A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
March (3 of 5)
Beuningen; the Dutch embassador in Sweden, to the states general.
Nothing happens here of great importance, as far as it comes to my knowledge, that is worth common postage. In the consultations, which her majesty held this week with the states of the kingdom, it is said no other subject was treated of, than the abdication of the crown, and the consequences thereof. As to foreign affairs, I do not observe, that any thing is treating with any one minister. To the envoy of Russia they have granted the desired exportation of arms. They proceed as usual in the careening and preparing of the fleet of the kingdom against the spring; and I do not hear, that touching the same any extraordinary diligence is used. Mr. Whitelocke, it is said, doth not yet speak of his departure, as I have advised your high mightinesses in my former. And the Spanish minister, they say, intends to set out from here, before the end of this month. The queen in a few days goes to Nieucoppingh to the queen her mother. After the abdication, her majesty is resolved to take a journey to the Spa this summer; and it is certainly believed, that within a few days after the states are assembled, this great change will happen. The lord chancellor of the kingdom, and other great lords, speak of it as a very difficult and intricate affair, and could have wished, that her majesty would have been otherwise persuaded, for which, it is thought, there is no likelihood whatsoever. They are very busy to deliberate upon settling the finances; and it is said, that to bring this about, it was proposed for that purpose, and put into deliberation, to suspend the payment of all sorts of debts that are still owing for a term of two years, which however is thought will come to no resolution or effect; neither doth one know, if it is with much reason and foundation, that many, who hold large sums from these crowns by the mere liberality of the queen, are apprehensive, that in the present convocation of the states, or afterwards, some alteration may happen therein. The lord chancellor of the realm keeps his bed, being ill of a small fever.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
You had in my former before this immediate, that which might ease you and me much, as that these states resolved, notwithstanding the different votes and resolutions of some provinces, of which you had all the extracts, to sign and ratisy the 29 articles, as adjusted in London. Now I can confirm the same to you, that the embassadors there will do it, and so are commanded privately; but to make the best they can as to the desires of all the provinces; which they hope here Beverning's gallantry will carry. His boasts here, and Nieuport's, I gave you twice at large before; let them not have cause to do so more: for I can assure you, for all our endeavours, our fleet is slow in readiness for the number and power we intended, as you may see partly by the resolutions of the admiralty of Friesland.
These states are all so very timorous, lest any thing might intervene, that might give occasion or opportunity for a breach; and their embassadors know it there very well, whatever shew they make to the contrary; so that in sum you have not much to do, if you please, but to insist upon the 29 articles as already adjusted plainly, and you will have it; which you may build upon as my former assurance to you.
Your great preparations for the seas we fear, and are jealous at, lest any Spanish negotiation might follow, and the more for some letters sent by the embassador Beverning to the states provincial of Holland. The said states provincial have here communicated to the states general the advice, which they had from Beverning in London, that the Spanish embassador there had proposed to the protector a league offensive and defensive against Portugal, whereof they are very jealous here, fearing that will be an introduction to beget a more strict amity and alliance with Spain and England. This also gives you no prejudice here.
The deputies of the treaty with France have made their report, that they found divers points and clauses in the treaty of the embassador Boreel with that crown, not conformable to the instructions given by these states. This treaty is now fresh and hot on foot, to amuse England and France both; but if the peace with England shall be concluded and ratified, as doubtless it shall, the French treaty will come to nothing.
Also we have from the said deputy, that many complaints are sent from that queen to the lord embassador Whitelocke of several injuries committed by the English ships of war, not only against her majesty's subjects, but generally against all, and daily acted, &c.
Beverning writes in a letter of his to the greffier of the states general of the 6th of March, that their mighty highnesses letters were opened at London, before he had received them; for which he was very sorry, by reason that their resolutions were there, and without cypher.
He writes also, that upon monday he presented a memorial to his highness the lord protector, to appoint commissioners to reassume the articles, and to reduce them into the form of a treaty; and that to feel his highness's pulse, and know whether his humour was changed or not. But instead of naming commissioners, the said Beverning was visited twice the evening by Mr. Thurloe, who declared to him, that his highness could not comprehend, to what end he propounded a conference with commissioners, because in his opinion all the articles were adjusted, and fully agreed upon; and that the least thing therein should not be altered; and so they were only to be put into order, and copied, and that was the work of one alone; and that the said Beverning was the most capable, &c. inferring, that the states general were precisely tied to the said articles, as adjusted, &c. Beverning sets down many reasons he shewed to Mr. Thurloe, and particularly about the words, the seas East and North. The said Beverning and Thurloe were like thereupon to fall into disputes for the Britannic sea; but Beverning thought good to avoid disputes, and to accept willingly, that he would the day following send to his highness the said articles, as accordingly he did; but notwithstanding all his endeavours, could not receive answer; which he conceived to be, because his highness had notice of the arrival of his fellow embassador; and that the answer should be with more solemnity to them all three together, &c.
He writes also, that Mons. de Bordeaux has orders to take upon him the character of embassador, and is preparing his train, and the necessaries for it; and that M. de Baas is arrived at London, to assist him in quality of commissioner, &c.
Here is all at present. Go on with your preparations, as we do with ours, but not
with that speed as expected. I gave you in my last but this the number of the ships
designed, and the orders sent to the several admiralties, to have them in readiness to set
forth upon the first orders; and is all now from, Sir,
An intercepted letter to sir Walter Vane.
The joy is here very great, being assured of the peace with England. Such a number of people and ships lie idle here, and have nothing to do, that it is incredible; who would be glad to be at work again, if it so pleased my lord protector. The great preparations in the mean time, that are made in England, do still put the people in some kind of fear, that all is not right as it should be. The men of war are equipping, but slowly. Some cities of North Holland have this week spoken aloud about it in the assembly. Every body doth desire peace here, but few believe, that England will make it to hold any long time. Many do believe it to be impracticable. I will say no more; God is above all. Here hath been a report this week, that Holland will give all vacant charges to count William, who is still in Friesland. The princesses do not see one another: the young princess royal is at Teylingen, with her son; the Rhyngrave is at Maestricht. The Hague is very solitary: some fugitives, that have forsaken the prince of Condé, do make some company; otherwise there would be none to converse withal at the ordinaries.
Every–where the house of Orange in Holland do very much strengthen their party. That cuckold de Witt hath taken the charge of burgomaster of Dort, to keep all there without doubt in devotion; and so likewise elsewhere the jealousies in the cities do not cease from being fomented; and the other provinces do stand upon their guards. If there be a peace with England, there will be many partialities, divisions, and par ties amongst them; but all that will only tend to set up one party or other, and nothing for the advancing of the prince and his family.
The Dutch embassadors to the states general.
With our last of the thirteenth of this month, we advised your lordships of our arrival in this city, and our solemn reception, wherewith the lord protector was pleased to receive us; and withal we advised your lordships, that we had sent a memorandum to his highness the same day, to desire audience the next day following; which was granted unto us: so that on the thirteenth we were fetched in his highness's coach, accompanied with the lords Strickland and Jones, with the master of the ceremonies, and brought into the great banqueting–room at Whitehall, where his highness had never given audience before, who stood upon a pedestal raised with three steps high from the floor, being attended by the lords president Laurence, viscount Lisle, Skippon, Mackworth, Pickering, Montague, and Mr. secretary Thurloe, together with the lord Claypole, his master of the horse. After three reverences made at entrance, in the middle, and before the steps, which his highness answered every time with reciprocal reverences, we came up to the steps, and delivered to him with a compliment of induction our letters of credence, who did receive them without opening them: the reason whereof we suppose to be our delivering of the copies and translations thereof in the morning to Mr. Thurloe; so that we presently began our discourse with a compliment of thanks, for his good inclination shewn in the treaty of our common peace; of congratulation in this new dignity; of presentation of all reciprocal and neighbourly offices on the behalf of their H. and M. lordships, and wishing all safety and prosperity to his person and government: to which he answered with many serious and significant expressions of reciprocal inclination to their H. and M. lordships, and to the business of peace; for which we once more returned him thanks, and presented unto his highness twenty of our gentlemen, who went in before us, being followed by twentymore, to have the honour to kiss his hand; but instead thereof his highness advanced near the steps, and bowed to all the gentlemen one by one, and put out his hand to them at a distance, by way of congratulation; wherewith we were conducted back again after the same manner. On sunday we made ready a memorandum, which was delivered on the monday following, desiring we might have commissioners appointed for the further adjusting and signing of the articles, which were delivered in on the 4th of this month; upon which we received a letter in answer in the afternoon from Mr. Thurloe, that his highness had named commissioners, who should acquaint us verily with the intention of his highness. But because we heard no further of the commissioners appointed to treat with us, we sent our secretary on wednesday last to Mr. Thurloe about it, who told us, that we should hear of them very speedily; but receiving no news of them, we once more addressed ourselves to Mr. Thurloe, desiring expedition; who gave us for answer, that they would be suddenly with us, whom we are now hourly expecting; whereof we shall advise your lordships in our next, or by an express.
The Dutch embassadors in England to Ruysch.
The fleet of this state, about an hundred ships, being in a good posture, hath been lately re–inforced with such a great number of land soldiers, that every body doth murmur about it, and differently and variously spoken of their design. The said fleet lieth about the isle of Wight, near the road of St. Helena; is ready to put out to sea with the first, as we are informed; and according to the opinion of many, had been gone to sea some days since, in case the winds had been favourable and serviceable unto them; whereby there is concluded by us and others, that their design is, not to go towards the west, by reason that when these easterly winds would have carried them away, that they must have design towards the North, or Eastward; and it is possible intended against the Sound, as is held by some: and although we have no knowledge or assurance thereof, we do notwithstanding fear by several circumstances, that they have some such design in hand; and we think it will do no harm, in omnem eventum, to look to ourselves. We do remember, what captious words they did use with us about the drawing up of the 7th article; and since our arrival here, we do perceive, that they would sain defer that point of pretended satisfaction, and put it off for a better occasion, if possible, that so they might find out something about it, on purpose to excuse themselves, and to prejudice the king of Denmark. And during our entertainment, one of the commissioners said, that men ought not to suffer the toll in the Sound: and finally we see, that we are put off and delayed in our businesses; so that all the circumstances do very much trouble us; at least we thought it our duty to make known our thoughts to their H. and M. lordships, that so they may provide with speedy equipping of their fleet for the safety of their state, and with advertisement, if their wisdoms think it fit, to secure the king of Denmark.
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.
On satterday last I waited on the queene, and shewed her some parte of the letters, which I received that weeke out of England. She thereupon asked me, if my lord protector had ben inaugurated? I told her, noe; and that my letters only mentioned the entertainment, which the citty made him; which occasioned much discourse, as well touchinge that, as my busines.
I also communicated to her that parte of his highnes letters, whereby he was pleased to commande me, to assure her majestie of the constancie and reallity of his intentions, to settle a firme allyance with her; which she said she was most readie to make with his highnes. I told her, that wee might then make some progresse in the articles, which I had presented to her, and particularly in those, which concerned amity and comerce, and had noe dependencie on the issue of the treatie betweene us and Holland; and therefore might be had in consideration, before the other could be fully knowen, and the other articles might be considered of afterwards; which she told me should be don; and that she would freely tell me, which of them shee thought fitt to consent to, and which not; and alsoe that she will sende an ambassador to his highnes. Shee was very inquisitive concerninge London, and the two universities; and by her discourse I conceave she may have a designe to travell into Fraunce, Spaine, Italie, Germany, and into England, and other parts of the world. I was alone with her neere two howers, and at my takinge leave, she desired I would come againe to her on munday after dynner; that then she would reade over with me the articles, which I gave her both in Lattine and English, and wee should consider them togeather; and such things as she could consent unto, she would then tell me; and what she could not consent unto, I should then know from her; and wee might make it in the margent as wee went alonge. Neverthelesse shee would have me to proceede in my conferrences with her chancellor, as before; and that noe bodie should know of the conference betweene herselfe and me; but she would soe order the busines, that what we consented unto should be effected afterwards; and that in two howers wee might goe over all of them. I told her, that I presumed shee would admitt of a free debate upon any of them, as we went alonge. She said, by all meanes, that was reason; and in case the peace betweene us and Holland did not take effect, that then the ambassador, whome she intended howsoever to send into England, might conclude upon such other articles as should be thought fitt. I asked her, if shee had any thought of beinge included in that treaty with the Dutch? She said, noe; for shee not meddled in the warr, and therefore held it not requisite to be included in the peace with them.
The Spanish resident shewed me a letter, that he received from a greate person out of Flanders, wherein was mentioned, that Mons. Beuningen had written to his superiours, that the English ambassador and the Spanish resident were often togeather; and that they had shewen each to other greate respect, which his highnes the arch–duke did very well like of, and gave him thanks. And there was alsoe in the letter, that though Mons. Beuningen did not like of our beinge soe freindly, yet his superiours endeavoured all they could to have amitie with the commonwealth of England. When I told him what fleete wee had at sea, he said, it was pitty, that soe brave a fleete was not imployed. He then shewed me the coppy of a letter, which Mons. Beuningen had written to his superiours, in which he taxed me with the ceremoney of not meetinge prince Adolph at my doore, when he came to visite me; to which I said, that I mett him within two or three stepps of the doore, with thoughts of receivinge him at his coach; but one of my servants, whoe was ordered to attende his cominge, and to informe me thereof, did not give me tymely notice of it; which I had excused by the prince. The Spanish resident said, that nether the queene nor himselfe had ever heard the prince expresse any dislike of my carrage; and that the queene, seeinge Beuningen's letter, said, there were many thinges in it concerning me, which upon her knowledge were not true. There was alsoe in the letter, that I had many longe audiences from her majestie, and many conferences with the chancellor; but that he could not in the least learne what passed betweene us.
Munday I beinge with Mons. Skute, he spake much by way of excuse of the delay in my busines. I told him, I had alreadie stayed longe in this place, and that nothinge had ben done; to which he replyed, that my stay here was more advantage to England, then if wee had sent ten thousand men into Holland; and that hereby they would be brought on with greater desires to make a peace with us. I told him, that they knew nothinge of my negotiation: hee answered, that made them more jelous. Hee alsoe said, that the slownes of one person was the cause, that hetherto I had received noe aunswere; and that he doubted not, but in a short tyme I should receive an aunswere to my contentment. Whilest I was with him, the queene sent one of her gentlemen to me, to desire me, that I would put of my visite of her until the next day, by reason shee had then extraordinary busines. And after the messenger was returned, Mons. Skute told me, the queene was busie in dispatchinge the three senators to the prince of Sweden; viz. count Erick Oxensterne, Mons. Fleminge, and Mons. Vanderlyn, whoe are depnted upon the busines of the queen's resignation. And he alsoe told me, that in few dayes he should be sent to the prince. I entreated him, to present my service to his royal highnes, and that I was very desireous to salute him, when I should have an opportunity.
I visited the rix–dreightset count de Brahe; he is president of the courts of justice, and the first minister of state in this kingdome. The name of his office is as much as vice–roy, and his jurisdiction is the supreame court for administration of justice. Wee had much discourse about my busines, in which he seemed to expresse much affection to the commonwealth of England. And albeit I have ben informed by some, that he is noe freind to us, yet I rather chose to visit him, first, and found him very civill. Hee inquired much after the affaires of England, and of our government, and seemed much satisfied with those aunsweres I gave him. I was informed he spake good French; but duringe the tyme I was with him, he spake altogeather Lattine to me, and that very readily. He discoursed to me the manner of the Swedish government, and in particuler of his owne office, which seemed to me to be the same with that greate office anciently amongest us, the cheife justice of England. Wee had some discourse alsoe of the prince of Sweden, whome I did at that tyme the rather complement, because his brother prince Adolph had formerly married the daughter of this lord. Hee told me, he had ben governor of Fynland ten yeares togeather; which province he said was greater then France; and that the dominions of the queene were of greater extent then France, Spaine, and Italie, altogeather.
On tuesday her majestie was pleased by one of her gentlemen to invite me to take the aire with her, two or three miles out of towne. When I came to the castle, she excused herselfe, that she was not as yet ready to conferr with me upon the articles, accordinge to her promise; but that shee had ordered certaine thinges to be put in writinge to give me concerninge it.
My lord Lagerfeildt came to me, whilest I was in the presence–chamber, and told me, my lord chancellor intended to have ben with me that day, but beinge taken with a fitt of an ague, was hindered; and that if his sicknes contynued with him, his sonne count Ericke Oxensterne should come and conferr with me about my busines.
Wensday count Ericke Oxensterne came to visitt me, and spake very much in excuse of the delay in my negotiation. Hee told me, his father was very ill of an ague, but he believed, that the queene would appoint another to conferr with me, if his father should by reason of sicknes be disabled to doe it. I told him, I was sorry for the indisposition of his father; and as concerninge my busines, that I had ben heere three months, and nothinge as yet concluded. He replyed, that the incertainty of the affaires betweene us and Holland, togeather with the queene's designe, were hetherto the causes of my beinge delayed. I said, that some of the articles related meerely to friendship and to comerce, and had noe dependency upon the treaty. Whereupon he desired me to be assured, that I should receive all contentment and satisfaction as to that matter; and that there were many perticulers under his consideration concerninge traffique. I told him, could not debate much upon such perticulers; and that I was sent hether by my lord protector, to testisie his respect to the queene and kingdome of Sweden, and to make them offer of the friendship of England; and I suposed, that persons of wisdome and experience, as they are, would esteeme it worthy the acceptance: as to comerce, my propositions were generall. Hee said, that the perticulers thereof would be more conveniently debated betweene the merchants; and that they heere desired the amity of England more then of any nation. Our conference was interrupted by the cominge of the rixdroitset; but wee had more discourse to the same effect, while they were both togeather; and upon the departure of count Ericke Oxensterne, the rix–droitset very much inquired concerninge the nobility and parlament of England, and alsoe concerninge my lord protector and his family.
I supposed, that by the deserringe of my busines the Hollanders would be in the more suspence and doubt of the issue thereof, and wee might thereby come on the more freely in our treaty with them; whereas if the certainty of my busines here were knowen, it might perhapps seeme lesse to them then it now suspected. Upon this ground I was the lesse forward to presse for a possitive answere heere; but now that I presume the busines betweene us and Holland may be brought to an issue, I intend the more to put on mine heere, and the default hetherto resteth on their parts; as is acknowledged by their excuses.
Upon my visitinge grave John Oxensterne, eldest sonne of the chancellor, he received me not with that respect, which his father used to doe, but carried himselfe more losty. Hee sent some of his gentlemen to his outermost doore to receive me, whome I did not much salute, observinge the neglect. Att the inner doore stood about ten lackies and pages, two whereof were sonns of earles. He had much discourse with me concerninge England, as alsoe about my negotiation, in which he said he would speake with the queene, that I might have the more speedy aunswere; whereunto I replied, I had already moved the queene in that busines myselfe.
This afternoone I attended the queene, whoe at the first meetinge made an excuse, that she had not conferred with me concerninge the articles, which I gave her. I told her, if she thought fitt, I had them now readie, and wee might reade them over togeather; to which she consented, and I read them to her. Shee pulled out a paper of notes written with her owne hand, in Lattine, which were her observations upon the articles. After I had read the first article, she said, there was nothinge therein, which needed explanation.
To the second article she said, that would require consideration, and read out of her notes the words communis interesse; which she desired I would explaine what was meant by them. I told her, those words included matter of sastie, and matter of trassique. She then demanded, whie the Baltique sea was named as to free navigation, and not other feas likewise. I told her the reason was, because at present the navigation was not free into the Baltique sea; and that if her majestie pleased to have the other feas likewise named, I should consent to it. She asked me, If I would consent as to the freedome of navigation in America ? I told her, I could not; that the articles of the comonwealth were comprehended within the bounds of Europe. She asked, what I thought my lord protector would doe, in case shee should demand that liberty? I told her, that his highnes would give such an aunswere, as would consist with the interest of England, and shew a due regard to her majestie.
She then desired me to reade the third article, which, shee told me, shee would agree to; but shee thought it necessary, that a forme should be agreed upon for certificates and letters of safe conduct, that ships might passe free upon shewinge of them. I told her, I thought there would be noe neede of them, especially if the peace were concluded betweene England and Holland. She said, but if the warr contynued, it would be necessary. After I read the fourth article, she said, she thought there would be no neede of that article at all, and read another shee had drawen herselfe in Lattine to this effect, That if any hereafter should comitt treason, or be rebells in one country, they should not be harbored in the other. I told her, the article was already to that effect, and I thought it necessary for the good of both nations. She said, it would be to sharpe against divers officers, whoe had served her father and herselfe, and were now settled in Swethland; and I offered her that amendment, which I before tendered to the chancellor; a copy whereof I formerly sent you, and doe now sende you againe, which I conceave not to be repugnant to the substance of the article; which when shee read, she told me, that it might include all those men, which shee mentioned before. I told her, I knew not any one (for I had inquired into it before) which were excepted by name from pardon. She said, for any thinge to be done hereafter, it was very reason able, and she would consent to it. I told her likewise, if any hereafter should come into her country, that were excepted from pardon, they ought likewise to be included in this article.
After I had read the fifth article, she told me, that and the second article would require further consideration, because, if shee should consent thereunto, it would declare her breach of the newtrality, which she had hetherto kept. I told her, if the peace were concluded betweene England and Holland, that newtrallity would be gon; and if the warr contynued, I presumed she would not sticke to declare otherwise then that newtrallity was. She told me, that was true; but she desired, that this article and the second might be lett alone, untill the certainety were knowen of the treaty between England and Holland.
To the sixt article she said, she thought it reasonable. After I had read the seventh article, she tooke exceptions to the words, bona à suis cujusque inimicis direpta, which she said was a breach of her newtrallity. To that I aunswered as before upon the fifth article; and shee desired, that it might be past over as the second and fifth, untill the issue of the treaty were knowen. She said, she would desire the liberty of fishinge for herrings. I told her, upon equall conditions I presumed his highnes would consent to that which should be fitt. She asked me, what conditions I would demand? I told her, those matters of commerce, as to the particulers, would be best agreed upon with the advice of merchants, which might be done hereafter; and she prayed me to reade the next article, which she said was equall: the like to the ninth article; and upon the tenth wee had noe difference; nor upon the eleventh nor twelfth, but some short observations of her majesty's, which by explanation I cleered, and shee seemed satisfied. Upon the thirteenth article she read an objection in Lattine to the proviso, and said it was reasonable, that if they did breake bulke, they should pay custom, for soe much only as they sold. I told her, that objection was more in favor of the merchants, then of herselfe. She said, the marchants were crafty indeede, and she did not much insist upon it. To the fourteenth, which was the last article I gave in to her, she said, it was fitt, that the number of men of warr, that should come into either's port togeather, should be acertained to avoyde suspition. I told her, I would agree thereunto, with a caution as in the first article to be added, if they should be driven by tempest, force, or necessity. I then desired her majesty to give me a coppy of those objections. Shee told me, they were only a few things, which she had written with her owne hand upon her apprehension of the articles; and that I should have them in writinge; but desired I would not acquaint any body here with this conference betweene us. She made hast to goe away, beinge desireous to take the ayre; where I waited upon her in her coach, untill it was dark night. I shall desire to know the pleasure of my lord protector, whether in case I maye conclude those articles of amitie and commerce, omittinge the second, fifth, and seventh articles, if his highnes will be pleased to approve thereof. I consesse my humble opinion is, (unlesse I receive commands to the contrary) that in case the peace be concluded betweene us and Holland, and Denmark included, it will be noe disadvantage to us, to conclude the allyance heere, omittinge the second and fifth articles, and that parte of the seventh, against which her majesty objected, if she shall insist upon it. Another point, wherein I pray direction, is upon the sixteenth article of the treaty with the Dutch, that either commonwealth shal be comprehended, if they desire it, in treaty with other princes, and notice to be given of such treaties, in case that with the Dutch shal be agreed; whether notice ought to be givento them of the treaty with the queene of Swethland, and the Dutch offered to be comprehended therein; or whether the treaty heere beinge begun before that with the Dutch concluded, there wil be any cause of such notice to be given them. I am very willinge to hasten homewards, when I may obteyne my lord's order, and that it will be noe prejudice to my service heere, as I conceave such a conclusion would not at all be. I presume you have heard of the newes at Antwerpe, which is very fresh heere this weeke, that the archduke hath imprisoned the duke of Lorraine in the castle of Antwerpe, which caused the gates of the towne to be shut, which hath caused to your freinds here the losse of the comfort of this weeke's letters from England, the post beinge staied there, as wee understand from Hambrough.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
All yours are received, besides your letter of occurrents. Your friend, who has been lately again in conference with cardinal Mazarin, and now out of town, not to return till Easter, tells me upon the whole matter, that cardinal Mazarin is drawn to a desire of the general peace, and that he expects shortly a legate à latere from the pope to that purpose. He has a devilish purge in store for Holland, and exclaims against them. If Bordeaux can amuse the protector and his council, till this campaign be over, it is the master–piece. If that may not be by Bordeaux, nor he grateful, one of the embassadors formerly mentioned shall be sent to you.
R. Carolus will go into Germany for a while; and it has been cardinal Mazarin's advice a long time, in order to the interest of the said R. Carolus; and now Mazarin. thinks it will be a help to amuse your protector by his removal.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
I Have very little to add to my foregoing of the 8/18 th of this present month. Since here hath been a report, that some letters coming from England to the prince of Condé, had been intercepted; by which they have discovered some design of the English against this state. But there is a great likelihood, it is only a conjecture ill grounded and ill understood of the capitulation granted to O Bryan, a tory of Ireland, to remove into Flanders, to serve the king of Spain under Mons. the prince: and because it hath been observed to be printed in the English Gazette, therefore men do suppose, that the commonwealth were about to espouse the particular quarrel of Mons. the prince. Just now the news is brought, that Mons. the prince hath besieged some considerable place; some say Bethune, others la Bassée.
A letter of intelligence.
My Dear Heart,
I had yesterday a letter of yours of the 3d, which I should have had the post before. If you have sent any of the 6th, I have not yet had it. By this I believe the Dutch embassadors have put you all out of the pain of uncertainty; and I doubt the French will do so too very soon, though one of the juncto sent to the Scots king, that there were now, more than ever, less hopes of agreeing with you; and that the protector is in a strict league with Spain and the prince of Condé, who this day is condemned of high treason, his posterity cut off from all pretension or right to the crown, and his house in this town to be razed; a punishment not great enough for a man, who endeavoured to ruin his country, and is so malicious an enemy to his king.
By this you know from my two last letters the intention my mistress hath to go hence, and the difficulty she hath to find the means; her mother obstructing all her business at the French court, and her friends in England having certainly little consideration of her miseries or interests. I would be glad to see that, which you hope. To say to the purpose, it could never come in a more seasonable time. I am commanded by my mistress to tell you and Dabb so. The cardinal said yesterday, that your protector is angry, that the king of France called him not Mon frere, brother. He rallied much upon it, and demanded, whether his father was ever in France? I hope our protector will make him sing another song, before summer be past. I should be out of my wits to hear for certain, that the peace of Ireland were disquieted after so good a course as his highness hath taken to settle it. As for Scotland, I apprehend them not; but for our own army to turn their victorious swords against their brethren, were sad. I beseech you let me at large have what you can say of these things; and whether there be any grounds for the reports here, that our protector is shortly to declare himself king. I am sure he deserves the one as well as the other. Beware of using much freedom with the Scots countess; for all she knows is returned hither to a person, that my mistress most perfectly hates, and will certainly ruin, if ever she hath power, and not without reason, I'll assure you.
A letter of intelligence from Brussels.
Yours by this post I received, and sent yours for Ratisbon, from whence I have nothing for you at present, but to myself two lines, desiring me to excuse your friend at that post, he having nothing of consideration to write.
We do hear of don Francisco Romero's being safe there; but whether he delivered his letters and embassy, is yet unknown to me. Of the duke of Lorrain, or count Bassigny, here is nothing but what you had formerly; only I can confirm to you, that the first his moneys will hasten our campaign this spring, and we now prepare mightily for it, and for a sudden expedition. Count Fuenseldagna yesterday went from hence, and leads a pretty smart army towards Luxembourg, to encounter marquis de Fabert with the French army, called into the country of Liege at his return into France. The said Fabert with his forces is towards Limborg, and marching homewards. He must certainly retire, or fight, before he gets home. The next may bring more of it to you, as I suppose.
Of the general peace here is nothing, but much of yours with Holland, which is not doubted of; for the Dutch cannot longer maintain a war against England, and the lord protector's government makes England more formidable and considerable to all nations, than ever it has been in my days.
Here is nothing more now, but many Irish come from Ireland daily into the service
of prince Condé, with the most sad stories of the English usage to the natives, that
ever I heard of; parents taken from their wives and children, and sent into the English
plantations; the children starve in wildernesses, and some knocked to death. If all be
true, it cannot be the protector will leave it impune. You may know more of it there.
This is sufficient of it from, Sir,
De Vries, the Dutch resident in Denmark, to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
Some particular subjects of this crown have equipped a ship for Genoa, under the conduct of N. Schults, formerly employed in those parts for the West India company in the Netherlands, who a while since came and prossered his service; but I excused it, and he is since made captain of one of his majesty's ships. I am also informed, that here are three or four ships ready, bound for the Caribbee Islands, and to trade elsewhere in the West Indies.
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states general.
I Do find myself obliged hereby to discharge myself of a business, which the lord cardinal Mazarin hath imparted unto me; whether your lordships, according to their great wisdoms, can make or conjecture by or out of it, or whether for information or service, what his eminence communicated unto me, that Mons. Baas was sent into England, joined in commission with Mons. de Bordeaux, who had received power to authorize him in quality of embassador to the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland; and also accordingly to treat about an agreement or accommodation. Among other discourses the lord protector had asked, what Mons. the cardinal thought of the treaty with your lordships ? Mons. Baas should have answered thereupon, that he had heard the cardinal say, that it ought to be concluded, the sooner the better, with your lordships. Whereupon the lord protector should have asked him with a strange countenance, full of admiration, whether the cardinal bid him say any such thing ? Baas answered, Yes; and being demanded again, for what reasons, Baas continued and replied, that therefore, for as long as the war between England and the Netherlands should continue, the commerce could never return to its former course, wherein the cardinal said all christendom was concerned. I do hear, that there is very great correspondence kept between the cardinal and the lord protector; which doth put me in mind of what his eminence told me, that had the king been willing, to the prejudice of your state, to yield any thing to English, we had come to an agreement with England with as much ease as I can draw on my glove (said the cardinal); but the king is a great king, who can do good deeds, and hath done, and will do to your commonwealth, although the same be not acknowledged by you to his majesty, which he will expect in time to come: but the conservation, welfare, and honour of your H. and M. lordships the king will always preserve in full affection, yea increase the same upon all occasions; for his majesty, by reason of the inseparable interests, is highly concerned in it. What he meant by those words foregoing, that are underlined, I do not understand; yet I am told bythe–by, as I am of all other things, that England hath desired something of France, upon which depended the whole welfare or ruin of your H. and M. lordships state; and that which France might have done. But because your H. and M. lordships have their embassadors in England, they will have a better occasion to learn what was propounded to the French. (fn. 1)
In the absence of this king and court, there is little of news here; only an embassador from the duke of Muscovy is lately come hither from Stockholm, as is said, under pretence of laying up some ammunition of war for the use of his master, against the king of Poland. This people through their jealousies are yet doubtful of the issue of the treaty with England; yet hoping there will be peace, they do not so much fear their neighbour the Swede, or any of the private transactions with England.
An intercepted letter.
My dear heart,
I Join with you in wondering, that we two gentlemen could not sooner discover one knight. Well, let him be as he is, his Lyndabrides talke of hasting to him; and so God speed them together. Last night Mons. Schonburg went to Gravesend, but cannot carry news to the Hague, that all is done here; for there is yet a remora in the business; for some say, that our Oliver tells the embassadors it was their fault, not to close the peace, when they were last here; that it hath since cost him and his people 800,000 l. for which he and his people must have satisfaction, since if they had closed then, all that naval charge might have been spared. Others say, that Mons. de Baas, whom the cardinal sent last, hath brought some private offers to Cromwel, that causeth his pause with the Dutch; for that Mazarin outbids them. Well, whether either or both these make the delay, I know not; but sure I am, that twice this week past the Dutch embassadors have been refused audience upon their sending to intreat it; and our preparations go faster forward than ever, pressing both of land and seamen being most violently gone on with, even at this very time; which makes men wonder, that think the peace so near; for during all the war we never had a fleet above half so strong as now is ready to put to sea; and therefore I hope we shall once more beat the butter–boxes, before we allow them our favour and protection. Dabb cannot possibly come yet to town till the term, and then I hope something will be better done for the present. He hath writ me word, there is no remedy, but it must come in scraps to our mistress, and so hath returned me 200 l. which will not be paid but on eight days sight, which ends on friday next. I hope the next bout will be better, and that in the mean time our mistress will not despise this, nor to take it as it can be got; for upon my faith, Dabb's endeavours and mine to serve him are very hearty, and not unlike the watchman of Israel, that the scripture tells us, neither slumbers nor sleeps. But indeed I am joyed with the assurance, that this week is gone a supply of 2000 l. to our mistress another way; and that by the same way will suddenly follow to her 2000 l. more. God's blessing on the senders, and much good may it do our mistress, whom I should be very glad were once removed out of that country ! for it is feared by some, that possibly the cardinal may do his business with the protector by underhand assurance, that the Scots king shall never seek fortune out of France, nor find it in it. The good God of heaven discover it to our mistress, if there be any under–hand foul play played our master!
I wonder not now at the ridiculousness of the late–discovered plot here, to the hazard of many worthy honest men, that knew nothing of it, and the making the king and his business contemptible by the groundless flight undertaking; since you tell me by whose conception and direction it was. Good God ! how much better wanted those men to serve their master, by offering at nothing, till an opportunity was, that indeed called upon all honest men to sink or swim in the business!
An intercepted letter.
The figure of 4 I have receaved, but that of one never come to my hands. Mr. Jefferies, who presents his servise to you, receaved one some two posts since, which had bin opened. Itt made mention one inclosed Westbury could tell how to deliver; which if it were not forgott to be putt in, was taken out, for noe such came in itt. I do not complaine of your not wrighting, but of your saying nothinge in order to our trade, when you doe wright. I finde our bookekeepers differ more then ever. Mr. Radfeild hath a wise caution sent him, to have a care who he deales withall; and I finde the great mistrust is of poor Mr. Skinner, and consequently of his correspondent Westbury here, which you are not to take notice of, though I wonder how itt should come to be knowen; for certainly Clerkson had order to impart itt to noebody but Mr. Cross; and if he should choose rather to entrust any than you or Mr. Manly, itt would difcourage me very much, especially now that there is caution given of being betrayed. You must know, that Mr. Radfield pretends to the daughter of Mr. Langston, and really I thinke would very faine have her. All these reasons made me lay itt soe, as to have it to Mr. Cross refered, who should be entrusted; adding withall the great friendship Mr. Slow hath with Mr. Head. The peace is here very doubtful with cavaleers; but I am confident itt will be, as hearing noe longer since then last night, the articles ar engrossing. The souldiers, which I writt of this day sennett, gone towards the sea, ar shiped, being some 1500, and as some say, to attend the motion of the king of Skotts, whose designe I desire you to impart to me, if you can learne itt. Pray send to demand the books by the same token they were given in a barber's house; which is all the token I can give you to demand them; who am, Sir,
Mr. Lloyd to secretary Thurloe.
Beinge (by the goodnes of the Lord) safely arrived here, I conceived it my duty to give you some account of my lord Henry's reception, and of the present posture of affayres in Ireland. His lordship, the third instant, betweene three and four of the clocke in the afternoone, went from Holyhead on board the Foxe frigott, and about twelve of the clocke next day landed at Bullocke, within five miles of Dublin. The guns of the frigott gave my lord generall and the citty notice of his arrivall. The lieutenant general, beinge then at his countrey–house halfe a mile distant from the place of his landinge, sent his coach immediately to meete his lordship, himselfe soone after following on horsebacke, and with much expression of courtesy and civility invited him to his house, whither (haveing continued the space of an houre) came my lord generall and my lady, accompanyed with diverse officers civill and military, and other gentlemen of quality. In his way thence, three miles from Dublin, he was mett by the mayor, recorder, aldermen, and other cittizens; and thus by four or five coaches, upwards of five hundred horse, (a number not to be imagined to be gott together, if we compare it with the shortnes of warning, being but two houres) was he attended into the citty. The cittizens did yet further expresse their joy by ringing of belles, and makeing of bonefires, which I thinke was done by every inhabitant (excepting the A (fn. 2) ) and that of their owne accord, without any order from their magistrate. The next day came their judges, and several lawyers, and other persons of quality, who could not prepare themselves the day before to waite upon his lordship. This reception was most honourable and handsome, and his deportment suitable. I have taken the boldness to relate this at large to you, because oftentimes these things have a voyce, which wiser men understand, and fooles guesse att. He was yesterday at the colledge, where his lordshipp was entertained with copyes of verses, speeches, and disputations.
I shall now with the same freedome endeavour to give you a saythfull account of matters here, whereof I have laboured (with as much certainty as I could) to informe myselfe. I have to that end since my comeing hither conversed with persons of different judgements in matters of religions, with men of several professions and interests; and now I can say, that I have not observed upon any turne, that hath beene hitherto, soe generall a satisfaction amongst the people (some A. onely excepted) as I find upon this last; his highnes beinge so farr from giveing distaste, that I thinke no act that ever he did (with honour spoken to his former) gained him soe much repute, soe many heartes, as this, in acceptinge the government, without offence to the C. and A. be this spoken. Some are pleased, that beinge of a long season kept under hatches by A. (who by their carriage disobliged all but such as are of theire owne cutt) dare now list up the head, and expect onely to stand but upon even ground with them; and in the army especially are not a few, who rejoice upon this account. The citizens are glad, hopeinge their corporation, which was more than threatned by the C. and some A. is now secur'd; others, that religion, ministery, lawes, mens proprietys, are own'd and protected. They are not a few, who are pleased in an assurance of peace with the Dutch, and consequently expect some abatement in taxes, and a freedom of trade, and encouragement for planting; which two last I finde the minds of men here are very much fett upon. Though we may be too apt to judge such considerations as these onely sway mens heartes; yet doubtless there is a remarkeable hand of God, that (as it were in an instant) hath bowed the hearts of the people in soe universall a manner. Upon the first knowledge of this great alteration, the A. were much troubled, many of their objections beinge against the title of Highnes and Protectour, which they conceave are to be attributed to God alone. Some were also grounded upon misreports of my lord's sitting att table alone, and serv'd upon the knee. But that, which I finde to lye at the bottom, is this, that the late parliament did countenance their way more than any other; and that his highnes was privy, if not instrumentall, to their breakinge up, and that at a tyme, when they were passing a glorious reforming act for takeinge away tythes, the maintenance of the rotten clergy. Their invectives and derisory expressions were many and frequent, and used by the chiefe of them. I have it from very good hands, (though by some it's denyed) that L. C. W. beinge desired to proclaime my lord protector, answered, that my lorde must bringe an army of his owne to doe it. At Killkenny C. A. sent out four troopers, some say four musketeers, to make the proclamation. I have it from the same handes, that the officers about Corke were soe much incens'd, that they drewe up a remonstrance against this change of government, and brought it to Dublin for approbation, where it was crush'd.
The C. expressed as much dissatisfaction as any, and it is a doubt, whether the C. did more cherish or soment the discontent in the A. or the A. by their taunts and behaviour feed the peevish humour of the C.
The lieutenant general hath behaved himselfe most childishly, not refrayning very poysenous and bitter expressions in publique meetings; for which I conceive it is, that he is soe much cryed up by the A. of late, and ever since admitted to the private weekely meetings, which before was denyed him. He resuses to act as C. and acts onely as L. G. The riddle can be resolved noe otherwise then by this distinction, that the one is more beneficial then the other.
The order for proclaiming his highnes was signed onely by their secretary, whereas others are usually signed by themselves. The reason hereof I understand to be, that three commissioners haveing sign'd, it was tendred to the lieut. gen. also, who refusinge used this expression, that he would rather cutt of his hand; and then the three others blotted out theire names. His objections against his highnes and government are grounded upon several acts of parliament, viz. that of the 30th of January 1648; March 17. 1648; May 14. 1649; May 10. 1649; July 14. 1649. The mayor and aldermen of this citty sent three several tymes to the C. for leave to proclaime his highnes, and were alwayes denyed, with this reason, that there were not any direction from England for soe doing. It's thought, that if orders had not beene granted in time, there would have beene a mutiny in the towne, the mayor beinge resolved to delay it noe longer. The citty did expresse as much joy on that day as any place in England, the mayor, sheriffes and aldermen accompanying the herald at armes in all the formalitie and pomp they could possibiy expresse. The com. gave noe countenance to that action; neither did any of the A. appeare, excepting coll. Sankey, who I am persuaded brought his heart along to that solemnization. The governour also appeared, because, they say, he could not well refuse. From all this I presume you cannot conclude lesse, then that here wanted not will to dispute the change with you. I wish you may not have occason, when they are growne stronger, to make tryall of their affection. Of late they are growne more moderate. Three thinges have concurred to this moderation; his sendinge for two of them over, my lord Henry's beinge here, and a sober chiding letter from Mr. Kyffyn and Mr. Spilsbery, out of England; and because I think they are now willing to embrace any argument, that may be a colour to their satisfaction. I have beene desirous to cherish that disposition; and findinge the case of the commonwealth to be very sober and rationall, I have caused it to be printed here; and if I find occasion, shall print J. G. queres also.
The C. now, by what I can learne, expect not to continue long, and therefore doe little but prepare for their dissolution, granting legacyes, I meane custodiums to some, and preferring of others of their freinds to places of benefitt and continuance; which will make the worke more difficult to such as shall be appointed in chiefe.
All people here are at a stand, not knoweing the end of my lord Henry's comeinge over; most imagining he hath a commission in his pockett to be lord deputy. The gentleman lately come over to you, you will find very subtill and close, and very well instructed in what he shall say.
Mr. Apletree to the protector.
May it please your Highnesse,
The inclosed (if it prove true) discovers divers notable treasons, which I was the rather imbouldened me humbly to tender your highnesse, for that I was informed by the within named Thomas Steevens, he was formerlie in custody by your highnesse special commaund, and that notwithstanding (as he affermes) had mercie offered him, runn away, and was apprehended in this countie of Oxford, for robbing upon the highway. Imediately after he was convicted, (beinge desired by judge Atkins) I examined him; who declares, as in the said inclosed is sett fourth. Thatyour highnesse may ever be adorned with all spirituall and temporall blessinges, is the harte's desire, and daly praire of
The information of Thomas Steevens, now prisoner in the common gaol for the county of Oxford,
That one Anthony Bradshom gentleman of Wandsworth in the county of Surry did about twelve months since coin and vent divers sums of false money, at the house of one Mr. Ellis, alias Alis in New Brentford in the county of Middlesex, who now liveth at Hounslow in the said county, over against the flower–de–luce there.
That one Smith called by the name of Glegge, and one Perkins by the name of Poole, about a twelve month since, did join together, and keep a mint, at a house called the Moat–house, in Cranford in the county of Surry, and did coin several forts of false money, for the space of a twelve month.
That one John Hooker, who now liveth at Kingston upon Thames in the county of Surry, (or near) did within a year and a half last past coin several sums of money at his house in New–market near Covent–garden in London, who then kept a cornchandler's shop there; and that one captain Hardy did then much frequent the house of the said Hooker, and coined money with him; which captain Hardy kept a youth, the son of one Chamberlain, and brought him up to coining.
That one Anthony Quarterman, a goldsmith in London, about a year and half since, did keep a mint for coining false money, at Kilbourne, within a mile of Paddington in the county of Middlesex; and that one Mr. Hill, a merchant, lodging in Ironmongerlane near Cateaton–street in London, came to the aforesaid Quarterman his mint in Kilbourne aforesaid, about a year and half since, and desired of the said Quarterman to have five hundred pounds made up in false coin for him in eight days, to traffick with beyond the sea. The said Hill then told the said Quarterman, if he wanted sterling to make it, he should have two hundred pounds in heavy money, which was pickt at the lodging of the said Mr. Hill, to melt down; and that the said Quarterman promised him the said Mr. Hill to send a trusty messenger for the said two hundred pounds, or come himself that night, or the next morning; and that the said Mr. Hill should have five hundred pounds made up within eight days for it.
That one George Hall a goldsmith, who now liveth at Barking in Essex, sometime formerly lived at Shrewsbury, and sometime in St. Martin Foster–lane, about a year since did keep a mint at Barking aforesaid, and coined false money there; and that one George Sheldon, formerly apprentice to the said Hall, liveth now at Stratford upon Avon, and coineth false money; and that one George Witticuse, which formerly coined with the said Hall, and ingraved stamps, now liveth as Salisbury.
That one Roome, a merchant living at Croydon in Surry, about three quarters of a year since did tell this examinant, that he the said Roome did coin money at Croydon aforesaid; and that he the said Roome had a mint there; and that he this examinant is able to make it appear, that the said Roome coined several sums of false money in London.
That one Thomas Hawes, who about a year and a quarter since hired Putney park house in the county of Surry, did keep instruments to coin money; and that the said Hawes, and one captain Temple, did coin several sums of false money at Putney park house aforesaid.
And this examinant further said, that he hath through his industry, in sending messengers, since he hath been a prisoner in the castle of Oxon, found out one Maston (fn. 3), who killed, as this examinant heard, two messengers of the council of state; and that the said Maston lodgeth at the Hand and Pen in Aldersgate–street in London; and that the said Maston goeth there by the name of Mordecai Bowler, and keepeth coining in a warehouse, backwards in Hand and Pen court.
Declaration of the chancery of Mentz.
Notum sit omnibus, cum circuli Burgundici ad hæc universalia sacri Romani imperii
concilii legatus dominus Aurelius Augustinus, Malines, eques, regis catholici libellorum magister, & à secretioribus & supremæ admiralitatis consiliis, dominis electoribus,
principibus, & statibus, & eorum qui absunt legatis & deputatis, in proxime elapso mense
Augusto signarit, exposuerit, & rogarit, uti etiam ex parte sacri Romani imperii pacis
inter regiam catholicam majestatem, & Fœderatarum Belgii provinciarum status anno
1648. conclusæ art. 53. approbetur, confirmetur, & ratificetur, prout is verbo tenus sequitur: Dictus dominus rex obligat se effective ad procurationem continuationis & observationis neutralitatis, amicitiæ, & bonæ vicinitatis ex parte suæ Cæsareæ majestatis & imperii,
cum dictis dominis ordinibus, ad quam continuationem & observationem prædicti domini
ordines reciproce pariter se obligant, sequiturque super eo confirmatio suæ Cæsareæ majestatis intra spatium duorum mensium, ex parte vero imperii intra annum a conclusione &
ratificatione præsentis tractatus, quod quidam sacri Romani imperii electores, principes,
&status non minus quam Cæfarea majestas dominus noster clementissimus, cum præ
dictis dominis ordinibus, fœderatisque provinciis, cam, quæ durante bello HispanoBelgico, & postea hucusque inter Romano–Germanicum imperium & eosdem ordines semper
intercessit neutralitas, amicitia, & bona vicinitas, & futuris etiam temporibus sincere & inviolabiliter colere, observare, & continuare constituerint & desiderarint, nullatenus dubitantes
cosdem Belgii consœderatos ordines & provincias ex sua etiam parte ad eandem pariter &
ad juste remedendum gravaminibus contra illam illatis proclives & resolutos esse; attamen
necessarium esse existiment, etsi memoratæ confirmationis expeditio in forma authentica
desideretur, etiam prædictorum Belgii confœderati ordinum reciprocus consensus desuper
ideo explicetur, ut eo utrimque prævio res ita recte & rite perficiatur, & hanc præviâ in
sacri Romani imperii collegiis maturâ deliberatione omnium imperii statuum unanimem sententiam, mentem, & conclusum esse, nomine & ex speciali omnium statuum commissione
attestatur imperii directorium Moguntinum. Signatum Ratisbonæ, 26 Martii anno 1654.
Extract of a letter of Mons. de Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Mons. de Brienne, secretary of state in France.
J'ai receu la lettre, qu'il vous a pleu m'ecrire le 21 du present, avec celle du roi pour Mons. le protecteur, que je ne suis pas encore en etat de rendre, n'aiant point eu d'audience. Mais s'il est necessaire, je ne laisserai pas de la saire paroitre, à sin que son altesse recognoisse, que le roi se porte à tout ce qui le peut satisfaire.
The Dutch embassadors to secretary Thurloe.
In satisfactionem ejus articuli, quo de actionibus istis particularibus agitur, qui numero vestro 29 est, quoniam exacta earum cognitione destituti sumus, & tamen certi quidquam statuere decrevimus, referemus nos ad anni 1611. inclusionem, ut nimirum nullæ admittantur, quæ ante illius anni initium accederunt. Ceterum uno verbo addimus, ut dominationi vestræ placeat bina ea plenipotentiæ nostræ instrumenta, quæ ei suere tradita, secretario nostro harum litterarum gestori exhibere; & manebimus dominationi vestræ ad quævis officia parati,
The rhyngrave to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
In my last of the 25th of this month, I humbly advised your lordships, how that I was informed, that the French army, understanding that the Spanish was passing the Maese, was not marched quite out of the countries. This was in part true; but as soon as those of Liege were assured by an express from the earl of Fuensaldagna, that he did understand, that the passage did give some kind of jealousy, his men being most marched over, he caused them presently to march back again on this side; and the marquis Faber with his army is march'd quite away; so that these parts are now altogether free from soldiers, and in peace.