A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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March (2 of 5)
Letters of intelligence, sent to Mr. Sam. Hartlib.
It is assured by those of the Palais Royal, that the Frenche threatens the states of Holland, that they wil not suffer any Holland ships to transport out of France, or bringe any goods into it, but wil permit only the English that libertye. Some days agoe there hath beene much sturre in the Palais Royal about a letter, that one Bennet received from Holland, from a Scotsman. The said Bennet being secretaire to the duke of Yorke, shewed it to his maister, as he was desyred by him that wrote it, and his maister shewed it to prince Rupert. The letter made mention of the Scots aversion they have for prince Rupert; and did desyre, if the king did not come himself, to send the duke of Yorke to command in Scotland, but by no meanes to suffer prince Rupert to be there. Prince Rupert would needs know of Bennet, who wryt the letter, bat he would not. After he that wrot it, being Mr. Oneil, hearinge what stirre was about that letter, (being returned heere) told plainly he wrote it; and said further, that most of the friends of Scots and English were of that opinion, and nothing is said nor done yet. After I had closed my letter, it was told me, that the marschal de Ferté, who is governeur of Lorrain, fearinge to loose his goverment, had given some notice of the duke of Lorrain his treatie with the French, to the prince of Condé. Some say, that the said mareschal will not come to court. Since the duke of Lorrain's arresting, the French troupes have besieged Bon neer Brisach, where Mons. du Castelnau, commanding the said troupes, is hurte. The king the last day when he made muster of his regiment of his French gardes, found some past men, and amongst others in the companie of Mr de Senlis, who, though in favour with the king, is commanded from court. The said marquis de Senlis is not wel with the cardinal, and so will fare the worse. The mareschal de Hocquincourt is com to court againe, and took the alarme too soone. It is said he is to goe this summer to Catalogne with the prince de Conti. The king hath sent an amnistie to all those of Lorrain, which is a verry cunning piece to devyde, if not disperse, the Lorrain troupes in the Spanish service; for many haveing there land and goods confiscat in Lorrain, will be glad to returne to their countrie, cheifly now when they lost hopes of pillageing, as they had under the duke of Lorrain, who hath, neither shall not hereafter. He is to be sent prisoner to Spaine, and to embark at Dunkirk. They assert, that the count de Fuenseldagna is to be sent prisoner. I have written this on the other end.
The mareschal de Hocquincourt is to be duk and peer of France. Hombourq, Landstull, and Hamerstein, are rendered to those that oweth them, and so is Bon and Engesheime to the French army, who is marching to block Brisack. The mareschal de la Ferte commands that army, and so no agreement with the count de Harcourt, who cannot be relieved, but by the prince de Condé, and the Lorrainers, of whom the Spanish are well satisfyed. The duke of Lorrain and the French are both to embark at Dunkirk, being sent prisoners.
As formerly I shewed, the winter season affords little newes. The duk of Lorraine was desyred by the count de Garcia, to goe to the archduke Leopold his house; and so soon as he entred, the said count did arrest him prisoner in the kinge of Spain his name. Here the last day the regiment of French gardes mustered, and were found strong 4400 men. Moneys are to be going out to mak recruits for other regiment five hundred men; and the regiments being 80, the recruits will be of fourteen thousand foot, over and above the number of other regiments before, and besyd al the cavalry, which also is to be recruited. It is thought the mareshal Thurenne wil command this year the cheife Frenche army; and I believe the prince of Condé the Spanishe, who have sent for prince Francois, the duke of Lorrain's brother, to command in his brother's place. In the mean tym the court doth visite madame Nicolle the dutchesse and hereterer of Lorraine, who hath lived in Paris since the warrs begun against Lorraine.
An intercepted letter.
I have received yours of the 13th, which should have come the post before. My last to you was from Villars, where we were with Mr. Crostes. I have not thought fit to deliver your messages to him concerning his mony, because I know compliments of that kind signify little with him: if he take the omission on your part unkindly, I am contented to take the fault upon me, and that you should lay it there. I am far from believing, that you intended to reproach me, when you repent your jorny, when in truth I doe it myselfe, because it hath succeeded no better; but especially because we have been soe long separated: not that I am not still persuaded of the prudence of the council, if it were only to satisfie your mind, that you had not neglected yourselfe; and yet it is a little point gained, that you have possession of growne, and will be a great one, if you can deliver your daughter from great misery, and make hir happy, and that in soe high a degree, which by this jorny you are like to doe. I know the queen's wants at present are soe great, that I dare not mention your just demands; but I will doe very shortly. I have no reason to complain of hir, or those she trusts, and much less of my master, who is very kind to me; and we would his brother be so, if my malicious ennimys would give him leave. I was yesterday with your freind, the good lady, with whom sir Ed. Hide had beene before me. He took notice of your letter to him, and sayes, that he had never donne me no inioury, nor never would; which is all the steps he makes towards the reconciliation you desired; and indeed if the first be true, that he hath never done me an iniury, I think the second is, that he never will; but I take them to be both false: but this is far from the way I have proposed, which is, that he should dispose his master (with whom he hath much creddit, and more then ever your uncle had with his father) to doe me that justice, that he ought to procure to his ennimy. His being your freind is the only trouble our misunderstanding gives me; and for that reason, I would with all my soule forgive him all the iniuryes he hath done me, though he be soe far from repenting of them, as he will not acknowledge them to be iniuryes, were it not for a certaine knolledge, that I should render myselfe ridiculous to those, that are my friends heere. He will goe shortly with his master from hence. I wish with all my soule, that you weere heere before their departure. This inclosed containes all I know of the affaires of this countrey; pray cause it to be delivered to Mr. D—. I would be excused to Phil. Frowde. I am for ever yours.
Bonnel, the Swedish agent, to secretary Thurloe.
By my remonstrance of the 29th of December last, I represented unto his highness, that notwithstanding the declaration of the late council of state of the first of April 1653. whereby the said council declared, that for preventing the present obstruction of trade, all ships truly belonging to the queen or subjects of Sweden, that should bring with them their certificates from her majesty, or the chief magistrates of the places from whence they come, grounded upon the respective oath of the masters and laders, that the said ships and lading do bona fide belong to the said queen, or her subjects, and to no strangers whatsoever, should and might freely pass, without interruption or disturbance: yet several ships and goods have been from time to time brought in hither; and other goods really belonging to her said majesty's subjects, though in other ships, have been, and are still detained here, notwithstanding their said certificates would have been produced in the high court of admiralty; as in particular, several parcels of iron, brass, latten, wire, and such–like commodities, taken many months since aboard the ships the Gideon, the Red Hart, and the Black Raven; as more at large in the said remonstrance.
Likewise by my remonstrance of the 28th of January last, I represented unto his highness, that the herring busse, called the Golden Dove, belonging to the magistrates of the town of Gottenburg in Sweden, having been taken in June 1652. as she was fishing upon the English coasts, was condemned by the court of admiralty, upon no other ground, but that she was coming from Holland, and fishing with Holland nets; and under the colour of a pretended act passed in Holland, that all such fishers should give security to return again thither; which security the master of the said busse never gave, nor intended to return thither, concerning which business the magistrates, owners of the said busse, desired of his excellency my lord embassador Whitelocke, at his being at Gottenburg, an intercession to this state, that the said vessel and goods might be restored; which his excellency granted them, the copy whereof I then delivered, and now I send it again here inclosed.
Further, I do also send here inclosed the translate of a note I have received from Mr. Alexander Cecconi, first gentleman of her majesty's wardrobe, for the satisfaction of the goods therein mentioned.
Upon the aforesaid articles, I am very much pressed by her majesty my sovereign queen, to demand restitution of the iron, brass, and latten mentioned in the first article, and satisfaction for the herring busse, and for Mr. Cecconi's goods; upon which I have a particular command from her majesty, as by the original and translate here annexed your honour can see.
I must add hereunto, that there are yet several Swedish ships and goods lately brought in hither, contrary to the several promises long since made to Mr. Lagerfeldt and myself, and of late reiterated unto me; which to my great grief doth much discontent her majesty's court.
Sir, The assurance I have of your honour's good affection to the crown of Sweden, and to my person in particular, doth embolden me to address unto your honour this remonstrance of mine, intreating you, that an effectual order of his highness might be sent to the court of admiralty, for the dispatching of the aforesaid affairs, and a speedy answer returned to me thereupon; the which I press so much the more, because all my endeavours are to preserve a right understanding between the two nations. And so craving pardon for this trouble, I remain
The Dutch ambassadors to the protector.
Subsignati dominorum ordinum generalium Uniti Belgii extra ordinem legati, post reiteratas gratiarum actiones pro honorifico & solemni illo accessu, quem statim post adventum benigne ipsis impertiri, & pro propensissima ilia voluntate, quam erga dominos ordines generales, negotiique sui consummationem, tam sapienter, tam religiose, tam serio, tam pie, profiteri seren. suæ celsit. placuit, flagrantissime porro desiderant, & enixe rogant, ut eidem placeat communis pacis nostris negotium eo modo dirigere, ut ad perfectum & absolutum suum finem aliquando perducatur. Et quoniam quarto ejus mensis articuli omnes, de quibus inter deputatos seren. vestræ celsitud. & subsignatos legatos conventum suit, eodem fere ordine, & de verbo ad verbum transcripti, & in formam tractus redacti seren. vestræ celsit. fuerunt exhibiti, ita brevibus absolvi posse putant, si tempus & locum serenis. vest. celsit. placeat præscribere, commissarios autem nonnullos deputare, qui postremam manum negotio huic, quod tanti momenti est, aliquando imponant, & quidquid actum & transactum est, subscriptione sua corroborent; quod ut fiat, & quanto ocius fiat, quam possunt obsequiosissime iterum precantur
Here is little of news for the present; his majesty, with the major part of the court, being departed hence for Gluckstadt. The Swedish resident at Elsenore is called home by the queen his mistress, as is conceived, for his yet higher preferment. We can have no certain news of the full conclusion of the treaty with England; which being delayed far beyond our expectation, causeth some to mistrust the reality of the same.
Extract of a letter of Mons. de Bordeaux the French embassador in England, to Mons. de Brienne, secretary of state in France.
J'Infere, que S. A. n'est pas contente de ce que je ne suis pas qualifié ambassadeur pres d'elle, & de n'etre pas traité de frere; le maitre des ceremonies aiant adverti l'ambassadeur de Portugal de lui donner ce titre.
An intercepted letter.
In my last to Mrs. Trulow I excused my not writing to you, not having heard these five weeks from you; and then there was two letters received, which I knew not of, coming to town but the night before: the figure of 2 and 3 were those I met with; that of 1 hath miscarried, wherein I suppose that to Mr. Radfield was, which I never saw. There is only he of our partners in town, so that there is no necessity of Mr. [the gentleman that I went to look after] Clerkson's precipitating his journey. My endeavour shall be not to have our trade fail, notwithstanding these late discouragements; and upon the return of our partners (which will not be till Easter week) I hope it will receive new life. I am glad the two kersies Peter Williamson sent are safe, which he shall know in my first; that to Mr. Manley I sent to hasten all I can, and intend myself in a day or two to go to receive an account of it. Mr. Shrewsbury is not yet in town, but will about Easter; and I could wish you would write somewhat to shew for a rise to speak to him. For what concerneth Mr. Potts, my buffe–comrade will give you an account, who only intends to pass by this place about a month hence, and so come to you. For the reservedness you speak of, there is some [Charles Stuart] reason; nor would it be well in me to propose any other body to trust than Mr. Crosse: but certainly when it comes from him, who should be trusted, I then can represent either Mr. Skinner or Mr. Manley in their right colours, not doubting but one of those will be the man. I hope Clerkson hath delivered the books to you. The just condition of Mr. Salvage I cannot give; but thus much I believe, he purchases apace, by what the father here acts. We are sending soldiers in all haste for Scotland, where we fear they are like to trouble us. Our lord protector gave a noble audience to the Dutch embassadors last saturday. His part was just as the kings used to do, only kissing his hand excepted. They were received in the banquetting–house with his council about him; and then his officers. It is not to be doubted, but the peace will be strait concluded and signed.
An intercepted letter.
My Dear Heart,
About a month since you were indeed two, if not three letters before–hand with me. I was sufficiently reproached for it: but now I am sure I am got before–hand with you; for since you promised me that large–stated condition of your mistress, I never heard a word from you. Three days since, when the Dutch embassadors came to town, that very night they sent to the protector, to let him know, that they already had understood, that many in London doubted the integrity and reality of their coming; and therefore they besought him, not to defer their audience longer than the next day, that before the next sunset they might satisfy this whole nation, that their masters desired nothing on earth so much as to go breast to breast with the English. Therefore the next day they met in the banquetting–house; and one that was at the audience told me, that Cromwell spent so much time in looking on the pictures, that he judged by it he had not been much used heretofore to Titian's hand. To–morrow, they say, the French embassador presseth as much to be heard. Good God! what damn'd lick–arses are here! Well however, there is a great buz of things not being well in Ireland; no nor in Scotland. This morning great quantities of soldiers are hurried out of town, but not yet known whether thither, or to sea. Every body says confidently, that our master is either gone already, or will be within a week, that I doubt, if this will find you at Paris, or not. Pray let me know some certainty of your condition and meaning in that point; for I hope to say one thing more to you in my next, which will be to purpose. God keep thee! I wish my mistress had the money that damn'd Lorrain lately lost. His fate much troubleth our court here, in regard he was so civil, modest, courteous, and conscientious a gentleman.
The Genoese agent to the protector.
Francis Bernardi, agent in England for the commonwealth of Genoa, doth represent to your most serene highness, that having in November last desired passes of the then council of state, in the name of their most serene highness the duke and governors of the commonwealth of Genoa, my masters, for some Dutch ships, which of late years have been employed in a very considerable number for the transportation of corn, salt, and other provisions for the state; answer was returned me, that as they have been always ready to do all good offices of friendship to the state of Genoa, so they should continue the same good disposition towards them; but as to the passes, the granting thereof being to the advantage of the enemies of this commonwealth in their trade, the council could not then comply with that request; which answer being both civil and reasonable, I found myself obliged, both in duty to my charge, and cordial affection to this nation, then seriously to represent to my masters the convenience of both sides, in reducing this matter to its proper centre, that the English might enjoy those great advantages, which formerly did accrue unto them, before other nations, through the conjuncture of times and distractions here, had deprived them of; wherein I have found much willingness and desire of compliance, and am very confident will every day increase, the government of these nations being now firmly established on so good and strong a foundation. And forasmuch that I have already received orders to supply part of those provisions from hence, and in pursuance thereof contracted with English merchants here in London, for the transportation of a quantity of corn and lead for the use of the commonwealth, which is laden aboard the ship Dolphin of this place, Bartholomew Confort commander, I do now in the name of my said masters intreat your most serene highness to be pleased to grant your safe conduct, that the said vessel and lading, with her guns and necessary provision, may freely pass from hence to Genoa, and that not any of her men of English, having made use of as few as possibly we could, knowing the present exigency may require them, but for the most part Italians and strangers, be taken from their charge by pressing or otherwise; which favour my masters will particularly esteem, and render me further enabled to manifest my real intentions of service to your most serene highness and this commonwealth,
The archduke of Austria's agent to secretary Thurloe.
Beinge sent from the archduke Leopold, my master, to persorme, towards my lord protector, what in the name of his imperial highnesse, I am incharged with, and understanding, that I am to direct myself herein unto your honour, I cannot but acknowledge, that I doe it with my great gust and satisfaction, desiring you would be pleased to give notice to his highnesse of my arrival, and to demand audience of him in my behalf, and to give me notice of the day and hower, which for that intent his highnesse shall be pleased to appoint. God preserve you these manie yeares, which is the desire of him who kisseth your hands, honourable Sir,
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
You always complain, the intelligence you receive is but the outside of affairs, at which I wonder; for sometimes you have soon and secret affairs. I am sure, I gave you the substance of what Mons. Chanut was to act at the Hague, and what Mons. Bordeaux was to act there; and if that the peace of England with Holland did take, this crown would send an embassador to you; if not, that we did not seek for your peace, nor would send any but Mons. Bordeaux to remain there qualified, as he was, to amuse you. And much more of this I writ to you, now out of my memory; but if you review my letters, you shall find all that is done you had notice of long since, as also of Mons. de Baas his second voyages, which I am sure cannot be pleasing to Mons. Bordeaux to have a competitor. You also had from me of the general peace, of the pope's letter to cardinal Mazarin concerning it, as also from cardinal d'Este, and cardinals Francisco and Antonio Barberini; which letters were read by a friend of yours, &c. If all this, and what else I gave you, be the outside of affairs there, I am sure still they are the inside here. For copies of papers from hence, I marvel you should desire it, knowing no entries are made; for all is by absolute power from the king, being sufficient, and designs altered every hour, not to be written. You shall always have what I can truly say, and no more.
I have to add, that one of my acquaintance very lately was in discourse with cardinal Mazarin, talking very seriously of the lord protector. His words were these, Now a treaty shall be with Cromwell by my agent being received, which if Cromwell will not accept of without bruit, I will pull him as fast down, and faster than ever he was made up; and I will spend to my red callot, or do it, and set up R. Carolus by a peace with Spain, Germany, and their conjunction with many others. And this he confirmed with oaths. So you may judge what is best for you to do; for this cardinal is altogether for himfelf; and as I gave a hint often, when the king of France comes to riper years, if he be so minded, all that Mazarin does will come to nothing; and this king's relation to R. Carolus I need not tell you, nor the inconstancy of France.
For R. Carolus his removal to Germany, as designed, you have had long since; and the grounds of it, not as, you say, some write, in order to the peace of this crown with England, but in order to the proper affairs of R. C. his interest. So you shall find it, and that R. C. had been gone long since, if he had received the moneys promised from this court, which hitherto he has not touched, as for his journey; nor will, till this court, at least Mazarin, sees it both convenient for the one and the other.
As for the duke of York, I advertised you timely, it was in council, whether he shall go into Scotland or not; and so it is still, and probably, if Middleton does well there, and affairs go well with R. C. in Germany, that he shall go.
For the affairs of Ireland concerning yours, you constantly had from hence of all the
Irish regiments here, their number, their officers, their quarters, affections, and designs
of O Sullevan Beara, his ways to carry arms, ammunition, and other provisions, to assist
them in arms in Ireland, and how these were procured from congregations in Paris; and
also where in France, and tandem after the laying down of arms by colonel O Brian,
how farther succours began to decline here, we having first notice from yourself of the
submission upon articles of the said colonel O Brian. I do not know what more you
might expect possible from France concerning the affairs of England, than what is said or
comprehended, as I am sure I writ much more in particular several times; nor can I
better my intelligence upon such terms as you would have it; but shall do the best I
can, you may be confident. The ordinary occurrences you have in my other letter, or
your friend's; and I am, Sir,
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
My last was of the 14/4 of this present. The same day we received letters from Flanders, containing, that the duke of Lorrain was taken with very much vomiting, whereof he was cured after he had endured much pain; and that Monsieur the prince was very well received at Brussels, and there nobly treated by the archduke, with whom he had a conference upon a letter he had received from London from one of his agents there, who sent him word, that they had procured from his highness my lord protector most of what they had desired of him in behalf of Monsieur the prince of Condé. But this doth not hinder the cardinal from doing his endeavour for the getting of a good understanding and amity between France and England, from whence, it is said, that an embassador is come over hither.
In the mean time the duke of Longueville doth continue to provide for the securing of the coasts of Normandy, and the cardinal doth all that he can to secure those of Bretagne, as well by the means of his alliance with the marshal of La Meilleraye, as by the marriage of his nephew with the daughter of the duke of Retz, whereof he renews the treaty with more tokens of amity toward the cardinal de Retz; but they will hardly believe him, as long as he keeps the said cardinal de Retz in prison.
An intercepted letter.
My Dear Heart,
Yesterday the post came without your letter, but there shall none go without mine, while I am here, or that I have health to move my fingers; though I can tell you nothing but that which you too well know, the necessity of my mistress, and the follies of the Scots court, of which I will say nothing this time, because I have too much of the sumes of the sacrifice, which we a few Teagues and Macs did offer yesternight to our patron, which my excellent mistress and her brother honoured with their presence. I'll assure you in our prayers you were not forgot. To the Scots court there came letters from Middleton, after his landing at Sunderland with all his ammunition and officers, which they say were 150. The same say, that the Scots had the advantage in a late rencounter with your forces; that the island of Lewis is recovered, and 300 prisoners made, which was the garison of a sort, that was made there to secure some harbour. Neither letter nor messenger say any thing of the death of Vyar, whom your gazettes have this month delivered for a man of the other world. Here we expect the news of your concluding with this country a peace, as soon as with the states; yet there are some, that write hither, as if the last should make some difficulties; but I am not so sanguine, as I writ to you often. Want of money stays Charles Stuart here, though the French court be very willing he should be gone. His mother, that despairs of his restauration, to ingratiate herself with the cardinal, presseth his going as much as any. Her own poor subsistence here, and the pleasing of some with her, is much dearer to her than a good intelligence between her and her eldest son. I do not wonder, that he, that gave himself to be governed by such a woman, hath lost three crowns. The next thursday two of the cardinal's nieces are to be married to Monsieur de Candale, and marshal de Meilleraye. Another, shortly, the young duke of Boulion shall have. They say, there there is another caravan coming from Italy, of which I shall have never a one; but if my nativity be true, I shall this day have a much handsomer than any there is in all his drove. I pray present my service to Mr. Dabb, and tell him, that in any that concerns my mistress, he keep between himself and you, otherwise he may do himself a prejudice; for very few, that relate to our family, can be secret, to my grief. I see the law–suit is no more to be renewed, nor no composition to be hoped for.
The commissioners of the admiralty of Friesland, to the states general.
High and Mighty Lords,
Having received your H. and M. L. letter with extract of your resolutions, both of the 24th of February last, concerning the forwarding of the provisions and preparations for the seas; and being required by the said letter further to give notice of the state of the ships of war, which are within our direction, and how soon they shall be ready for the service of the country to make use of them;
We do represent, that we might well contribute to the service of the state six good ships of war well accommodated, in case we were subministered with what is requisite for the payment of wages, victuals, and other necessary provisions, all which we are now wanting of, being that of all the precedent money's, which have been assented and collected, as well for the building of new ships, and making ready the old ones, there is nothing now resting to pay officers, soldiers, mariners, or any others, considering that in the said ships shall be expended every month, one with the other, the sum of 4218 guilders, in conformity to the advice of the commissioners appointed by the respective colleges of the admiralty. And therefore we desire, that your H. and M. L. will be pleased, as soon as may be, to let us know of the manner and order, whereby we may infallibly receive moneys necessary to further this service of the country, &c.
The Venetian resident to the protector.
May it please your Highnesse,
The occasion of a small Venetian vessell coming from Zant and Venice, bound for London, laden with currants and anniseeds, (ship and goods all intirely belonging to a merchant of Venice) being unjustly seized by a private man of warre belonging to this commonwealth, the men most barbarously used, ship and goods still detayned in Falmouth, to the very great and considerable losse of the Venetian marchant, doth oblige mee to make my humble sute and application to your highnesse, beseeching, that the said ship and goods may bee forthwith redelivered unto the factor of the proprietor residing in London, hee giving sufficient security to bring the ship to London, (the danger of the seas excepted) and to bee responsible for the value of both ship and goods against all pretences whatsoever. Now for that this ship and goods belonge to the commonwealth of Venice, which is in amity with, and beareth very much respect to this state, and reverence to your highnesse; and for that the businesse is most faire and just, as by some papers delivered to Mr. Thurloe, secretary of state, do appeare; and because that in the high court of admiralty, by false allegations of the private man of warre, and delayes thereupon, the proprietor cannot bee soe speedily relieved, as the great importance and exigence of the businesse doth require; I hope your highnesse will bee pleased to order and command the judges of the admiralty to deliver the sayd ship and goods upon securitye as above; which beeing consonant to reason and justice, and to the longcontinued amity betwixt the two states, that soe friends may be distinguished from foes, I cannot doubt to bee relieved by your highnesse's justice in this case. In hopes whereof, I remayne, of your highnesse
The council of Ireland to secretary Thurloce.
Wee have sent his highnes the lord protector a letter by this weeke's packet, wherein was inclosed the state of some of some doubts proposed by the high court of justice at Dublin, touching the cases of murther depending before them. A speedy resolution therein is of very great concernment to the publique; so that we shall desire your care to mind his highnes of them, as opportunity is offered, and to return an accompt thereof unto
A paper inclosed in the preceding letter.
That most of those, who have been proceeded against in the high court, or that are to be proceeded against for the murders and massacres in Ireland, have been and can only be charged for commanding, aiding, and abetting, &c.
That the ordinance of the lord protector, declaring what shall be treason in England, Scotland, and Ireland, excluding all other offences than what are therein comprised to be treason, leaves murder to be only felony, and then by consequence, though any commanded, aided, or abetted such murders, unless they were present at the committing of the fact, they are not principals, but accessaries; so that now, though one be found to be commander, aider, or abettor, &c. yet cannot he be proceeded against, until a principal be first found, and convicted by verdict or consession, or attainted by outlawry. And most of the murders and massacres were acted by the hands of mean despicable persons, who for the most part are since hanged, killed, or dead, though by the command of the chiefest of the Irish gentry, who were the chief contrivers of the rebellion, and chief commanders of the murders; and yet are like to escape the hand of justice for the reason aforesaid, unless murder may be declared to be treason in Ireland, as it was before the said ordinance; and then such commanders, &c. may be proceeded against as before (fn. 1).
H. Cromwell to secretary Thurloe.
After a longe journey by lande, I arrived heer uppon Satterday laste in the eveninge, since which time I have not bin wantinge in my endeavours to informe myselfe of the severall tempers of men heer; and doe find uppon the strictest inquiry, that possibly I could make, that the army generally, bothe heer about the head quarters, as alsoe thosse in the other partes of the nation, are abundantly satisfied and well pleased with the present government in Englande; unless it be some few inconsiderable persons of the anabaptiste judgment, whoe are allsoe quiett, though not verry well contented; but I beleive they will receive much satisfaction frome a letter very lately come to their handes from Mr. Kiffin and Spilsebury, in which they have dealt verry homely and plainly with those of that judgment heer. But I must say this, that if they had bren inclineable to have made disturbance, they had sufficient encouragement frome those in cheife place heer, whoe have managed business of late with much peevishness and frowardness, endeavouringe to render the government as unacceptable as possibely they could, especially Ludlowe and Jones, whoe are very highly dissatisfied, though Jones more cuninge and close in it; but Ludlowe hath not spared any company or opportunitie to vent his venomous discontents, and that in reproachful and reflectinge language, verry much to the amazement of all sober men, amongst whome he hathe rather loste then gained acceptation by it. He hath refused to act in his civill capacitie since the change; but will not leave his military, because proffittable, unlesse it be taken from him. You will, I suppose, consider what is fitt to be done with such persons; and I hope it may stirre you up speedily to settle a government, that may signifie somethinge; for this does verry little, unless it be to make orders to give away the publique lands, of which they have given large proportions to each of themselves. You would doe well to send with speed a peremptory order, that noe more lande should be disposed in the soure countyes, without speciall order from you. Sober men (not anabaptists) are overjoyed with hopes, that the time is now come of their deliverance from that bondage and subjection, which they were in to the—of which I have hade large and indeed sade complaynts from all handes, and am confirmed in it upon my owne observation. The uttmost, that is desired, is that all may be uppon ane equall account as to encouragement and countenance, which I doubt will scarce be, unless there be care taken for the future. I hope you received the character, which I sent at my comeing out of towne to you. Make use only of the upper clavis to uncypher the inclosed. I ame your freinde and servante,
Part of a letter of Henry Cromwell to secretary Thurloe, written in Cypher.
I have taken the freedom to be verry bkgad with my hpcrzwp, and have as neere as I could gitgadrwn him with what I have in ronr, and doe finde his uwnapw rather to pwropdw then to icdradow heer; but is sakkadyw to be at my xg2zwpwn uwnbcnw; but to uwgkw xgarzxokkt I doe rzadmw he is a little to uwwbkf adygywu in a bgpragkk gxxwiracd to the bwpncdn of the gdghgbranr to gdrswp your wdu; though l doe believe it rather to bpciwwu frome rwduwpdwn then kcow to their bpadiabkw: he is verry well ngranxawn that the ycowpdlwdr heer should be norwghkw to you, and well approves of the 2 bwpncon barizr vppon for icodiwkkwpn to offer my poore thoughts I would take advantage Koukcs his frowardness to putt him cor of the gplf, and put G. Vwnhencs in his pkgiw, whoe with the assistance of 2 persons above–mentioned will doe your honadwn effectually, especially if you thinke fitt for some shorte time to icllgduw my hacrzwp over, and in his ghnwdiw to constitute Vwnhcpcs his Uwboraw. I shall stay till the general councell be over, which will be within 14 dayes, and then I shall haste over with speed.
The same decyphered by secretary Thurloe.
I have taken the freedome to be very plain with my brother, and have, as neare as I could, acquanted hym with what I had in trust, and doe finde his desire rather to returne, than to continue here; but is willinge to be at my father's dispose. But to deale faithfully, I doe thinke he is a little too deeply ingaged in a partial affection to the persons of the anabaptists, to answer your end; though I doe believe it rather to proceed from tendernes then love to their principles. He is very well satisfyed, that the government heere should be suteable to yours, and well approves of the two persons pitcht upon for counsellors. To offer my poore thought, I would take advantage by Ludlow's (fn. 2) frowardnes to putt hym out of the army; and put gen. Desborow in his place: who with the assistance of the persons above–mentioned will doe your busines effectually, especially if you thinke fitt for some short tyme to command my brother over, and in his absence to constitute G. Desbrowe his deputie. I shall staye till the general councell be over, which will be within these 14 daies, and then I shall hast over with speed.
The archduke's agent to secretary Thurloe.
Haviendome embiado el archiduque Leopoldo mi señor a esta corte a pasar con el señor protector en nombre de su Alteza imperial los oficios de que vengo encargado, y entendiendo que debo dirigirme a V. S. lo hago con mucho gusto mio para suplicarle sea servido de dar quenta a S. A. de mi llegada, y pedirle audiencia de mi parte, y de avisar del dia y hora que su A. se sirviere de señalar para ella, y guarde Dios a V. S. muchos años como desseo. Londres, 8 de Marzo, 1654.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Le Sieur Beverningk encore escrivant non seulement du grand equipage des Anglois, mais aussy des frequentes prinses, que les Anglois font, a fait icy eveiller aussy la diligence de l'equipage: tant y a qu' a Amsterdam on travaille fort aux navires; mais il n'y a encore nulle levée de matelots, n'y fournissement de victuailles; ains on s'attend sur la paix avec l'Angleterre.
Le Sieur Rosewinge, envoyé de Dennemarch, n'est pas allé droit vers Angleterre; ains se tient a Rotterdam en attendant un passeport. L'on a propose d'envoyer un resident a Brusselles, a quoy la Geldre & la Hollande se sont declares prest: & les autres sont admonestees de s'y apprester aussy: mais cela a esté tant de fois proposé sans suite, que je n'en croy plus rien, si je ne le voy.
Le rapport touchant le traité de France n'est autre, si non une collation des concepts, l'un contre l'autre, & designation des discrepances: & tout cela n'est que pro forma, & se reiglera selon de traité de paix a faire aveq l'Angleterre.
Mais le dessein de faire alliance aveq Poloigne pourra bien estre tout de bon;\ car ce commerce Baltique est de grand importance, & le fundament de tout autre commerce, & la Hollande par un singulier menage l'a attiré tout a soy;\ mais si la Swede, les Oesterlins, &les Anglois vouloient, ils en pourroient avoir leur part aisement. Mais pour le present, les Anglois n'y ont rien; les Flammends presque rien; les Sweedes & l'Oesterlins peu. Mais quand bien cest alliance se face aveq Poloigne, la ville de Danzigh ne s'y joindra jamais; au moins pas aux conditions proposes, qu' aures veu.
Hier derechef le resident de Sweede a fait plainte de non–justice, que font les admirautes sur les prinses, que sont les capers; car premierement ils pillent en mer; & puis apres les avocats & procureurs n'osent pas servir les marchands contre eux: item les admirautes ne respectent ni ne regardent nulle certification ou Zee Brieff: ains font ce qu'ils veulent. Ce qui a la fin causeroit des retorsions: mais la Hollande est sage de prevenir cela par paix; sans cela la Sweede est capable de ruiner tres facilement toute la navigation des Hollandois dans la mer Baltique.
De la part de la ville de Emden son venus trois deputes, faisants plainte de ce que les estats d'Ostfrise ont cherché & obtenu à Ratisbonne des mandements penaulx contre ladite ville; 1. a ce que elle (conformement la paix d'Osnabrugge) paye son contingent dans les contributions de l'empire aussy que les autres estats. 2. a ce qu'ils ne venillent plus charger les dits estats de l'entretenement de certains 600 hommes tenants garnison dans Emden.
Les ambassadeurs de Spaigne a Ratisbonne auront fait office pour obtenir aussy de la part des estats de l'empire (comme cydevant de l'empereur) un acte de neutralité pour cest estat, en suite du . . . . art. de la paix de Munster.
Le due de Newburgh par commandement expres de l'empereur a ici fait dire par son envoyé, qu'il desire que satisfaction soit faite a l'ordre de Malta, aveq restitution de leurs bien, &c. ce qu'on a'pris sort mal, principalement que le duc de Newburgh (dont on ne seuloit pas faire grand cas) a osé faire denoncer cela. L'on prend cela, comme si tant l'empereur que le duc de Newborgh croyent, que cest estat soit entierement bas par la guerre Angloise, ut nequeat relevare caput, & que pour cela il soit permis a un duc de Newborgh insulter a cest estat.
A letter of information to secretary Thurloe.
Since my last, I have not beene in a condition to stirr out of my chamber; till within these two or three days; yet I have had many visits from Mr. Sawyer, one of the eleven, which was ingaged in the late plott. His keeper, being a neare neighbour, sends him into my chamber. I have several tymes discoursed with him concerneing this busines: he tells me, very many persons of honour weare ingaged in it; severall lords, which weare of the late K's privie councell; divers ministers, and some of the late assembly of devines. He faith, that he beleives the busines goes on still, notwithstanding what Coates hath discovered; for he faith, that it was soe well ordered, that the grand councell was never made knowne to Coates; but he sayeth, that if Coates had but stayed four days, he had beene chosen one of the committee for the prentisses, and then might have had an opportunity to have beene with the grand councell. He tells me, that they sent over coll. Whitley and my lord Garrat, to acqueint the K. with the designe, and furnished them with money; that Whitley sent them over severall commissions, and that both he and Garrat was to come over with the K. which had beene within two dayes, if the busines had not been discovered. Many thousand pounds, he sayeth, is laid out in horses and armes. One freind of his, he tells me, brought eighty gallant horses, and keept them in the cittie upon his owne account. He tells me, that Coates knewes not of the tenth part of the busines, but captain Dutton knowes all; and captain Smyth knowes much. I endevour as moderately as I can, to discover the names of some of the great ones; but he seames to be unwilling to name any. Sir, I thought good to acqueint you thus much, that if it be possible, the bottom of this busines might be found out. If you conceeive, that I may doe any service in it, I shall for the future bend myselfe wholie to it: in the meane tyme I humbly desire to knowe your pleasure concerneinge my last lines. I will troble you noe more at present, but rest
Sir, I should be sorry, this younge man should fare the worse for any thinge he sayeth to me; for truly I looke upon him to be very good–natured, and I beleive he was drawne in; and although he will not confesse any thinge to you, yet I am confident he will meddle noe more.