shortly that they would see the contrary.
Our last letters from Rheims bring, that marshal Turenne hearing, that prince Condé was in the field, having no baggage with him, going to the Spanish army, being towards Rocroi, has sent one thousand men to meet him in his way. What is become of them, is not yet known. The same letters say likewise, that the enemies have not undertaken any thing as yet, expecting the corn to be reaped to feed their horses and themselves. He that writ the letters also assures, the king's army is in a very good and powerful posture, and that the king will receive a great deal of satisfaction to see them, if he goes.
We hear certainly, that the Spanish army with Condé and Fuensaldagna do consist of 25000 men; and that our army are not so many, tho' yet better able to fight than their's. We expect a battle between both before it be long.
Four companies of the regiment of guard are to stay in Paris, to guard the queen and duke d'Anjou; all the rest goes to the field. I see the confirmation of the revolt of Catalonia, but not the surrender of Barcelona to be true as we heard before; notwithstanding they say the citizens will do what they can, if the occasion presents, to surrender the city.
I have received a letter from my friend in Madrid, dated the 18th last month; but nothing of consequence in it, only the Irish there and every where much discontented with his
majesty of Spain. Brien Roe o'Neil is there in Madrid; so is lieutenant colonel Farel Dunsgan, Scurlock, and many others, which cannot get a penny of money. They would wish
heartily to be in Ireland again. King Charles is still preparing for his journey to Holland.
Preston has not yet touched his money, but expects it daily: his fund is not of the best in
France. This being all at present, I remain, sir, with my best wishes, your
My lord Keeper, king Charles's chancellor, endeavours to get his commission from doctor Tirell. The doctor complained to prince Rupert, who says the commission shall not be taken away from the doctor. And the doctor himself says, he will be resident here for the Irish in despight of all. The best sport in the world to hear them, being so earnest for a matter of nothing.
The Dutch deputies to the council of state.
The subscribed deputies of the assembly of the lords the States General of the United Provinces of the low countries beseech most instantly, that it may please his excellency and the lords of the council of state, taking into serious consideration the present constitution of times and affairs, to gratify them with a speedy and favourable disposition upon the papers, by them delivered to his excellency and the lords of the council of state. Actum Covent-Garden, this 7/17 July, 1653.
An intercepted letter of Doleman, to his wife.
My dear goosy,
The ending of the old and the beginning of this new government hath for these eight days retarded our treaty; but now our new parliament is settled, I hear they have resolved, that this treaty of Holland shall be the first of all foreign business, that shall be dispatched; and many of the most considerable of them to my knowledge are much carried to a peace with Holland, so that I hope within these eight days we shall make some good progress.
The Dutch deputies in England to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
Wee have received the credentials without any superscription. We shall make use of them according to your high and mighty lordships intentions, as occasion shall serve; and we have given order concerning the fisher-boats, to be further informed about them, whilst we have no knowledge at all, that any of them should lie in this river; and we have already received such advise, that a great many of them are carried to Aberdeen in Scotland, and eight or ten to Yarmouth. We shall see upon occasion of a conference, what can be done concerning this, according to your high and mighty lordships intention. We are advised, that a great part of our prisoners, which are imprisoned at Chelsea and Southampton, partly with their will and partly by force, are to be transported to Hull to serve in the colliers; and that some are likewise to work in the sens for a certain hire. Wherefore we have sent to inform ourselves about it. Since our last of the 11th of this month, we have been visited and saluted by the lord Pauluzzi, envoy of the commonwealth of Venice, being one of the secretaries of the council there; who amongst the rest declared unto us the occasion of his being here was to desire of this government, that they would be pleased to suffer for some time the continuation of some English ships in the service of the said commonwealth; as also to set down some rules, according to which those of the English nation in the Venetian service are to regulate themselves, in the encounters of any of the ships of your high and mighty lordships; as on the other side upon the desire of the ambassador of that commonwealth residing at Paris, the like offices were done, and rules set down by the ambassador Boreel to be observed by your high and mighty lordships.
The news that hath happened since our last, which is most considerable, confists in the change happened about the government with the arrival of the new representatives, wherewith the common council hath been so busied, that all businesses in the mean time have been sain to stand still. Last Saturday was spent in providing necessary lodgings and otherwise for the lords, who were summoned to appear upon the general order, or that were already come; who are all of them to lodge (as we are informed) in Whitehall, and Somersethouse, and the Muse, formerly the king's stables. Upon Monday last there met about a hundred and twenty in the council chamber at Whitehall, and being sat round the table upon chairs, the general accompanied with several of his officers of his army, standing by a window about the middle of the table, did make a very serious speech and exhortation to them; therein in short deducing the many mercies, which God had pleased to vouchsafe to this nation; his wonderful disposal and providence to conduct all things to the firm settling of the present government; the reasons why the last parliament was dissolved and they called; desiring they would use all tender discretion and prudence with all godly and conscientious persons of what opinion, and under what form they might be; and thereupon delivered up to them an act under his own hand and seal, with the consent of his officers, whereby the supreme power was devolved upon them till the third of November, 1654; and then he went out of the assembly. On Tuesday the said lords met in the old parliament house; and that whole day was spent in devotion till seven of the clock at night without the assistance of any ministers, many of their own assembly praying and preaching themselves. Also we are informed there was one amongst the rest, that did pray for a peace with the state of your high and mighty lordships, and that God would dispose your hearts to a peace. Afterwards they thought fit to choose a president or speaker in their new government, who is to be changed once a month. One Mr. Rous is president pro tempore; and they have chosen for their secretary or clerk one, who served the lords before, whose name is Scobel. They have likewise called and chosen to come and sit in their assembly, the lord general, major general Harrison, Disbrowe, col. Thomlinson, and the council of state is lest yet without any alteration, but it is thought some more will be added to them very speedily.
A letter of Vande Perre, one of the Dutch ambassadors at London.
I Have received yours of the 11th of this month. I was infinitely troubled at the introduction to another rising, which might be caused by putting of pasquils under the doors in the city of Middleburg, which I hope will be timely prevented by God's assistance, and that prudent conduct of the magistrates. Whom the lords states may employ here for their correspondent is unknown to me, but they are not well informed with your leave, that the commonalty here was more sad than glad at our arrival here; which I must tell you is not so; at least I could never perceive any such thing, nor ever heard the like. I am sure I have been told by people of understanding, and those that have experience of businesses, that it were to be wished, that we had come hither sooner, and that we had done it before the rencounter of the 13th of June last, that happened; for that doth now clearly appear, which was never thought of before by any, now nor hereafter, rebus sie stantibus, for by the great force of the militia both of horse and foot, and by reason of the universal peace and quietness here, and likewise in all the countries, yea and in Scotland and Ireland, since the last change, it is impossible now, speaking after the manner of men, that any change, risings, or alteration can be imagined. The common sort of people, by the great and rich prizes now and then brought in, is very much encouraged, they coming thereby to participate of the profit, and are made thereby likewise more willing to contribute towards the payment of their monthly taxes. It is discoursed by some here, that all resolutions and businesses shall be taken and done, not one in the name of the parliament of England, but by adding of Scotland and Ireland.
Since the day of the decease of general Deane, till the day of his funeral, there hath been allowed to the widow and children 100l. sterl. per diem, and 600l. sterl. per annum settled upon her besides, in very good land, for his services done to this commonwealth.
Beverning the Dutch ambassador in England to Mr. Gerard Cinque at Goude.
I Dare not write much news. All our actions are spied. We have spies set to watch us in our houses. We cannot be certain of any thing that we do, that it shall not either be known or miscarry. If you please to have any thing sent you from hence, that this country affords, pray let me know it.
Beverning and Nieuport, the Dutch ambassadors at London, to John de Witt.
We humbly thank your lordship for the communication of affairs mentioned in your letter of the 11th of this month; we desire you would continue therein to our instruction. The reasons mentioned therein of trust and interest to comprehend 322 in our treaty are so clear and evident, that they cannot be contradicted by any body upon any good ground; and they were never thought of otherwise by us with any other intention. Yet notwithstanding we thought it our duty to inform their high and mighty lordships, according to their resolution of the 5th of June, of our undertakings, and what we should meet withal in the management thereof; and this with that prudence and circumspection, that part of it was writ in character, that in case it should miscarry, nothing can be made of it; and if their high and mighty lordships do doubt of their own secrecy, we do not know what success can be expected of this our negociation, which it seems doth wholly depend upon that point. Our intention was to desire their high and mighty lordships to think upon such expedients, as are expressed and propounded in your own lines. The reasons of our detention of our propositions you may easily comprehend them; and we wish we did know how it is resented by their high and mighty lordships. We do not send yet any thing of any great consideration, being we hope we shall be able to inform their lordships shortly with full and sufficient reasons of all things. For the making use of our particular powers, we have had no considerations thereupon, by reason we have already begun to confer and treat about the general; and find them sufficient to proceed upon occasion of inconveniency or sickness of any one of us. The greatest difficulty we have hitherto in our negotiation, and do daily foresee it coming upon us more and more to our sorrow, doth consist in this, that they do conceive here, that the risings, troubles, tumults, and disorders, that are supposed here to be in our state, are thought to be such, that they do sufficiently assure themselves, that the inconvenience of their arms assisting them from without, together with the aforesaid disorders, the whole commerce, and all that depends upon it, will thereby come to be disturbed and ruined, and our state brought to utter confusion and ruin; but especially that the 20. 4. 11. 52. 26. 15. 57. and 54. 16. 48. 13. 17. 18. 33. 52. 24. 18. 14. 19. 38. How big they be about 25. 15. 52. 28. 37. 53. 16. 49. 18. 50. 53 of 330 that it may be the good patriots, who do mean uprightly for the good, liberty, and welfare of the country 97. 63. 15. 52. shall 50. 54. 20. 21. 19. 51. 9. 37. 53. 50. 64. 38. prevent that the same 52. 39. 53. 17. 15. 9. 16. 14. 27. 17. 37. 28. 38. 22. 24. 17. 37. 55. 5. 38. 50. 64. 37 17. 55. 39. 43. 49. 41. 56. 14. 18. 49. 51. 38. 63. 19. 53. 56. 4. 37. 38. 56. 6. 21. 22. 17. 24. 16. 50. 28. 22. 37. 15. 19. 48. 52. 60. 42. 48. 13. 16. and although we can easily distinguish and discern the true nature of that business from the reports, which are spread, and covered here with many false circumstances, yet notwithstanding we must 9. 16. 31. 17. 37. 38. 18. 37. 13. 4. 52. 60. 64. 53. 19. 38. 55. 63. 53. 15. 48. 51. 53. 6. 38. 13. 7. 17. 48. 39. 55. 19. 49. 10. 18. 11. 41. 35. 36. 6. 49. 51. 66. 64. 38. and we think ourselves bound to tell you plainly, that we think the constitution of the government and the interest of the governors 25. 64. 15. 48. to have learnt to know them so well, that we make certain 13. 16. 50. 44. 17. 48. 5. 18. 52. not only to 24. 8. 37. 13. 19. 33. 27. 38. 22. but likewise to further 5. 54. 14. 29. 17. 38. 52. 28. 17. shall be admitted, if about 13. 6. 13. 44. 41. 26. 37. 52. any public 48. 48. 43. 45. 42. 50. 28. 53. 29. 17. 38. 70. 37. 14. 17. 38. 50. 52. 6. 15. 53. be made, who for 31. 16. 37. 38. 27. 50. 51. 17. should come over hither, as that must happen unavoidably.
A letter of intelligence from Peterson in Holland.
Since my last hath hapened little worth your notice as to matter of trade; for indeede the English fleete lye soe all along our coaste, that wee can gett noe ships out nor very few in; only such as can out sayle the English, who now begin to bee soule, haveing beene soe long at sea, neither can wee expect to send any goods for France, till admirall Tromp getts out to cleare that passage, which will hardly bee in fourteen dayes. Yett though there bee a committee gone from the Hague, with mony to pay the seamen, as alsoe to doe justice upon some of the cowardly captaines for example's cause, which with a promise of eighteen guilders per month to common men, will add much to the expediteing of our fleete, which will bee effective an hundred and twenty strong, besides seven East India men, which were outward bound, but are now to be discharged, and serve as men of warre. Witte Wittesen is allsoe very busie in getting his ships ready at Amsterdam, Fly, and Texell, which will bee about forty sayle, and will bee ready allsoe about fourteen dayes hence. In the meane time wee are fayne to eate olde pickled herring instead of new, for which the English are cursed by the commons with bell, booke, and candle; for indeede they are a people impatient to be abridged of theire olde wont, which let them but enjoy, and they care not, who are theire masters; but the other day at the Fly the soldiers (who are there to prevent the landeing of the English) thought to have taken fishe at their owne prizes; but the fishermen fell upon them, and beate them soe, as if they themselves had beene stockfishe. There hath been allsoe a riseing lately at Bergen op Zom. These commotions are like to prove of cvill consequence to these nations. The states sitt very close at the Hague, listening for some good newes from theire commissioners in England, which they would rather heare, then of another engagement at sea, for their ha rt s begin to fa y l e notwithstanding their many ships. Wee long allsoe to heare of the arivall of out East India ships in France, where some say they are to co m, but 'tis re ther beleeved for Norway; however the S t r ci ts ships are to co m by Scotland with young Tromp. Wee heare some of the English goods at Copenhagen shall come to Amsterdam; if soe, I will make a journey thither. In the meane time let mee know, what goods will vend best in England. There is greate rejoyceing at Copenhagen, for that the Swedes have sent to lett them know, that they intend to keep the peace inviolable. This I saw in a letter from the lord. W e n tworth, who is there; but an English merchant writes, that theire agent in the Sound is by new credentialls made ambassador, and calls them to account for obstructing the trade into the Baltique sea. Wee had newes that Harrison was turned out of office; which was good newes to us, if it had beene true; hopeing the rest of that gang would have soone followed. Wee cannot endure to heare you should expect security from us in case of agreement, much lesse cautionary townes. Wee hope to make yow give better words, when our fleete getts out to sea. Wee heare the Portugall ambassador is goeing away. I would gladly know, if hee make not sattisfaction, for a friend of yours was owner of 1/32 part of the ship John's adventure, worth 1000 guild. Flemmish. Here is none of that commoditie to bee had, which yow wrote for; if there be any in 341, I shall know shortly. 'Tis sayd the next engagement Tromp will put himselfe into a small vessell, together with the hangman, to see that his captaines stand better to theire tackleing then formerly, or else be hanged at the yarde. The states of Holland and West Friezeland findeing themselves traduced by people travelling in boates and waggons, have published an edict, forbidding all persons to speake evill of theire rulers; though 'twill prove but a new subject of discourse, for these free people will not be tongue tied. Pray write me what hopes of peace. Not else at present: I rest
[8/18 July, 1653.]
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The 14th instant came a letter from the admiralty of Amsterdam, that three English frigats having conducted some ships to Hamburgh, did stay upon the Elbe, in all likelihood to watch and surprize all ships, that should come from Holland. That lately there went two great hoys loaden with piece goods from Amsterdam towards Hamburgh; that there was great fear, they might fall into the hands of the English. And in the mean time, that the English do continue still before the Texell and Vlie. The sole and only navigation, that is now left from hence towards the Elbe and the Weeser, is by the Watten, or through the islands and the firm land of Friesland, and East-Friesland and Oldenburgh. They have writ to the admiralties of Amsterdam, to secure the said navigation with a sufficient convoy.
Here hath been a flying report, that the eleven East Indiamen (valued at 120 tons of gold) seven Streights men, and five convoyers were put in at Bergen in Norway; but this is very uncertain; notwithstanding they have sent ten or twelve galliots to give them notice of your fleet's being upon the coast.
Tromp's fleet in Zealand is making ready with so much slowness and tediousness, that the common people being thereby stirred up and set on by some ministers and the prince of Orange's party, do believe that it is the fault of states of Holland and good Hollanders, as if they held correspondence with council of state of England; but the truth is, that Holland alone doth force itself enough in contributing their share, which they have performed, but not the other provinces; from whence must necessarily follow, a great defect in their equipping and preparations, for as yet there are but a few ships, that are ready; the one wants this thing, and another that. They thought to lay aside at least thirty ships as unserviceable; but because they would shew themselves at sea with a considerable number, they have thought fit to keep most of them in the service; so that there are to come in sea from Zealand eighty four ships; from the Texel and Vlye, where likewise the preparations are made very slowly, thirty or forty ships more; and it is hoped, that within three weeks all will be ready.
Those of Holland in this conjuncture not daring to vex the people with new taxes or impositions, have propounded to make a voluntary contribution; and that all those, who are in any public charge or office in or of the state, are by a good example to precede, and give each according to their power and affection liberally, towards the maintenance of this war. I fear that this will be of little consequence; but I believe that the prince's party and royalists, who are the most sharp and bitter against the council of the state, will give least.
Those of Holland do cause many of their resolutions to be printed, to shew their zeal, duty, and diligence in this war, against the false reports and rumours, which have been published amongst the people to their blame and prejudice.
The states of Holland will do much for peace; yea all that they are able to do, salva libertate; but to give places of security and caution, or to tye themselves, that they shall keep in sea but a certain number of ships of war; that cannot be done. The people would break the states neck, if they should dare to hearken to any such thing. But to give a sum of money, which shall be reasonable and tolerable, and then afterwards make an alliance, I believe they will agree to that.
The king of Denmark doth make a great ostentation of his ships, but he sends not one hither; and likewise he hath but twenty in all, that are ready. Here hath been a report and rumour, that he could send ten or twelve hither, but here come none; so that they have persuaded and induced mons. Keyser to go the second time to the king, to desire of him those ten or twelve ships. But I have it from a very good hand, that the said king doth quake for fear, since the last defeat of the Hollanders, and will very hardly be persuaded to part with his great ships so far; and if he doth lend them, it will be upon a new and larger expression and promise, that no peace shall be made but by comprehending therein the said king and his interest, which will be a second folly, that States General and states of Holland will commit; for Denmark makes an infraction of the public faith, such an one as cannot be pardoned; and Denmark hath formerly done so much harm and mischief, that states of Holland may justly exclude them; likewise Denmark hath gotten by the loss and damage of the council; the states of Holland nothing; therefore that Denmark repair them, and make satisfaction.
Likewise states of Holland, by embracing by this means Denmark, and authorizing his passages in the Sound (which is the free sea, and so likewise states of Holland themselves have always understood it) do authorize by the same reason the right, which the English pretend of the fishery upon their coasts; yea with more reason; for in the Sound the Hollanders do only pass through; and if they do stay there, it is much against their will. But upon the English coasts and those of Scotland the Hollanders come expresly to sojourn there, to fish and to take as much fish, as brings them in millions; yea they do make use now and then of the shores, to dry their nets, paying then to the king of Denmark, for their free passage of the free sea, some tons of gold; and besides serving him by comprehending him in the treaty. With much more reason will the English pretend an acknowledgment for the fishing; and the Hollanders authorizing that in the king of Denmark will likewise authorize it in the English; ergo it were better to shake off that king, and do their own business; but that will be a way, which will shew itself.
At Bergen op Zoom the princess of Hogenroller had a mind, or did talk of putting her arms in the place of those of the prince of Orange. One of the magistrates, an apothecary, did maintain, by way of discourse, that that was not so strange, since they had taken away the king of Spain's arms, formerly a sovereign. This caused the people to break the glass windows, and shop, and medicaments of this apothecary; notwithstanding that the governor did give this testimony, that this apothecary is a very good patriot and great protestant.
They grow to hate the English here more and more, for the royalists, as well as others, do speak for the reputation of the English. The royalists say, we are enemies of Cromwell and his cause, but we love and esteem our nation. Likewise they do maintain, that this state will never get any advantage, if they do not espouse the interest of their king.
They do infuse and inform the people now, that the English do demand of our deputies, not only one town in Friesland to bridle count William, but likewise that the English do demand especially the young prince and the whole house of Nassau; and this alone is enough to cause that to be done now, that was done last year, when to appease the people they were fain to call home mons. Pauw, and the other ambassadors; so that I do not see any likelihood of any peace.
It seems, that some statesman hath made this civil song. In the eighth page you will see a passage (being a description of the whole treaty with England, &c.) which prince's party doth take very ill, and the people doth begin to murmur already about it, saying, behold you may see already, that to flatter the English, they do abandon the house of Nassau; and this word to flatter is already interpreted by the people, that they will submit themselves under the yoke of the English, which the good Hollanders did never dream of, but only to have England amicos & socios.
It is very strange, those that come from Cologne say, that throughout all Germany the people rejoice and are glad, that the English have had the better against the Hollanders in the last fight; so that the inclosed verses have reason to say offensa sæpe nec vicinitas mæret.
The ambassador Boreel having received the projected alliance to be made with France, have desired to have copies of the letters ultro citroque writ from Holland to the late parliament, and from the parliament to those of Holland and the States General. Item the thirty six articles, and that which the parliament gave in answer to the thirty six articles. Item a power and letter of credence.
The English fleet doth spread a great part of the sea northward; they have lately taken some ships coming from Nantz, St. Ubes, and Dantzick; some say nine, others fourteen. It is likewise said, they have taken two great hoys going for Hamburgh. The taking of 320 Guns coming from Sweden in two ships, Item several Eastland ships, is already old.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Yours by this and the post before I received; by which I see your proceedings to prevail against all your enemies, though many ye have, and especially the Hollanders, which we hear are divided among themselves of late. All the better for yours. You may take what follows of news at present. I mentioned in my former, that his majesty, cardinal, and court parted hence last Wednesday, which were that same night at Compiegne, which was a long way made in one day; but the reason thereof was, the king hearing that (fn. 4) Mr. Manicans, governor de le Fere in Picardy, had revolted against his majesty, being discontented with the court, and had killed his mayor in the said town, being the mayor of the place, by reason he was for the interest of the court. Upon this occasion his majesty parted, and is resolved, if his presence will not master that man, that he will bringe the army commanded by marshal Turenne to besiege that place, which is all we have of it at present. We expect the king here within three weeks at the farthest.
You have seen in some of my relations, that an arrest was given to quarter the next spring all the king's forces in the frontiers of Picardy and Champaigne; and that the payment of their ustanulles shall be ordered in the month of October next five millions; which imposition shall be appointed by the masters of requests, which shall be transported for the generality and election of this kingdom, assisted by the officers of war, as they will be pleased to choose for that effect.
I forgot to let you understand in my former letter, that the dutchess of Lorain parted hence to live with her husband, being sent for by himself, as the pope ordered; which I writ to you long ago, he having now sent the countess de Cantecroix, with the children he got with her, to a religious house. I hear for certain, that the son and heir of the duke of Bouillon is to be married to one of the cardinal's neices, and that by the advice of marshal Turenne his uncle. Its reported, the archbishop of Paris had orders to retire; which he absolutely refused to obey.
Monsieur president de Maisons being commanded to retire, as I writ before, said passing the street of St. Honoré, Messrs. de Paris, make much of your cardinal, and see what you will gain by it; and that loudly in the street. One of his majesty's guard, that was with him, has received orders to bring him to Cher-bourg, where he is four or five days at his daughter's at Conche; so he shall be committed to the citadel of Cher-bourg.
The duke de Wirtemberg, brother to prince de Montbelliard, who married the second daughter of monsieur marshal Chastillon, who died has turned back all the servants that his wife had hither the last week in a coach of six horses, with orders to those that came with them, to furnish them in all things, till every one of them be in a condition to live withal; he being of a mind, his wife should have no French servants. We have from Spain, that the king hearing of the revolt against him in Catalonia has sent orders to mons. marquis de St. Croix, who was to relieve Bourdeaux, being yet at St. Sebastian, that he might bring his naval army to Barcelona, for fear that city should rise against him, as it was reported, though yet it be not true; but a little would make them do it, which his majesty of Spain knowing well, is willing to prevent it. So the Bourdelois will be lost, if they be not relieved by some other means.
Here arrived last Thursday messrs. de Rare and de la Frette, a gentleman of duke d'Orleans the first, being governor of Chartres; which makes us believe, the duke of Orleans will shortly come and live near his majesty's person, of which many doubt, that his daughter will never permit any such thing.
The letters from Blaye the 10th instant bring, that duke de Vendosme and Candale, after having taken Bourg, (fn. 5) went to Libourne; and that the governor thereof sent to prince Conti, signifying without relief he could not resist, of which no hope was at that time; yet we have here that that place is surrendered, and both the dukes marched towards St. Foy and Bergerac. The same letter brings, that there is no appearance of any relief for Bourdeaux; and that soon they must be forced to submit to his majesty's mercy. Likewise the said letter brings, the plague was violent at Agen, and that some counsellors of Bourdeaux, which fled thither, died of the sickness lately.
(fn. 6) Last Wednesday news came hither to court from Catalonia, signifying a great plot to be discovered in the city of Roses against the marquis de la Fara, governor of the place; and that done for the matter of 300,000 livres, of which half the sum was to be given to six officers of the garrison, who promised to deliver one gate of the city to the Spaniard, and the other half to the marquis's master of the house, his butler, and some other officers of the conspiracy, which being discovered by one German belonging to the marquis, who told him his secretary had given a letter to one of the drummers of the enemy, to fignify and appoint the hour they should come to the city, and that the drummer would return with answer that night, as about some other business; which the governor hearing of, did not fail to watch till the drummer came, whom he examined suddenly, and he confessed the whole, as the German told before. The marquis after all hanged the drummer, and committed all the conspirators to the prison; so he saved himself, who was to be murdered by his own servants, and saved the city for the king; which was, as we hear, the principal cause of the last revolt in Catalonia.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
The taking of Bourg will, I fear me, occasion the taking of Bourdeaux speedily. I hear Mr. de Bordeaux makes no applications now. If Bourdeaux be taken, you may be sure he will make none at all. Believe this from me, for I speak knowingly of it. Their animosities here against that state, if they durst declare it, are as yet very great, I assure you: not to relieve Bourdeaux, and to have occasioned the taking of Dunkirk, will not alter their malice against you; to have done the one, and not the other, will be the same, as if you had done the one and the other. What can France do in the state it is in now against England? If you give them time to regain what they lost of late, it may be in a condition to do you harm. One of the chiefest ministers here told me, as having great confidence in me, that England shall pay, ere it be many years, for having occasioned the taking of Dunkirk and their fleet. The titular king of England received mony for his journey into Holland. 'Tis thought he will be there before twenty days: if he can do nothing there, he will to the Palatinate, and cast anchor there, till some favourable wind will blow out of England. What should his excellency my lord general Cromwell expect from the Cardinal, but a parcel of fair promises in answer to his letter ? I assure, the king and cardinal are resolved not to deliver prince Rupert's merchandizes, what language soever or fair words they give you. The merchants having given a good deal of money to some ministers here, thinking to corrupt them (a thing very easy to be done in any other occasion but this) find now, that there is but too much mony cast into the sea. Prince Rupert was somewhat affrighted by reason of their bribes; but there is given him by the queen, cardinal, and council, such assurances, as his mind is at rest. I protest, they laugh at you, and think your demands so insolent, as nothing more. In the English court though there are but few poor ministers and lords, there is as much confusion as ever was at the tower of Babylon; and the like confusion is amongst what tories are here. The French in Catalonia has regained some towns, and makes no question to regain very shortly Barcelona, having a strong faction in the town, which will over power what garrison is there, being but fifteen hundred men.
The king and cardinal is gone towards la Fere, a strong town in Picardy near Amiens,
the governor whereof called monsieur de Manicamp, a lieutenant general and a very gallant
man, is said to have declared for the prince out of a discontent, that he is not made mareschal de France, having deserved it above many of those that are made. This Manicamp
killed the mayor of the town and his son, who would not second his design. The townsmen, it's said, are against him. The king is gone personally to relieve the Bourgeois: we
know not as yet what will become of the business. I am unfeignedly, sir,
Your most humble affectionate servant.
Letter of intelligence.
From hence no news at all for the present. It is talked on still of sending some ships of war to the Weser, if in the mean time the city of Bremen doth not come to composition with us, which is very likely, they (seeing our earnestness and considering their weakness) will be willing to do. In the mean time all is ready, waiting for nothing but the order of her majesty, which being given (is it come to that?) it is thought the business will be soon ended.
Captain Tromp to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
Since my last, I set fail from Leghorn on the 12th last past with seven ships, leaving the eight behind there, to wait till the next mail: mean while I have promised to the sailors and soldiers of the ships under my command, two guilders more in their pay, according to your high mightinesses resolution of the 8th of May last past, thereby to remove, if possible, the murmurs of the ships crew, humbly requesting your high mightinesses, that you would be pleased to give such directions to the respective boards of Admiralty, that my promise, which I have made to the soldiers and sailors may be confirmed. We have kept continually crusing near the south-east corner of Sardinia. . . . . . . Cape De Buone and the islands of Trappa till the 28th of July last past, but met with no ships. We failed since and came to an anchor near Trapano, in order to buy some necessaries for the fleet, as also to careen my ship which had got a leak, and to provide ourselves with water. During our stay there, I received information from the consul at Palermo, that an English ship which had lain a long while at Messina, as I have had the honour to acquaint your high mightinesses here before, had taken under the fort and within the limits and reach of his majesty's fortifications a certain ship called the St. Peter bound from Venice to Amsterdam, laden with piece goods, whereof they had killed the captain, and were since arrived with the same at Messina aforesaid; whereupon I answered the said consul what your high mightinesses may see in the copy hereunto annexed, dated July the 4th last past. We lay at that time under one of the islands of Trappa to fetch our water on board; the following day it being very calm, we spied at day break two sail near the north-east corner of Trappa; whereupon we weighed anchor and did our best with failing and towing to come up with them: when we came a little nearer we saw that it was the said Englishman with his prize, who seeing us did his utmost to get under the castles of Trappa, and came about two hours before us to an anchor. So that I wrote to the said governor of Trappa, that he would be pleased to cause the said Englishman with his prize to depart forthwith from his coast, or permit me to deal with my enemies myself, since our ship was not only taken within the reach of his majesty's fortress, but they had thereby also violated his majesty's coast, as your high mightinesses will further observe out of the inclosed. To which he answered, that he could do nothing without the order of the vice-roy of Palermo, for which purpose he had sent a copy of my letter to the said vice-roy; but whereas the said Englishman had a rope fastened to the water castle, in order to get up nearer unto the castle, from whence it would have been very difficult to fetch him back, I gave the due signal to my ships to board the said vessels; whereupon captain John Richwyn got the first along side of the prize, and after having fixed several guns one against another, the prince's colours being already planted on board of her, captain Slooth, who was commanded by me for that purpose, came likewise on board of her, and the wind being from the shore they cut her cables, and went to seaward with her. In the mean while captain Andrew . . . . . commander of the little St. Shancus, and captain Cornelius Janssen commander of the . . . . . . that were before me, came up with the said Englishman and boarded her, part of her crew being gone on shore with the boat, the rest jumped over board, so that they did not fire a gun. In the mean while I got before the wind, and those that were on board of her cut the ropes, and failed off with her to seaward; during which time the town and castles fired sharp at our ships, however without doing any great damage. This affair being over I lay still and drove within musket shot off of the castle, ordered the flag to be fetched down from above, and fired nine guns without ball, having, as all my captains do atteft, fired not one aingle gun at the town nor castles: mean while we got out of the reach of their guns, where we came to an anchor, and repaired what was damaged. The said Englishman has continued the whole summer in the waters of Messina, and disturbed the navigation. She is mounted with forty two, and the St. Peter with twenty four iron guns.
On the seventh of the said month we sailed from Trapano, and arrived here in this port on the 16th, but met with no ships. After my arrival here, I found your high mightinesses orders to come home, so that within a day or two I intend to set fail from hence with the prizes. I believe I shall still find commodore de Boer at Cadiz in Spain: herewith, &c.
Letter of intelligence.
The Hollanders are so sensible of their interest in these parts, that to uphold the drooping spirits of their friends they have sent another letter unto their agent here, acquainting in what forwardness their fleet is, wherewith they intend not only to drive the English from their coasts, but also to convoy their merchants fleet hither. From Poland, that the retreat of the king was only to receive some recruits of soldiers with mony for the payment of his army, which having received, he advanced six miles beyond Limbrick, being resolved to fight the Cossacks, if they came nearer; but whilst he was pitching his camp, there came commissioners to treat of peace, so that this summer is like to be spent therein. The plague much increaseth here still.
An intercepted letter.
J'ay receu le vostre du 14 du courant, dont je vous rend grace. Vous pouvez croire, que je ne doubte pas de vostre amitie. Je suis & seray toute ma vie vostre serviteur. Je ne voudrois pas pour rien du mond, que mons. le prince eut mauvaise opinion de moy. Il est impossible, qu'un homme ay plus forte & plus veritable passion pour ses interests, que celuy que j'ay: je le fairai voire par des effects.
J'espere vous pouvoir envoyer en peu de jours la copie de la lettre, que Cromwell 24 eserivit 45 59 28 61 au cardinal, & faire des efforts pour scavoir ce que vous desirez touchant le cardinal & les damoiselles. Vous pouvez scavoir presentement la verité de cela. Ne trouvez vous pas que madamoiselle Angleterre veut faire quelque chose pour son galand la ville de Bourdeaux; qui se va perdre, si elle n'a compassion d'elle. Je m'imagine, que s'il y avoit quelque intrigue entre le card. & Cromw. le Tellier card. nem' auroit pas asseuré de la saçon, qu'elle m'avoit fait. Tellier Cromwell avoir donné huit n a v i r e s 60. de trente p i e c e s de c a n o n s pour madamoiselle la ville de Bourdeaux, & de plus le roy d'Angletterre ne craigne rien de costé la. Il est bon d'estre tousjours sur ses guardes. La lettre, que Cromwell escrivit à madamoiselle le cardinal, n'estoit qu'une response a u n e lettre que le cardinal luy avoit escrit. Je m'estonne, que Cromwell ne fait response aux lettres que mons. le prince lui avoit escrit comme elle fait a c e l l e s de mons. le cardinal. Il est vrai, que Thomme de dee (fn. 7) m'avoit dit que cardin. lui avoit dit, que Cromwell luy avoit tesmoigné beaucoup d'affection au commencement. Vous scavez vous même, que les damoiselles sont tousjours trompeuses.
Le card. m' avoit f a i t donner le jour qu'elle partit u n o r d o n n a n c e d e m i l l e l i v r e s, dont j e n e suis pas encore p a y é sur mon ame 5. 2. 4. 40. 24. 57. 24. 32. 45. 20. 42 que j'ay d'espence bien prest d'autant depuis que j'eus l'honneur de vous voire j' a t t e n d s seulement s o n r e t o u r en sin de scavoir ce qu'elle me dira, & si. elle aura mon service agreable.
Il m'ennuit plus icy, qu'il ne vous faict la; & sur mon ame j e ne voudrois pas demeurer icy 24 heures, si ce n'est pour le passion, que j'ay pour vous & les interests de mademoiselle mons. le prince. Cela est aussi vray que je suis chrestien, mons. de Barriere, n'a qu'a me mander, si elle veut, que j'aille au regiment Irlandois & tascher de pemmener à Boudeaix, ou si elle veu que j e continue m o n d e s s e i n avec le cardinal, qu'elle reguarde ce qu'elle croit mieux pour elle & mons. le prince, & je le fairai de bon cœur.
Il arriva dimanche apres dinée un courier du roy, avec ordre de sa majesté, nommant quatre deputez pour traiter avec l'amb. d'Hollande. Les quatre sont mons. de Villeroy, mons. le comte de Brienne, & les deux sur-intendants: le premier article est, que des aussitost que le traité sera signé, que le Hollande declarera la guerre à l'Espagne, & continuera elle d'Angleterre.
Mons. Phomme de dee dit hier, qu'il croit que don Alonso est d'intrigue avec e'est estat la pour guarder l'argent des Espagnols. On croit que le roy n'ira pas à l'armée, mais qu'il sera de retour dans peu des jours. Dimanche dernier l'avantguarde de l'armée de mons. le prince estoit bien prest de celle de mons. de Turenne. On le croit assez forte; mais nous ne le craignons pas. Il ne faira la tant de belles choses à la teste des Espagnols, comme il fit à la teste des Francois. Nous le croyons indubitablement perdue. Nous nous mocquons de luy presentement & de son ambition. Toute la Cataloigne est preste de se revolter contre l'Espagne. Nous n'apprehendons pas mons. de Barriere en ce pais la, ni tout ce que l'Angleterre pourra faire pour secourir Bourdeaux, qui sera à nous devant que soit dix jours.
J'ay leu plusieurs lettres, qu'on escrit de Bourdeaux par le dernier ordinaire, qui disent que l'Orme (fn. 8) pria fort son altesse de Conty de se joindre avec eux; en fin d'avoir l'amnistie. S. A. leur disoit, que si en peu des jours du secours n'arriveroit pas, qu'il le fairoit, & que s'ils voudroient faire aucune chose sans luy, qu'ils se perderoient; qu'il scait bien que la cour ne tiendra parole; & qu'estants unis, on trouveroit mieux son conte qu'estant separez.