A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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A COLLECTION OF STATE PAPERS OF John Thurloe Esquire, &c.
Orders of the Protector.
Address being made to his highness the lord protector and his council by some inhabitants of Rhode island in Naragansetts bay, touching several matters, wherein they pray relief, his highness and the council have thought fit to make known their resolutions by a letter; a copy whereof is here inclosed, wherein you may observe his highness's tenderness, as of their just freedoms, so of your rights and liberties; for the intire preservation whereof you may expect from hence a continued care on all occasions. By that letter you will perceive his highness and the council's determination as to the said inhabitants freedom of trade, they behaving themselves inoffensively, and their better security from surprisal by your making war upon their neighbour natives, without giving them seasonable notice; in which points your conformity and concurrence is desired, and will be expected. Besides which it is recommended to you, that loving and friendly correspondence may be maintained betwixt you and them in all things, that may contribute to the common advantage and benefit of the whole; which will be well becoming, as you are countrymen, members of the said commonwealth, and professors of the same hope.
It hath pleased God, who disposeth of the governments and affairs of the world, according to his wife and holy will, (after some other alterations) to put the legislative authority of this commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions thereto belonging, into the hands of a lord protector and the people assembled in parliament; and the exercise of the chief magistracy and administration of government into the hand of the said lord protector, assisted with a council. It hath pleased the same wisdom, to intrust the said office of lord protector with Oliver Cromwell, captain general of the forces of this commonwealth, who hath been so eminently used by God as an instrument in his hand, for redeeming the publick interests thereof; and whom God doth, and, we doubt not, will further use for the settling and advancing of the great concernments of religion and civil liberty: in the fruit and benefit whereof your interest being involved, (the colonies wherewith you are intrusted being part of the dominions of this commonwealth) the council have thought fit to give you this notice, and to send you printed copies both of the government establish'd, as also of the council's proclamation for publishing his said highness, the present lord protector; which as it hath been publish'd in the several parts of this nation, and elsewhere within this commonwealth, so the council do order and require, that forthwith after receipt hereof you cause the same to be proclaimed in the most eminent places within your respective governments; as also that in all your legal writs and proceedings, wherein was used the name of the keepers of the liberty of England by authority of parliament, the name of the lord protector be used, as is more fully expressed in the instrument intituled, The government of the commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland; wherein you will find a happy foundation (by the blessing of God upon it) of an increase of peace and honour to the whole commonwealth, in which you may expect your portion.
A Representation having been made to his highness and his council, that some differences are depending betwixt some of the New England governments and yourselves, about bounds and other matters, the same are put under consideration, and will in due time be determined. In the mean while, his highness and the council have thought fit to let you know, that they are and will be very tender of your just liberties, and be ready to give you protection and encouragement in the ways of order, peace, and righteousness; the punctual pursuance of which ends is specially recommended to you, as that whereby you will best provide for your own comfort and quiet, and give the clearest respect, both to the honour of your country and to religion. And that you may not want those fit advantages, which may conduce to the more chearful subsistence and ingenuous maintenance of yourselves and families, his highness and the council are content, that all such of you as are not under the censure of banishment, by the sentence of any of the former governments of New England, may enjoy the freedom of ingress, egress, and regress, in, to, and from their several plantations, for trade with those other colonies, and upon other necessary occasions; you demeaning yourselves peaceably and inoffensively, and with due respect to the common interest of all other plantations; to the governments whereof a letter will be dispatched to that purpose, as also to signify his highness's pleasure, that in case they shall determine of a war with your neighbour natives, seasonable notice shall be given you of such their resolution, that you may the better prepare for preventing of danger and surprisal to yourselves. And further, his highness and the council do hereby declare, that if you shall by your own industry discover any new banks within ten leagues of Rhode island, you shall enjoy the benefit of the fishing there, without the intermeddling or interruption of the Dutch or French. At present his highness and the council will add no more, but to desire you so to manage the government and other affairs among yourselves, as may best manifest your esteem of equal justice, your desires and endeavours to preserve a friendly and faithful correspondence with the neighbour plantations, and your affection to the honour of this commonwealth, whereof you are members; and particularly not to harbour, entertain, or countenance any malefactors, who after misdemeanours committed shall for declining the justice of any of the said four governments, make escape, and fly to you for shelter and protection; but to render them up to the law.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
This day the king of France treats the king of Scots. His business goes admirably well with Holland; he is resolved to depart from hence very suddenly. Here is a rumor, but I cannot believe it, that the prince of Conde hath proposed an alliance to your protector between their families.
An intercepted Letter.
Having this convenient opertunity by this gentiellman, that was with me at your house, which I beleeve will see you, if he can have opertunity, I beseech you excuse mee, that I did not waite upon you, before wee wentt from Durham. I make noe doubt, but you heard the occasion of our suden departure, which was for feare of being discovered by sum in Durham, which had nottis of us; which occasion forst mee to leave all my thinges with coll. Forcer. I thanke God, now, after a sharp travaill, wee have recovered the Port of Saffty heare amongst the Hielanders. I hope this next sumer wee shall be with you in Bishobrige. I thanke God, our armie doth encrease every day, and doth expect the gentillman from behind sea ourly. Soe, with my humbell service to your selfe and your husband, tho' unknowne, in hast I rest
From the Hielands, first of Jan. 1653.
Letters of intelligence.
The states of the empire doe urge much att all sessions conclusum ratione ordinis materiarum tractandarum, alledging that noe other business ought to come into consideration, before the first article of the imperiall proposition (unto which the choice capitulation doth also belonge) bee fully absolved. To day the said states were takeing councel about the Bremish businesse, as also the violent and hostile invasion of the Lorrainers in the dukedome of Luttich, which is taken for so great an affront to the R. empire, that it is thought they will bee forced to revenge it.
From hence noe newes at all since my last, but that some dayes agoe there arose a vehement fire within this cittie, which consumed a good many houses, and would have been more considerable, if by God's mercy the king's majestie and his cheife noblemens speciall care and watchfullness, the timely extinction of the fire had not prevented further danger. We can have no certaintie of the Dutch intention, whether they will bee mindfull of, and include us in the agreement with England or noe; but are very jealous of them, fearing that they will lurch us att last.
Some dayes agoe newes came to this cittie by an expresse out of Poland, how that betweene the king of the Tartars and Cossacks a firme peace and union was concluded; which newes by the ordinary post is confirmed, and thereby advised, that the said peace was made by the lord palatine of Russia Castel Sendomer grand marshall and grand chancellor, with the great visir and cham, the Tartars having engaged themselves to assist this crowne with all their power and strength, whensoever they shall have need of them.
A letter of intelligence sent to secretary Thurloe.
I have just now beene with that party I formerly acquainted you with, who tells me, that he hath seene a letter dated January 2. stilo novo, out of Holland, from Mr. Gervis Hollis, which came inclosed in the Dutch ambassador's packet, that hints, that if they had had theire deputyes home againe, they needed not to fear a peace; for that the Dutch hath taken a large survey where theire principal interest lyeth, which (sayth the letter) they have not wanted directions for that purpose; but theire cheife ground is from the present distemper in England. He likewise sayth, that he the said Gervis Hollis hath beene a long time studious; but before the sunne get to his height, he hopes to see him on his knees before his lawfull soveraigne. Here's more letters from France, which I shal afterwards acquaint [you] with, since in this juncture of time I thought this more necessary.
Capt. John Hill to col. Robert Lilburne.
I Have given you an account of the enemie's first advance to this countrey; but through the basenes of the people my bearer was discovered by the enemy, and taken by them, but not my letters; and Kenmore caused him to be burnt both hands and feete in a most barbarous and cruell manner, to cause him to confesse what he has done with my letters, which notwithstanding hee refused to doe; and yesterday beeing appointed for his execution within sight of this garrison, a deepe sleepe fell upon his guard, soe that hee escaped their hands, and came backe to mee. Kenmore and Glencairne marched in by the way of Strethspey, and Glencairne, Lorne, Mac Keldney, and some of Mac Gregor's men with the rest of the gange, Atholl being left behinde, marched in by the head of this country, and joyned their forces within three miles of this garrison, where Glencairne now quarters. At their approach to this place, Glencairne sent me a letter, stuffed with Scotch compliments, the coppie whereof, together with my answer, as also his letters to the countrey gentlemen, are inclosed. There hath falln out some discontent betweene Glencairne and Lorne about the men of this countrey, Lorne saying, that hee, by reason they were his men, ought as well to have the orderinge and disposall of them as the earl of Atholl had of his; but Glencairne told him, that although his father tooke up the rents of the country, the men were the marquis of Huntley's, and that Lorne had nothinge to doe with them, but he would use them as he pleased: whereupon high wordes arose between them, and Glencairne offered to drawe his sword, and Lorne went away in great rage, swearing, that rather then he would see his owne people abused by Glencairne, hee would lose his life; and thereupon drew to the other side of the water from Glencairne, and Mac Keldney, with some of Mac Gregor's men, and about 60 horse with them, and sent the inclosed in all haste to the gentlemen of the countrie; but some of them, fearinge it might be some plott, did not answer his desires. I sent a letter, the copy whereof is also inclosed, to some, that went to him, knowing that they shew whatever letters I direct to them. Yesterday Glencairne had a rendezvous about four miles off on the north side of the river, and Lorne with Mac Keldney, and what others he had with him, were drawn upon the south side of the river well nighe in opposition, and the whole number was not above 1500 horse and foote. The last night Lorne and colonel Meynes with six horse left all and fled. Glencairne presentlie sent a partie of horse after him, to apprehend him. Had Lorne stayed, and concurred with them, this countrie for the moste parte would have gone this way; but this difference had put most of them to a stand, and some of them are fled to Invernes and other parts, to secure themselves. Parties of horse and posts are directed every way, for the apprehending of Lorne. The enemie take up all the horses they can, and expect some troopes. They are worke-horses and poore countrey beasts without shoes; and their foote poore starven fellowes, manie of them havinge noe other armes but cudgills, and those that have armes have no ammunition; and they are full of feare, soe that had we but 600 horse and foote here at this time, we might in all probability put them to their best shifts to escape our hands. They use the countrey somewhat hardly, especially since Lorne's departure; and that same night the difference was betweene them, Glencairne in a despightfull manner removed his quarters to Ballachrone, where the bailiff's interest lyes, and I heare hath left little there, which could either be eaten or carried away. I am informed, that the laird of Grant (although he hath not personally appeared with them) hath sent divers letters to them; and further my intelligence sends, that the enemy intend, when they have eaten up this country, (which will not be long at the rate they devour) to separate; to witt, Glencairne to march northwards towards Inverness, Ross, and Cathness, and Kenmore towards Aberdeen. What is become of Lorne's men, I cannot yet certainly hear; but the flying report is, that they are dispersed. The enemy keep guards on the other side of the water at the Kirke-towne within lesse then twice musquet-shott of the castle. We cannot get over to them, by reason of the ice. Since I began to write, my intelligence assures me, that the occasion of Lorne's so sudden flight was, that after he fell out with Glencairne, the same night he sent a letter to me to advise me, where I might fall upon Glencairne's men with best advantage; but his bearer, proving false, carried his letter to Kenmore; whereupon they drew up part of their army that way, thinking to take him that night; and soe he fled as aforesaid. They have imprisoned seven or eight of the chief gentlemen that were with him. It is also said, that Lorne posted away a letter to his father, acquainting him with his condition, and that he was coming unto him. The braymen of this countrey doe close with the enemy. This is all at present from
Ruthven castle, Jan. 2. 1653.
An intercepted letter from Dunkil in Athol.
Thes are to let you know, we got safe to the Hilands with our party, where we mett with a very hansome army of ours, which doth consist of nyne or ten thousand good men, soe that I hope ere long we shall be able to visite your borders; so that I would desire you to tel all our freindes, that are honest, of our condishon, and to incourage what freindes you can to come to us, before the king comes, which will be very much to thare advantage. Sir, you spoke to me as concerninge my lord Reye; but he is not yet come to our army; but when he comes, I shall not faile to speake with him aboute your busnes. Soe desiring you will remember my humbel servis to your wife, your sone in law, and my deare freind his good lady, and to honest Babtis and to all the rest of my friendes, I rest in haste, as being harde by the ennymy,
Your faithful servant
A paper sent by Dolman to the Dutch deputies, concerning Denmark.
That restitution and satisfaction beinge made in all questions, differences, - - - - and hostilitie betweene the state of England and the said king, by reason of the said detention, shall cease and be utterly forgotten; and the said king with his countreys and dominions shall be received as a friend into this league and confederation, in such manner, that he shall be in the same friendship and amitie with both states, as he was in before the said determination, or as if the same had never beene; and his deputies or ambassadors admitted with honour, as the deputies of other states in amitie are.
An intercepted letter from Scotland.
The knowlige I have of your goodness, and the confidence I have of it to me, doth incourage me to request a large favour from you; that is, that you would be pleas'd to send me by this bearer your bay guilding; and what price soever you set upon him, shall be faithfully paid you, when it shall please God to send us a merry meeting, which I hope will be by April next; for beleave it from your freind, there was never greater hops of reduction from our slavery then now; for when the leavies is compleated, which will be by March next, I am confident we shall be 20,000 foot and 5000 horse. Middleton is expected suddenly to land with armes and ammynesion, and my lord Kenmore has marched whith most of the armey into the north of Scotland, to secure him from the ennemy. The army at this present is 10,000 foot and 1800 horse. Coll. Wogan, who invited me into Scotland, and hath since given me a troope in his regiment, doth assure me, that the kinge will be in Scotland this spring with 3000 Dutch horse and tenn thousand foote. My obligations already is soe greate to your selfe and noble lady, whose vertues is such, that I hope I may presume for a pardon for my neglect, in not waiting upon her in your absence. I pray pardon my attempt, and mistake me not; for I doe not, as the coustome is, take this ocasion to blazon your worth; I doe but only shadow out my obligations for the noble favours received of you, and noe more. I pray recommend me affectionatly to your good lady, your father and mother in law, and all the rest of my—at Hurworth or elsewhere. Be confident, I am
Dunkells in the earldome of Athol, the 4th of Jan. 1653.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Yours of the 29th of December cam to me a litel before the post pairted; so I am forced to answeer it breifly. First, I shall have a care to find out your converted Jew, and give him your letter; and next I shal desyre the deade man's freinde to doe as you desyre for som weekes. He desires to know, whither he shall wryte in English or Frenche. He understands both, and is dayly at the court of both nations, who equally feares the peace betweene the two republicks. He told me this day, that it is reported, that the duke d'Enguien, the prince of Condé his only son, is to marry your protecteur his daughter, and that socours is to be sent from thence to that prince. It is certane, that the beforesaid peace will be most unsavory newes heere. The busines of Catalognia goes wel for the French, by the advantage the mareshal de Hocquincourt hath had in putting socours in Roses: also in Germany, the garinson of Philipsburgh having declared for the king, and opposed the governour placed by the counte de Harcourt, who being in person in Brisach, begins to be affrayed of a revolt there; which this court knowinge, in place of many greate offers formerly made to the count de Harcourt, wile now scarcely (though his cousin the duc of Guys labour hard) treat with him. The bailly de Valency, ambassadeur at Rome, is coming from thence; and it is said heer, that the duc de la Vieuville, who hath a good purse, is to be sent there. Yesterday one Sir Alexander Straughan, laird of Thornton in Scotland, was broken on a wheele, for murdering one Burnet a Scotch gentleman, whom he killed to have his money. The said Straughan, being a gentleman, was condemned by the ordinary juges to have his head cut of; but he apealed to the parliament, and they gave sentence, that he should be broken; but was strangled first.
Mr. B. his only daughter, and most of his papers, are in my house, and the rest at
Rouen, to be sent by his order to London, before he fell sicke at Diep; for the day after
he took his bed, and was blooded, he never had his senses: but I have caused stay al his
bookes and coffers, that are at Rouen, and have written to his sisters in Holland, that
nothing shall be lost; and so I shall have a care, that his papers shall be secured, and
disposed on as you or any you thinke they concerne apoyntes. This day a counsellor of
the parlement of Bourdeaux shewed me a letter from thence, wherein he makes mention
of some clouds rayseing there, and great aperence of new troubles. They attribut that
alreadie to the hopes of the English and Dutch peace. The last weeke the court did
intend to remove from Paris; one said, to Normandy; another, to the Bourgoyne; and the
third, to Lyons; yet they doe not stirr, nor I believe wil not this winter. The duc of
Longueville had, as they said, no mynde to com to court, though he be sent for, because
he had notice, that some of the prince de Conti his servants had sent a copie of the duc his
letter he wrote to the said prince to dissuade him from marriing one of the cardinal's
neeces. How true this is, I cannot answeere; but I am assured, that the mareschal de la
Ferté hath besieged Befort, and hath power to treat with the counte de Harcourt, being
intire friends: yet the bussiness of Phillipsburg wil mak the winter conditions worse. Let
me know, if you can read my wrytinge, or if you lyke the folding of my letter; and as you
apoynt, it shall be; as I am
Your most affectionate frend and servant,
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Le 10/31 du courant passe, qui estoit le jour de ma depesche precedente, le duc d'Espernon donna a disner chez luy a Charles Stuart, a ses deux freres, & seigneur Jermin, lesquels il traicta en vaisselle d'or; & ce soir la il y surent aussy regalez par le cardinal Mazarin en l'hostel de sa eminence. Ce mesme jour les chambres de ce parlement s'estans assemblées sur diverses plaintes, rendirent deux arrests, l'un portant cassation d'un nouvel impost, qu'on signeroit de lever de 12 sols pour cent de foing, qui entroit dans Paris, & l'autre diffense, a qui que ce soit de s'attroupper en cette ville sous aucun pretexte; mais cela n'a pas empesche que les rentiers ne ses soient depuis assemblez pour former des oppositions au retranchement du demy quartier, que vous avez sceu leur resultat abouti a des supplications; & comme mons. le cardinal ne les a point voulu recevoir directement, refusant toujours l'audience, ils ont employé le mareschal de l'Hospital gouverneur de Paris, Mr Bellieure, premier president de parlement, & le garde des seaux de France pour l'impetrer.
Le 11/1 une veuve, dont le mary est mort au service de roy, estant allée supplier la reyne de luy accorder le survivance de la charge de son dit mary pour en disposer, sa majesté lui dit de s'addresser a monseigneur le cardinal, au quel leurs majestiez remettoient tout le soin de l'administration; & que pour elle, elle ne pensoit plus qu'a prier Dieu.
Le 12/2 monsieur de Bellieure fut trouver le dit cardinal suivant le desire des rentiers, & obtint de luy, aprez luy avoir remonstré les inconveniences qui pourroient arriver du mescontentement des dits rentiers, que le prevost des merchands feroit derechef ouy sur ce sujet, dont on envoya advertir par une lettre de cachet les chambres au dit parlement, dites des enquestes, comme elles estoient assemblées.
Mais quelques uns des dits rentiers ne laisserent pas d'aller en mesme temps trouver le comte de Servien, qui refusant de leur parler, sut par eux rencontré sur le pas de sa porte, comm'il reconduisoit hors de sa maison l'ambassadeur de Portugal, (qui venoit de conserer avec luy) & receut leurs plaintes par force. II respondit, qu'il faloit s'addresser a sa eminence, non pas a luy. Mais eux repliquerent, qu'ils n'avoient rien pressé a ce cardinal, & qu'estant estranger, il ne scavoit peut estre pas seulement ce qui leur estoit deu; sur quoy les ayans menacez, qu'ils estoient bien hardis, & devoient craindre que sa majestie ne s'en ressentit, & les sit punir, ils alleguerent, qu'on ne pouvoit les mieux matter & mortifier, que l'on facit en ne les payant point, & se retirerent mal avec luy.
Le 13/3 le dit prevost des merchands, & le sindic des dits rentiers surent au Louvre, suivant l'ordre, & a l'heure portez par la dite lettre de cachet, ou le seignr de Sanitot les introduisit devant leurs majestiez, sa eminence presente avec Mr le chancelier entr'autres, qui prenant d'abord la parole, tesmoignent sort elegamment de la part du roy le grand desplaisir qu'avoit sa majestie d'estre obligée a s'appliquer le demy quartier, qu'ils demandent. Il s'appuy de force excuses sur l'estat present des affaires, ou la France avoit plus sujet que jamais d'user de precaution contre ses ennemyes, & particulierement contre ceux du dehors; a quoy le dit prevost sit une fort belle response, sur la necessité des dits rentiers, qui ne vivent pour la plupart d'autre chose que de ces rentes la, & sur les grands moyens que le roy a de s'en passer, &c. selon l'enumeration qu'il fit de ses revenues. Mais en sin on leur dit le plus civilement & delicatement qu'on put, que sa dite majestie avoit a faire de ce demy quartier, & qu'elle esperoit, que ce ne seroit plus que pour cette annee, leur promettant sa majestie en soy & parole de roy, que jamais on ne toucheroit a la demye année; dont ils se contenterent l'année passée.
Letters of intelligence.
You have herewith the traduction of the last letter of the deputies of the States general in England to their masters, of the 6h instant, and arrived here but yesterday morning. You may see by it, how little account they give of their negotiation in England. I would not send it, but to the end you may believe they give no account here, as expected, to the great admiration of the states general, not writing at this time one word of the negotiation. This their affected silence is very much resented by the states general, and a sharp reprehension by this post will be sent to them.
The party of the prince of Orange, and the other provinces but Holland, have taken a great jealousy of these proceedings, the rather that the deputy Jongestall has by his particular letters complained to his principals of Beverning and Nieuport going alone several times to Cromwell and the English commissioners, without him, which is not usual; and that he asking them, Wherefore they did so? they told him, It was in order to some particular business concerning their own province of Holland, without prejudice to any of the rest of the provinces; they acted alone. There is some mystery in the matter, that these two deputies of Holland proceeded so; for it is certain and without question, they exceeded at least their instructions, and were not so qualified as to conclude any treaty with that commonwealth; and if they have done any, it was against their instructions. And it is admired you would treat with them, till you had been satisfied of their power to treat and conclude. But now they say here, it is the being and safety of your lord protector to make a peace with these States upon any terms; and therefore they doubt not here, they may have a peace at their own rates; and so you shall find they will keep up the market with you.
In the mean while the French ambassador cannot proceed further, the States here expecting the conclusion of the peace or treaty with England; and many here would have the league with France to go on, without looking upon the peace with England.
A great storm lately happened in the port of Texel, wherein about 16 ships perished; one of which of the East Indies, with above 200 men in her; three other ships of war, and all the rest merchant-men.
Here is a constant bruit of great matters done in Scotland against the English; but because you write no such matter, I do not give credit to it, nor many more. Those that are for R. C. here, do expect a breach betwixt the two commonwealths, and then to come in ranting, that if Holland will take Cromwell's quarrel against Charles, they will do strange things, &c.
A traduction of the letter of the deputies of the state in England, written to the said states from Westminster, the 6th of January, 1654. [N. S.]
Mighty high lords,
Since we dispatched our last letter with the prisoners set at liberty, many more have resorted hither from divers parts of this country, so that we could not choose but to freight for their transportation to the Maese a small Flemish ship called the Fortune, whereof Jacob Gyrelynck of Dunkirk is master, for the sum of 500 florins; and for victualling expences of the said men, we have agreed as before, with a merchant called Roel of Grostein, to give him eight-pence per diem for every head, and that for eight days, notwithstanding the voyage should not so long continue; and so we have ordered, that a due list be made of the names of the men to be shipped in the said ship, and the same to be delivered at their departure to the said merchant, with attestation therewith, which contained the day they entered into the ship, and their number, giving in charge to the said merchant, that at the landing of the said men at Rotterdam, or any other part of the Maese, a declaration should be made the very day of their arrival; and at the exhibition of the said attestation, we humbly desire your high mightinesses will be pleased to give such orders, as the said master and merchant may speedily be paid for the freight and expences, &c.
Extract of a letter of M. de Bordeaux, the French resident in England, to M. de Brienne, secretary of state in France.
Peu de personnes pouvoient s'imaginer, que les deputez de M. M. les estats generaux se retirassent, comme ils firent hier, sans conclurre leur traité apprestant d'apparence d'une mutuelle disposition à la paix. L'on etoit demeuré d'accord des points principaux, que pouvoient y faire obstacle; neantmoins l'article, qui semblat recevoir moins de difficulté, a destruit toutes les apparences que l'on avoit de cet accommodement, & la seule consideration du roi de Dannemarc est aujourdhui capable d'entretenir la guerre avec plus d'aigreur que jamais. M. le protecteur veut bien, qu'il soit consideré comme confederé & ami, moiennant la restitution des vaisseaux & marchandises par lui arrestez; mais non pas que l'on se serve de ce mot de comprendre. Les dits seigneurs deputez, pour eviter loutes equivoques, & rendre cet article plus net, ne se sont pas contentez de ses expressions, & ont voulu user de ce meme terme, declarant que quand meme il ne seroit pas compris dans le traité, les provinces unies seroient obligées de l'aider, si l'Angleterre lui faisoit la guerre sous quelque pretexte.
An intercepted letter.
The day before the last parliament dissolved themselves, I wrote to you, and desired the doctor to inclose it in his, and he sent it in the signior's packett; but it seemes it was not received at the writing of yours of the 24th December. Since that time wee have beene doing things, in order to the settlement of our lord protector. For the government, where first it ran in the king's name, and after in the name of the keepers of the libertyes, now it goes in the name of the lord protector; so that the lawes and the courts are now like to stand. There is an ordinance of about twelve sheetes of paper, touching the articles or resolves made by the councell of officers upon the choosing the lord protector, and his highnes oath to governe according to the lawes and his highnes discretion, with the advise of his councell, till Sept. the 3d next, when the next parliament is to begin. This is so long, that I durst not send it for the charge. His highnes is not yet come to Whitehall; 200,000l. is settled upon him yerely: he is choosing officers of state. It is thought, that the lords wil be sent for to attend him at court, to acknowledge and submitt to the government; and wee heare that playes are goeinge up againe, and that things had beene coming to the old rode; but that the Dutch ambassadors are gone without any conclusion (as wee heare) on Tuesday last, which rather putts things backe; for if wee had agreed, wee should have suppressed the anabaptists, but now must something cajole them, least danger may be to the state by their meanes, and the papists and prelaticall partie; yet it is supposed, that if it can be well contrived, all partyes shal be fedd with some hopes, and be kept downe, and busy themselves in verball oppositions against one another, and not against the pilot at sterne; and then wee shall be able to send forces to the north, to quell the lord Glencarne in Scotland, which is 20,000 strong (as is given out). All things heer are in a calme, expecting what his hyghnes will settle, and what lawes he will make. All stand bare to him. I cannot yeet certifie you, what things wil be worth the bringing over. French casters, I suppose, wil be one comodity. Three have spoken to me for casters. Whether linnen be dearer here, or there, I know not. If peace had beene concluded, I suppose pictures, and landscapes, and perspective peices, would goe off well heere: if you coulde send over some few such pictures safely, I would try in the meane time; but how can you send safely? Wee are all well, God be thanked, and pray for you, and so I rest,
5 Jan. [1653.]
Secretary Thurloe to the Dutch deputies at London. (fn. 1)
By your letter of the 14th instant, his highnes hath received the seale of your satisfaction to his owne, that he hath done all apperteyninge unto hym to bringe this treaty to a happy close; and therefore nothinge could be more unexpected to his highnes, then to finde on your part the delayes therein mentioned; the evill consequences whereof beinge in noe sort to be put upon his account, he will be enabled, by what he hath done, to acquit hymselfe before God and men. And this beinge all I have in command from his highnes, I rest 5 Janu. 53.
General Disbrowe and general Blake to the protector.
Maie it please your highnesse,
Two of the lords deputies, viz. Newport and Beverning, have this daie been at the lady Ashley's neere Maidstone, and returned about six a clock this evening; since which time coll. Doleman hath been with us, and acquaints us, that all is agreed unto by the deputies, and that so much hath been signified by them in a letter to your highness, and that they doubt not but a confirmation wil be sent from their masters by the same frigott, that wasts them over. Wee replied, that wee could not order her to stay any time upon that coast, without your highnesses directions; and therefore asked him, Whether any such desire had been represented from them in their letter, or any answer returned thereunto? He tould us, there was not; soe that we shall forbeare giving any such orders, unlesse we receive your highnesses pleasure therein. Wee understand by Doleman, that they intend to goe on board to morrow. The Amitie being in the Hope, we have appointed her to receave them in, and transport them for Holland; which they seem rather to accept of then the Paragon, she draewing less water. Wee intend to tarry heere most parte of to morrow, and shal be readie to receive any commands from your highness; which shal be observed by Your highnesse Gravesend, 5 Jan. 1653.
Cardinal Mazarin to the states general of the United Provinces.
My Lords, &c.
By this I doe give answer to yours of the 13th November, and of the 2d of December the last yeere. This touchinge the takeinge of the shipps the Sun and the Hope by our shipps of warr, I have to tell you thereupon, that we labour, that you may receave satisfaction therein, accordinge to your owne desires; and that I shall neither spare my pains nor credit towardes it. It is not difficult to serve you here, by reason of the good will and affection the king has to all that concerneth you. But give me leave to tell you, that this good will and intention of the part of his majestie deserveth of your part the like correspondence; which ought to be cultivated by his majesties frendes and allyes with real and effectual testimonies of sincere recognisance.
I have explained myselfe at large upon these points to the lord Boreel, your ambassador;
to which I shall not add any thinge at present, but a true protestation, that I am alwaies in
my owne particular,
Paris, the 16th Jan. 1654.
Beuningen, the Dutch ambassador in Sweden, to the states general. (fn. 2)
By reason that I was informed by the last letters from Elsenore, that the English men of war, which transported the ambassador, were still remaining at Gottenburg, and hindred the putting out to sea some Holland merchant-men, who had desired in vain of the magistrate, that the English should be kept in, till they had been a day at sea; I have therefore made a new instance to the queen, to the end some course and order might be taken against this, that so the English may not prejudice the navigation of your H. and M. L. and the whole commerce of the east sea. That which her majesty answered to this, was, that we should believe, that they were not inclined here yet to any resolution, which might be taken for offence by the English, but to observe a strict neutrality; which shall be left as free to the one as the other. I hereupon demonstrated the proper interest of this crown, as well in regard of the trade at Gottenburg, as that which is driven upon the east sea; as also the inconveniencies, which may arise from thence, in case your H. and M. L. should likewise send men of war thither; also declaring unto her majesty, how that the English do use this practice, not only to make their advantage, but also to put and breed jealousies and distrust between this crown and their old friends: so then her majesty promised me to speak with the English ambassador, and to take such care, that all inconveniences may be thereby prevented; and she likewise promised me to give me in writing, what her majesty should resolve herein. I shall endeavour to effect this business to the best advantage of your H. and M. L. The English ambassador hath since his first audience, in one week, had four more; but the queen, whom I have spoken withal since his last, hath assured me, That (which were her own words) shall do her no harm; as also, That she could yet perceive nothing further by him, than that the English did only intend to obtain, that this crown should not resolve to their prejudice. The uncertainty, wherein the last letters out of England do put the issue of your H. and M. L. negotiation there, hath not afforded me any further occasion to speak with her majesty since about it; but I can assure you, H. and M. L. that they do here very much regard and look out what will be done between you and France. If the war continue, the merchants of Stockholm do intend to complain of the damages and wrongs done them by the English: and, as I am told, the same will amount to above three hundred thousand rixdollers. In the mean time it is the chiefest artifice of the English ambassador, to persuade people here into a belief, that their power is not to be overcome; and to that end he doth set forth in all his discourses the great advantages mentioned in my last. And it were to be wished, that since they take that course, that I were instructed with more particular advice than what I had sent me, to consute the same; for by his saying the queen was persuaded to believe, that the enemy had taken from your H. and M. L. and their subjects, since the war begun, 1400 ships.
The commissioner of the great duke of Muscovy hath had audience, and delivered to the queen a letter, wherein, I am told, was comprehended the notification of the war, which his master hath undertaken against the Polanders. He says also, the great duke is sending ambassadors to your H. and M. L. for whom he hath desired a pass here thro' Liesland. The rix chancellor is expected here to morrow.