A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 1, 1638-1653. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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September (4 of 6)
A paper of the Danish and Dutch commissioners.
Whereas the most serene and most potent prince and lord, lord Frederick the third of that name, king of Denmark, Norway, of the Vandals and Goths, duke of Sleswic, Holstein, Stormaren, and of the Ditmarshes, count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, &c. has been pleased to propose to the high and mighty lords the States General of the United Netherlands, if it would not be convenient, to receive for the future the tolls and duties of the Oresont, so as regulated in the treaty of the 13th of August 1645, made and concluded at Christianople, their high mightinesses being willing on their side also to second the said intention of his royal majesty, have accordingly consented to the said proposal, and accepted of his majesty's representation. And whereas for the better regulation of the said affair, it is thought needful to make and pass an act of abrogation and annihilation of the treaty made in the year 1649, concerning the payment of the Oresont tolls and duties between his said majesty and their high mightinesses, and further to put every thing on such a footing, according whereunto every one for the future has to regulate himself.
For which purpose his said majesty's honorable senators, the respective lord high chancellor, counsellors of the realm and of the court, and officers of Bornholm, of the convent of St. Canutus and Bestlingen, to wit, the lords Joachim Von Gersdorf of Thundbiholm knight, Otto Crage of Wolberg, and Christian Thomsen of Stougaerd knight, being thereunto most graciously commissioned, and especially and fully authorized to confer and treat with the honourable, learned, and worshipful Mr. Nanning Kayser, presiding burgo-master of the city of Horn, and counsellor and attorney general of the admiralty of West-Friesland and the northern quarter, and deputy to the assembly of their high mightinesses the States General for the province of Holland and West-Friesland, who for the said purpose is sent to his said royal majesty, and provided with a sufficient power and authority, for and in the name of the lords their respective masters, have covenanted and agreed to the following points and articles so as the same are hereafter set forth, concluded, and articulated; that is to say,
That the said treaty of redemption of the tolls in Oresont, made and concluded on the 19th of October 1649, between his said royal majesty and their high mightinesses, be henceforth cancelled, and entirely void and of no force.
That, as to the Netherlandish vessels, and the goods laden therein, which hereafter shall happen to pass the said Oresont, the said treaty of the 13th of August 1645 shall be punctually observed, with the list therein mentioned, as likewise that special act agreed upon and concluded at the Hague on the 12th of February 1647, between the ambassador of his royal majesty of Denmark, Norway, &c. and the commissaries of the said lords the States General.
Besides which said treaty and respective act, all the articles of all preceding treaties made and concluded between his said majesty, as also the king his father of glorious memory and their high mightinesses, shall remain in full force and vigour.
To be added, That even the men of war of their high mightinesses, being in a perfect harmony and peace, shall be permitted to take their station at all times on the Lubish Rade before Elsenore. Item, It being necessary, and having previously obtained his royal majesty's permission to clean, careen, and repair the same at Copenhagen.
And whereas of the anticipated three hundred thousand crowns, mentioned in the fifteenth article of the said treaty of redemption (after the deduction of three times fifty thousand guilders for the year 1650, 1651, and 1652, besides seventy five thousand guilders more due on the festival of St. John the Baptist, 1653) there are still remaining in the hands of his said majesty, five hundred and twenty five thousand guilders, which the annihilation of the said treaty notwithstanding, must be reimbursed to their high mightinesses, it has been agreed and concluded, that his said royal majesty shall sign a just bond of obligation, in the behalf and for the satisfaction of their high mightinesses for the said sum of five hundred and twenty five thousand guilders, which for a term of ten years shall remain in the hands of his said majesty, paying for the same an annual interest of five per cent. (to commence from the feast of St. John the Baptist 1653) to their high mightinesses, or with their consent to the court of admiralty at Amsterdam, with this express stipulation and agreement, that after the expiration of the said years, the said principal sum of five hundred and twenty five thousand guilders shall likewise be paid and reimbursed to their high mightinesses by his said majesty and the crown of Denmark, in yearly payments of fifty thousand Caroli guilders each payment, whereof the first shall become due and be paid (together with the interest of five per cent. for the remainder of the said five hundred and twenty five thousand guilders) on the feast of St. John the Baptist in the year 1653, and the respective feastdays of St. John the Baptist in the years following, together and with the interest of five per cent. for that part of the principal sum, which after the successive payments shall still remain in the hands of his said majesty, till the entire and final payment of the said whole sum, to be made (with the consent of their said high mightinesses) to the said board of the admiralty at Amsterdam.
And an authentic copy of the said bond of obligation signed by the said lords the joint commissioners, and thus confirmed with their said signature, shall be delivered by them unto the said commissary of their high mightinesses, in order to be exchanged at the time of the delivery of the respective ratifications, against the original bond signed by his royal majesty and all the lords senators in their respective quality, in conformity with the said authentic copy.
And to the end that all the above written in all its parts and in every respect may be punctually and inviolably complyed with, the said lords the joint commissioners, and the lord commissary of their high mightinesses, in the name of their high mentioned and gracious masters have bound and obliged themselves hereby.
Whatever is now covenanted, concluded, and agreed upon after the same is quite finished and signed on both sides, shall be ratified and approved by his royal majesty and the lords senators of the crowns of Denmark and Norway, &c. as likewise by the high and mighty lords the States General of the United Netherlands, within the space of three months, and afterwards mutually exchanged.
In testimony of truth we the commissioners of the said king's majesty, and the commissary of the said lords the States General, have, by virtue of our above written respective letters of procuration, confirmed these presents, under our own hands, signature, and respective seals hereunto affixed. And there have been made three copies of this treaty of the same tenor, and the said lords joint commissioners have taken one copy thereof, and the said lord commissary two copies, keeping the same in their respective possession. Copenhagen, September 26, 1653. stylo loci.
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
Middleton is still . . . . . . vigorously solliciting the states for assistance, . . . . if he could, that his countrymen . . . . . in a very good . . . . . that with a little of their assistance from . . . . . they will be able to regayne there owne, and concer England: he hath propounded to the states to lend the Scoch thirty men of warre, to carry the king's cullers, and transport provition and ammunition into Scotland; what they may be induced too, I knowe not; but many here hould it to be a ridiculous demand, and thinke it will never be granted. At both the queen of Bohemia and the princes royall's courts, they are diffident of any good success from the Scoch, but expect to heare you have beaten them. All their hopes are squacht for having assistance from these states, being Opdam is made and accepted to be admirall; for that is certaynely donne by them of Holland, to keepe downe the Orange partye. He is designed to goe to sea with the first fayre wynde with a fleet of forty ships, thirty from Texell, ten from Zealand, and five from the Maes; but 'tis supposed by wise men, that his fleet will not be so strong or so soon ready, they wanting ordnance, and money, and men. All these three are not so soon furnisht. Few of their great new shipps are ready. Perticular men have built new men of war, from thirty six to forty gunns and upwards, thinking to sell them to the states; but they remayne on their hands, there being no money, nor any dare they ask, for feare of a mutinye. Holland and Zealand are still at difference, and the state of Tergoes gone from the stage. They of Middleburgh stood upon almost the like termes. They have yet given the Scoch nothinge but fayre words, as I am credibly informed. The news of your fleet being at sea so strong putts a fear into them of their shipps in the Sound; but they hope yours are scattered with the great storme. Assuredly they will hasten out their other shipps to joyne with Witt Wittesen at his returne, and you may belive they will be ninety sayle. Therefore I hope you will be prepared for them. Their courage is downe with the summer; and if you can bang them once more, especially comming from the Sound, they will scarsly appear this winter, for they begin to dispayre of getting the French fleet through the channell. They are now in debate, whether to send the two commissioners back to you, or two others. The government is much inclyned to a peace with you, but dare not let it be knowne to the commonaltye. One in government tould me, that most are now inclined to make an offensive and defensive league with you, for that then they conceave themselves in safety against the worlde. The royall and Orange partye indeavour to infuse in them a diffidence in you, but the wiser forte laugh at it. There is three of the mutineers at Enchuysen brought prisoners to the Hage; but I doe not heare any thinge donne against them. I cannot omitt to certify you, that Mr. Hugh Pieters (whoe I belive is an honest man) doth correspond at Amsterdam with a woman called Mrs Grace Crisp, concerninge state affaires, which letters are communicated to Mr. John Webster of ****, whoe is knowne a profest malignant thorough **** great mischeif can be donne to the commonwealth ****. I must desier you again to be mindfull of the **** to you for a Hamburger ship to goe to the ****. I can informe you no more at present, but ****.
Vande Perre to John de Bruyne raedt pensionary of the states of Zealand.
Since my last, the fleet of this state hath been seen upon the coast of this country, and is since come to Solebay, Yarmouth, and Harwich, having left forty frigates before the Texell. Those ships, that are come in, are said not to be much damnified through the tempest, which was exceeding violent, but that they will go out to sea again very speedily to join with those ships before the Texell, which is to be their rendezvous; and for this end and purpose they press great store of watermen and other fresh-water soldiers. In the said tempestuous weather there was one frigate cast away upon the west coast, and four upon the Irish. The sickness amongst the prisoners at Chelsea increaseth daily. Captain Stellincwerf died here in the Mews on Tuesday last, and was buried by the rest of the captains, and some of our family, who accompanied his body to the grave. And although that strict watch is kept at both the said prisons, to keep them from getting out; yet several steal out and escape in the night, as also by day time, who come to us still for relief to carry them over.
A letter of intelligence from Rome.
Lo stato del governo di questa corte si ridoce ad assoluto, poiche il prete pontefice non hauendo nepote di granvalore, e prudenca conforme richiederebbe in un tanto peto, non si fida che di se stesso estrinsecamente, volendo sapere ogni cosa benche minima, e non permette che alcun de suoi parenti domini. E ben vero che la Sra donn' Olimpia sua cognata dominò respettivamente per li primi sei anni del pontificato, ma representato al papa, dal gia card. Panzivolo, che il mondo non approvara tant autorita in una donna, e che cio oscuraua ogni sua gloria, sua santa la disgratio per circa due anni con ordine che non le comparisse quanti senza sua chiamata; questa signora, donna in vero di gran valore e prodenca, e che pare principessa nata, da sei mesi in qua e ritornata nella gratia di sua sentità ma non in quell' auctorita di prima nel dominare. Il prencipe don Camillo nepote unico della santità sua, e figlio della sod. Sra donn' Olimpia si trattiene col semplice titolo di generale di la Sta Chiesa non venendo impiegato in affori di stato, perche sua santità non lo conosce habile e percio havendo renunciato il capello cardinalitio e preso per moglie la principessa di Rossano di Casa Aldobrandini contro la volonta materna e del papa ancora come alcuni voglino' doppo esser stato alcuni anni disgratiato e tratenutosi in vita privata, e stato finalmente ad intercestione di Suor Agata Monica sorella di sua santità aggratiato con abbracciare teneramente i figlioli nati dalsod' matrimonio al numero di due maschi & una femina. Li prencipi Ludouisio e Guestiniani Mariti di due nepoti di sua santità Vengon honorati di due cariche l'uno di generale delle galere, e l'altro di castellano di castello Sto Angelo, la cui entrata annua puo importare da sei mila scudi, e l'altra circa due, e' ben vero che il primo ha ottenuto un capello per un suo cogino con la penitentiaria mag. che fruttra da 9 m. scudi l'anno & il 2 spera nella pra promotione che li sia fatto un fratello cardinale, oltre alcune pensioni e gratie concesse loro per i figlioli; nel resto fuor del' ossequio che receuono della corte com e nepoti, no' prevagliono, ne ardiscono di chieder gratie essendosi dichiarata la santità sua che chi vuol stare in gratia sua; non domandi ma si rimetta alla sua clemenza, entra hora nel numero de nepoti il principe di Palestrina Capo della Casa Barberina, il quale hauendo sposato a mesi passati una figliola del prencipe Giustiniani con gusto e moto di sua santità per reconciliarsi per questo metzo, la Casa Barberina stata fin' a questo tempo diffidente & inimica della Casa Pansilia, sta' piu' di tutti gli altri nepoti in gratia della santa. sua la quale lo vede volentieri, li concede quanto domanda & in somma mostra gran gusto nel trattenersi seco.
Passando poi alle persone ecclesiastiche, tiene il primo luogo il card. Pansilio, il quale benche non sia della stessa Casa, ma in nestato, essendo egli della nobilissima & antichissima. Casa Astalli suoggi fa le fontioni di carde. Nepote, dando audienza a tuetti gli ambri de principi, e ministri dello stato ecclco. con setto scriver le lettere che si mandano fuori e dentro lo stato della chiesa per orde. di sua Santa con la quale si deue abbochiare ogni sera per conferire li nogotii che corrono alla giornata: e ben uero che dtar card. nonha grand autorita, ne ardissce di domandare, ne vole che il papa Sappia ch egli si vaglia d'altra autorita che di quell che li va permettendo la sua clemenza di mano in mano.
Vi sono anche i cardli. Maidalchini & Aldobrandini il primo nepote della Sra. donn' Olimpia, & il 2°. parente della Sra. principessa di Rossano, quello provisto Sopra otto o'dieci mila scudi' L'anno d'entrata, e questo a' mala pena di tre, supplendo alle sue spese la principessa nel resto no si ingeriscono nel governo, ne prevagliono in cosa alcuna.
Circa i cardli. che piu preuagliono e sono riguardevoli nel sacro collegio per la gran parte ch' hanno nell' eletione del sommo pontefice, questi sono li capi delle factioni Spagnola e Francese, e li nepoti d'e papi morti di fresco remasti col seguito di molte loro creature che per gratitudine prosessano di seguitare il loro voto nei futuri conclavi, e questi sono per la fatione Spagnola il carde. de Medici Protettore di Spagna con l'assis tenza d'un cardi. Spagnola ch' Hoggi e' il cardle. Pimintelli, per la fattione Francese il cardl. Antonio con l'assi stenza del cardl. d'Este come Protettore di fancia, li cardll. nepoti sono il cardle. Barberino stato nepote d'Urbano e card. Panfilio, se pero' li card, nel futuro conclave lo riconosceranno per tale dico de card. promessi da questo papa, si perche non ha havuto parte nelle prime promotioni perche neanco per imaginatione credeva dover esser nepote di papa come perche in questa ultima promotione poca parte egli hebbe, e fienmte. perche non e della meda. casa, come s'e' detto, anzi molti credono ch'egli alla morte del Pontefice vorra chiamaisi card. Astalli, e non Panfilio, per alcuni disgusti ultimamte ricevuti dalla Santa sua come in altre occasioni si seruirà.
Nel resto il pn'te Pontifice e di santissa. mente inimico delle novita' amico della giuistitia, si diletta delle fabriche, gradisce la parsimonia, tardo nelle resolutioni, sente volentieri chi va dà lui; vede volentieri i fsri. Oltramontani egli ascolta con gran domesticheza, e particolarmente; quei di contraria Relige. Conle segti si prosequira' il discorso di tutta la Corte poi de principi d' Italia, e de negotiati che correranno alla giornata. Roma, 27 Septembre, 1653. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The lords of Holland have in the end framed their provincial advice upon the affairs of England, which is for the continuation of the treaty, although there were some members, that did advise for the revoking of the commissioners who are in England, amongst which was Amsterdam it self; but the others carried it, and chiefly upon this ground, that the parliament was now inclined to treat without a coalition. This advice is carried into the generality; the other provinces have taken it ad referendum, and to make report to their principals, and this will take up some time more before the advices of the other provinces can be brought in. But Holland the most interested will endeavour to hasten the business, that some fruit may come of it.
Having spent a long time in consultation with lieut. general Middleton, in the end there is no other resolution taken, but that report shall be made thereof to the provinces, that is to say to the tongue, for effectively at the beginning he asked but thirty or forty thousand guilders, and since he hath demanded one hundred and eighty thousand guilders. Guelderland alone had already agreed in this sum for their share, shewing thereby to be good royalists, or otherwise of the opinion of those, who do believe, that the English have in their hearts no good will to the peace, but that all is nothing else but dissembling and hypocrisy, and that under colour hereof they do aim at nothing but the ruin of our commerce; but in my opinion will have regard to what Holland is so good Hollanders, and will hinder that prince of Orange's party do not make any false bonds, if they have once peace with the English.
The lord of Opdam, after he refused the charge of admiral, hath notwithstanding the 21st of this month, being thereunto required by express commissioners, simply and purely accepted of it without stipulating for any conditions; referring himself to the discretion of those of Holland, and by this means comes to be frustrated the intention of prince of Orange's party, who have laboured hard, that the fleet, being the strength of this state, do not fall into the hands of a good Hollanders, for I can assure you, that good Hollanders have had several times great jealousies, that the deceased lord Tromp would do ill in that, declaring himself for king of Scots, prince of Orange, or some other like thing.
Those of Holland have communicated and given notice of this election of the lord of Opdam in the assembly of the States General, that so by their resolution the whole fleet of the state might be put under the command of the said Opdam, as it was under Tromp; but the other states have yet declined that, saying they have no order for that, but that they will write for it, so that this will spin outsome longer time.
In the mean time they continue to equip and repair the rest of the ships in the Texell, which are to the number of thirty. From Zealand, the Maeze, and Vlye, they do expect about ten more. So that this second fleet may be about forty ships. But the said lord of Opdam hath accepted of the charge with stipulation and condition, that he shall not be sent to sea, but with a considerable and sufficient fleet. So that he must stay for the return of the fifty three ships, which are gone to the Sound under de Witt.
Zealand doth desire, that it be at present agreed on, that the lord of Opdam being at sea, there happening any mortality to him, that the command of the fleet be given to John Everts; to which Holland will not agree, being not willing to give their fleet under a sum prince of Orange's party.
The commissioners of this state in England have writ in favour of a young English merchant, taken upon the Elbe, coming from Hull, and prisoner at Hoorne. Also the private men of war have taken again two Hamburgh ships coming from London, and belonging to merchants of Hamburgh: in the end, nothing will escape. Also that at present the English have strictly forbidden and hindered the escaping of the Dutch prisoners, who do get away from time to time, and are afterwards transported in English pinks or otherwise for Flanders.
At Essen in Westphalia is held a day for a general council of war; and it is said, that they have proposed there, to turn the Dutch garrisons out of Wessell, Embrick, Rees, &c. That gives great jealousy here in such sort, that the agent Bilderbeecke is commissionated from this state, there to hear, and see, and to advertise this state.
The queen of Sweden hath published, that she will cause to go from time to time from Gottenbergh towards the channel, to hinder the great piracy which is committed at sea. This will give great jealousy here, for by this means it is feared, that the navigation towards the Baltick Sea will be much drawn and diverted from hence.
A letter of intelligence from Peterson in Holland.
Haveing written yow at large the last post, and since received none from you, have the lesse to insist on at present, espesially, here haveing happened little alteration in trade, worth your notice. I doubt not those goods I last wrote yow of, may bee accomplished, in case wee gett our fleete safe home out of the Sound, which wee doe not greatly question considering the variablenes of the wether, which hath beene soe boisterous of late, that if the English fleete were not in harbour (398. 304. 390. 464. 144.) they had a very shrew'd spell of it, which they will finde to some purpose in theire sayles and rigging, insoemuch that wee hope at least, they will come noe more on these coasts this winter (324. 304. 290. 464. 326.) by which meanes the ships in the Sound will come home without danger. However, to prevent the worst, they say the East India company have ordered the takeing out theire goods out of the greate ships, which shall serve for men of warre, and relade them in smaller vessels. They are labouring hard to gett some of the king of Denmarke's greate ships out to sea with them, but 'tis feared hee will not grant it. In the meane time they make noe greate haste in fitting out theire ships, which lye in Texell, 41. 80. 464. 152. 404. 129. 82. 418. 185. 533. 506. 464. 287. 55. 80. above 80. 108. 573. 520. 577. 25. 456. These goods, if they prove well conditioned, will undoubtedly turne well to account. 422s. 55. 48. 324.t 279. 538. 109. 129. 415. 338. 352. 343. 272. 358. All our care is to gett home those goods from the east, of which I hope to give yow a good account e're long; if they will not vend well at your market, I'll dispose of them here. Next week I intend, 177. 380. 1005. 129. 79. 260. 347. 450. 448. 381. 315. 422. Mynheer Van Opdam hath at last accepted of the admirallship, though 'tis thought, hee will make noe greate haste to sea. Though the English letters this weeke be altogether sylent. yet wee have newes here of 12,000 Highlanders gotten into a body in Scotland, which begetts new thoughts in some of imbraceing K. C. his interest, espesially the states of Zeeland, who are more zealous for the gentleman then those of this province are. In your next write mee the price of Barbadose sugars, muscovadoes, and panneeles. So haveing not else at present, I rest.
Letter of intelligence from Paris.
Colonel Bamsyelde is here in great discontent, because he finds not that reception by the king he pretended to have. And though you believe those wild people dispersed (for so your prints call them) it is reported here upon certain knowledge, that they are become very considerable, and have divided themselves into four good bodies, having secured their quarters in each place; from whence they have made several infalls upon the English with great success. Some of your kindred are said to be very active amongst them.
A letter to Vande Perre.
The state of affairs of this present assembly have given subject to the affectionate servants of the house of Orange to do something for his good and that of his allies; to which effect having communicated with some of my friends, we have concluded in writing, and caused it to pass for a resolution through all the three quarters, that all our subsidies at sea shall be charged with this stipulation; and that our commissioners at the generality shall have order to procure by the other provinces, that henceforward there be carried on a rigorous war against the government of England, and assistance be given to the Scots and Irish; and that also the interests of Charles the second be embraced publickly, with ascribing to him the title of Great Britain, as may be seen all of it more at large in the resolution, which shall be carried to the States General. Therefore I would give you advice of it, that so you might acquaint their two highnesses with it, the princess royal, and dowager, hoping that this business being so unanimously embraced and passed by those of Guelderland, it will find so much stay and consequence, that his majesty will be thereby brought in again and established in his throne. The lords of Guelderland do also conceive it necessary, that it is of great importance to pursue and foment by all means possible the advantageous alliances against the tyrants of England, and particularly, that they ought to conclude a league offensive with France against the English.
J. de Witt. to Beverning and Vande Perre.
By reason of the tempestuous weather, there is no news come from sea. We have news from the Sound of the 13th of this month, at which time our fleet was not yet arrived there, but were daily expected. There are some ships come safe home from France thro' the channel, without meeting any ships by the way. We have also news, that a rich Holland ship coming from new Netherland, and having but fourteen guns, was met by an English frigat of thirty six guns; and after she had fought couragiously till she was ready to sink, she was taken, and presently after sunk with her whole lading, but her men were saved.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The lord of Opdam having at first, as was signified by the last letters, excused his acceptance of the charge of lieut. admiral, but since upon the instances of the lords commissioners sent unto him by the states of Holland, declaring the great desires the said states had, that he would take upon him that charge, and to put the business wholly into his hands, upon the 21/11 of this month, he accepted of the said charge without any other capitulation, than that he should not be sent to sea without a very good fleet. This being reported unto the states of Holland the day following, their lordships gave the commissioners thanks for their trouble and care taken therein, and declared themselves very much satisfied, that the said lord of Opdam had complied therein with the desires of the state, and promised in the name of the lords their principals, to contribute all that they were able for the speedy managing of the sea affairs, and the equiping of a good fleet, as hath been desired by the said lieut. admiral. And farther resolved, that this choice and the acceptance thereof by the lord of Opdam should be the same day made known unto the generality, to the end the command of the whole fleet of the United Provinces might be conferred upon the said Opdam, as it had formerly been upon Tromp.
The said lord of Opdam was likewise at the same time desired, after the receipt of his commission and taking of his oath, to repair to the respective colleges upon the Maeze, Amsterdam, and the north parts, with all speed possible, to take possession of his charge and other pre-eminencies appertaining thereunto, according to the instructions and customs of the admiralty. This hath fallen out very much contrary to the design of the Orange party, who laboured all they could, that the fleet, (the strength of this state) might not fall into the hands of the Hollander. The generality having received the aforesaid resolution from the states of Holland, do yet decline to agree therein, saying, they have no orders or instructions from their principals in that matter; which doth occasion some loss of time, only Guelderland hath agreed therein. However all hands are at work to repair and fit the rest of the fleet, which are in the Texell, being between thirty and forty. And from the Maeze and Zealand they do expect about ten more, which being joined with the fleet gone to the Sound, will, they conceive, be able to deal with the English, although their whole fleet should remain at sea.
Some particular persons have built some new men of war from thirty six to forty pieces of ordnance, with an intention to sell them unto the state; but they yet remain upon their hands, the state not having money to buy them; and it is certain the states are in great want of money, which being under consideration in the assembly of the states of Holland the 9/19 Sept. they appointed the lords Nieuport, Van Amerongen, and Haubois to repair with all speed to the province of Guelderland, and the lords states of that province being then assembled, and to lay before them the inevitable confusions and dangers, which were likely to fall upon the state, even to the ruin of the United Netherlands, for want of a speedy supply of money towards setting out the fleets to sea, and the building of new ships of war; and therefore to desire them without further delay to furnish their share, as well of the second two millions of guilders towards the payment of the said equipage at sea, as also of the two millions of guilders for the building of thirty new men of war formerly agreed on; as also that they would without any loss of time give their consent for the furnishing of their share of other two millions of guilders now agreed upon, towards the payment of the extraordinary equipage at sea, and likewise of other two millions of guilders towards the building of thirty new ships more.
By the last post you had an account what resolutions the states of Holland and WestFriesland had taken concerning the treaty with England; which in effect was, that Beverning and Vande Perre should give further reasons against the coalition, and farther propound to the government of England a strict and near alliance and consederacy between both states, and such an intrinsical union, as was ever made between two neighbouring and sovereign states; and that after the finishing of the said union, there shall be ordinary ministers appointed on both sides, to whom upon all occasions and at all times public audience be given, but also particular conferences with commissioners hereafter agreed on to be especially authorized thereunto; and that the said strict union, confederacy, and alliance shall send to the reciprocal defence and conservation of the freedom of each sides subjects, and the common interest, against all such, who shall endeavour to disturb the one or the other by land or water. And that in the mean time the promoting of the amity with other kings, commonwealths, princes, potentates, and states, shall be facilitated and promoted, especially that of the present treaty with France, the difficulties wherein upon some points shall be endeavoured to be removed; to which purpose the ambassador Boreel shall have instruction to desire of that king and court, they would set down what the points are they scruple at. To the end of the foregoing resolution was added this clause, that with all possible vigour shall be promoted the equipage of this state at sea, and the building of new ships of war, and likewise the carrying on of the free and liberal consents for furnishing of money. This resolution is carried into the generality at the advice of the assembly of the states of Holland, which indeed was carried there by the major part; but some members even of that assembly did advise for the revoking of the commissioners, who are in England, amongst which was Amsterdam itself; and the major part carried it chiefly upon this ground, because the parliament of England was now inclined to treat without a coalition.
The generality, upon the receiving of this advice, have ordered copies to be given of it to the several provinces, to make report thereof to their principals; and no question it will require much time before the advices of all the other provinces will be brought in hereupon; contrary resolutions being already taken upon this matter by some of the other provinces, in particular they of Guelderland, who in their present assembly have concluded in writing, and passed it into a resolution through all the three quarters, that all their subsidies at sea shall be charged with this stipulation. And their commissioners at the generality ordered to prevail with the other provinces, that henceforward there be carried on a vigorous war against the government of England, and that assistance be given to the Scots and Irish, and also the interest of Charles II publicly embraced, to whom shall be given the title of king of Great Britain. And this resolution is ordered to be communicated to the generality as the advice of the said assembly; with this also, that they conceive it of great importance to pursue by all means possible the advantageous alliances against the tyrants of England, and particularly that this state ought to conclude a league offensive and defensive with France against the English.
The province of Zealand have likewise upon the report made to that assembly upon the transactions of the treaty in England, referred two points to farther debate; the one is, whether the treaty in England can be continued with honour the United Provinces; the other is, whether it be for the service of the state, in case it should not be thought fit to continue the treaty, to defer yet for a while the sending for the commissioners now in England. Altho' they are come to no resolution yet upon these two points, yet by the debates already had thereupon, and the private opinion of particular members, little doubt is to be made, but that they will both pass in the negative.
This state being much more disposed to the choosing of a captain general, than to the concluding of a peace with England, wherein they are so intent, that the raedt pensionary of the country, with other commissioners appointed to that service, have framed in writing a refutation of the reasons given by the province of Holland against a captain general, copies whereof are delivered to the several members of the assembly; whereupon further consideration is to be taken.
Much time hath been spent with Middleton and Langdale upon their propositions. The commissioners, with whom they treated, have resolved to report the whole to the provinces, Nothing is yet farther done thereupon, save that Guelderland is agreed to pay their share of the 180,000 guilders demanded.
The commissioners in England write by every letter to the states, of the sad condition of their prisoners taken by the English; that they do all they can for their relief and helping them to escape; and that notwithstanding the strict eye, that is kept upon them, they have lately got away a considerable number of stout seamen by the way of Flanders; and particular orders are given by the states of Zealand unto Vande Perre, to provide cloaths for the prisoners, giving an account from time to time to the admiralty there, how much he disburseth upon that service.
The states are somewhat amused by the news, which they have lately received from Westphalia, of the resolutions taken at Essen by a general council of war, to turn the Dutch garrisons out of Wesell, Emberich, Ries, &c. whereupon they have commissionated mons. agent Bilderbeecke, to inform himself of the certainty thereof, and to advertise the state from time to time, of the proceedings there.
They are likewise jealous of a writing published by the queen of Sweden, wherein she declares, that she will have a convoy to go from Gottenburgh towards the channel, to hinder the piracy committed at sea, fearing by this means the navigation towards the Baltic sea will be diverted from them.
There is no news come yet of their fleet, that went towards the Sound. The letters from the Sound of the 13th make no mention of it, but say, that the king of Denmark hath promised to convoy the Dutch fleet as far as the Rif de Schager.
The plague rageth so vehemently in this town, that there die upwards of a thousand a week, by reason where the inhabitants thereof are not only debarred from trade, but from entring into any village out of the cities jurisdiction.
Vrybergen, raedt pensionary of Zealand, to Vande Perre.
Here had been report made to this assembly of your papers and transactions, together with the report made by the lords Nieuport and Jongestall, whereupon it was resolved, that it be further debated, for it doth consist of two considerable points:
They do speak very strangely here concerning the underlined words, contained in the first proposition to the parliament of England made by the lord Beverning, That the state of freedom of the present government of England is obtained by the just judgment of God, just as this state's was.
Likewise upon these following words in the memorandum of first of August many strange interpretations are given and considerations taken by the assembly here, That the lords States General have desired to make between the two states so near an union and confederacy, as if they were one people and one state; intending thereby, as if they did approve of the coalition.
The lords of Holland have upon the 18th of this month brought into the assembly of their high and mighty lordships their resolution concerning the English affairs, which was read here in the assembly raptly, with the greatest secrecy that may be. Their said resolution doth contain, that the lords Beverning and Vande Perre (notwithstanding that the coalition cannot be admitted of by their lordships, and that the English do still insist upon the preliminary points) ought to be ordered to treat further with the said nation about a good agreement and treaty of alliance between both states.
Here is made by the pensionaries of the country together with the commissioners thereunto appointed, a contra-deduction for the refuting of the deduction of Holland the captain and admiral generalship; whereof the members having received copies, it will be farther debated.
Concerning the resolution of the lords of Guelderland taken in their province upon the business of England, I desire it may be kept very secret, for the business is not yet brought into the generality.
The lord pensionary de Witt hath been to present from the lords of Holland to the generality the choice, that they have made of the lord of Opdam for lieut. admiral over Holland, wherein Guelderland is also agreed.
A paper of the council of state to the Spanish ambassador.
Concilium statûs a Petro Butlero naviculario ex oppido Boston in Novâ Angliâ libellum supplicem accepit, de navigio quodam, cujus ipse dominus & proprietarius; quod è Virginia solvens, ad S. Dominici in Hispaniolâ vi tempestatis delatum suit; ubi dictum navigium non solummodo occupatum, & a vectigalium officialibus fisco addictum; verum etiam nautæ malè tractati, & indignis modis habiti, prout uberius constare poterit ex relatione his inclusa, quæque ipsis judicum admiralitatis autographis confirmatur. Concilium vero haudquaquam assequens, quam ab causam ceu rationem ullus è popularibus hujus reip. infra dominia regis Hispaniarum isthunc in modum tractaretur, præsertim vero in hujusmodi causâ, cum navis occupata mercatoria effet; non nisi viginti quatuor circiter doliorum capax; neve ultra sex nautas numerabat, nihilque in ea invectum; unde illius regionis incolis metus aliquis incuteretur, aut malè suspicandi occasio subministraretur; necessarium atque è re duxit chartulas ad se datas ad excellentissimum dominum legatum regis Hispaniarum transmittere, hunc scil. in sinem uti excellentia sua prædicta singula expendens eadem majestati suæ cæterisque, ad quos ea res spectaverit, taliter recommendare vellet, ut iis quorum interest dicta navis unà cum onere suo protinus restituatur, atque illata damna resarciantur. Quod cum in se justum sit, eâque amicitiâ dignum, quæ inter hanc rempub. & regem Hispaniarum seliciter intercedit, haud dubitat, quin hac in causa id deinceps statuetur, quod æquum & bonum postulaverint, atque insuper dicti domini legati maturam hac de re responsionem poscit.
Mr. Rich. Bradshaw, the English resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
Since my last of the 13th I have received yours of the 9th instant, beinge forie for your then want of health, which I hope e're this you have recovered; not doubtinge but per next post to see your hand agayne, and to have answer of my letters to the councell and your selfe. The convoy with the powder, masts, and merchant shipps are (I doubt) still in the river, except they got out to sea this day. It's now above ten dayes, since they had their dispatch, and all meanes possible have been used to get them to sea, but the wynds have still been contrary; they are as low in the river as they can be, waiting the first opportunitie. The 15th current came an expresse to the convoy from captain Hill of the Worster fregat, to let them knowe, that our fleete were drawne towards our owne coast, and that hee with fourteen more fregats would stay for them twelve or fifteen leagues to the norwest of Helig land, the island in the mouth of this river. Since the returne of that messenger, I have received intelligence, that the states of Holland, haveing notice of these provisions and the merchant ships, have ordered twelve men of warre to lye in waite for them, as they come fourth, of which I have given captain Howard notice, and have sent out a boate with a letter to captain Hill, to give him notice thereof, if possible to meete with him, that hee may drawe to the island with those fregatts, lest these shipps should fall into the enemies hands before they can joyne with the fregatts. By letters from the Sound wee have it, that de Witt will out thence with there East-Indy shipps and such merchant shipps, as are ready, and some say, that the Dane will lend him some of his great shipps, but I believe not that; they heare that the bodie of our fleete is drawne home by the last fowle weather, so they will out with the first wynd. It is also said, that the Dutch will come forth with thirty or forty faile, to meet there de Witte from the Sound; but that you may know as well as we here. I shall still lay out for more powder, but as in my last and my former I writt you; except I have a farther supply of money, I cannot effect what the council orders for. And though you should send me another letter from the commissioners of the customs, yet if the bills I have allready charged upon them should not be currently paid at the tyme, that credit would not passe here, soe scrupulous are the deliverers of money; but I hope those gentlemen have had care to performe punctually. I gave as much tyme as possible I could, onely that the money from the commissioners might be ready to answer the particular bills for smaller summs charged upon the merchants in their owne way.
Captain Hill wrote, that he could not stay beyond the 18th of this moneth; but must returne to victuall. I doubt those fregatts will be drawne off, and then, except our fleet returne agayne to the Hollands coast, or that some squadron be appoynted to lye about the island for these shipps, they will be in very great danger either to goe fourth or stay there; for the enemie may easily attempt them in the river where they are wynd bound.
I have by this last post received some hints, as if it would please the councill to call me over this winter, to give a personall and more full accompt of the late Danish negotiation, and the state of affaires here, as they relate to the interest of the commonwealth; which if resolved on, I presume shall shortly heare from you thereof, and be ready to obey the call, not doubtinge but to passe securely by land unknowne. In the meane tyme, I shall hope to receive the councill's pleasure in the bussinesse of Fawles and his abettors, that it may not be sayd by them, that I am forst to goe over to get owneinge in that matter. If the councell please to recall me for the premised ends, I shall leave the care of the provisions with a freind, that will see all things done effectually in my absence. By the last post I received the inclosed letter from Copenhagen, by the style of it (beinge so unluckie (fn. 1)) it appeares to me another counterfeit. I suppose, if any such man had beene sent, you would have hinted it to me in all this tyme, and that I might have heard from his excellencie of it. I am told that Fawles is gone aboard the shipps to goe for England, but am not certaine of it; if he be, it's like you will shortly heare of him by some of his benefactors at London, who will try to get him into favour or under some countenance, before his businesse come to heareinge, but I beleeve those practices are now out of doores; for the man, his owne mine bespeakes him; whatever hee is, it matters not greatly; the froward behaviour of his abettors in countenancinge him before his submission, and that in spight of authority, is that which I beleeve will be considered of, though hee should now submit never so humbly; yet to doe it after he hath attempted all meanes for his supporteing by malignants, I suppose will be remembred. Mr. Waynewright still writes the money is unpaid for want of an order from the the councell. If it be resolved to call me over, pray, sir, hasten the councell's order for it, winter being at hand. I am, sir,
A letter of intelligence from Genoa.
Since my last noe matter of consequence hath presented worth your notice in this place. And now give leave to offer unto your view th'inclosed printed papers touchinge the late fight 'twixt ours and the Dutch fleete, which lately happened uppon their coast. That in favour of **** was first printed at Florence, and since here; tho' there the Dutch consul and merchants of that nation three days after **** their favour, as per said papers may appeare. The Italians and others seeme to give more credit to the latter then to ours, and are in all matters partiall against our nation, wherein we suffer very much, and that too the rather, our consull being of their religion dares not, and what he durst, cannot act for us in any matter considerable, by reason of his age. Farther, you will please to take notice, that my brother in law Mr. John **** residinge here, havinge received advice from good hands in London of our victory against the Hollanders, went to the authorised novelists for this cittie (whereof there are but two) and desired, that said relation might be inserted into the novellary for that week, but could not prevaile in it; and since, I am informed, the Dutch see them for that purpose, and say, the States General will allow two or three thousand crownes to uphold their reputation, let the truth be what it will; soe that I humbly conceive a word or two to the Genoese consull at London would not be cast away; and hee may take occasion to let this state know, that such partiallity is taken notice of by the states of England; and it may further be desired, that these novelists may be prohibited to wright ought for either nation, unless they accept their advices impartially, and soe communicate them.
Count de Rieux having given some protestants the bastinado, and demolished their church in Aubenas, made a greate uproare in the country, and 12,000 of them have taken armes, and put themselves under the command of one Montagna, a souldier of fortune, and require satisfaction, which the king of France understandinge hath sent mons. de Rovigni, their agent-general, and a commissary, to pacifie them and re-edifie their church.
The duke of Orleans hath beene invited to the courte, but 'tis said is retired to Ardigliers. Longueville and Harcourt have likewise taken high distaste, so that in that court little amendment appeares.
Girona is not lost, as was advised, but more likely to be relieved; yet the bishop of Orange was gone for Provence, to raise recruites for Catalonia, perceivinge that the ships and galleys providinge in Tholone, could not be ready so soone as was desired.
In Casale (lately taken from the French by the Spaniards) were found 400 pieces of ordnance. The said place is now possessed by the duke of Mantua, whoe hath there imprisoned the president of the senate and his brother in law, for suspicion of treason against that state, and seized on all their writings. The French beinge found to march thitherward with an army of 5000 horse and foote, whereof advice being given to the governor of Millaine, marquis de Carecena with an army of 8000 presently went out to meet them, the vantguard commanded by the duke of Sesto, whoe aboute Astei met them 23d current, (fn. 2) and after two dayes fight, routed the French, and have taken about 100 officers, and killed aboute 700 common souldiers, killed the commander of the Switzers, hurte the general's son and the marquis de Villa, and of the Spaniards side the marquesse di Carasena slightly hurte in the arme, and about 100 men killed. From Venice 'tis written, that when the Ottoman army were landed upon the Canea, the general Bassa immediately dispatched away 3000 foote by land, and twelve gallyes by sea, to storme the castle of Seleno, which havinge taken with the losse of 400 men, they entred, and put 700 men to the sword, and burnt all the howses round aboute it. Also that the Morlacchi entringe the Ottomans country were forced to retire with the loss of manie Turks.
Wee conceive, the Dutch fleet are all gone home from these parts: twelve of the Bonaventure's gunns, which the **** . . . Hollanders took out of the water under command of the castle of Leghorn, are here in this custome-house to be sold, but can find noe chapmen, and I conceive a sequestration may be layd upon them in the name of the council of state, if such authority were derived unto any one here to doe it, wherein I humbly submitt to better judgments.
In five or six dayes I may goe hence for Venice, whence I shall write you the needfull, and here my brother Lewis will acquaint you with what's requisite from this place; so humbly tendringe my **** . . . kisse your hands, remayninge, worthy sir,
A letter of intelligence.
Since mine to you by the last post but this, I have seen two letters from our deputys thereof the 22d September last, the copies whereof I could not have opportunity for. The one of them was to the States General, and the other to the chief clerk or secretary. They contain the same in substance, complaining that their letters were unsealed, and after with subtility made up, and delivered to them; of which they acquainted the master of the ceremony there, who acquainted the councell of state with it, and brought from them to the deputies answer, they never gave orders for any such matters, and disclaimed it; and therefore it might be supposed it might be done in Dunkirk. But say they, the letters, which they had from the ambassador Boreel in France were used in the same nature, though they were never in Dunkirk; so they believe all to be done there by secret orders.
They write the number of ships you had then at sea, and in preparing; and indeed they are good intelligencers or spies (which you will) and have friends there. They write further how they are courted by the Portugal ambassador, and how busy Mr. Bordeaux of Neusville is for their fair correspondence; and how the king of Spain, as they informed the said deputies, gave commands to his ships of war in Biscay to take all the Holland ships they could without exception, and make prizes of them. This intelligence was suspected by the deputys, as they write, coming from such authors. They write also, how before that time they transported by the way of Flanders divers of the Dutch there stragling; but that then a severe act was made, prohibiting any such, under pain of consiscation of the vessells, should transport them, and other penaltys; and that they much pity the poor distressed seamen and prisoners, who had no beds but straw, and many without houses, praying that before winter came on, they might be supplyed with money and such necessarys as they wanted; and that they would allow it out of their means. This is the substance I gather from these letters, having time only to read them once over.
Some of our states grow jealous of one another; and some stick not to say, that with the Spanish ambassador Le Brun some members talk privately of returning again to their old master, having their desires in all things but some recognition of the king of Spain; but this is not visible yet, but inter secretissimos; so let it be with yours there.
Our ambassador Boreel writes to us from Paris, that the court of France resolved to send Mr. Chanut, ambassador hither; but now that it is dubious, whether they will send him, till they know, if the States General shall assent to the demands of the league offensive and defensive, as well against Spain as England; to which some of the provinces here incline, so you may see by the underneath extract of the states of Guilderland and Zutphen, which is a true copy de verbo ad verbum, and as much conducing to your knowledge as any thing you can have from these states secrets. And the rest of the provinces are yielding to it, except Holland, of which province all the other provinces are jealous, saying some underhand dealings have been and are betwixt yours and the province of Holland, which the other provinces may not any longer at all permit, &c.
Extract of the declaration taken in the county of the dukedom of Guelder and of the earldom of Zutphen, the 20th of Sept. 1653.
Though the lords states of the principality of Guelders and Zutphen might have a great deal of reason to excuse the excessive subsidies demanded in a very short time for the expences of the seas to the sum of ten millions, not only in regard of their want of commerce, their engagements, their inability to taxes, and their ill harvest, but likewise their returning forces imployed by sea against the English republick, by which war hitherto nothing hath succeeded but loss of men, ships, and commerce; and in the interim the occasion was lost to weaken the enemy in the beginning, when he was not so strong at sea, and within himself in confusion with all manner of dissentions, and so might be reduced to impotency with convenient vigour and diversion, and made to consume themselves by their proper arms, ours having in little esteem or consideration all the time the wholsome advices, that came from abroad, and were proposed within with us by the good and faithfull allyes; and by that means the power of the enemy is so grown, that the war hitherto has been managed in such manner, that it has put these states into a posture of ruin; and consequently their noble highnesses should have great reason to withdraw for a time in part the consentments before given; and the rather, that the consideration and condition partly necessary, as also agreement has not been performed; notwithstanding all this their noble highnesses, for the love they bear to their country and allyes, did not leave to subminister readily some moneys for the subsidies of the maritime warr, and to permit their frontiers to be unprovided of necessary soldiers; but also they are always ready to contribute effectually and readily for the assistance of their allyes, and the maintenance of their authority and commerce by sea, to the utmost of their power. But they do understand, that to entertain correspondency and communication with those of the regency of England, as some provinces do, is against the union, and all reason, and convenient and necessary, that such shall cease for the time to come, since that from thence nothing else can result, but jealousy in those states, diffidence betwixt allies, retardment in good designs, and impediments to a vigorous war.
And that on the one part any overtures of peace may not be done or accepted but with common notice and consent of all the allies together; and of the other part, the war is to be prosecuted against those of the regency of England, according to the old maxim, wherewith heretofore the like has been done, and with honor ended by the grace of God against the king of Spain.
That likewise for the time to come it shall be procured by all ways and imaginable means, to weaken and distract the strength and power of the said regency, as well within as without their country, not only in seconding and favouring publickly the interest of Charles the 2d king of Great Britain, but likewise it is convenient, from this very hour to assist the Scotts and Irish, who have still their arms in their hands, against their oppressors; and besides within in their own country of England to favour all those, which will or can rise in arms against the present governors in England, under which they heavily groan: and to effectuate the same with the greatest force the said lords states of the provinces of Guelderland and Zutphen do conceive to be usefull and necessary, that their mighty highnesses shall prop themselves with alliance and treaty, with their old friends and good neighbours, procuring to perfect and conclude with all speed the alliance offensive and defensive with the crown of France already begun, and to preserve and improve the confederation concluded with the king of Denmark.
And all this being done, the lords of the states of the provinces of Guelderland, and earldom of Zutphen, shall declare their consents, as by these presents of the new, to the first six millions before demanded; and likewise to the four other millions, which are now demanded, viz. the two first at the charge of the generality, and the two other for the building of the thirty other new ships of war at the charge of the provinces, so that the ships shall be built in those places, that are most commodious, and where the same may be done at the cheapest rates; and that the ships of the directors shall be dismissed; and that the monies designed for this effect shall not be diverted, but put into the hands of the respective admiraltie, to the end that the building may not be delayed, &c.