A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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January (2 of 3)
Beuningen to the gressier Ruysch.
The queen prepares every thing for the execution of that great design, which she has meditated a long while, but at last firmly resolved upon, to lay down the government of the kingdom, and to resign the same to the duke Charles, who is now styled prince of Sweden. And it is believed, with the greatest appearance of truth, that the next summer will not expire, before the will of her majesty be intirely brought to bear. I am informed by a good hand, that the councils of the chamber are charged to examine the state of the kingdom, in order to find out the necessary fund, for the support of the queen, after the abdication of the crown; nay even that the queen for that purpose has proposed the revenues of Gothland, Oeland, Smalland, and Gottenburg; as likewise the tolls of Pomerania and Wismar. I leave it to your lordship's consideration, if this design of the queen will not give to her majesty great cause to chuse no side in the English war, neither for the one nor the other party; nor to engage herself in an enterprize of great charges and consequence: for besides that her majesty has declared to others, as also to me, that she would fain leave her kingdom in peace and tranquillity, there are a great many debts still to pay by the court; and her majesty intends, as soon as she has layd down the crown, to enter upon a great voyage out of the kingdom: for the one and the other, money is required; and in the bad state of the finances of the kingdom, the same is very hard to be found: so that it is very likely, that it will cost much trouble, as well in collecting the money, as in laying out the same. The princess, wife to my lord the count de la Gardie, has again attempted in vain the reconciliation of her husband with the queen; and has got this final answer, That it was impossible to undo what was done before in this affair. Four or five senators, that were resolved jointly to make some remonstrations to the queen in favour of the said lord the count, have thought best to let it alone. Herewith, &c.
Project of the lords states of Friesland. (fn. 1)
That for the ease of the frontiers, and not to suffer the same to run on any further, it will be necessary, that the companies of foot be doubled; namely, that those that are fifty strong, be made up 120 men; and those of one hundred to be 200: and for the effecting thereof, that out of the respective companies of foot, now in the service, there be so many companies formed, as in the annexed project and calculation is expressed more at large; insomuch that the number of the effective soldiers is to remain as it hath always been.
And by reason of the doubling of the companies of foot, many captains and less officers will happen to be cashiered and laid aside, that to the respective persons complete pensions shall be allowed them towards their maintenance, till such time as they shall be advanced; with permission, that they may in the mean time, with lawful knowledge of the government, serve under some other state, conditionally that they be bound to return to serve this state, when required.
That at first, for the doubling of the companies, and the filling up of the companies of foot, according to the number afore-mentioned, there shall be employed and counted those companies, which are already annulled; as also those, which by absence of the captains are held for vacant; and for the filling up of the number of companies, which will be yet remaining, and necessary for the filling up of the companies of foot, which are filled up to the number aforesaid, shall be proceeded by disbanding of so many captains, as shall be thought fit to be dispensed withal.
Of 15 companies of 100 men, is to be deducted from each company six persons, namely, the captain, lieutenant, cornet, clerk, chirurgeon, and provost; each company remaining still sixty strong; and the said companies being so reduced, and afterwards combined with 100 men each company, will be strong 125 men. And because our intention is but to make them 120 men over and above in each company, which in 100 companies will amount unto 500 men; from 89 companies, each of 50 men, is to be deducted from each company four persons, namely, the captain, lieutenant, cornet, and clerk; which will make in all 356 men: and then the said reduced companies being joined with the remaining 89 companies of 50 men, and there are 356 men more to be added thereunto, to make up the same company to the number of 100 men each, as followeth.
First, there was remaining in the first companies, taken at 120 men each, 500 men over and above, besides a whole company of 65 men. Now, take 90 men from the said 500, to supply 15 companies of 200 men, which wanted 90 men, to make up the just number; and also 356 men, to perfect the 89 companies of 100 men; which also fell short of so many: yet there remaineth the number of 54 men; which added to the said remaining companies of 65 men, the same do make the number of 119 men; which must have one man added to them. And after this manner you may find out the number of companies and men mentioned as before.
A letter of intelligence from Mons. Petit.
The report, that hath run here since my last of the 14/4 of this month, of the marriage of one of the daughters of his highness my lord protector with the duke of Enguien, son to the prince of Condé, doth seem to have so alarmed this court, together with the news that is published of another alliance of the same nature between the king of the Romans and the queen of Sweden; which should be privately negotiated by Mons. Pimentel, ambassador of Spain to that queen, to the prejudice of France; and withal added to all this, that the Holland ambassador hath at last acknowleged the conclusion of the treaty of peace between the two commonwealths; which news was sent him from Holland, the 14/4 of this month: but all this doth not hinder these gentlemen here from acting as courageously and absolutely in their affairs, whereas sweetness and gentleness would be more proper in a state, whose wounds are still bleeding. They are firmly resolved, not to pay the half quarter of the rents of Paris. They have forbidden the parliament of Paris to meddle with it any more; and they have likewise forbidden the rentiers to make any meeting, to demand their own. They do threaten Normandy with bad usage, if they will not suffer the establishment of the intendancy of justice; and for a general oblivion of all past misfortunes, they deny those of Bourdeaux the conditions, which the duke of Vendosme had given them in their last treaty of pacification; importing, that the tax of 2 escus, formerly raised upon every tun of wine, should be supprest; instead whereof they will increase it to an escu more; which hath very much discontented their deputies, who do threaten, that if this court will not make good the agreement, it will cause new inconveniences to happen to them by it.
The same day of the 14/4, Mons. the chancellor went to the palace, to persuade, that this parliament may proceed in the judgment of the trial of Mons. the prince, upon that instruction, which was already very far advanced; notwithstanding that the king was not present. Whereupon those of the king's party had given their resolutions, that that could not be according to the customs. It was at last agreed, that the deputies of that company should go, and make excuse to his majesty, and supplicate his majesty to be present in his bed of justice in such an extraordinary occasion, where it doth concern the condemnation of a prince of the blood.
The 15/5 we received letters from St. Menehould, bringing news and advice of some skirmishes, which had been between a party of that garrison and that of Clermont, where this last had had the worst; and that many soldiers of this last garrison had deserted the Spaniards, and were come over to the French, through necessity and want.
Here is a commissioner of the elector of Cologne come hither, to demand assistance against the Spanish troops, who have taken up their winter in these parts. He doth declare, that if his majesty doth not take some course for his protection, his said master will be obliged to make an accommodation with the archduke and the prince of Condé, who will force him to join with them. Whereupon Mons. de Crequi is sent into Normandy, to get some forces together, and to conduct them to the governor of Sedan, to dispose of them in favour of the elector.
Yesterday the pope's nuncio received an express from Rome; the message is not yet known. The said nuncio doth very much inquire after the affairs of Ireland, and how many bishops there be in that island, &c.
Beuningen, the Dutch embassador in Sweden, to Ruysch.
By all what I can learn, I do think I may safely assure their H. and M. L. that without some unexpected accidents, there is no harm to be expected from hence; yea, we may hope in all likelihood to find here more favour in moderate and small affairs, than the English; but to engage this crown on our side, and in a war against England, is not probable, nor likely, but altogether almost impossible: and yet, in case a firm league be made with France, and that through a vigorous equipage our affairs may be brought in likelihood of a good issue, it is not altogether desperate and unseasible: for if we act jointly with France here, we may do some good. But you must suppose, that to engage this crown in a war, there will be a want of subsidies. They have ships and provisions; but unless they are supplied with money, they will neither have opportunity nor inclination to employ them for the common interest. It is also not to be expected, that the queen will declare herself any further than she hath done, unless beforehand such conditions be offered her, whereby the war (to which she hath no inclination) may seem advantageous unto her; which ought to be taken into consideration by their H. and M. L. in case they have hope to do any good here; and especially the chiefest foundation to be laid for the effecting of that, which is material here, doth seem to rest upon what shall be concluded between France and their H. and M. L. For it is certain, that they will very much ponder here the resolution of France. But though all this do succeed well, yet the business will be full of difficulty; at least hitherto the rix chancellor faith, this crown doth intend to observe the neutrality, without siding or offending the one or the other party. And because I in my last audience spoke somewhat to a common alliance with Denmark, her majesty said, she had declared her intention as to that; but that the first overture was to be made on the behalf of their H. and M. L.
The ambassador of Denmark told me, that the intention of the king his master would go so far as to a defensive league. The queen doth seem to be very well disposed to what you writ to me to keep secret. She hath communicated to me herself, that shortly she will lay down her crown. The chancellor hath a great mind to the alliance with Denmark, and will be very powerful with the next successor of the queen.
It is true, that the queen did communicate this unto me, adding withal, that she should be glad to leave her kingdom in peace; and that the world would sooner perceive the execution of this her resolution, than men do expect.
Christina, by the grace of God queen of the Swedes, Goths, and Vandals, great duchess of Finland, of Ehesten, Carel, Bremen, Verden, Stettin, Pomerland, of Cassubia and Vandalia, lady of Rugia, Luperland, and Wismar.
Our most gracious greeting and good affection premised: Honourable, dearly beloved, and trusty; It is well known unto you, and you well remember, that not long since a ship was brought up into England, wherein amongst the rest were some commodities belonging to our chief groom of our chamber, Alexander Ciconie; which with the other commodities in that ship have been alienated, or made away. And whereas we understand, that the parliament is willing to give satisfaction for them to our said chief groom: therefore it is our gracious will and command, that you urge the said satisfaction carefully and discreetly, where it is convenient, and to raise the sum of it as high as possibly you can. And so finally we commend you to God's protection, and remain well affected towards you with our royal favour. Dated at Upsal, the 9th of January, Anno 1654.
Extract of the resolutions of the state of Friesland; 20 Jan. 1654. [N. S.] in the provincial house.
The states of Friesland having heard with attention the relation of the lord Allardt Peter Jongestall, counsellor ordinary in our court, and one of the deputies in England, delivered in our full assembly; we find that the same is of such importance, that the court convoked be anticipated for eight days by our deputies; and that on the 30th of January the lords plenipotentiaries may be also convoked, to enter into conference with the rest, in the evening, in their own houses, and the day following in the provincial house; so that notwithstanding this our resolution (upon the extraordinary occurrences and necessary affairs of England) shall not cause any prejudice or change to our resolution of 25 March 1642. taken concerning the ordinary annual convocation of the lords plenipotentiaries. To which effect the deputies are ordered timely to advise the said lords plenipotentiaries of this our resolution, and to call them together with all speed, according to the accustomed manner. Notwithstanding which, we do by these appoint as a committee, the lords Fr. van Scheltema, Francis van Eissinge, John van Wickel, and Charles van Roordra for Oostergoo; the lords Julius van Harminxma, William van Haren, Hevelius Glinxa, and Peter Axma for Westergoo; the lords Hessel van Sminia and Tarquin Heydoma for Sevenwolden; the lords Cornelius Glumnink and Cornelius Hautbois, and in his absence the lord Alle van Burum for the towns, with the secretary of this province, to reassume in the provincial house the 23 of this month, calling thereunto the said lord Jongestall, and to peruse and examine his relation, and from thence to extract the points of deliberation most important; and to cause the same to be copied in the respective books of the resolutions. Provided that the committees present may go on without expecting those that are absent.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Since my former, I received both yours of the 12th and the 15th instant, new style. By the last express hither from thence, as I mentioned in my former, 'twas received here, the peace of Holland with England was concluded, printed, and published; and by this same post 'tis confirmed, concluded, though not yet published; and the deputies gone away. Not to be concluded, we are very glad; but of the contrary we should be more sorry: yet sure, God will do all for his own end, as he has done hitherto. Division in England would spoil the whole, which is much expected by adversaries, &c.
Honest men and well-wishers of the lord protector say, if the three kingdoms were united, that they would not much care what Holland or any other nation would do. This is the opinion of many wise men and good friends to the purpose, &c. Hence you have since my former as followeth:
The 17th instant the archers of the town-house were commanded by Mr prevost de merchands, as his majesty gave him orders, to visit all the lodgings in the suburbs of this city, and bring him the names and surnames of all the soldiers of the regiment of the guard; as also to write the names of all the houses in the said suburbs, where no soldiers or officers lodge, to be given to his majesty, as he desired; to the end no house may be without a soldier in the said suburbs.
The same day the pope's nuncio desired some Irishmen here to bring him the names and surnames of all the archbishops and bishops of Ireland; and where they are, or how they live, at this present. What may be the reason of it, I do not yet know.
The same day as I writ in my former, arrived a courier extraordinary from Rome, being in the way but only nine days, with letters of great importance, pressing and praying his majesty of France and Spain to make a general peace; to which he will contribute himself with all that he can possibly, &c. The man lives still at my lord nuncio's house; and after having delivered all their letters to his majesty, the queen, and the council, this very day, he will depart in the like haste for Spain, to signify the like. Time will let us see the end of the whole, God willing. I would wish ours in peace, before the issue of such, &c.
Le sieur Honoré, cabaretier and merchant, and a man that furnished the king's house in wine, died the 15th instant of the wounds he received by the English gentleman, that drank in his house, as you had before in my letters; which when Mr Servient sur-intendant heard of, he sent for his wife; who being present he signified to her, that he had received orders from the king and queen, to accommodate her business with the aforesaid English gentleman, that killed her husband: to which she answered, she was not a woman to sell her husband's death; and that she desired nothing but justice. He said, it were better do otherwise; that she would spend much money for to have justice, and in the end she would gain nothing, they being strangers, as they were; and that money would serve better herself and her children, sooner than justice: upon which the poor woman retired. Last week an Englishman, aged 67 years, was broken alive, near St. Nicolas des Champs in Paris, for having killed a German, that lodged in his house. Having taken notice he had money, he took him with him within three quarters of a league of Paris, promising him to shew him the situation of the city, and shot him in the head with a pistolet. The peasants of the place followed him, seeing the man killed, took him to the prison of Nostredame, where he was condemned by that justice to cut off his head: afterwards he appealed to the parliament, where he was worse entertained, as to be broken alive, and hanged afterwards.
It is reported, the duke of Orleans sent an express to his majesty, by which he signifies, he heard that his majesty was to make the process of prince Condé: upon which he desired, if that be true, that his majesty might be pleased to confer all the said prince's estate upon the duke of Enguien, the prince his son having promised to marry one of his own daughters; which makes many think, the said Orleans will agree with the court: of which more by the time.
The 17th instant some of the king's people were deputed towards his majesty by the parliament, to know from his said majesty, when he should be pleased to come to the Palais, to pronounce prince Condé's arrest, according to the instructions he has given to the chancellor, to be presented to the first president M. Chevallier, and Doujat, counsellors of the high chamber. To which his majesty answered, he would be with them in the Palais the 19th.
The 18th instant happened an accident upon this river. A boat coming from Charenton, full of men and women, in number sixty persons, broke in the middle of the river, and the most part of the whole drowned; among which was the only son of M. chancellor of Poland, both the sons of M. marquis de Clerembaut, with many other considerable persons.
His majesty, according to his promise to the parliament's deputies, went to the Palais the 19th instant, accompanied with the dukes and peers of France, as also a mareschal, with many other seigneurs; where he pronounced the arrest against prince Condé, that if within one month he would not submit to his majesty's obedience, all his estate should be consiscated; and prises de corps against M. president de Viole, Marsin, president Laisné, marquis de Coignac, Persan and Brancars, with many others.
Last thursday arrived the archbishop of Rouen: Some say, because Longueville is somewhat against the court, and that he apprehends some mischief to happen to his own person, and cardinal de Retz: but the parliament of Rouen is like to take his behalf on any occasion. We hear the provinces of Bretagne and Normandy join together; and in case any party should endeavour to hurt the other, then they would join together, and defend themselves both by sea and land. Some say Condé is there disguised; and others say, his highness will give his daughter to Condé's son, on that condition, that Condé shall be assisted by his highness. Here is nothing from the English court, more than in my former; which is all known, Sir, to your humble servant, &c.
Father James Talbott is gone to Flanders; some say, to make old Preston's condition to return there again; others, to draw the Irish, that arrived there lately, hither, commanded by the lord of Slane. The rest as you shall think sit being to purpose, &c.
Intelligence sent by Mr. Bradshaw the English resident at Hamburg.
From Sweden no news at all, but that his excellency the English lord ambassador is much courted by the queen's majesty, and the chief noblemen of that crown; insomuch that no doubt is made of a union between these two nations.
Upon the great complaints made by the respective agents of the French king, and archbishop of Cologne, and delivered over in the prince electorial assembly, concerning the hostile invasion, as well of the Lorranish in some parts, as the Condeish and Spanish troops in the other parts of the county of Luttich; the said assembly, after long deliberation finding it very needful to assist the said prince elector, resolved at last by a most humble petition to desire his majesty the emperor, that he would be pleased by his most powerful requisitorials to move the states of the circumjacent countries, to send as many of their ready troops as they could possibly spare, for a succour unto the said elector, and to assist his highness, until such a time as the issue of the treaty with the said duke might appear: which being done accordingly, was very well approved of by his imperial majesty, who instantly sent a courier with letters unto the duke of Lorrain, archduke Leopold, and prince de Condé, acquainting them respectively with the unanimous resolution of the states of the empire, and withal giving them serious warning and admonition, to abstain from such hostility, and to withdraw their forces out of the said county, which the R. empire would never suffer to be so abused and wasted. What their answer hereupon will be, is to be expected. In the mean time the Lorranish here residing agent, M. Fournier, hath kept himself very silent.
From hence no news at all since my last. This court stands in great fear, that the Dutch necessities will drive them to make up their peace with England as soon as they can, and exclude us out of the same; which if it prove so, we make account to pay dear for the detained English ships, and give England such satisfaction as they shall desire.
From Reus-Lemborgh is written by the last letters, that the king was arrived there on christmas evening, but that small tokens of joy were seen amongst the people by his majesty's introduction; the reason whereof was, that the enemy (after the agreement was made with the Tartars) drawing off his forces, had sent them far into the country, and took a great part of the gentry and subjects along with him; which breeds great jealousy amongst the people, that the said peace will not last long. The king's army is to quarter this winter thereabouts; so that the poor country will be fully consumed and impoverished. Some provinces will pay no more contributions. The plague, by God's mercy, is so decreased here, that little or nothing of such kind of infection is more perceived.
The observations of the commissioners appointed by the states general on the propositions for the treaty between the English and the States general.
According to their H. and M. L. projected resolution of the 22d Jan. 1654, the lords Huygens and others their commissioners have examined this project, and conferred upon the 36 articles, and all the resolutions upon and about the treaty with England, taken and found as followeth:
1. That this first article is agreeing in substance with the first of the said six articles inserted in the instructions of the lords their H. and M. L. extraordinary ambassadors, sent into England anno 1651, concluded the 3d of August of the same year.
5. This fifth article is inserted in the place of the 4th of the said 36 articles, and is appliable to the fourth and fifth articles of the treaty of the intercourse made with England anno 1495. The said lords Huygens and others their H. and M. L. commissioners, having to this end examined the answer, which the said lords did agree on the 18th of June 1651. in the great hall, for the lords St. John and Strickland, when they were ambassadors here from the commonwealth of England; wherein their H. and M. L. do wholly agree the first, second, third, fourth and fifth articles of the said treaty, by adding after the word, quibusque, cujuseunque qualitatis & conditionis esse possunt. Item, the resolution of their H. and M. L. of the 5th of June 1653. wherein the lords Beverning, Nieuport, vander Perre, and Jongestal, are ordered amongst the rest to found the government of England, upon what was given to the lord Cats, Schaep, and vander Perre, resolutis in mandatis, as having been ambassadors in England, as well by instruction as amplification thereof, to serve the matter of the treaty which was to be made. Item, especially the third, as also the sixth article of the instruction of the said lords ambassadors, setting forth that the said lords ambassadors should govern themselves according to all such resolutions as were held forth during the being of the said extraordinary ambassadors to this State, as well before as after date of the concluding of the aforesaid 36 articles taken by their H. and M. L. Finally, their H. and M. L. resolution of the 21st of October 1653. among the rest holding forth, that the lord Beverning should reiterate to the government of England such proposals for an accommodation, and for a firm alliance and near union, as could be drawn or framed out of the foregoing instrument, and many amplifications thereof; also the resolutions, letters, and other acts and orders, which followed thereupon; and all this together to be appliable.
7. The seventh article is set down in conformity to their H. and M. L. resolution of the 7th of Nov. 1653. relating to that of the 5th of June, 6th of September, and 25th of October of the same year, (and withall the memorandum of the 25th October ought to be examined) delivered to their H. and M. L. by the lord Charisius, the king of Denmark's resident; as also the last article of the treaty made the 18th of February of the said year with that king.
10. 11. 12. This tenth, eleventh and twelfth article are taken out of the said treaty of the year 1495. in the articles 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5; and the lords Huygens and others their H. and M. L. commissioners do refer the same to what is noted in the fifth article, as being hereunto also applied.
14. This is in conformity of their H. and M. L. resolution of the 13th of June 1652, whereby the lord admiral Tromp of happy memory is ordered, in point of striking when he meets with any English fleet or ships, to behave and govern himself in such sort as was done and practised by the foregoing kings of Great Britain; as also in conformity of certain projected letters of the 13th of June aforesaid, to the lords their H. and M. L. ambassadors then in England, the said projected letter on the 14th following was converted into an instruction for the lord of Hemsteede deceased, who at that time was sent into England.
16. Likewise this is also conformable to the seventh of the 36 articles, except that there is admitted to the word Kings, which the lords Huygens and others their H. and M. L. commissioners do conceive that it ought to stand after the word Commonwealths, and added thereunto.
17. This is found conformable to the answer given to the council of state in England, upon the 9th and 35th articles of the 36; which answer their H. and M. L. have confirmed by their resolution of the 13th of May are referring thereunto.
25. This is found conformable to the answer given to the council of state upon the 35th of the 36 articles; which answer their H. and M. L. have confirmed by their resolution of the 3d of May 1652. referring thereunto.
An intercepted letter.
Dear brother Will,
Embarking ourselves on Friday morning in the Amity frigat, the name of which the deputies took as a good omen, on Tuesday night we arrived at Goeree. The want of a pilot, and the storm we met with on Monday, put us to many exigencies; and indeed we were in a fair way of losing our lives, and the states a frigat, if my lord Nieuport's knowledge had not prevented it: and had we not met with a poor fisherman, who having more confidence than his fellows, ventured to speak with us, we had either perished on Tuesday night in the storm, which was here very great, or should have been necessitated to have returned for England. But it pleased God to dispose of us better, and by the arrival of that poor man made us plainly see, of how great a value is an experienced man, and how necessary and happy it was for us to obey him. For what I can learn yet, they were all here in despair of agreeing with you; and seeing they could have no peace, are very active to provide for the war; and they are so possessed with this opinion, that I can hardly persuade them to believe the contrary. I hope to be within two hours at Bonnel, where I shall expect the issue of this good business.
Col. Robert Lilburne to secretary Thurloe.
I am very glad to heare there is soe great a probabilitie of the Dutch and our agreement, which doubtlesse will much conduce to the settlement of affaires heere, and reducing those exorbitant spirits that are now in armes, who, I may tell you, are not to bee slightly considered; for if that intelligence I have from very good handes bee true, they will be neere uppon 5000 stronge within these 14 dayes, manie going in to them continuallie; and I heare for certaine, that younge Montrosse is gone in to them, and the lord Charles Gordon marquisse Huntley's only brother, and the chiefe of that clan, as alsoe the earle of Marre; and generally there is an aptnesse in the people to rise, onelie some few remonstrators, as I heare, begin to be a little sensible of this partie, who they looke uppon as the remaining stocke of old malignants, which they hate to the death, as they alsoe doe them: yett I hope, that notwithstanding that great spiritt of malignancie against us, which indeed is almost unexpressible, and the readinesse of those people to expell us this nation, they will nott be able to doe any thing very considerable against us, especially if some few forces doe come for our supply, as I heare they are. You will percieve somethinge, by the inclosed, of the distempers that are amongst them; and those thinges will growe daily more and more, especially if they once begin to bee frustrate in their designes, and that they heare the Hollander and wee agree. The forces heere are very unanimous, and are subscribing their resolutions to stand by and owne the present government. I wonder the councell sent downe noe directions concerning the publishing the proclamations of my lord protector. Wee suppose heere itt is uppon the account of publishing the act of union. I remayne
Dalkeith, 12 Jan. 1653.
An intercepted letter, designed for Paris.
My beinge out of towne last post was the cause I writt not, which I suppose Mr. Essex intimated unto you. We are here in great quiett under our new protector; and though an ougly report there hath bin in towne this weeke of Hull's standinge out, yett I can assure you there is noe such thinge, Overton submitting to the change, (though he is an anabaptist) which is the ground of people's talke. The father and mother ar certainly broke concerning the marriage; and though there is a talke as if itt were to be brought on again, yett I can assure you ther is noe such thing by Mr. Doleston hoped for, whatever his friendes report to blinde the world. The officers of the army have supplicated his highness not to increase his state as yeett. Those ranters and anabaptists, who give your caveleers soe great hopes of our divisions, ar now only connived att, as that we feare trouble, and not taking the absolute power of a king. We doe not doubt but to bringe them in again, most of their chiefs (who ar not considerable) havinge submitted. Itt is here reported, that sir Edward Hide's accusation was his havinge receaved a supply from Mrs. Greene, which old woman Poole reports, but laughing att the accusation, saying that itt was done upon the skore of an ancient friendship, and not of treachery. Of this I desire to be informed. Mrs. Eggleston had itt from one Poole, tolde it unto our widow Staggers; and if Mr. Cross doeth not now strike in, his freindes can never hope for a supply of tobacco. Mr. Cross his freindes will not send soe long as he is there, they not approving of itt. I am almost dead with a cold; but soe longe as I have life, I can never alter from being, Sir, most unalterably yours.
H. Beverning to colonel Sidney, at Leicester-house.
We had the ill fortune, that the ignorance of the pilot who was to conduct us, kept us at sea till Tuesday at night, before we arrived at Gravesend, where we ought and might have arrived two days sooner, if he had been acquainted with our coasts, as he ought, and did pretend unto; so that on wednesday last at night being arrived at the Hague, yesterday we made the report to my lords the states general, and to the commissioners of the province of Holland; and by the commissioners of all the provinces we have been acknowledged in all our transactions. They have this day made out deputation, each unto their province, to bring their business to a ratification. My lords the states of Holland by misfortune not being met, their commissioners have sent letters to them to meet here on Monday next; and have put into the letter these words, That having heard our report, they do find it a business concluded; and also that they would come to the Hague to ratify it: whereof I hope to send you news in my next, assuring you, that if our God be so merciful unto us, his highness and my lord . . . . will have . . . . . . . . . for some . . . . . . weeks, and will keep in the good intentions, especially also if my lord your brother will continue his good affection to us, to whom I desire to be recommended. I pray let me have a word in answer to this, and I shall remain
Your humble servant,
An intercepted Letter.
I Received yours, and delivered the inclosed, and return this as answer; but I shall despair of obtaining the picture, till I shew your letter to that purpose. I have moved twice, and received civil answers; but as yet the thing is not done. We are all here strangely surprised with a sudden peace; upon what articles, very few know. It seems it was concluded at Gravesend, after the commissioners were come away from London; and some say, upon very easy terms. So with my most humble service I remain,
Hague, 23 Jan. [1654. N. S.]
An intercepted letter to sir Walter Vane.
Dear sir Walter,
I Received yours, and have paid the rhinegrave his 40 crowns since. The news is much changed, our ambassadors being arrived. The same night they came, they supped with the pensioner de Witt, and professed to all to have brought peace. The next day they made report to the states general, who sat all day till nine o'clock at night, all to examine their instructions. They were found to have done well, and a civility past upon them, telling them they might have signed them, seeing they were so reasonable: so next day morning, being this day, they ordered it to be sent to the provinces to ratify; which will be done in four weeks. The states of Holland will meet tuesday next; and already the discourse is of cashiering the militia. If we have been mentioned in the articles, it will be much to the advantage of our nation; and the ambassadors profess to have been much beholden to our officers. If not, we should be ill used as strangers. I'll say nothing of other articles, because I doubt not you have all before this time. Doleman is gone to see his wife at B. My lady Morgan reports he is to be our resident. Now I hope I shall see you here shortly.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
All that is done, treated, or spoken here, is of peace or war with England. On Friday last the 16th arrived here the post from England, but without any letters to the states general, which did very much anger them; and the more, because they did perceive and understand, that the commissioners of this state did communicate with the minister of his most christian majesty at London, who had writ about it to the ambassador Chaunthere; so that they sent to the ambassador a gentleman, whose name is Agent, to learn some news of him. The said Agent brought word back to the states general, that the ambassador had advice, that all was accommodated; and when they thought to have concluded that, then the English came and produced two points; first concerning the sovereignty of the sea, which the English will have to be acknowledged to belong to them; secondly, concerning the prince of Orange, whom the English desire to have excluded here from all employment and government; and that thereupon the business was either in suspense, or broken off. The ambassador having heard that, and that they did divulge it, did inform himself about it, and at several particular visits did give to understand, that the said Mr Agent had made an ill report of it. The said Agent doth seem to be of the party of Orange, and did report as they would have it. The ambassador on the contrary had said, that he had word sent him absolutely, that there was a great likelihood of a peace, it being very true that concerning the two said points there was yet some dispute; but that both parties inclining to peace and moderation, there would be expedients found out to express these two things the most favourably, without any breach that possibly could be. In the mean time the state is very ill satisfied, that they receive no letters from their commissioners. Orange party do give out, that the treaty is quite broken off, and do rejoice at it, for it is that which they desire; and said that the English have done all this, only to gain time, and to hinder the assistance, which otherwise they would have sent from hence into Scotland. I can assure you, that not any thing is done here; all is at rest, and expects the issue of this pacification. When heretofore they treated with the commissioners of Liege, and did declare that they did also desire other electors, princes and states to enter in this treaty, they did especially invite the elector of Brandenburgh. Whereupon he hath declared, that not only for himself he had a mind to enter into it, but that he had also given order to dispose the landgrave of Hesse to enter into it.
In the end on Wednesday the 21st at night, the commissioners arrived at the Hague, transported in an English frigat, and landed at Goeree, not without great danger of shipwreck, being almost cast upon the island of Walcheren, taking that for Goeree. Yesterday they made a full report; and having found at Gravesend an expedient for the including of the king of Denmark, (which was the only scruple that was remaining) these commissioners had writ a letter of very great thanks to his highness the protector, and parted very well satisfied, filling many with joy; but not the royalists, nor their dependents: for the hatred, and the aversion, which formerly was against the parliament or nation, is now only converted against the lord protector, to whom men give elogies, as they were wont to give to all: yea a minister in the pulpit, the same morning when the commissioners arrived at night, could not withhold from praying for a peace, that should be good, firm, and durable; or otherwise that God would dethrone the tyrant, and restore the sceptre to the true owners.
In the mean time good Hollanders gaudent in sinu, hoping to maintain themselves well, if a peace be made, against the pr. of Orange and royalists; and undoubtedly Holland will advance and further the business: and for themselves, they will make no difficulty: and as well England as Holland do very well to make a peace; for thereby the one and the other will render themselves again very considerable and formidable to others. Instead of having war, and the incumbrances thereof, each, especially Holland, do find themselves insulted over by one or other.
In the mean time I do very well see already, that this peace will be very much blamed and opposed by Orange party before it be made; for they will say, that the English do all this to render Holland careless and negligent, and that the English will deceive.
For the including of Sweden, these commissioners have acted without being required for the doing thereof, but cunningly, to say or make to believe, as if the business of Denmark and of Sweden were the same thing.
Although that the commissioners in their letter to the lord protector gave him hopes, that in six weeks all the consents and approbations could be had here, yet it is so, that it is impossible. The distances of the provinces, as also the diversities of opinion, will directly or indirectly take up and require longer time; which in effect will be prejudicial to this state, not to England; for zeal and vigour will grow cold; the state will delay through hopes of the peace. In England, on the contrary, there being but one head, and one management of affairs, quick, sudden, and with expedition, also one as to those that govern; but here is the quite contrary, as you know.
Yesterday the states general were met till half an hour past nine of the clock at night. Holland is very well satisfied, and troubled that the commissioners did not stay in England. They will have them sent back again with all speed, to sign the treaty, whereof the commissioners have made a project of 29 articles. They made it in the English frigat, when they were at sea, having omitted some of the 27 articles presented by the council of England the 28th of November, and put in others, wherewith they will send commissioners express to all the provinces. And although that the commissioners have written to the lord protector, that in six weeks all will be done and perfected, yet it is so, that it cannot be; for there will be some provinces and honours that will study to delay it, as was seen in the peace of Munster; and then the the Orange party were for a peace; now they are against this.
Beuningen, the Dutch embassador in Sweden, to the gressier Ruysch.
Since my last of the 16th of this month, I have had discourse at large with the lord rix chancellor concerning the present constitution of affairs, and our negotiation in England. That lord is of my opinion, as also many others here, and do look upon those odious conditions of the dominion of the sea, and recognition for the fishing, as dishonourable and execrable: yet I could not draw one word from him against the English; only that they were wilful, and high in their arms; and that he wished for a peace. Upon my request, concerning the carriage of the English at Gottenburgh, which I had recommended to his excellency, and specified in my last to their H. and M. lordships, I was entertained at the beginning with a very hot complaint concerning the excesses, wrongs, and injuries done formerly by the private men of war of your H. and M. L. in the taking and plundering Swedish ships; which is highly resented by his excellency: and in conclusion he told me, that the commerce of this kingdom was so much disturbed by the English on the one hand, and your H. and M. L. on the other, that in case Denmark was not so deeply engaged, this crown would have cause to join with that king for the defence and protection of the commerce and navigation. Also his excellency said plainly, that her majesty was not yet resolved to enter into any particular against the English; and therefore upon the grounds which were yet laid, (these were his words) the pretended alliance could not be, for reasons formerly alledged. I did not omit to answer with such reasons as were put into my hand, and amongst the rest I was very sorry, (I told him) that the excess committed upon two or three little Swedish ships, against the intention of their H. and M. L. must be compared to those great damages, which the subjects of this crown have suffered by the English. And moreover I added, that if there was any thing remaining or depending undecided, or wherein they had suffered any injustice, that satisfaction should be made, and justice done them; to which I assured his excellency, their H. and M. L. were wholly inclined: and because he told me so plainly, that as yet they would use no partiality against the English, I told him, that what I desired might be done without shewing any partiality, but not without offence to their H. and M. L. if not granted; for it could not but be ill taken by their lordships, that the English should abuse the subjects of their H. and M. L. in the harbour of Gottenburgh, in hindering their trade and commerce to and again; as also upon the east land sea; which if it were not timely prevented, I told him, I feared it might be a means to draw on a war into these parts. He told me, that what he had spoken, was only by way of discourse; and that he would relate to her majesty what we had spoken of together. I expect her majesty's answer and resolution upon it, either to night or to morrow morning.
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to the protector.
May it please your Highnes:
I take the boldnes to give you an account of the passages heere, both before and since the receipt of my credentialls from your highnes; for which great care and respect of mee and my company heere, we doe returne our most humble thankes to your highnes, rejoycing in this happy settlement of our native countrey, and the due honnour to yourselfe; and humbly praying the continuance of your favour to us, more perticularly to your servants heree, whereof I esteeme myselfe one, as well as my sonne, capt. Beke, Mr. Stapleton, capt. Croke, and my most diligent and stout attendants. We all doe most heartily pray to God for the health and happines of your highnes, and of our countrey.
The rix chauncellor came hither on Satturday last; and on Monday last came to visit me. He stayed about three howers with me, discoursing in Lattin of many thinges, butt especially of the affayres of England, and perticularly of your highnes; and with much expression of respect to you he seemed pleased with the discourse by his long stay, which his followers sayd they never before saw him doe with any embassadour. Himselfe told me, that he had received great contentment and satisfaction from me; with other expressions concerning me, which I loked uppon as complements rather then materiall to trouble your highnes with them. He desired an intimacy of friendship with me, and that we might often meete; that the commonwealth of England had manifested great respect to the queene, in sending me hither; and that he would not be wanting to expresse his perticular respects to them, and to your highnes, and to bring my busines to a good effect.
Wednesday last I waited on the queene, with whome I was alone above two howers. She is pleased to allow me to sitt, which she doth not use to afforde to other embassadours; and discourses in great freedome with me. She was pleased to tell me, that she received great satisfaction from me concerning our affayres, relating to ourselfes, to Holland, and to other states. She sayd, she intended to take a journey for about eight dayes; and in the meane tyme, that my busines might not be delayed, she had appointed her chauncellor to conferre with me: and bicause I was a straunger to him, she would tell me his temper; which she did, and said, that if we did not agree, it must come to her agayne; for which great favour and testimony of her good inclination, I thanked her majesty.
Tuesday I visited the rix chauncellor, with whome I stayed neere three howers; and when I desired him to appoint a time of our meeting, according to the queene's directions, he sayd, it could not be till after her going out of towne; butt in the meane while he desyred to be informed by me concerning the setlement of our commonwealth and governement; which I endeavoured to cleare unto him. He told me, that what I desired would speedily be taken into consideration. I answeared, that I desired nothing, and came not ut cliens, sed ut amicus, to make tender unto the queene of the friendship of the commonwealth. He desired me to excuse him, and sayd, that he meant no otherwise; and that hee did not only desire the friendship betweene the two nations, butt that hee might have an intimacy of friendship betweene us. Att my parting I intreated to know, whither he were satisfyed concerning the settlement of our commonwealth; or else it would be in vayne to treate uppon perticulars before a satisfaction first had in the generall; which he apprehended had not bin wanting, bicause her majesty had sent her publique ministers to our commonwealth, and had one there now residing. He told me, that my information had fully satisfyed him in those points, and concerning all our affayres.
This morning came the newes from England hither, whereof there was much discourse, especially with the Dutch and Scotch. I presently sent to the queene to desire an audience, to see how she would treat me. Before my messenger returned, count Tot came to me: he is the first gentleman of her bedde-chamber, and great captaine of her guards, and in much favour with her. He told me, that the queene had sent him to me to congratulate the accession of honnour to my generall, and of happines to my countrey; for which her joy was so great, that she could not omitt the sending to me expresse it. I returned my thankes to her majesty, for the continuance of her respects to my generall, and to my countrey. After this the master of the ceremonyes brought the queene's coaches about three a clocke, and carryed me to the courte, where the queene sent for me into her bedde-chamber, which she had not done att any time before. She told me the newes with much joy, and said, Boneale and divers others wrote it from London; and asked, if I had my letters: I sayd noe; butt by other letters I had reason to beleeve the newes, and to expect her majesty's inclination thereuppon towards me. She sayd, par Dieu, she bore the same respect and more, to my generall, and to me, than she did before; that she had rather have to doe with one man than with many. She told me, she doubted my letters might be intercepted; and therefore if I would att any time send any in her packett, her secretary should take care of them; and she would promise me, that they should not be medled with. After I was come home, she sent one of her secretaryes to me with the same messuage; and whilest he was with me, my joyfull letters came, which in parte I communicated to the secretary, and told him, that I desired to waite uppon the queene agayne, when her leisure would permitt. He went presently to the castle, and brought me word from the queene, that she desired I would come to her this night; which I did, though very late: and although I had before received those testimonyes before-mentioned of her good liking of this newes; yett before I would deliver your highnes letters to her, I discoursed in the generall of the buisnes; and she being very pleasant, I told [her] that in case my lord protector should write unto her majesty, I presumed his highnes letters would have a good reception from her. She answeared, that they should be most wellcome to her. Whereuppon I presented my credentialls to her; and after she had read them, she asked me, how it came, that my lord protector's name was putt first in the letter ? I answeared, that it was the constant forme in England used to all other princes and states. She sayd, that if it was used to other princes and states, she was satisfyed. I told her, that my lord's name signed himselfe was subscribed; and she was verie well pleased, giving me her hand to kisse. She told me, that she would write herselfe to my lord protector, and desired me in my letters to acquaint your highnes, that no person had a greater esteeme and respect of your highnes than she had; which she would be readie to manifest, and was verie joyfull of this good newes from England.
Whitelocke to secretary Thurloe.
I returne my very hearty thankes for your last letters of 23d December, and for all your former letters. It is the greatest comfort to me in the worlde to heare from my friendes in England, and to see their care and love of me in my absence, especially uppon the change in England. If their servants heere had not bin timeously and kindly remembred, and those businesses sent to us, we had bin despised: butt I most humbly thanke his highnes and my friends in England, and perticularly yourselfe, that we were not forgotten. I hope that God will give his blessing to this settlement, and that it will be much for all our good. The Dutch and Scotts heere beganne to talke of high distractions and confusions in England; butt as soone as my letters came, I went to courte, and silenced them all. The queene is much pleased with the newes, and hath received my credentialls from his highnesse with great expressions of contentment and respect both to him, and to the present settlement. We had bonefires att my doore, and shooting of our little gunnes. I have bin twice this day with the queene, and am growne a great favorite with her; insomuch that many have desired me to promote their suits to her: but I refuse all, and meddle onlie with my owne buisnes. The rix chauncellor hath expressed great and extraordinary kindnes to me, not onlie to my selfe, butt to manie others. We shall grow great linguists heere by continuall speaking of French and Lattin; which is not to be avoyded, whensoever we meet with those heere. The rix chauncellor speakes good Lattin, and the queene only the French. She will not permitt to have any other present, but discourses with me alone, saying, that she understands me when I speake French, as well as if I spake Swedish; and indeed she is extreame civill and courteous to me. I have given my lord protector a perticular account of all the passages heere, and hope well of my buisnes, and that our good God will give a blessing to it.
An intercepted letter.
That good woman's favour you mention is come to me within these two dayes, and I finde by the date of her letter had bin soe much sooner, but that the t'other lady had sent it to the merchant, who knew me not, nor wher to finde me: but it is come time enough to assist mee in my journye, if our hopes of remoove doe not fayle us yet once more, which we have taken from the retireing of the embassadours went last from you in discontent; for our owne discontentments here will not of themselves be able to produce soe good an effect, though the young lady's father in law has long contributed, and does still to his utmost seeke to enflame them to the height, haveing wholy tackt about to the formall party, and become by much the worse that now is, or I beleeve ever was of it: but God be thanked, that neither his power nor credit can privayle on the other side to any thing, but to make himselfe most ridiculous, and discover himselfe to be an arrant . . .
We hear the cardinall has sent a messenger to congratulate the greatnes of your protector,
which cannot but much tend too to my subscribeing myselfe from some other place,
Madam, Your ladyship's most oblieged humble servant,
An intercepted letter.
If you have writt any letters of the 18/8 instant, they eyther are miscarried, or at least not
yet come; the post being arrived, and noe one letter to me from any body. I pray doe
the favour to deliver this to Mr. Curle, and desire him not to acquaint any body with the
receite of itt, or the contents, itt being for the payment of a perticular sum of mony, which
I am highly concerned in; and I hope he will not suffer my creditt to be questioned. I
am not able to send you any newes from hence, but by the favour of a friend of mine,
who goes often to the English court. I have procured this inclosed; by which you may
see who is by that kinge reputed honest, (as it is tearmed with them) and some thought ill
of; though I thinke there's little choyce. By my last I gave you a full answer to yours;
so that havinge none from you, I can say lesse, though the want of them does not deminish
any part of my kindnes or respect for you, because I am confident it's not from you, but
some unavoydable accident, that has hyndered me of that happines; which however I am at
this time deprived. I shall give myselfe some satisfaction in communicating my thoughts
to you, and letting you know, with how perfect affection I shall constantly continue
Your most obedient and obliged servant, William Browne.