A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 1, 1638-1653. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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September (2 of 6)
The states of Groningen and Ommelands to the states of Guelderland.
Honored lords, confederates, and good friends,
Vol. vi. p. 67.
The union and good correspondence between neighbours and confederates are the chiefest causes, whereby the same come to ascend upon the highest step of prosperity; and that the same also hath been the cause of this state by God's special assistance and mercy, whereby the same hath not only resisted against the mightiest potentate in Europe, but that also the limits thereof have been thereby far extended, and at last obtained the only end of war, is known to the whole world, as well as to your lordships; and therefore our honourable predecessors and founders of this state have always carefully and wisely taken to heart, that this state might be continually and timely provided with faithful generals and stadtholders of great and noble families; that so this state might be preserved in union, through their wisdom, courage, and conduct; and likewise, that so it might be held considerable and formidable both by friends and enemies; which maxims being taken into consideration by the states of this province, and found that through the sudden and most sad death of his highness prince William of blessed memory, and the missing of a captain and admiral general, the affairs of war both by sea and land are not so providently managed, as is to be wished; and it is to be feared, that for want of a general there will happen a confusion amongst us, if not timely prevented by the making choice of a new captain general and stadtholder, especially by this present occasion of war with England, as also many other dangers, that do threaten this state.
Therefore, according to the example of Zealand and Friezland, we agree to confer the charge of captain general upon the young prince of Orange, and during his minority, grave William Frederick of Nassau for his lieutenant general, upon such conditions and terms, as shall be afterwards agreed on by all the provinces jointly; and this in regard of their noble birth and extraction, as also of the great merits of their noble predecessors, obtained through their exploits in the times of danger, who have ventured their lives and estates for the preservation of this state, and have, by the assistance of the Almighty, delivered this state out of the tyranny and slavery of the Spaniard, and have afterwards planted us in peace and prosperity.
Therefore, dear confederates, we do highly recommend this business unto you, as knowing, that you will take it to heart. Wherewith, &c.
Your lordships confederates and good friends, the states of Groeningen and Ommelands.
And was subscribed by
15 Sept. 1653. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Vol. vi. p. 70.
Haveing written yow at large per my last, have little to adde at present concerning trade, which is very dead at present, especially because noe English letters are come this weeke, which wee suppose to bee occasioned by a stop of your new masters in England, who for that cause only wee have reason to curse with bell, booke, and candle, being distructive to our trade as merchants. For these commodities I wrote yow of last, they may tourne to accompt at last, but not as yett, because the merkett is forestalled by the English, who I see are vigilent. However I hope we shall doe better ere long, for though our deceased admirall Tromp bee this day buried at Delft, yett wee have mynheer Opdam chosen in his roome, a man whose necessities (though hee bee a greate gentleman) will make him comply with the strongest party. But for the better management of the navall affayres de Witt, de Ruyter, Jan Evertsen, and Peeter Floris are to bee vice-admiralls. In the meane time de Witt is not at sea to conduct the merchantment out of the Sound, which fleet is much longed for here, and tis hoped noe English will bee in the way to obstruct their passage. Wee now finde our maine fayleing to bee in . . . . . . . to carry greater guns then ours doe, for de Witt's greatest gunns are but of 24 l. and we find the English have farre greater. Wee heare the Leopard, formerly captaine Appleton's ship, with severall others, are arrived in the Sound. If there bee any English ships out (which wee doe not hope) there is like to be shrewd bickerings in the north seas. In the meane time wee hope our fleete, that went out of the Fly have escaped them. To pleasure a friend of yours, I have this day drawne on yow 25l. sterling, payable to Mr. Thomas Corbett, which I desire you to accept, and I shall vallew it yow in accompt. I am sorry wee have noe better convoy from these partes, by which meanes our designe for France is frustrated, though wee are in hopes of more security in winter, when the English ships will lye up. I have not elce at present, but rest
15 9/3 53.
The Dutch commissioners letter to the king of Portugal.
Received Sept. 18, 1653. [N. S.]
Vol. vi. p. 82.
Serenissime et potentissime rex,
Quam enixè celsi præpotentes fæderati Belgii ordines generales domini nostri antehac expetiverint, & præ cæteris charam habuerint regiæ majestatis yestræ amicitiam, latere neminem arbitramur; certè affectum suum erga omnes Lusitanos ardentissmum statim ab eo tempore, quo regia majestas vestra se non minùs strenuè quàm feliciter ab oppressione Castellanorum vindicavit, argumentis prodidere satis luculentis, quæ si ordine & singulatim dicenda essent, vereremur, ne simul aliqua sint commemoranda, quæ quandam quasi exprobationem adferrent. Illud utique meminimus & palam profiteri non erubescimus, nobis tum temporis in Hollandia degentibus non fuisse in promptu discernere, utrum majori gaudio libertatem regni hujus nostrates acceperint, an curâ (absit verbo invidia) pro viribus tueri desideraverint; cujus quidem studii uti meta & finis suit commune bonum & salus populorum, ita dubium non est, quin jam diu fructus fuissent percepti uberrimi, si in Brasiliæ aliarumque regionum longe dissitis oris iis legibus observatum fuisset fœdus, quibus in Europa ictum erat. Profecto civium ibi degentium vires non fuissent in se conversæ, & qui vicini ad mutua auxilia obligabantur, saltem abstinuissent iis cædibus, depopulationibus, rapinis, latrociniis, & incendiis, quæ octavum jam annum malo fato evenisse videmus & dolemus: sed non juvat anteacta recensere, neque magis libet disquirere, quo jure pleraque facta sint, ne forte irritati quorundam animi, qui non nisi interjecto tempore coalescere possunt, denno effervescant. Illud inter omnes hasce calamitates unicè nos consolatur & sustentat, quod earum anxia consideratio videatur regiam majestatem vestram & celsitudines dominorum ordinum movisse, ut non semel tentaverint honestis conditionibus discrimen omne redimere, & non facile sit monstrare viam, qua universis laboribus & periculis defungi liceat, si ex æquo disceptare velimus, & non belli causam quærere animis: tantum hinc inde opus est non alienis a modereratis consiliis; delenda sunt præterita, si fieri potest, oblivione, si non silentio omnino tegenda. Quod ad celsos præpotentes ordines dominos nostros attinet, ita statuunt, meliorem potioremque esse certam pacem, quam speratam victoriam, neque ulterius prœlio esse dimicandum cum eo rege, ad cujus obsequia sunt deditissimi, si honestè pacem & dare & accipere liceat. Quod si eandem regiæ majestatis vestræ sententiam intelligamus, uti quidem ex animo optamus, est quod de deputatione hac nostra bene speremus, adeo ut non tantum aperta bella, sed simultates quoque ipsæ finiantur, & ex infestis hostibus socii fideles & cives fiant. Proinde regiam majestatem vestram reverenter rogamus, velit tandem aliquando expergisci, & dum tempus est, etiam atque etiam deliberare, quid communis utilitas maximum amicitiæ vinculum exigat; ante omnia vero caveat, ne co trahantur nostrates, ut potius regni hujus hostibus quam subditis adjungi velint, quod sane vel maxime ejusdem regiæ majestatis vestræ interest, quippe si semel illis in causam descenderimus, nihil integri futurum erit, & jam parati sunt illi eas vires adferre, quæ nostris additæ neutiquam contemnendæ videntur. Quod igitur in rem utriusque gentis conducere visum est proponimus, & quemadmodum regiam majestatem vestram serio iterum & reverenter rogamus, uti hoc negotium bene & feliciter evenire velit, sic in eodem promovendo si per commissarios vel alio modo agi placuerit, nec infidele nec segne officium offerimus.
Extract out of the secret resolution of the lords states of Holland and West-Friesland, taken in their lordships assembly, Thursday 18 Sept. 1653. [N. S.]
Vol. vi. p. 24.
There being referred to the assembly by the raedt pensionary de Witt the considerations and advice of the lords commissioners for the affairs of England, who having according to their order viewed and examined the papers and report of the lord Nieuport, one of their lords commissioners in England; as also having considered and debated in what manner the said business with what depends upon it may be further managed and directed, for the service and benefit of the state: after the forgeoing deliberation it is thought fit and understood, that the business shall be made known to the generality, that so the lords Beverning and Vande Perre, being at present in commission in England, may be writ unto, that they will use all manner of reason and arguments to make those of the government there to comprehend the inconveniences and the impossibilities, of the project of coalition made by those of the said government, and given to our commissioners jointly in an answer of the council of state's bearing date the 21/31 of June and 25 July/4 August. That moreover their high and mighty lordships commissioners now in England shall make offer to the government thereof a strict and near alliance and confederacy, as has been formerly offered by them to the council of state between both states, and it to be so near as ever was made between two neighbouring states, and as the nature or constitution of each side's sovereign government can bear.
That also, in the mean time there shall be sought after and earnestly endeavoured the amity and alliance of other potentates or states.
And also, that the equipping of ships to sea be endeavoured with all the care and speed that may be, and that more ships be built out of hand.
Mr. Ch. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Leghorn, 19 September, 1653. [N. S.]
Vol. vi. p. 188.
This week is no courier from France com for Itally; so we ar without our letters from Ingland. The French army ar got into the country of Millan, not abov 5000, and yet they sack and spoil the country without opposition. The Spanish Machiavillian pollicy has reduc't his dominions to such a paucity of piple, the better to complete his monarchical government, that if the French had not som pulbacks at hom by theyr own dissentions, I know not what should hinder them to overrun the others dominions. The pope has bin provident to turn French, at which the Spanyard is so much incenc't, that I believ he would willingly open a door to any occasion of the other's ruin. I stil send you the Roman intelligence, and shal so continue til the three monthes be expyred (for so long I have paid him.) My other new entertained intelligencer wil not (dares not) correspond with Ingland, but he wil wryt hether to me what occurs; so if you pleas, I shal recapitate his letters, and send them to you. He will have 10l. a year, whereof 5l. in hand. I know by the prys, this man is not lyk to say much, yet tis not amis to try him, and hear what he can say; at least 'til I can meet with a better, which I am labouring to fynd. I dout in conclusion I shal meet with non that dare to correspond with Ingland in that manner you desyre. They wil more esily be induc't to wryt hether. The Duch ar al gon out of this port, except two ships. 'Tis reported thos that lay at the Streits mouth, upon the arryval of the West India fleet at Cales, wer to convoy home thos merchant men ther, which wil be very rich. Four French men of war are lately gon out thence a thieving from Tollon; they ar the best ships the king of France has in thes seas; they stil tak al nations they fynd, especially the Duch, whos men of war dare not look after them. The Turks fleet of gallyes is got out of Rodes to Canea, wher the forces they landed hav surpryzed a strong hold of the Venetians, who tis supposed wil not be able to hold Candia any longer. Thes seas are ful of rich Duch and French merchant-ships, which would be good pryze to the states ships, if a squadron wer in thes seas. God grant a good closure of the bisnes with the Duch at hom, and then I dout not but in convenient tym a fleet wil be sent for the Mediterranean to quel the Duch lykwys her, which is ernestly hop't for by,
Your humble servant,
W. Cromwell to Mr. Rich. Bradshaw, the English resident at Hamburgh.
Vol. vi. p. 112.
If my unluckie indisposition, or the multitude of your affaires could suffer it, I might relate an unhappie adventure of my journey; but neither of those permitting circumstantiall recitals, and my hope to enlarge myselfe to the full by the word of mouth, give mee leave onely for the present to tell you, that beeing sent and entrusted by his excellency generall Cromwell to doe him such service in these parts, as no pen may discover, and by landing and passing through Hamburgh, necessarily to communicate with you, before I went further, it was my unluckiest misfortune to be cast away under Norway, where I leaping into the boate unhappily broake my arme, and bruised my head so grievously, that I have since suffered the cruelst paroxysmes of an intollerable feaver. In this unfortunate conjuncture of crosses, my monneys and apparell beeing all cast away, my servant drowned, my wants great, and my staying here dangerous and desperately suspicious (and would bee more, if I were not here by order from my patron disguised under the name of monsieur Jacques Lasson) I addresse myselfve to you as a personage, whose great interest in the common cause will impossibly suffer mee longer to bee exposed to such inconveniencies, as my staying here will cause, desiring you to assist mee with such a competent proportion of monney, not only for the paying my landlord, physician, and surgeon, but also for the fitting mee againe with necessaries of apparell, and monney for my journey to Hamburgh, whether I hope (with the grace of God) to goe as soone as my health will permitt mee, and I receave these supplies from you; which beeing sent by the next post to mee, under the aforesaid name, I shall take such care, that the businesse shall not miscarrie. It is now almost a forthnight since my unluckie misfortune and almost a weeke since my comming hither; yet am I forced to keepe myselve closely retired, for not knowing any one here of trust and faith to communicate withall, tho' here bee many of my countreymen and Scots of both parties. Sir, the confidence I have in your zeale for the common cause asseures mee, you will not faile, by granting this my necessarie request, to give a farther testimonie of your affection to the commonwealth of Engelland, and besides to engage to your service,
Copenhagen, 9 Sept. 1653.
Your most faithfull and asseured friend,
To the right hon. Mr. Bradshaw, resident for the republick of Engelland in Hamburgh, and director for the English companie there, this delivered.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Hague, 9/19 Sept. 1653.
Vol. vi. p. 97.
The last letters contained the news of the surprizal of Enchuysen by nine companies of foot of the army, by command of the states of Holland, who after they were in, let in some troops of horse. They are now taking farther care for the securing and keeping of it, and it being a place very full of people, and the nine companies of foot making but 400 men effective, they are sending three companies of horse more in the town, and have well manned the fort, which is somewhat separate from the town, and commands the harbour; and the states of Holland are not only resolved to secure this place for the future, but to punish severely those, that were the authors of that rebellion, wherein they begin to proceed very rigorously. They have already imprisoned in the common prison here in the Hague mynheer Moock, scout or mayor of the town; and some others of the chief are likewise committed; and such as are escaped and fled, they inventory their goods, and seize upon all their papers; and by the interrogatories and questions they put to such as they examine, it appears they much desire to find out what hand count William had in this rising. This course and manner of proceeding upon this insurrection of Enchuysen, whose design therein was to change the magistracy and government, and the officers of the town, and thereby to have encouraged the other towns to have cryed up the prince of Orange for captain, and count William for lieut. general, doth satisfy all men, that Holland will continue in the condition they are in at present, and never submit themselves to the prince or the said count as his lieutenant, or suffer themselves to be disthroned by tumults. And herein they say they are well able to maintain themselves, paying almost 300 companies of horse and foot, and the naval strength also being in effect in their hands; and so esteem themselves able, when they please, to bridle the people by the militia; and this Zealand and the Orange party are already jealous of, and do oppose themselves to the making of Opdam admiral, who is a compleat Hollander; and Zealand declares, they will make an admiral apart, and Friesland another, whose example Guelderland very probably will follow, and by this means, as also for some difference that remains between the states of Holland and Opdam touching the conditions of his command, he propounding to be admiral in chief, to have the disposing of all vacant offices at sea, to render an account to none but to the states of Holland, which they sticking at, he for the present hath returned thanks for their good opinion of him, and desireth to be excused from taking upon him that charge; so that although Holland seems to be rather willing to separate their militia; and to make a head apart, and to put their fleet under Opdam, than to take in any person in whom there may be any doubt as to their own interest; yet other persons are spoke of, as Beverweert and Zuliestein.
In the mean time de Witt carryeth the flag, and upon Thursday 1/11 Sept. he went out of the Vlye and Texell with a squadron of men of war, to convoy about 500 merchantmen to the Sound. The commissioners at the Texell do assure by letters unto the States General, that the men of war that went from the Texell were forty nine; and from the Vlye four; in all fifty three; although de Witt had writ but few days before, there were but seventeen ready; and others, who know the condition of their fleet, say, there went with fireships and all forty three. The winds since he went out have been very fair to carry him into the Sound, so that there is no doubt made, but he is arrived there before this time, and and will make all the hast they can to return back with their East India and other ships waiting there for convoy, which are very rich and considerable; which that they may the better secure against the English fleet, which they hear to be upon the coast an hundred sail strong, they are preparing and equipping all the ships they can to meet them, whereof thirty are in a good readiness, and want little else but men. The commissioners at the Helder have writ to the States General to appoint a fit person to command them, assuring also, that the rest of the fleet being about twenty more, will be ready in a fortnight, if the want of men do not hinder, but that they intend to take the sea with what they have ready. They reckon to have a hundred sail at sea within a month, which they may effect, in case they get their ships safe home from the Sound, and likewise the six hundred brass guns and 2000 iron guns, which they daily expect out of Germany, without which it would not be possible for them to do it. Their men would in that case be wholly discouraged; and besides their new frigates, which they much rely upon, would not be gunned. The said commissioners at the Helder do write unto the States General in their aforesaid letter, that they had spoken with some pilots and coasters concerning fires and lights to be set up thereabouts; and that they were informed, that it would not be necessary in those places, but would be well to be done at Egmondt, because the English are used to steer after the fires and lights, and might perhaps by this means come to fall upon the sands and sea-holes about the Texell, Vlye, and Helder.
Concerning the treaty with England, the commissioners appointed by the states of Holland have made an end of examining the verbal report made by Nieuport of their negotiations here with the council of state, and have made report thereof unto the said states of Holland, who the 8th of Sept. resolved, that the whole business shall be made known to the generality, that so the lords Beverning and Vande Perre being at present in commission in England may be writ unto by the States General, that they use all manner of reason and argument, to make those of the government there to comprehend the inconveniencies and impossibilities, of the project of a coalition, made by those of the said government, and given to our commissioners jointly in an answer of the same council of state's bearing date the 21st and 31st of June, and the 25th of July, and the 4th of August; and that moreover the commissioners in England, shall make offer to the government there of a strict and near alliance and confederacy, as has been formerly offered by them to the council of state, and as near as ever was made between any two neighbouring states, and as the nature and constitution of each other's sovereign government can bear; and that in the mean time, the amity of other potentates and states shall be earnestly endeavoured; adding also in the close of their resolution, that the equipping of ships to sea be endeavoured with all the care and speed that may be. This resolution is not yet communicated unto the generality; where it is probable it will endure some debate; nor is the advice of any other province yet come, so that it will be some time yet before the treaty be proceeded in. In the mean time all possible endeavours are used to procure the states to take in the king of Scots interest, to which purpose Langdale and Middleton are solliciting here very hard; and commissioners being appointed to hear what they have to say, they proposed 12 hundred men and some ammunition with ships to transport them, and 180,000 guilders in mony, promising upon this assistance given them, to put into the hands of this state the north islands of Scotland, and to drive the English out of the islands of the Orcades, the other islands being free from garrison, labouring to demonstrate how easily this state may maintain the possession of those islands when once obtained; and how great advantage it will be to them for their fishing, for their East India ships in their return, and otherwise. And the better to induce them hereunto, assure them, that Glenkerry, is chose general, and set up the king's standard near Stirling, having in a body 10,000 men, who have taken most part of Fife; and they have so far prevailed with Zealand herein, that they seem to be fully resolved to give assistance, and have offered already 60,000 guilders of the 180,000 demanded. And altho' Holland seems yet to be slower, yet this state will no doubt provide them of all necessaries; and the arms, that have lain a good while at Amsterdam, are now gone for Scotland. Three persons lately come from Scotland, viz. col. Bamfield, lieut. col. Macklaud, and capt. Shaw having discoursed at large with Middleton, are gone instructed to Charles Stuart at Paris.
The success, which this state hath had in their treaties abroad this summer, hath not been very answerable to their expectation. The lord Beuningen writes from Stockholm by his letter of the 30th of August, that upon the news of the advantage, which their fleet obtained against the English, he did did make a new attempt upon her majesty for a common alliance between this state and the crowns of Sweden, and Denmark, but that he found the queen inflexible, and could obtain no other answer, but that the court was resolved not to engage in any act of hostility against the English, or to do any thing against the neutrality and friendship promised to them; but that on the other side he very much feared, that Sweden doth endeavour to disengage the crown of Denmark from this state. And for the recommendation upon the business of Bremen, the queen did wholly decline it, expressing, that those of the said town would come to an accommodation with her; and therefore the said lord Beuningen, seeing there is no likelihood to effect any thing there answerable to the intentions of his principals, very much presseth to have permission to return home. And in truth, they are here very ill satisfied with Sweden, and call it a singular ingratitude, that Sweden having having received formerly in the wars of Germany so many tuns of gold from this state, will now contribute nothing in this war; and therefore are upon the point to call home the said Beuningen. Mynheer Keyser, commissioner from the states in Denmark, expresseth, that he finds some coldness in the Danes; and that he is not farther willing to engage against England; but yet faith, that he hath sounded the king upon the business of Sweden, who thereupon confessed his constant friendship unto this state, and that he will not treat with England. He farther writes, that the king of Denmark is very jealous of the duke of Holstein, and fears, that that duke having sent one col. Wartz to the parliament of England, intends not more thereby than obtaining an act of neutrality. The said Keyser hath also recommended unto the states a desire of the king of Denmark, that one Pelham, his agent or consul at Dunkirk, a man whom he much trusts, and who understands the languages, may pass with the retinue of the commissioners of this state into England upon their return thither, that he may serve as well the king of Denmark as the commissioners for an intelligencer. The treaty of alliance between this state and France doth sleep, and doth wholly expect the issue of the treaty in England. The propositions and instructions given unto the commissioners sent from the states to Portugal, you shall receive herewith. The advocate Rodolphi, one of the said commissioners, writes, that they have had a good reception with the king, and that the king doth agree to send his plenipotentiary to a third neutral place, either to Rochelle or Nantz. The said Rodolphi also writes, that a carrack from the East Indies arrived at Lisbon, and reports, that the English are joined there with the Portuguese; that the Hollanders had taken from the Portuguese six ships; and that the Hollanders also had lost some ships; but speaks nothing of the taking of one English ship. The states here are very jealous of the Hans-Towns, and especially of Hamburgh, suspecting, that that town doth labour to draw the trade from them; and therefore the 13th of September 1653, they resolved to send to the towns of Lubecke, Bremen, and Hamburgh, to invite them to a common alliance.
This state in recompense of old Tromp's good service hath sent a commission to his son in the Streights, to be commander in chief of all their ships of war in the Mediterranean; and at present about eighteen sail are to lye betwixt Cadiz and the Streights Mouth, where they examine all manner of ships that come in and go out.
Letter of intelligence from the Hague. (fn. 1)
19 September, 1653. [N. S.]
Vol. vi. p. 139.
You shall have formerly seen the resolution of Holland of the 2d of August in print, which doth clearly manisest, that Holland will continue in the state and condition they are in at present, without submitting themselves henceforward under the prince; nor ever to admit of a lieutenant general. And to shew that more clearly, they have sent to take the town of Enckuysen, to make an example, and to punish the authors of the last insurrection there; whereof their design was to have changed the magistracy and government and the officers of the townsmen, and by this means to have given an example to other towns, and consequently to have cried up the prince of Orange for captain, and count William for lieutenant general, as in 1572, the beginning of the war against Spain, they begun at Enckuysen to cry, God bless the prince.
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I do believe, that his example will secure a little those of Holland and teach the prince's party to be more moderate, and not to speak nor raise any more a tumult on the sudden. Holland do now promise themselves some better usage from England, and that they will shew themselves more inclined to peace without obliging Holland to impracticable conditions; for England will now perceive, that they need not fear any thing from the king's party or prince of Orange, who are and will be kept all under by the states of Holland; and the naval strength being in the hands of Holland, England must believe, that Holland will take care, that they be not hereafter opposed in the peace, which they will make. Zealand are jealous, believing that Holland doth already treat underhand and apart with England. In effect, methinks that England should do well, if they did shew themselves a little inclined to that, to treat apart with Holland, for I see clearly that Holland exempting themselves by little and little will band against prince of Orange. One chief of Holland told me, if prince of Orange (for in Geldenland and elsewhere they do stickle hard for king's party and in Zealand, Friesland, Groninghen, you know that they are already there for the prince) do press Holland too much, that Holland will separate their militia, and will make a head apart. And the fleet (wherein at present by much the most part of the strength of the state) shall be given to the lord of Opdam, who is in effect a complete Hollander; yea, a head. I can assure you that prince and royal party do already begin to hate him, and to speak ill of him, as if he were an arch enemy of the Orange party and the king of Scots and if England; will prejudice that party and the king of Scots, and bring them down here, England must lend their hand to Holland, and by this means England will not only revenge themselves of the royal party and the king of Scots, but also of Zealand and Friesland and of all the royalists.
In short, as Tromp by his imprudence or malice was the cause of this war, so likewise it is hoped that Opdam a true Hollander will be the cause of peace.
I know not, and cannot know, whether England have any other end than peace; if they have any other end, I say nothing, but that if they do aim at peace, and to make it lasting and sure, I am of opinion that England ought to endeavour to separate Holland from Zealand, or to do in such a manner, that the prince and royal party may be brought under.
The town of Hamburgh doth cause to he demanded here the neutrality of the Elbe, to which they have not yet declared themselves; but they have resolved to send to the HansTowns to summon them upon the treaty of alliance made in the year 1645, and to press them after the same manner and way, as they have done in Denmark and Sweden.
In effect, it is jealousy; that doth carry on this state to that; for Holland doth believe, that those towns, especially Hamburgh, do draw much of the commerce and trade from Holland.
They do make guessing here, that by little and little they shall have a number of good and great ships able to resist the English; so that hereafter it will be no other than mutuis se ictibus consodere. And if Holland do once get out of this war, I do think, they will have a care how they fall into the like again.
The sum, which those of Genoa had formerly advanced upon the two ships, which this state hath taken to themselves, is one hundred and thirty thousand guilders; and the overplus, which is yet employed upon those two ships, doth amount to as much, so that in all those two ships do cost two hundred sixty thousand guilders; for this sum men might build castles to last a thousand years, and these ships do perish in an hour or two. It must needs be, that this war is exceeding chargeable.
I see, that when Holland cannot maintain the commerce and traffick, that they will turn pirates and rob all their neighbours; yea the states say as much themselves.
The lord of Opdam doth desire to be admiral in chief; he doth desire to have the disposing of all vacant offices at sea; to render an account to none but to the states of Holland; and therein without doubt he will have satisfaction, but it will be disputed notwithstanding, for those of Zealand will make an admiral a part. Friesland likewise; and it may be Guelderland will do the like; they will say, that it is a charge belonging to the generality; and in this case the other provinces, at least Zealand and Friesland, will not put their ships under the command of Opdam, as the other provinces notwithstanding have formerly submitted their ships under Tromp, although in effect he was but lieutenant admiral of Holland, but going to sea, the generality did give him also a commission; and how then? If the generality by plurality of voices did declare the prince of Orange admiral, and count William his lieutenant admiral, men should see the people of Holland to cry up that very much; but Holland doth make account to bridle the people by the militia.
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The commissioners have now made an end of reading and examining the report or verbal of the commissioners of England, and now they will begin to debate upon that. I do perceive well enough, that they will send back the commissioners into England, in lieu of calling home those that remain there; and although they do shew to abhor the coalition, notwithstanding they will not leave to propound some other proposition or expedient. In short, they will not break off the treaty. I do verily believe, that Holland have never been so bad in their hearts as they have shewn themselves in their discourses to please the people. But likewise the returning of the English with one hundred ships to sea doth shew how cruelly the people hath been abused here, believing that Tromp died victorious, and that he had driven home the English.
I do wonder why the English should insist so much upon so near an alliance, or upon a coalition; for all would not give much security, and the one would not leave deceiving the other. And if England should have some notable misfortune amongst themselves, those that were here to look after the coalition, would be soon sent away from hence. But a better security for the peace and for England would be, if England did make a simple alliance or treaty of commerce with this state, and that at the same time or before, England make a league guarantee with the king of Spain and Sweden, for England doth know very well, that Spain and Sweden have the same interests against States General that England hath, so that England may very well trust to Spain and Sweden for Sweden is resolved to carve to themselves as much commerce as they are able, and to make in England the magazine of their fruits, which formerly was wont to be in Holland; and Sweden seeing that States General are so great friends of Denmark will never be a friend of States General: of Spain est eadem ratio.
The commissioners of this state in England have no order to treat with the ambassador of Portugal, and also they have not treated any thing with him, whereof be assured.
That which Langdale hath offered is, that prince Rupert presented his service to go with a squadron and the standard of the king into Scotland.
The lord Beverning hath writ to the lord de Witt in particular, that he found now at present somewhat more moderation; that the lord general himself was somewat more moderate; and that he did hope, they would be contented with a good and strict alliance.
Your humble servant.
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
[September 9/19 1653.]
Vol. vi. p. 179.
Here is news brought from Scotland by collonell Bamfield and two Scochmen to major general Middleton, that Glenkerry was chosen general, and had sett up the king's standard by Sterling, having in a body ten thousand men, whoe had taken most part of Fyfe, and cut off there eight hundred men and a regiment in Glasco. Middleton was sent for by the States General, whoe were glad to heare the news, and demanded of him what reasonable propositions he could make, whereby they might best assist him. What is farther donne therein, the partye could not tell me, but this is from Middleton's owne mouth. The armes from Amsterdam are gone for Scotland; doubtlesse these states will provide them of all necessaryes; therefore it will be convenient you have some ships lye on that coast. This news may make them delay their treatye of peace with you, to see what succes they may have there. It hath refresht the drooping hopes of the cavaliers, and makes the Orange faction more bould, because they may now pretend somwhat to bring in the king's interest. which I perswade myeself Holland will not espouse as yet, or ever, if they can subdue Orange, whose hopes grow less, unless the common people desire for him. They are very furious in their language; and doe cry out for him, but Holland opposes it with all their power, and are about, as 'tis thought, to make Opdam general of their forces by sea and land, which is the reason he hath not yet accepted of the admiral's place perticularly. The king hath not yet bin out of his chamber; but this news of Scots will certaynely recover him, and in all likelihood so soone as he is able to travell, come nearer these ports, to trye if his presence will any way prevaill with Holland. The ambassador of Poland and Wil mot preferred each a petition in one day to the dyett, for assistance for their masters, but wear both denied; whereby they were resolved to depart, but the elector of Mentz (whoe it seems is a good friend to his master) sent to him to staye, and after the Pole was gone, to persist by his request, which he doubted not but would be tooke into consideration; the success whereof I have not understood. Sir Marmaduke Langdale is come from France to the Hage; what his negotiatiation is, I doe not heare: perchance he might bring a letter from his master to the states, but he doth nothing at Flushing, for there the bishop of Londonderry is resident for the receipt of prizes, which hitherto have been but two, and those ridiculous, the one being laden with about 10 l. of poor John, the other with tobaccopype claye, which to make it more base, his lordship went himself to sell at Tergowe. His man of warre had but eighteen guns in her; a pittyfull open boate. If Wit-Witsen returne with his East India ships and merchantmen, they will soone have a considerable fleet at sea, the other shipps being preparingagainst his returne, and will give such courage to the seamen to goe, and the people to give mony, that they will then have men to man their shipps. They may, I suppose, in a month's tyme get ready an hundred sayle, there being many of their new frigotts near ready, but not so many as they thought; yet they have since the last engagement workt harder than before. You may reckon they will be able to bring an hundred saile to sea before winter, except your shipps meet with their fleet coming from the Sound. If conveniently, I will either goe or send this next week downe to Texell, to take a view of their shipping there. Nothing is yet said of their fleet to goe for France in October, nor is it likely they do goe, except you are out of the channel. As theire fleet from the Sounde prospers, so most of their affayres will be donne. It is apparent enough Zeland proffers to send money and assistance to the Scoch, for Amsterdam hath shewed them an example. You will now quickly see their inclinations. The guns of the Leopard were brought to Amsterdam, which gave a great acclamation amongst the people, whoe are pleased with such small returnes after their great losses. Please to seale your letters with some strange seale, and no armes, lest they should be known. More I cannot advise you at present then, that I am
Your's to the utmost of my power.
Resolution of the states of Holland.
Veneris, 19 Sept. 1653. [N. S.]
Vol. vi. p. 121.
It being put to the vote, it was resolved hereby to desire and commissionate the lords Nieuport, Van Amerongen, and Haubois, to repair with all speed to the province of Guelderland, and to the lords states of that province being assembled at present, and to lay open before them the unavoidable confusions and dangers, which for want of speedy furnishing of money towards the equipage at sea, and the speedy building of ships of war, not only to the remarkable disreputation, but also to the irrecoverable loss of the state, and the ruin of the United Netherlands, which fall upon them in short, if not timely prevented by their speedy furnishing of their share, as well in the second two millions of guilders towards the payment of the said equipage at sea, as also in the two millions of guilders for the building of thirty new men of war formerly agreed unto; as also that they would bring in their consent without any loss of time for the furnishing of their share in other two millions of guilders newly agreed upon towards the payment of the extraordinary equipage at sea. And likewise in other two millions of money towards the building of thirty new ships more. And necessary credentials shall be given to the lords commissioners of their lordships in communi forma, with all expedition.
Bisdommer to the Dutch commissioners in England.
Vol. vi. p. 171.
The lord Van Beuningen adviseth, dated 30 of Aug. last past, that upon the news and circumstances of the advantage of the fleet of this state obtained against the English, it had caused to the whole court there, and to her majesty herself, great joy; whereby he took occasion to make a new attempt upon her majesty of a common alliance between this state and the two northern crowns; but he declares, that upon all this subject he could perceive no other by her majesty, and he could get no other answer, but that that court was resolved not to engage in any act of hostility against the English, or to do any thing against the neutrality and friendship promised to them; so that there was no likelihood, that any thing could be effected there as to answer the expectation and intention of this state. And concerning the recommendation done upon the business of Bremen, her majesty did decline it, it seeming by her speech, that that court did believe, that those of the said town would come to an accommodation.
Since the surprizing of the town of Enckuysen, and putting therein several companies of soldiers, thereby to keep the rabble in awe, it is to be hoped, that the ringleaders of the late tumults there will be brought to punishment. The mayor of the town is imprisoned. There seem to be two parties in the town, the one for the state, the other for the prince; wherefore it is resolved to give such order there both in the government and magistracy, that the like may not happen for the future, but all things remain in peace and quietness.
The lords commissioners of their high and mighty lordships at the Helder do advise in their letter of the 15th of this month, that they had spoken there with some pilots and coasters concerning some fires and lights to be set up thereabouts. They were answered and informed, that it would not be necessary in those places, but well at Egmont, because the English are used to steer after the fires and lights, and might perhaps by this means come to fall upon the sands and sea holes about the Texell, Vlie, and Helder. The remainder of the men of war, some of them are quite ready at present, the rest will be ready very suddenly, at farthest by the beginning of the next week, and will be fit to go out to sea, unless some of them should chance to want men. The said lords commissioners do desire of their high and mighty lordships, that they would be pleased to appoint a commander over those ships.
The 14th of this month there were seen from Ryckdowne near the Helder eleven English ships, which steered their course for the north.
The lord of Opdam hath at last too refused the charge of admiral, and returned thanks to the lords states of Holland, who had offered it to him. We hear nothing from our viceadmiral de Witt since he set fail, but do hope he is safe arrived, having a fair wind to carry him. We do very much long for his return with the East-India ships. God send him safe back again.
Hague, 19 Sept. 1653. [N. S.]
Your lordships most humble servant,
V. Hooghe to Vande Perre.
Hague, 19th Sept. 1653. [N. S.]
Your lordship shall have heard, that the fleet under vice-admiral de Witt, strong about fifty or fifty three men of war, with a good number of merchant men, is gone for the Sound. The lord protect them going and coming. There are now ready in the Texell fifty men of war. The commissioners there desire their lordships to choose over them a fit commander. The lord of Opdam perceiving, that those of Holland did raise so many difficulties about his just propositions, hath returned thanks to the lords states of Holland, and excused himself from accepting of the charge of admiral. Those, who do intend to set the young prince of Orange upon the throne, do endeavour all that they can underhand, to traverse the business of admiral, from having it put upon Opdam, as one, who is no ways liked of by those, who favour the prince of Orange.
Your lordship's humble servant,
De Groot to Beverning, the Dutch ambassador at London.
Hague, 9/19 Sept. 1653.
Vol. vi. p. 182.
I Give your lordships thanks for yours of the 2/12 of this present month. Give me leave to tell you by this present, that I would have the lords, where you are, to take the pains once to examine the contents, that I do not doubt reason at last will carry it above the animosities of some, and the ill intentions of others, who do countermine the salutary designs intended for both commonwealths. I know not how they proceed where you are, but I perceive here by the carriage of the ill minded, that they do apprehend, that in the end some good treaty will destroy the pernicious maxims, which they do foment to the contrary, You will know without doubt, more particularly than I can tell you, the business of Enckuysen and of my lord Opdam. Therefore I will not trouble you with such a superfluous relation; only I much wonder, that this state hath no body at Ratisbon to look after their interest there, for several businesses of great concernment are often debated there; wherein this state is much concerned.
A letter of intelligence.
Lubeck, 19 Sept. 1653. [N. S.]
Vol. vi. p.207.
Here is certain news from Copenhagen, that about three hundred merchantmen and forty men of war for their convoy are arrived in the Sound, which are shortly to return back with their East India ships, and fourteen of the king of Denmark's ships of war to strengthen their convoy, and to go homewards.
A letter of intelligence from J. Peterson in Holland.
[Septemb. 9/19, 1653.]
Vol. vi. p. 183.
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I Doubt not the commodities I formerly wrote you of, will turne well to account, though I am sorry to heare, that the English have taken twelve ships; however I doe not heare, thanks be to God, that wee were interrested in any of them. Indeed 'twas a wonder they tooke not more, seeing they came in, when about forty sayle of English were upon the coast. The whole fleete of merchantmen, that went out of the Fly, are doubtlesse in the Sound e're this. They had but 43 ships with them: of this I had a letter from de Witt's secretary. But though our goods are got safe towards the east, yett I fear wee shall stay long for our retournes from thence, for the newes of 100 English ships at sea againe (tho' it be more than wee will believe) hath created feares heere, that tis thought they will not dare venture home theire ships out of the Sound, without a stronger convoy; to which end about thirty ships more are prepareing to be sent after the other, but they want men. besides about twenty, who are dayly expected north about from the Streights, and may happyly come into the Sound; for had they come through the channell, they would have beene heere e're this, and wee hope these boysterous wyndes will discourage the English from staying any longer on these coasts, and then we shall undoubtedly conclude ourselves masters. Then I hope our goods from Dantzig will come safe without molestation, which I should be glad to see. thinke that the English must keep the sea, for if the East India ships were but taken, then farwel. I doubt not these commodities will tourne to a very good account, if they can be accomplished, of which you must take a speedy care, lest wee be prevented. Wee are not like to get any goods for France this winter, for noe convoy is like to goe that way, till all the Eastland ships are come home; and I dare not venture in galliotts and small vessells, whoe go through the channel for Roane and Nantz, because I heare there are many capers that way. For newes, as it is not my custome, so I have now little to write; only they say, the states sit close in consultation at the Hague, about new instructions for their deputies in England; where is like to bee hard tugging betweene the prince's party and the Louvestein's heeren, soe called, for that some of them were formerly imprisoned by the late prince at a castle of that name. If this party gett the better of it (as they have reason to struggle hard for it for their owne safety's sakes) wee may happyly have peace with England; whereas the other will continue a warre, in maintenance of the prince's interest and those in consanguinity with him, though they may chance to sayle of means to prosecute it, because the most of the towns in the province of Holland are engaged in the same bottom with those of Louvestein. They ex p ec t 600 b ra s gu nes out of Germany, and 2000 it on out of hand. For other goods, if I light on any that will be fitt for your merkett, I shall take care to provide them: in the meane time take leave, and remaine
An intercepted letter of Sir Robert Stone to Sir Walter Vane.
Hague, 19th September, 1653. [S. N.]
Vol. vi. p. 175.
Dear sir W.
Yours with the two in it I have received, and sent them as directed. We speak nothing but of preparations for war; having done all that we could for peace with you; but it will not be, you demanding what we cannot grant. What that is, we say is to take away our sovereignty; yet all things are kept very close. We will not confess any such loss as they write out of England, but say, that had not Tromp been killed, we had not let you escape so. De Witt is gone out with fifty gallant ships to convoy and fetch home from the Sound our merchantmen and East India ships; but the news of the English fleet of about an hundred do startle our merchants, who hear they are gone that way. So that we have some thoughts again of peace, if you would agree upon reasonable terms.
We have now news, that the Highlanders are in arms to the number of 12,000, and have taken in nine of the parliament garrisons. To countenance this lieut. gen. Middleton is here, to whom many of the Scots do flock. They say arms are intended from this state; which is the ground of the first report, and that 3000 parliament soldiers are killed. The truth of this we must hear from you. In the mean time our nation is hardly dealt withal here, especially the pensioners and the absent; the first of these have not had a penny these two years. A garrison is put into Enckuysen by a sleight, and the scout of that town brought to the Hague prisoner, and it is said they are about his examination to find if grave William have had a hand in that business, by which you may see how things go. The heer of Opdam hath refused to be admiral, though earnestly desired by the states of Holland.
It is said he would be admiral general, which they cannot grant, but Beverweert hath also refused. Zulestein is named. I hope it will fall upon him. My lord Craven is returned out of Germany, stayed here but two nights, and is gone for England. As for Mr. John Taylor, he hath been with me. He is very angry with England.
Dear Watt, God send us a good meeting. I am yours wheresoever I am.
Beverning and Vande Perre to the States General.
Vol. vi. p.94.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, It hath for these three or four days, and especially on Wednesday last at night, blown such a terrible tempest and storm, the wind at west and south-west, that the like hath not been heard of late, which hath caused no small trouble to the government here as to their fleet: therefore we believe is the cause why the post is not come. We advised your high and mighty lordships in our last, that all our letters had been opened and sealed up again; and upon our complaint made to the council of state here about it, we were answered by the master of the ceremonies with many high protestations, that the government here had never given any order for it, but that undoubtedly the search was made at Dunkirk. We had from time to time shipt several mariners and soldiers for the coast of Flanders, but now there is such strict order observed and given, that if any one be found to transport any without leave, he shall forfeit ship and goods, so that we expect nothing but woe and misery for these poor prisoners.
We are busy to make an exchange of some common men, according to your lordships order, for those English that are prisoners in Holland.
We have little news to add; only they are all very quiet and secure here. The lord mayor and aldermen have petitioned to have maintenance allowed to the ministers, and the preventing of the destruction of the universities.
High and mighty lords,
Westminster, 9/19 Sept. 1653.
Beverning, Vande Perre.
Vande Perre, the Dutch ambassador at London, to Mr. Maximilian Teelince, the Dutch minister at Middleburgh.
Vol. vi. p. 184.
The spirits of some of the parliament and council of state do seem to bend themselves something more to peace than formerly; but there is no certainty to be made upon it. There hath been a meeting in Black-Friers, about sixty ministers, a part presbyterians, and others Independants, where they do meet to hinder an accommodation between both; and about the same time forty jesuits near the same place, but as you know for another matter.
19 Sept. [1653. N. S.]
A projected agreement and instruction for Rudolfi and Van Hoeven to agree with Portugal.
Vol. vi. p. 163.
That all what is past be forgotten, and all the damage that hath been suffered shall be set on one side. That the business of Brazil shall be taken as the same doth lye at present, without asking any restitution of the chief forts for this state; consequently that there shall be left to the king of Portugal the whole country, as also the sea-shores reaching from Lieresippe del rey to the south part of Rio Langada, situated in the jurisdiction of Pernambuck, and that those, who now do dwell in the said countries, shall remain under their command.
That the said king in that quality shall receive the rights and customs.
That the said king shall pay for that, either by redemption or otherwise in ready money, such a sum of money, as shall be agreed upon.
That those of the West-India company shall hold the Reciffe and Maurit's town, with the adjacent forts, as also the ruined town of Olinda, the Pernambuco, and its jurisdiction, to be accounted and to begin now from Rio Langada northward from the sea-shore, as far landward in recta linea, till you come to the uninhabited mountains.
And so likewise the jurisdictions of Hamarica, Goiama, Paraiba, Rio Grande, to Liara, inclusively.
That the inhabitants of this state having any lands or cattle in the jurisdiction of Pernambuck situated southerly of Rio Langada, and that if they will undertake to cultivate the same any more, it shall be lawful for them to do it; and also dispose of it according to their pleasure, as hath been always offered by the king.
That the said inhabitants of this state, whether they have any lands or no in the territories of Phernambuck, yet notwithstanding they shall hold their free commerce, paying withal a certain recognition to the Portuguese as shall be agreed upon.
The said inhabitants shall enjoy freedom of conscience as in Portugal, and shall be subject to no inquisition or research to be made, either in matters of religion or in their houses.
That also besides these projected articles, all such considerations as are comprehended in the former project of the treaty, and do no wise contradict this treaty, shall be inserted.
Points serving for amplification of the project of accommodation with Portugal which have been always formerly agreed unto by the king.
And the said lands of the company shall not be left naked and unprovided in no manner of respect of the slaves, sugar, cattle, copper, or any thing else, that doth serve for the cultivating of the country.
And because in the said jurisdictions many lands are ruined by the Portuguese out of the Balua, and especially the jurisdictions of Rio Grande and Paraiba, and others wholly laid waste and rendered unserviceable; therefore the subjects of the said lord king shall be bound to restore all the slaves they took away from thence, and likewise they shall make good all the materials they have taken away, which were to serve for the building of their houses, and other places of employment; and therefore it shall be lawful, after publication of this treaty, for the inhabitants to recover as well as they can what they had taken from them.
All those, who have lived formerly in the jurisdictions of the West-India company, under the command and subjection of the lords states, and by reason of debt or otherwise are removed from under it, and that they are gone to live under the command of Portugal, they shall be bound to pay such debts, as shall be found to be justly due.
What concerneth the places situated upon the south coast of Africa, and the island of St. Thomas, it shall be equally free to the Hollanders and Portuguese there to navigate and trade, without any hinderance, both of them paying withal equal duties, as shall be hereafter agreed on.
Besides the forementioned points were offered to consideration by the lord Vander Hoeven in the last presentation these following articles:
That his majesty shall cause to be commanded to the company of Portugal, that they shall make use of no other than Portugal ships.
That they shall nominate persons in the same form, as they do the chambre mipartie, to determine and decide the causes and processes of the payment of debts and other affairs, which may happen with the Hollanders in Brazil; and this point shall be accommodated after an usual form.
This done and agreed on in the assembly of the high and mighty lords the States General the 1653.
The resolution of the assembly at Zutphen concerning the war with England.
Vol. vii. p. 155.
Whether the lords states of this dukedom of Guelderland and earldom of Zutphen had not cause to excuse the excessive subsidies at sea, the sum of ten millions being desired in a short time, not only in regard of their poor and tradeless constitution, and other well known expences and disabilities, inundations, &c. but also in regard of the conduct of the war at sea, managed thus long by way of retortion, against the English government; whereupon hath followed hitherto, as loss of ships, men, and hindrance in point of negotiation, and in the mean time neglected the occasion at the beginning to have kept the enemy low, and in a condition not to hurt us, with that vigour and diversion as ought to have been, when he was weak at sea, and troubled inwardly through all manner of dissentions and occupations, and by that means might have consumed him through his own arms, being the salutary advice given from without, and projected at home by good and faithful confederates, which were then slighted; whereby the enemy's power is so increased, that the same, according to the rate and manner as the war is carried on, is born to ruin the state, and consequently their lordships did think fit, at least for a time and part, to recal their consents formerly given; the more whilst the considerable and partly the necessary agreement and stipulation made thereunto were not accepted, much less finished. Yet notwithstanding this, their lordships out of love to their confederates have not omitted punctually to furnish some monies to the subsidy of the war at sea, and to have unfurnished their frontier garrisons of necessary soldiers, as they are yet willing to do for the assistance of their said confederates, and to maintain both the command, power, and commerce at sea, as it hath been obtained and preserved for some years together, by powerfully and speedily raising what can be expected from faithful confederates; and to that end to contribute to their utmost; but they do understand, that the holding of a correspondence and communication with those of the English government, by some provinces in particular, is tending against the union, and all reason; and that the same ought to cease for the future, which can create nothing else but jealousy in the state, mistrustings between allies, retarding of good designs, and hindrances in a vigorous war; and that on the one side no overture of a treaty of peace shall be made or taken, but with joint knowledge and consent of all the consederates; and on the other side the war must be managed against those of the English government and maxims, as hath been formerly waged by God's assistance against the king of Spain; that they ought henceforward through all imaginable means to endeavour the weakening and distracting of the power of the said government abroad, and in their country; not only in aiding, and assisting, and favouring publicly all the interests of Charles II, king of Great Britain; but they ought now from henceforward, to assist the Scots and Irish, who have yet their arms in their hands, against their oppressors; and furthermore to assist and offer aid and arms to all those, that shall or have an intention in their country to rise against the present government of England, whereunder they groan, sigh, and complain; and that this may be done with the greater prejudice, the lords states of Guelderland and Zutphen do judge it to be necessary and serviceable, that their high and mighty lordships do underprop themselves with alliances and treaties to be agreed and concluded on with their old allies and good neighbours, and that an offensive and defensive alliance already begun with France be forthwith concluded, and that the agreement made with Denmark be observed. All this being then done, the lords states of Guelderland and Zutphen do declare as formerly to pay their shares in the first six millions formerly desired, as also in the other four millions now at present desired; namely, the two first at the charge of the generality, if possible, and the other two for the building of ships at the charge of the provinces, upon condition the ships may be built in the fittest places, and where they will cost least. Extracted out of the resolutions of the assembly held in Aug. and Sept. at Zutphen, and agreeth with the original.
Theodorus Cremer, Secr.