A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 1, 1638-1653. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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October (1 of 3)
Beuningen the Dutch ambassador in Sweden, to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, the lord ambassador of Denmark hath not yet received any answer upon his proposition, and the letter of the king his master, touching the common alliance; neither is it to be expected, that during the war with England, any resolution here will be taken as to that particular, since the queen doth expressly declare upon all occasions, that she is absolutly resolved to keep and remain in perfect neutrality. The lord resident of France doth often take occasion to mind her majesty of the interest, which the crowns have in the conservation and prosperity of your lordships state; and doth assure me, that he finds her majesty well disposed to contribute thereunto all that may be effected without offence to the English; but that she doth expressly declare, that she will not engage in this war; and that she hath no reason to be partial to the English. But because the said resident, to remove all sinister impressions, which may be caused by misunderstandings, desired, that her majesty would be pleased to assure their lordships by her lord resident Appelboom of her amity and good affection, the queen did willingly undertake to do the same; adding withal, that she did not seek to treat with the English any otherwise than concerning the establishing of a rule for navigation and commerce, and which should neither tend to the prejudice of their lordships affairs. Your lordships will find here inclosed a memorandum delivered unto me by a merchant dwelling here, concerning what had past in the taking of two Swedish boats by a Holland private man of war; which I perceive is made known to the college of the admiralty by the interested, and there highly resented. A lord of quality, who is president in the college, hath had very high words about it with the Danish ambassador, as if the inhabitants of this kingdom did receive from England none but civilities and good offices; and on the contrary from those of the United Provinces but disservices, and ill returns, and violence offer'd them, (so he spoke.) I shall not omit to make known this lord, whom I was now to visit, and intend to go again presently, as also to several others, how your high and mighty lordships are blamed for that, which is expressly against your lordships direct order; but I cannot omit to desire for the service of your lordships, that I may be fully informed of all the circumstances of such businesses, that shall happen for the future; and that if any happen, that your lordships would give order to your court of admiralty for the punishing of the offenders, and repaying of the losses of those, that come to suffer unjustly, that thereby may be prevented the ill opinions, which men have here of our state.
The ships with guns, that went from this town, lye yet by the way upon the river, where they are kept by contrary winds. They are making ready here a ship, which is yet to go before winter to New Sweden with 200 persons, to plant and benefit the colony there, which the America company here hath there. Those that came from thence lately, say, they lest but sixteen persons there, wherewith three forts were possest.
Two ships of Stockholm, the Lyon and the Mue, laden with iron, tar, and hemp, bound for Dunkirk, and through contrary winds fain to put into a harbour upon the coast of Norway, where a Holland private man of war meeting with them the 30th of July, they were fain to promise him under their hands, that they would go to no other place than Dunkirk with their freight; but lying there till about August, another private man of war of Holland of Amsterdam, were carryed away by force against the will and good liking of the commander in Flechro, who after he had carried them away, put the men to the torture, to make them confess, that they were going for England; that so they might plunder the ships, and to speak most basely of the queen.
De Bruyne to Vande Perre.
The lord states here, who are now assembled, do very much wonder, why you do write no more matter from thence weekly; whereas the raedt pensionary of Holland is furnished weekly by the lord Beverning, who doth also write particularly to the states of Holland; and your last letter in character did signify very little, and some of the states here did declare, that they had heard that particular therein mentioned some days before.
The states are well pleased with your stay there, but are extremely troubled at the ill usage to our prisoners there; and on the other side they do very much wonder, there should be so much inclination to peace there, where there is no demonstration of pity and compassion shewn to move us to farther love and alliance, which might be done, if they would freely and willingly discharge and release the prisoners.
Letter of intelligence from Paris.
I Had the honour to write to you on Saturday last. It is not without cause, that the friends of mons. the prince did fear the ill usage, wherewith they threatned those two prisoners Bertaut and Ricou, since that very same day they were condemned, strangled, and broken upon the wheel, by sentence of the burning chamber, who found them guilty of treason for having held correspondence with the enemies of the king, and for having been the authors of seditions and disturbers of the public peace. The execution was done in the morning, not at the ordinary place before the town-house, but under the wall of the Bastille, where very few people were present, partly because those proceedings were ended so suddenly, and partly because most men look'd upon it as a meer effect of retaliation, to revenge the death of those assassins, whom the Spaniard had caused to be hanged; which hath infinitely incensed the minds of men here, and hath produced nothing but envy, hatred, and strange mistrustings, which do make us to confess, the troubles and dangers of this state are not yet ended, their being yet no sign from heaven, that God will hold up from further punishing of this nation.
Since the taking of Rocroy, the army of the marshal of Turenne hath received some farther loss, thinking to have fortified themselves near that place. Likewise the army of Rousillon hath raised the siege of Garonne for most certain, where they do alledge, that the place was relieved through the fault of the marshal of Hoquincourt, who had very unadvisedly disbanded a regiment, which did obey more the marquis of Plessis Belliere than himself, which is without doubt a very great loss and prejudice to the affairs there; and although they have said here, and that the Gazettes have mentioned and published, how that the last fight of Italy was very much to the marshal of Grancey, yet other letters and advice from thence do assure us of the contrary, and that he had the worst of it; and in all likelihood one need have but common reason to judge thus much, since the said marshal fell upon the Spaniards in three trenches, out of which he could not beat them.
We have no news from Bourdeaux, only that the favourites of the court there do begin to be more mild and moderate, not thinking, that the time is yet proper to contrive the designs of their citadel. And the duke of Vendosme was somewhat displeased, and very jealous, by reason the king doth not furnish him with money for the reimbursing of those charges he hath been at for the reducing of Guienne, where he is still pretending the government.
Here hath been a strong report since Sunday, that the Protestants of Languedoc have had a sight with the Papists, and that an express thereof is come to the court; but the post of Nismes not being yet come, there can be nothing writ of certain about it.
It is not true, that the earl of Harcourt is agreed with the emperor, as was said; and in all likelihood he will not do it except through despair, that they will not suffer him to enjoy his great estate, which he hath in the heart of the kingdom. But I do hear, that the earl of La Suze, governor of Besfort, is joined with the duke of Lorrain's troops.
The archbishop of Narbonne is gone from the court to return into Languedoc, and hath order to see the duke of Orleans, as he passeth upon the way; who doth still refuse to come to court, complaining directly, that they do not go the right way to work to invite him to court. That he doth only desire the execution of those acts of pardon granted on the behalf of his friends, which they take delight to break, on purpose to hinder his royal highness from presenting his duty to the king; and that he had rather suffer those affronts afar off than near at hand.
An intercepted letter.
O my dear heart and only friend,
I Do hereby heartily salute you, giving you to understand, that at my first arrival I found my master very weak, and not capable of much discourse, infomuch that it was inconvenient in me to mind him of any particulars; and as soon as he had gotten strength, he went to Chatillon to refresh himself, but returns again very suddenly, (as then.) If there be any trust you can repose in me, I am every way bound to discharge the faithful office of a friend. Our court is blyth and jolly, and are in great hopes of sudden alterations. Here are eight regiments at one clap have forsaken the Spaniard, and are now marching to the duke of York, well armed, and have it under the king of France's hand with the broad seal, to have free liberty to serve their own king in the equipage they come to him, whenever their own king shall have occasion for them; so that the king hath 7000 of his own subjects in his service, that are ready cap-apée to follow him at an hours warning. The Spanish and the French army are playing at hide and seek, not suffering one another to do much mischief. Here is a late report, that the prince of Condé should be dead: if so, it will quickly prove summer to the flowers of France. I need not tell you of the glorious acts of our incomparable duke; therefore to shorten my discourse to this period, is to end as I began, in admiration of your noble worth, &c.
Ratisbon 16 Octobris, 1653. [N. S.]
Yours are received by the last with the occurrents of your great preparations again for the seas. You have reason, for the Hollanders do no less, and here yet many boast you had not the last victory, though the emperor and count are now satisfied you had the better of it by much; but the Dutch not so routed, but they were able presently to send a fleet to sea as they have to the Sound. Of your fleet now at sea we have nothing, but the late storms will I fear endanger many of the ships.
Since my last something has been said of R. Carolus's business by the instance of the lord Wilmot and his friends, but as yet nothing concluded; the next I presume, will give you some further account of it.
The affairs of the diet here go on pretty well, but the old jugler the duke of Lorrain troubles the empire, for after it was concluded and agreed to by his agent, he should leave the garrisons he holdeth in the empire, receiving at certain times so much money, as I writ in my former, he now proposeth of the new sufficient security for the payment of his money at such times before he quits the garrisons. What shall be concluded, I know not.
In the last sessions were treated the gravamina the emperor had against France; and whether it were convenient or fit to be by deputies presented to the French ambassador, because he complained, that in public manner none of them were sent to him. And so deputies were named for the purpose: by the Catholics the public ministers of the duke of Bavaria, and Regensberg, and by the Protestant party the ministers of Saxe Weimar and Magdeburg: the said deputies after complained, that the king of France doth not treat them with that respect and honour due. He does not give them the title of sieurs or lords, such he gives in France to every subject of his own, if he be but an ordinary gentleman. This also breeds a little difference, but will come to nothing. From Poland or Hungary I have not a word since my former, that I can build upon as probable, but divers reports, which are not worth the writing. When there shall be any thing worthy here or there, I shall not fail to give you the best account of them in the power of,
Beverning and Vande Perre to the gressier Ruysch.
We have the day before yesterday sent over expresly to their high and mighty lordships mons. Vande Perre, with letters under cover to your lordship, whereof here inclosed go the duplicates. We do very much doubt, that through hast we forgot to set the date to them, which you may be pleased to supply. Besides the prisoners mentioned in ours the day before yesterday, we have gotten off sixty or seventy more, so that now we have a whole ship full, to the number of 250, which go all together; and we have to transport all our sick men and boys, at least as many as amount to that number; for which end we intend to hire a ship expresly to morrow or the day after; and we do hope, that the council will suddenly permit, that by provision the fishermen will be suffered to fish unmolested upon the coasts; but they do complain here of the poor and bad entertainment, that their men receive from us, as their lordships may please to take notice out of the inclosed order. And because there is better order promised us by this side, therefore we do earnestly desire to know, whether it be true; and if it be, that some better order be taken about it for the future. We doubt not but their lordships will forthwith give order for the releasing of all English prisoners, without making them pay any charges, as hath been done here by ours. We desire to be informed, what is resolved concerning the skippers or masters, which we do also earnestly desire. Here is news, that our fleet hath been seen upon the coasts of this country, going towards the west, which causeth the equipping of the fleet to be managed with great diligence, and a great number of men are daily prest to supply the want of those ships, that are come in; and for this end those ships, that are come from Hamburgh, will serve them now very seasonably, having brought with them great store of ships materials, and 2000 barrels of powder, whereof they stood in need here.
A letter from Frid. Maxwell, a Popish priest.
Per literas D. V. ad dom. Jacobum Macbrechum missas, & nunc recentius per D. Roberti Gallei adventum intellexi paternam D. V. eumque tenerrimum in clientes suos affectum, nobis quidem eo gratiorem, quo magis hujusmodi solatio indigemus ad perferendas horum acerbissimorum temporum calamitates. Ego me continere non potui, quin D. V. pro meipso ex intimo corde gratias agerem, simulque precarer felicissimam suscepti muneris administrationem. Jam a tribus annis in his partibus versor, expositus frequentissimis tam salutis quam vitæ periculis, paratissimus tamen majora subire pro Domini mei gloriâ, cujus vel minimum incrementum erit mihi opatissimus laborum meorum fructus. Pacatiores sunt res nostræ ex quo, adversariorum viribus fractis, eorum zelus deferbuit, detectisque fraudibus incepit commune omnium odium sustinere. Præterea opinionum multiplicitate invecta, ea subrepsit confusio, quæ maxime commendet Romanæ petræ soliditatem. Quapropter spes nobis non exigua affulget copiosæ messis, cui colligendæ pro viribus insudant quotquot hic sunt operarii; inter quos elucet prædictus D. Jacobus Macbrechus in vinculis egregium virtutis suæ documentum omnibus præbens, ubi adhuc detinetur incertus admodum futuri eventûs. Interim vitæ integritate & suavitate morum omnium in se corde convertit, magnâ adversariorum invidiâ. Hæc sunt quæ scribenda D. V. modo habui, plura scripturus, prout occasio tulerit. Si D. V. responsum accepero, felicissimum me judicabo, cui placuisse post communem omnium dominum, præcipuum in votis est; nihil enim mihi gratius aut optabilius accidere potest, quam ita vivere, ut semper esse merear
Resolution of the States General.
Veneris, the 17th October, 1653. [N. S.]
It being debated, it is thought fit and understood, that there be a letter writ to the lord of Opdam, lord admiral of Holland and West-Friesland, that he do hold himself ready against the coming home of the fleet of this state, which is hourly expected to arrive upon the coasts of this country, to go presently aboard of the said fleet. Also by provision to take command thereof for this next ensuing expedition, and so to act, as their lordships shall hereafter order him, without making any alteration in the flag, which is to remain according to the former custom. The above mentioned clause was framed by the lord Schulenburgh, as having presided the last week. The lords commissioners of the province of Guelderland, Utrecht, and Overyssel do declare, they do daily expect order as to that particular from the lords their principals. The present lords commissioners of the province of Zealand did scruple to advise upon the said businesses, before their high and mighty lordships had resolved upon the maintenance of the said employment, and the choice of a new viceadmiral in the place of John Everts, who doth refuse the same, notwithstanding the several instances, that have been made to him about it.
Vrybergen to Vande Perre.
The lords states of Holland do from day to day insist, that the other provinces would once declare themselves concerning the affairs of the English negotiation, and that they would at least consent, that upon former articles and instructions they might be by provision re-assumed, and removed till further order. Whereupon the commissioners to Sweden did declare to agree thereunto, as having special order from their lords principals, that the treaty in England should be re-assumed upon the former instructions or thirty six articles; and that for the better managing of the same, the lords Nieuport and Jongestall should return back into England, or that the lord Jongestall should go over alone. The lords commissioners of Utrecht, Overyssel, the towns of Groningen and Ommelanden do declare, that they have yet received no order about the said business, but that they should make no scruple or difficulty to consent to the said provincial advice of Friesland. What concerneth this province, we have this day debated about it in the assembly of the states, but by reason of the different opinions of the respective members thereof, we could not come to take any resolution; but I believe we shall come to a conclusion to-morrow, which will be, according to my judgment, conformable to the advice of the lords commissioners, who were appointed to debate and consider of the English affairs; who were of opinion, that the treaty should continue under limitation for a short time. Upon the request of lieut. general Middleton it was this day resolved here in this assembly, to assist the Scots with the sum of 180,000 guilders, which shall be speedily made to the generality by the ordinary commissioners. The lord Keyser writes in private to some of his confiding friends in Denmark, that the queen of Sweden is no wife unwilling to engage against the United Provinces, and as yet to spare the kingdom of Denmark. That also in Spain amongst the great lords of the council of that kingdom, against the advice of the lord Pigneranda, the opinions of the lords Haro and de Valada had prevailed, to damnify the United Provinces by occasion of this English war; and that therefore in Denmark they were of opinion, that against such machinations of Spain and Sweden, they ought to be sure to have France and Portugal on their side.
De Witt to Beverning.
Notwithstanding the manifold endeavours of those of Holland for the spurring of the rest of the provinces to bring in their provincial advice and declaration, as to the affairs of England, yet hitherto little hath been effected therein, but they do say, they expect orders from their principals every hour to be sent unto them. What resolutions you may expect from Guelderland, I give you leave to judge out of their last resolution taken in their assembly, which they will stick unto; and as to the rest of the provinces, who are yet in debate about it, I know not what resolutions they may produce, though in the general I do believe they will all agree for the renewing of the treaty for some short time upon the former instructions, in case the government of England will desist from insisting upon their preliminary points or proposition of a coalition; which if they will not, then the commissioners of the United Provinces now at London to return home forthwith; and this will be unavoidable.
The lords commissioners states of the towns of Groningen and Ommelanden have declared upon the subject of a captain general, and have written a letter to those of Guelderland, which I here inclosed send to your lordship.
Bisdommer to Beverning and Vande Perre.
The lords commissioners of their high and mighty lordships, who have been at the Helder for the speedy equipping of the remainder of the damnified ships, are yesterday returned hither, and do advise, that upon Sunday last seventeen men of war set sail, and directed their course to meet with vice-admiral de Witt, who is lookt for back every hour with the East-India ships and the rest of the fleet. We do hear, that the seventeen men of war also sent to meet with twenty three English ships at Hamburgh, laden with ammunition, arrived there after the English were gone from thence. That they missing of them presently set sail to join with vice-admiral de Witt, if they could meet with him. The states of Holland have given a strict charge for enquiry to be made, who those merchants are, that from time to time send ammunition of war from Amsterdam to Hamburgh. It is said here, that as soon as de Witt is come back, the lord of Opdam is to take possession of all the fleet, and therewith to convoy the wine fleet for France. The lords commissioners, who are come from the Helder, do inform me just now, that they have lately received a letter from grave William, wherein he writes, that a caper had taken six of the twenty three English ships, that came from Hamburgh. We should be glad to have it confirmed.
To the lords of the council of state of the commonwealth of England.
The subscribed deputies of the lords the States General of the United Provinces beseech most instantly, that the lords of the council aforesaid will be pleased to gratify them with a pass and safe-conduct for the ship named the St. Nicholas, and the master of it Pieter Rotsart Van Brugge, hired by them to transport into Holland the number of 100 others of their prisoners, which are come from Ely, Ipswich, and other quarters, wherein are comprehended 26 or 28 who were first released, and not comprehended in the last number of 150, according as the lord Whalley and Downing commissary and schoutmastergeneral can inform your lordships; beseeching that it may please the same, that they may be provided with the due acts so soon as possible.
Beverning to raedt pensionary de Witt.
I Know nothing more to add to that of my last of the 14th and 16th, wherein I advised you at large. God give us good resolutions from thence. I do assure you, that I have reason to hope a great deal of good yet, since their spirits here are grown calm upon the news that they have here, that the lords Nieuport and Jongestall are coming over; but the work must be hastened and advanced, else the good dispositions will vanish.
Beverning to Nieuport.
357 is very much troubled, since he finds himself necessitated to be gone, and is very unwilling to depart without some expedition; wherein he thinks it will be an affront both to his lords, that sent him, and his own person. It is now more than three weeks ago, since he took his leave of 297; and since that they do persuade him, that 298 will dispatch him with a civil letter for an answer, and some present. He would very gladly have had, that we in the name of their high and mighty lordships should have desired him to have stayed here a while longer, and thereupon to have written a letter of excuse to his lords that sent him; for which we having no order, and likewise supposing it might have been prejudicial unto us, we did decline it. Your lordship may understand by our 14th and 16th of this month, how affairs stand here. Delays are unsufferable. For our main business I believe we are right enough, if we could but win time. We have won very much upon the humour of Whalley, which according to that humour you know, is no small business. I hope we shall not let slip this fair opportunity, now the humours here are so well disposed. It troubles me to see we can get no instructions, that we are fain to sit still and look on.
Beverning and Vande Perre to the States General.
Your high and mighty lordships resolutions of the 26th and 29th of September, as also of the 7th and 8th are come safe to hand, concerning the exchange of prisoners as well fishermen as others that are imprisoned in the sea-ports. Whereupon we shall humbly inform your lordships, that we have already released a good number of fishermen, and are daily busy to release more. Yesterday there went away a ship bound for the Maeze with 250 prisoners; and we do send away 200 more to morrow, which we have gotten discharged this day, upon a bare act under our hands to release all English prisoners in the Netherlands out of hand, and as many for the future, as are now released of ours; and we do hope to get 200 sick and 80 boys more released. We shall consider how we shall do to get the rest discharged, and so pay no more ransom, as long as there is hopes otherwise; but it is better to pay a ransom for them, if it cannot be done otherwise, than to let them die here, which they will most do, if they should remain here this winter.
A particular of all such moneys as are discovered before the commissioners of accounts and clearing of public debts sitting at Worcester-house since the 7th of Oct. 1653. viz.
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
Your letters being thrice directed by the name of Wood in place of John Adams pusted my friend in sending of them, so that I receaved them with the post afterwards, wherefore heerafter please to observe the name of John Adams. I am very glad the Scoch are reduced to obedience. It will be necessary to observe their actions, for they only waite for an opportunitie to rebell, as appears by major Middleton's addresses to the States General and particular townes, especially to Amsterdam, where he hath gayned their consent to transport ten thousand armes for Scotland, whereof part shall be given him by the state, and convoyed by their ships, but to what part I cannot yet informe myself; I believe I shall before they depart. 'Tis generally thought, they shall goe to the Highlanders, whereof you shall have notice. I doe not understand, that these relye uppon the Scoch. However will adventur some armes with them to trye with. They may take this is not .... out in respect to Ch. Stewart, but their owne interest, for they doe not inclyne to espous him, especially Holland in general, although Gelderland in their assembly resolved not to contribute to the raysing of ten ..... except Holland would imbrace Ch. Stewart's interest, yet as I heare Newport hath mollified their cross humour in relation to the contribution; but whether they have assented to the sending ambassadors to you, I doe not heare, it being private, but I am assured, that Amsterdam in their counsell resolved to give their voyce against sending any, and to call those there home, and prosecute the warr with all violence. That towne hath much to saye in the government of the countrey, yet some thinke they agree with you; whereof nothing can be sayd before the states meet. By my last you had the number of their men of warr at sea, which was 44, went with de Witt. De Ruyter seventeen to meet your shipps in the ... (which wear gone whoe then wear to joyne with de Witt; and sixteen more went out of Texell the 12th instant to meet also de Witt which I am certayne wear all the shipps they had there, except one, which was not mann'd, and is to come to Amsterdam. So all being joyned with de Witt he will be a fleete of seventy seven men of warr besides all the marchantmen there wear in Zealand gone to Witt I cannott they can to that fleete as they that bought with you last. The man, whom they imployed, assures me, they have few shipps of above forty gunns except three or four, but durst not staye to take so perticuler a view of every ship, notice being taken of any strangers. There are twelve new shipps at Amsterdam, and three ould ones, each of about forty gunns, beat Sardam the like force. Two at Horn of fifty gunns, two at Enckhuyson of above forty gunns, two at Nedenbluk of forty gunns in Friesland of above forty gunns.
But I doe not yet learne they intend to set them out this winter, unles an advantage offered; but I doe not belive they can get men and gunns so soone, yet 'tis sayd they expect store of gunns with your fleet from the Sounde, which is howerly expected, and they have no great feare of them having . . . you have layed up your great shipps, and put of your merchantmen, so they hope to be master of the sea this winter. They are resolved, as one of the commissioners of the admiraltye tould me, to convoye their fleet through the channell. You must be carefull of letting any small fleet lye in the Downes, for they will have desingnes on them. Seventeen East Country shipps are arrived, report to have seen no Inglish shipps, and that de Witt was set sayle eight dayes before, I cannot advise you more, but shall be glad to understand the condition of your fleet.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
The execution of messieurs Bertaut and Ricou, which my former letter of 15/5 of this month did inform you of; and the confession, which they made before they died, of all the share they had in the intrigues of mons. the prince, out of spite, that they saw themselves convinced by their own letters, which will be ominous to many persons here, and will be a means without doubt to unravel the whole clue of all their designs and ill fortune. A Shoemaker called du Chesne hath been apprehended here, as being suspected for designing an attempt upon the person of mons. the cardinal, and (fn. 1) mons. Descouture, captain of one of the quarters of this town, being imprisoned a while since, as guilty of treason, is transferred to the Bastille, where he is to be proceeded against as a traytor to this state. Since he was found imbarked in the late troubles of Paris, he confesseth that he hath taken money of the prince, and at the same time some likewise of the cardinal Mazarin to serve them, or rather to deceive them both. Likewise he is no ways pitied by those that know him. He hath gotten two hundred thousand guilders by these infamous courses. Six gentlemen have been lately apprehended at the court, whereupon the council having debated, the said cardinal concluded to have them broken upon the wheel, but the marshal de Turenne did very much oppose it, fearing that mons. the prince might use the like resolution upon some of their men, and therefore it was best to keep them prisoners of war.
Their majesties are at Soissons, where his eminence hath been cured of the gout. The armies are still in their quarters, refreshing themselves, without undertaking any thing considerable; only a flying army of the marshal de Turenne hath taken the castle of Buzancy, situated not far from Rocroy, where the prince of Condé is still remaining, and whereof he hath the government for himself, whereby he hath agreed the marquis of Persan and the earl of Bonteville, who did dispute, who should have it.
The prince of Tarante having made his agreement in court, with the consent of mons. the prince hath sent his baggage hither, and is to go into Holland, upon condition to renounce all intrigues, and to live peaceably and quietly for the time to come.
The letters that came from Nismes on Wednesday last do say, that mons. de Ruvigny was arrived there, and did assure, that he had full power from his majesty to agree and compose the differences between those of the religion and the Papists, but that did not make them to disband, but to encrease their troops, whereby to bring the earl Rieux to reason, who will not disband neither, laughing at the Protestants for having no ordnance.
All the advices from Genoa do confirm in these proper terms, that there hath been a great slaughter of the French, who set upon the Spaniards in their trenches, as I had the honour to inform in my last. The express, who brought the news to the king, ask'd him for some ammunition-bread for the troops, who were in want the day before he came away; and at the same time for winter quarters for them, saying, that they could not have any in Milan, unless they were recruited four thousand men. That they must have two thousand, if they intend to have them stay this winter in Montferrat; and in case they send them no recruits, the army will be fain to pass the hills, and to come into Dauphiné.
(fn. 2) They are equipping some few ships in Provence. It was the arrival of Don John of Austria, in Catalonia, who raised the siege of Gironne by force.
The last letters from Guienne say, that Bourdeaux was every day more and more incom modated by the Spaniards; that they cannot trade with the upper part of the country by reason of the plague, which yet is very violent in those parts; and that the dukes of Vendosme and Candale were yet unable to free the river from them for want of seamen, who had most of them left the French ships, seeing they could get no pay. The duke of Candale hath caused six of the inhabitants of Perigueux to be hanged; but this example hath caused the people of Poictiers to rise against mons. de Forthia, whom the court had sent thither, there to establish the imposts or taxes. He was set upon in his house, and threatened to have had it burnt, if he would not go out of it presently, and promise to leave the town, and never to return again. I forgot to tell you, that madame de Chastillon doth find herself imbarked in the criminal intrigues at this court by the consession of the said Bertaut.
I understand, that the said court is to go from Soissons to Chalons, if it be not come there already; and continuing in design to besiege St. Menehould, it hath caused mons. the prince to reinforce that place with eight hundred men.
The lords States Generall of the United Provinces to their lords commissioners in England.
Resolution of the states of Utrecht.
The states of the land of Utrecht have after serious deliberation taken about the treaty in England, and after the hearing read of the resolution taken in the assembly of the lords States Gennerall of the United Provinces, (fn. 3) the 21st of this month, thought sit hereby to authorize the lords commissioners of this province, to declare in their lordships assembly, that the states of this land do think fit, that their lordships continue at present in England, and that the lords Nieuport and Jongestall be forthwith sent thither, and authorized to reiterate to the government there such propositions for an accommodation, and firm alliance, and near Union, as their foregoeing instructions do hold out unto them; and withall the said states do also desire that they should write, as soon as may be, how they find the minds of the governors there inclined to imbrace their offers, that so they may resolve what may be further necessary for the service of their countrey.
Resolution of the States General.
The lord pensionary de Witt and others their lordships commissioners have reported, that they, according to their lordships resolution of the 15th of this month, have delivered to the lord ambassador Brun the points and articles drawn up by their lordships, for a more further clearing and interpretation of the instructions formerly agreed on for the erecting of the chambre mipartie; and that the said lord ambassador was therewith well satisfied, whereupon being debated, it is thought fit and understood, that the said lords commissioners be once more desired, that they would conclude and sign the former points and articles with the said lord ambassador, according to their lordships former resolution. Furthermore it is resolved, that notice be given by the said lords commissioners to the said lord ambassador, or in case he be already gone, to his secretary, that their high and mighty lordships are consenting, that the said chambre mipartie do begin to sit upon the first of December next, new style; and to that end, there shall be a letter sent to the judges appointed on the behalf of this state for the said chamber, that they will make their appearance here against the middle of November next, without fail, to receive their commission, and instructions, and further acts, as will be necessary for the executing their commissions.
A paper from the Spanish ambassador.
E'n las diversas aplicaciones que he hecho at honble. conso de estado sobre la restitucion de los bienes, que entre los embargados por esta republica. pertenecen la Rey mi senor y a sus subditos el conso en su respta. y en diversos papeles que me embiò declarò que la Corte del Almirantasgo estando establecida para tratar y decidir las causas de este genero, era a quien tocaban y adonde debia acudir y se me haria derecho y justicia y en conformidad de esta respta. y declaracion se acudiò por mi parte a dha corte, pidiendo algunas partidas de lana que vinieron en los navios san saluador, fampson y San Jorge de Hambourgo que immediatamte. pertenecen a su magd. como consta por las pruebas hechas en dha causa la qual fiendo concluida va para quatro meses que no he podido confeguir la decision della aunque por mi parte lo ha solicitado mi Srio. de lenguas y lo han movido mis Abogados y procuradores conforme al curso y estilo de d'ha corte, escusandose los della con que notienen orden de sus superiores p (fn. 4) ello, y deffeando yo escusar el ser molesto al conso, hice dar esta not (fn. 4) al Srio. Thurlou y a fu assistente p (fn. 4) que la diesse al conso. delo que pasaba en este negocio en que hasta aora no he visto fruto alguno de esta dilig (fn. 4) y padeciendo el fervo de fu magd. por tanta dilacion me hallo obligado a representar al conso lo que en esto ha passado y suplicarle fe firua de que fin ulterior dilacion me manden entregar estas d'has lanas y juntamte lassciento y tre inta y ocho sacas que Vinieron en la estrella dorada y las ciento y veinte en el navio fan Agustin por tocar todas d'has partidas de lana immediatamte afu mag. Cattoca como fe me ha avisado por sus reales cartas en que confio y espero que el conso harà este acto fiendo tan conforme a justicia y a la amistad y buena correspondencia que fu magd tiene con esta republica. Fecha en Londres, 20/10 de Octubre, 1653.
An intercepted letter from London.
My Dear Heart,
I Received yours of the 28th this morning. I was glad to see your hand, though it brings assurance of that I like not; for I was in hopes, that rather propositions for peace would have come from where you are, than ambassadors to beg it; which is the style and title we give and divulge their sending to be; and yet I fear for all our big words, we shall rather than have no olive-branch, accept of a shitten one; for upon my word we are as weary of the war as the Holland dogs: yet I'll tell you how the case stands, here are two violent factions, one great assectors of the peace, and the other greater loathers of it; so that when it comes to the conclusion, it will be cross and pile, whether peace or war, let the Hollanders offer what they will. It was the last Monday preached publicly before a great congregation of our masters by a great rabble of the rout, that if they now made peace with those rogues and dogs the Dutch, after they had beaten, and beaten, and beaten the slaves, nay and almost quite conquered them, that God's vengeance would follow upon such a heathenish peace; for where should they have a landing-place, when they went to do the great work of the Lord, and tear the whore of Babylon out of her chair, if they gave back by making a peace with them, a people and land, which the Lord had as good as given wholly up into their hands ? And this tune they not only preach at their meetings (I mean the violent party) but talk in all companies; and yet so very much it concerns Cromwell in particular, and this state's safety and settlement in general, to have, rather than none, any kind of peace, that I apprehend it much; but a clearer judgment will be suddenly made, which you shall have. I am very sorry for the good lady's ill condition at (fn. 5) Tylingen. Prithee, Mack, try my trick with her; and if that will do her no good, bid her call on God to save her soul. Our term draws on, and you need not fear my thoughtfulness of your mistress's business. I have a spur in my heart and soul to that business.
Mr. Rich. Bradshaw, the English resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
But that I heard from others you were on the mendinge hand, I should have doubted the increase of your malady, by reason I heard not from you last post. It's much wondered at heere, that theise letters brought not newse of the arrivall of the convoys with the provissions, there havinge nine dayes past from the tyme of theire departure hence to the date of those letters: but I hope they are safe, beinge wee heare not of the contrary from the enemie. Wee heare not yet of the arrivall of de Witt, though it's long since hee left the Sound. My letters from the Hague say, that an expresse was gone to stay him upon the coaste of Norway, till Opdam were ready to meete him out of the Texell. If wee have a considerable strength at sea, wee may probably lye betwixt them, to deale with them, before they joyne. By my weekely letters since the shipps departed, you have seene, that I am at a stand in the provideinge of more powder for want of money; but I suppose your next will inclose me a letter from the commissioners, and let me know the councell's pleasure touchinge my returne to accompt the Danish businesse; alsoe if my money be paid to Mr. Waynewright, which hee still denyes the receipt of. I shall not inlarge before I heare from you, but remayne.
Extract out of the secret register of the resolution of their high mighty and lordships the States General of the United Provinces.
Received a letter from the lords Beverning and Vande Perre, their lordships commissioners in England, written in Westminster, the—of this month to the greffier Ruysch, whereupon it being debated, it is thought sit and understood herewith to authorize the said lords commissioners, together with the lords Nieuport and Jongestall likewise their lordships commissioners now at present in this country, who by express letters shall be desired without delay to return into England with all speed, and to reiterate to the government there such projects of accommodation, and for a firm alliance and near union, as their lordships can draw and form out of their former instructions and amplifications thereof; as also the resolutions and letters of this state, which they have had formerly for the beginning of a good alliance, and near union, and consequently as may serve for the concluding thereof; and that they do likewise debate the projected coalition with such reasons as they shall be able to apply, as to lay open the impossibility thereof. They are also desired to return an answer with all speed of their transactions, that so there may be resolutions taken here accordingly. Furthermore it is resolved concerning the reparation, satisfaction, and security, to persist as formerly in their lordships resolution of the 5th of June last past, taken upon that subject.
Extract out of the register of the secret resolutions of their high and mighty lordships the States General of the United Provinces the 21st Oct. 1653. [N. S.]
Received a letter of the lords Beverning and Vande Perre, the lords commissioners in England, writ in Westminster the—of this month to their lordships, whereupon being debated, it is thought fit and understood, that the lords Nieuport and Jongestall shall return into England with all speed, to offer to the government there to proceed upon a treaty of near alliance, as hath formerly been made known to their lordships commissioners out of former instructions resolutions and letters; and that the said commissioners would make known thus much to the government there, thereby to know their pleasure therein, and afterwards to give speedy notice thereof to their high and mighty lordships, that so they may resolve further about it accordingly.
The States General of the United Netherlands to the Dutch commissioners at London.
We have thought fit for the service of the states herewith to make known unto you, that we upon the subject of the negotiation there, have already taken a resolution yesterday, which shall be brought over unto you very suddenly by the lords Nieuport and Jongestall. You shall make it known where it ought to be, and especially to the lord of Bordeaux Neufville, ambassador of France there residing; whereupon we rely, and commit you to the protection of the Almighty. In the Hague, the 22d October 1653. [N. S.]
A memorial of the Swedish resident to the States General.
The resident of Sweden hath accordingly sent to her royal majesty, his most gracious queen, that writing, which their lordships were pleased to give him on the first of September last past, in answer to his interative request, that their lordships would pass an act of declaration, whereby her royal majesty's subjects, notwithstanding their high and mighty lordships placart of the 5th of December 1652 against the carrying of contraband goods therein mentioned, may be permitted to trade and pass unmolested to all such countries and harbours, with which her majesty doth stand in neutrality, and especially to England and Ireland, with all such forts of merchandizes. But by reason in that answer, which their lordships have been pleased to give, her majesty hath taken no content nor satisfaction, she hath therefore commanded me the said resident de novo once more to make known to their high and mighty lordships the justice of the said request, as being not only conformable to the treaty between her royal majesty and their high and mighty lordships, made in the year 1640 and in the year 1644 amplified more at large; but also equal to the mutual amity and good correspondence, which hath been always between both, and is to continue so. Moreover her majesty's subjects have always and in all places had and enjoyed the same liberty hitherto. That which is alledged against it out of the sixth article of the said treaty is of no weight, because that article doth clearly and only speak de non invadendo hoste; that chiefly the one confederate shall give no assistance to the other's enemies. But because this might not be too far extended, it is expresly restrained with great consideration, and afterwards explained in the seventh article, containing this signification, that the former article is to be understood with this sense and meaning, that it shall be free for both sides subjects to exercise their trade to all places without exception, una cum subditis hostium, except only to such places, which are assaulted and surrounded with a formal siege.
Their high and mighty lordships themselves do set down in the treaty of the sea affairs made with the king of Spain anno 1650, all manner of pitch, hemp, tar, and such like commodities out of the number of contraband, which if they be taken for such now, there would be hardly any commodities in her majesty's territories, which might not fall under the notion of contraband good, whereby the navigation and commerce of all her majesty's subjects would be utterly ruined.
What further concerneth that, which their high and mighty lordships alledge in the said answer, that the present government of England would be reinforced by such favour, as also animated not only to act against the United Provinces, but all Christendom; which if rightly considered, their high and mighty lordships themselves do not much apprehend, since out of these lands themselves by permission and knowledge of their lordships, these merchandizes, which are called counterband, are daily exported in great quantities to neutral places, from whence they are afterwards easily transported for England, wherewith it is manifest that England is sufficiently provided, and is not like to want for the time to come. Neither likewise is it her majesty's intention hereby to give occasion of prolonging this war, for that will clearly appear by this, for at the beginning thereof she sent the lord Lagerfelt into England, as also myself here to propound her mediation between both. In which good intentions her majesty doth continue, as well by reason of the alliance, as also out of a singular inclination to the common, and especially this state's rest and peace. Wherefore her majesty doth firmly believe, that their high and mighty lordships will no longer scruple to pass the said act of declaration, but also lay to heart the well-intended offer of mediation, as being the first means, whereby to cause these troubles to cease, and consequently to remove those disputes, which do arise about the carrying of contraband goods. Given in the Hague, the 12th of October, 1653.
A paper from the Spanish ambassador.
Haviendo visto el memorial incluso que me sue presentado por diversos vasallos del rey mi Sor mercaderes del intercurso que residen en esta ciudad de Londres por causa del comercio, con los diversos ordenes annejos del parlamento en orden al mantenimiento de sus privilegios, me hallo obligado de remitirle al honorable consejo de estado, no dudando que haviendole tomado en consideracion se servirà de dar la orden necessaria para que los dhos mercaderes puedan estar aqui libres & exemptos de todas tasas personales y contribuciones en la manera que lo han estado por lo passado pues en todos tpos los mercaderes aventureros Ingleses lo han estado y estan en los Payses Bajos, en que harà el consejo un acto muy conforme a justicia, y a la buena correspondencia que su magestad tiene con esta republica. Fha en Londres a 22/12 de Ottubre, 1653.
Col. Tho. Modyford to the lord general Cromwell.
May it please your excellency,
A Person, whose heart is full of desire to serve his nation, must needs vent something. Let that necessity therefore procure your gracious pardon for the trouble, which the inclosed paper shall give you, and be pleased to beeleeve my tounge is not fuller of words, then my hands shal bee of action in my countries service. I presume your excellency hath long ere this received the publique suffrages of this iland, which had much sooner kissed your hands, had they not beene obstructed partly through negligence, but principally through the opposition of those, who, in relation to the trust reposed by your excellency in them, should have forwarded the same, but their affections have at length broke through al impediments. The reality whereof your excellency may bee confident they wil justifie to al the world, among whom bee pleased to owne
Your excellencie's most dutiful
and obedient servant,
Tho. Modyford (fn. 5).
The Dutch deputies to the council of state.
Les soubsignez deputez de mess. les Estats Generaux des Prov. Unies du Pays Bas requirent tres instamment mess. du conseil d'estat, de les gratifier de 4 actes de passeport & saus conduit pour les 4 navires, le William & Marget of Whitby, dont le maistre est appellé Ralph Raissels; le Saint Peter, dont le maistre est Peter Neys; le Fortuyn, dont le maistre est Charles Arenssen; & l'Angel Gabriel, dont le maistre s'appelle Peter Janssen: dont les trois premiers sont louez pour transporter en Hollande & le dernier vers Vlyssinge les malades, garçons & autres prisonniers montants au nombre de 300 ou environ, dont la delivrance a esté accordée avec mess. Whalley & Downing, commissaire & schoutmaistre generall. Faict à Westminster le 12/22 d'Octobre, 1653.