A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The lord of Opdam, having been at Antwerp, is come back hither. There is no great heed given to the report, that all the treaty was broke, and come to nothing; the quite contrary. The earl of Schomberg, who is come in great haste from England, doth report, that the English continue in their resolution of making peace, and that six commissioners were already named. The states general being curious to know it, sent for him into their withdrawing chamber, where he declared the same thing unto them.
In the printed papers here they have put, that since the arrival of the last pink, there hath been another pink sent from hence for England; but that it was not sent on the behalf of the generality; and yet Holland will no wise have the name of giving orders and instructions in particular; and in case that the English will not allow of any proviso (in omitting the twelfth of the twenty-seven articles) I do not see, that the embassadors dare conclude; for Holland itself dares not skip that point; so that the embassadors will be obliged (in case of admission of that proviso) to make report thereof back hither, and from hence to the provinces; which tedious proceedings will cause much languishing in the commerce and navigation. God defend that dearth do not follow upon it ! for every one (of what humour or faction soever he be) doth judge, that the state or the commonwealth cannot bear this war; and that although England make a peace, yet they conjecture here, that it is the only interest of the protector, that doth make the peace; otherwise they think here, that the English are forward enough to continue the war; and through this temperature men do easily foresee, that sooner or later the government here will turn to the prince of Orange.
The presumption of some is, that the embassadors, whereof two are Hollanders, will skip over this proviso, rather than break off the pacification, since that Holland doth desire in their hearts the downsal of the house of Orange; and that without peace they shall not be able to subsist.
Since the letter of the embassadors of the 12/23 of March, they writ, and gave orders to the colleges of the admiralty, to equip and make great preparations in all haste. And whereupon those of Amsterdam and Rotterdam (the chiefest and the richest colleges) have writ back without circumlocution, that they have not wherewithal; and that they will equip, when they shall have money. Now the other provinces, being either poor. or less interested, or inclined to 161, cannot or will not, or are very low, and Holland is weary, and tired to do all alone that, which ought to be done amongst them.
The lord of Amelandt having writ of the return and expedition of his commissioners, they have writ to him back again, that he must send hither the resolution or act, which his commissioners have obtained in England, and to give an account of their negotiation.
The lord of Brederode hath caused a certain work to be demolished, which those of Utrecht had begun upon the Rhine, to force back the water. Those of Utrecht are very angry at it, and are almost resolved to pull down one of his houses hard by that place, to be revenged upon him. This will yet cause some further trouble.
Those of Zealand have at last effected their resolutions, having revoked the lord Vander-Nisse, and deputing in his place the lord Crommon in the states general. Those of Middleburg have continued the lord Veth; but every one of the other cities (Tolon, Flushing, and the Veer) will name also each of them one in the states general. Item Zierixzee will have one likewise. Now Middleburg and Zierixee are good Hollanders; but the other four cities are for the prince of Orange so that still Orange party in states Holland would have the plurality in stat s general, being formerly three in the states general; the two were good Hollanders; consequently the plurality; so that hereafter states of Holland almost alone will be good Hollanders; but till when, I know not.
The protector hath deceived this state now for the second time. Formerly they could not believe here, that he would have a peace with this state, nor that he would have passed by the point of satisfaction, notwithstanding he hath passed it by; and likewise declared, that he would have a peace. Now therefore he will have passed by and omitted that rigorous twelfth article of the twenty-seven, and admitting of the proviso for the prince of Orange, which hardly any body here did believe. Now there is yet remaining a third fear and scruple, and that is, that they do believe the peace will not be firm nor durable, but that the protector will only endeavour to establish himself; and that afterwards, he will still find pretence enough to break. God grant that this state may find themselves deceived in this point likewise !
The lord Bye, resident of Poland, having had audience, did give them to understand his design of going for Poland, there to communicate the projected treaty of the alliance, upon which he was answered with a compliment. But if there be a peace with England, they will the less regard such treaties.
Those of Holland especially are much rejoiced at this good news and likelihood of peace, as well for the publick as for particular; for the publick, by reason Holland will begin to fetch breath, and flourish afresh in their commerce, which lay in an agony; for particular, for those that have the present government would have very much abhorred Holland for having lent an ear to the peace; and they would have been blamed and charged with a thousand faults, yea, worse than all this; whereof we saw some example the last summer in the several seditions at Enchuysen, Horn, Goes, and every-where almost, where they would by force have set up the government of the prince of Orange.
The state likewise did imagine themselves, that all the world would have prevailed by this war, and under favour thereof have incommodated them; and it being very ill taken, that those of the Malta durst speak so high, and much more that the duke of Newburgh durst own and recommend that; and at last, it was very ill taken (at least by peace) that the earl of East Friesland durst address himself to the emperor in the quarrel about the entertainment of 600 men in Embden. good Hollanders do chiesly believe, that these are machinations against them; and by this peace they hope, that they shall teach their neighbours good manners.
The Orange party, in the mean time, cannot easily dissemble their displeasure; for having for their design the interest of prince of Orange, they do hope and expect for him less advantage in peace, than otherwise.
As to the resolution of the queen of Sweden, it is strange she hath spoken with prince Palatine, who is to succeed her; and to close her discourse told him, God be with you ! I will see you no more, till such time as I shall say, Behold the king of Sweden. It is said, that since their speech together she hath shewn much content, by reason she hath prevailed with the said prince to accept of the charge of the crown upon himself; and that she doth discourse of all not as a princess, but as a philosopher e porticu.
Captain Kerkhoven is at last arrived here, by whom the embassadors have sent the
verbal of what hath past in the two conferences thereon between the three embassadors and
the six commissioners; and the other between the lord Beverning and Mr. Thurloe. Item,
they have sent the power of the lord protector of the fourth of March. They make
complaints, they could not obtain one of the additions, and omissions or alterations,
which they desired in the articles, saying that the English had already knowledge of the
resolutions of the nineteenth of February. I remain
3d of April, 1654. [N. S.]
De Witt to the lords Beverning and Nyport.
Since my last of the twenty-fifth of last month, I have received both your letters sent to the government, the one by the post, and the other by an express; at the receipt and reading thereof, their H. and M. L. resolved these two extracts, which I send you here inclosed. We do expect every hour further information from thence. I am afraid, that it will be a difficult thing to keep the assembly together longer than Easter-day, although I shall not omit to contribute all that shall lie in my power for the keeping them together; yea, I shall use some kind of artifice for that purpose, which I have thought of; yet I doubt much of the success. The commissioners of their lordships, having consulted upon the projected treaty sent over unto their lordships by the lord embassador Boreel in December last, have at last made report of their affairs, and noted many marks or passages, wherein the said projected treaty doth differ from the instructions, which were sent unto the said Boreel in June the last year; advising in effect, that in all the said passages the French project ought to be rejected, and to be allowed nothing, that is beyond the said instruction, which is likewise to be referred to the generality at the provinces advice, with intention to make some resolution upon it; at least as yet not to send to the said Boreel, but to confer in the first place with the lord embassador Chanut about the said passages; so that in the said treaty there is not any likelihood, that any thing will be done yet a while.
De Witt to Beverning.
What now concerneth my own opinion concerneth your lordship's remaining there, or coming home, when it shall please God to have given good success to the business on all sides. I would not keep it from your lordship; therefore I do freely declare unto you my opinion to be, that your lordship should remain there together a while after that the business is finished, to keep an eye upon the meeting of the commissioners for the deciding of all questions for damages suffered, in pursuance of the twenty-ninth article; that so you may help to direct for the best all other incident affairs; so that I would have you all to stay there, till such time that their lordships shall write for two of you to come home; and then I would have them to order you to stay there till further order. This I suppose will be most for the service of the state for several reasons. I do find, that if this business succeed, that they do intend to let you reside ordinary embassador there, but that before you enter into that function, to have leave to come over first to order your affairs here with convenience.
Johan Van Aylva to Jongestal.
The minds of our lords principals at the last general meeting-day being somewhat troubled by your lordship's former letters, as also of all the inhabitants of our precinct, are now again revived by your last; and men do now begin to speak honourably of the uprightness, prudence, and constancy of the lord protector, in what he faith or doth; and all men do wish for a good issue. I thank you for your communication. The princess doth likewise give you thanks. You are hereby much in her favour. As for my own part, I hope to merit the same by doing some other service for you.
The Dutch embassadors in England, to the states general.
We have dispatched a messenger by water, who, we hope, because of the favourable wind and weather, will be timely come to hands; since which there is nothing come to our knowledge, neither touching the fleet, nor concerning negotiations; but only, that his highness, instead of an answer to our memorial marked No 11. in our packet of yesterday, acquainted us in the evening, by a letter from Mr. secretary Thurloe, that in relation to the affairs he referred to the commissioners, that did negotiate with us, who were acquainted with every thing, and had a full power in every thing. Thereupon we are resolved to press our affairs to-morrow by new requests to those lords, being obliged to sit still to-day, because it is a solemn fast-day. As to private news, we do not know many that are worth mentioning. The lord de Neusville will be setched up from Greenwich on monday next, with all the solemnities that are due to an embassador extraordinary of a king of France. His highness with the advice of his council, by an ordinance of the twenty-seventh of last month, has continued the customs upon effects, convoys and licences till the 20th of March 1659. N. S. the time, which the parliament had limited for the raising thereof, being expired on the 20th of the said month. At the same time he has also continued the excise, and settled the proportions thereof, without any limitation of time, which formerly was always regulated by the parliament, as we are informed, and was never in the power of the king. The pamphlets here are full of favourable ridings in relation to the Irish affairs; viz. that the son of the lord protector was received there with great satisfaction and magnificence, and that every thing was there in perfect tranquillity. And from Scotland they write, that Middleton is arrived there, and has landed some arms and ammunition, and is making a general rendezvous, to attempt something considerable, as your high mightinesses will be pleased to observe out of the inclosed.
A letter to the Dutch embassadors at the Hague.
The lord commander de Ruyter being some days since sent by order of their lordships to Amsterdam and the north quarters, to make a review of all the ships of war lying in those parts, is come back with information, that within the space of three weeks, there will be completely ready seventy capital ships of war. It is yet uncertain, whether the lords states of Holland will adjourn this night.
A letter of intelligence from France.
My Dear Heart,
I have had none of your letters by the two last posts. The delays given by the French court to the Scots king in the business of his money make him suspect there is some foul play intended him by the cardinal; he is very passionate to go hence, but cannot for want of money. My lord Belcarres is arrived at Bologne out of Scotland, as it is believed, to invite Charles Stuart thither; what his errand is, you shall know, as soon as I can send it you.
The states have been assembled to consult about the departure of his imperial majesty being appointed on the 28th of this month, S. N. without fail; to which end about thirty ships lie ready upon the Donaw to attend his majesty and the whole court. The Swedish embassador did, in the said assembly, highly protest against his majesty's so sudden departure, alleging, that upon that account the instrumentum pacis would not only not be satisfied, but rather in all particulars unreasonably violated, and a most heavy and insupportable burden laid upon the almost languishing states of the empire, if, at least, his said majesty were not most graciously pleased to continue the ryxday per deputatos, until such time as they might be able, with better order and leisure, to dispatch such businesses as are of most importance. News is come to the emperor's court, that a disguised party of 250 horse had fallen upon the troops, which conveyed the duke of Lorrain from Antwerp to Genee, with such force, that without doubt, they had quickly mastered them, and freed the duke, if the Spanish avant-guard were not come in to their succour; by whose resistance the said disguised party were all slain, save only thirteen persons, which being taken prisoners, were condemned to be hanged at Genee aforesaid, from whence the said duke is to be transported for Spain.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the greffier Ruysch.
In our last, we sent an extract of our verbal, and the condition of our negotiation to their H. and M. L. which we hope came safe to hand. And on friday last, by the post, we advised their lordships, that his highness, upon our memorandum, had caused to be signified unto us by Mr. secretary Thurloe, that he did refer himself concerning that business to the commissioners, who had knowledge of every thing, and full power; but we are afraid, whether the last will come to hand, by reason we certainly know, that the mail was set upon a mile from this city on the way to Dover, and the mail cut open, the letters taken out, and was flung up and down the highways. Some were taken up again; but without doubt many will be lost. Therefore we thought sit to dispatch this to their lordships, to inform them further, that we are assured from a good hand, that the penning of our said memorandum delivered in had offended the lords commissioners, and especially those, that we expressed therein by name, as if we had thought to appeal from them to the lord protector; and in facto did misinterpret, and doubt of their justice concerning what had past in the former conferences. And we perceiving, that for the time to come we were to debate and finish the business with them, we thought it best to prepare and order our affairs to a desired issue; and to that end, on saturday last, we desired a meeting in St. James's Park with Mr. Thurloe, which was performed, and the next day pursued upon a good occasion; at which times we did once more declare by several instances, the tenor of the said memorandum, and the truth thereof; and did once more desire to obtain satisfaction about it, or that the whole difference might remain after the manner of pretended damage. But seeing that not only those offices were in vain, but several other endeavours, which other persons of quality, out of affection to the business, had used, were rendered fruitless, we thought fit not to remain idle any longer; and that it was our duty to present to the lords commissioners a new memorandum, which we had drawn up before at the same time that they sent us an answer in English to our first memorandum, with a promise to send us the translation thereof in Latin with the first, the same being seven sheets long, writ on both sides, and pretty close; and in effect a debate in sacto concerning the truth and untruth of the circumstances of what was set down in our former memorandum; whereof we shall send a copy with the first occasion. And there was withal, at the end, a presentation to agree and conclude upon the articles of the treaty according to their proposition, or to undertake the payment of the 146050 l. sterling, thereof to deduct what the said ships and goods should be thought worth, according to the appraisement to be made upon the place, where they are; so that we sound ourselves more and more perplexed, for by chusing of the first, we should render the comprehension of the king of Denmark uncertain; and by the latter, we should engage their H. and M. L. in the payment of such exorbitant sums. And yet on the other side being informed, how the condition of our negotiation stood, what ill offices are done against it, and how it finally stood with the disposition of his highness himself, and of the lords of his council; and being likewise informed, that this would be the last paper they intended to exchange with us, and that by default of a satisfactory answer they would appoint us some few days to chuse; and that at a debate in the council the most voices were for the continuation of the war; and that some begin to object, that since they were ready to sign from the twelfth of January, and that the delays did proceed from our side, that they ought to demand of us reparation of all the charges they have been at in regard to their equipment made since that time, they should judge us to be the cause of it, in case we receive no further resolution from their H. and M.L. which we do expect with a very great desire; yet we thought it our duties to prevent those extremities, by offering of some things, which might be satisfactory there, and yet not exceed the resolutions of their H. and M. L. of the nineteenth and twentieth of February, taken upon that subject; and thereupon have this day given in the inclosed memorandum, upon which we shall expect an answer, and advise their lordships thereof with the first. In the mean time, we desire you to keep this very secret.
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
It is almost three weekes since the date of your last letter. I hope there are some at Water-side for us. I much long to heare how it pleased the Lord to deale with us in relation to the Dutch busines. It is of great concernment in itself; but the comfort is, the management of all affayres is caryed on by that divine hand of providence, that if in faith we can but waite upon the Lord, wee may have peace and rest in what he doth. The high court of justice sitts not, nor can they, untill we have accompt from you concerninge the busines for murther. As to what you mention for commissions for the judges, I desire you would consult with my brother Cromwell, before they are sent; hee will give you a full accompt of all affaires here. Wee are to have a general councill of officers about the disposing of lands on the sixth of Aprill next. Major Morgan brought us this returne, that it was my lord protector's pleasure, wee should proceed according to the act in settinge out lands, and that if we wanted, we should have the foure countries. It is thought very strange, that the oppertunity was not taken of so much advantage to the publique; but it is supposed, that our agent beinge of a different sence from the state of the busines, there was not so full a representation of the grounds we went uppon in our address; for as it is now, I doubt, to set our lands according to the act, we shall leave a great debt upon the state. My brother Cromwell wil be able to speake to this thing, and therefore shall add no more, but that I am
Dublin castle, 27 March, 1654.
The grounds of meeting at Tho. Apostle, the 28th day of the first moneth 1654. in solemn humiliation before the Lord, begining at 7 a clock in the morning.
I. The manner of the coming in of the present G— with the sudden breaking up of the last parliament, for that they would have changed the present nationall ministery, lawyers, presentations, taxes, and oppressions, and for that they would have ruled as saints, therefore driven out of the house.
II. The present grand apostacy of professors, churches, preachers, and eminent persons of the nobles of Judah in the army, city, and country, from their former engagements, declarations, professions, and promises for Christ and his kingdom, cause, and interest.
III. The prosecution (of the faithfull remnant) that threatens them, wherein we may spread before the Lord those new-made laws of treason, &c. which look too much like tyranny, according to which, the servants of the Lord are imprisoned at Windsor, and others threatened.
IV. The manifold tentations abroad, both here and in the countrey, which are of divers sorts, as adversity, imprisonment, losse of friends, liberties, &c. on the other side, offers of places, preferments, honors, &c. and on all sides, the spirit of delusion, by false deluding pamphlets, arguments, falacies, and lies, whereby many good people are blinded in city and country.
V. The present deadness, and flatness of spirit, that is upon the little remnant of saints that are not yet backsliden, as at Allhallows meeting, and elsewhere, that those that remain may have a full, free, fit, and quickned spirit, (beyond whatever they yet had) to engage with one heart and mind, by constant faith and prayer, in the present testimony.
VI. As to deplore the present magistracy and ministrey, and such wicked ones, which are hightned in their expectations, and exalted into places; so also to be earnest for the magistracy, and ministery of the unction, according to the promise in the later daies, that Christ alone may be exalted.
VI. To spread before the Lord the animosities, jealousies, heart-burnings, and divisions, that are amongst the saints and churches, about formes, opinions, or points of judgement, and that the Lord would make an union in the spirit.
VIII. On these, and divers other grounds, which we might mention, as hipocracy, pride, and oppression; to mourn also for the present unseasonable weather and drought, which threatens famine and mortality, that the Lord would remove causes, that the effects might cease.
Extract of a letter of M. de Bordeaux the French embassador in England, to M. de Brienne secretary of state in France.
Depuis la derniere lettre, que je me suis donné l'honneur de vous ecrire, tout le tems s'est emploié en ceremonies, traitement, & en l'audience, que j'eus hier en la maniere & au meme lieu, que le roi la donnoit aux ambassadeurs extraordinaires. Cette action se passa en complimens; & comme les miens etoient pleins d'assurances de l'estime & affection de sa majesté, aussi ceux de M. le protecteur confirmerent les protestations, qu'il a si souvent reiterées, de sa bonne volonté & disposition à un accomodement entre les deux nations.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states of Holland.
By reason that the bearer hereof is not yet gone from Gravesend, we shall further inform your lordships, that in answer to our mentioned memorandum, Mr. Thurloe came to us this night, and presented to us the inclosed answer; to which we were necessitated to condescend, as well for some reasons which we had alledged yesterday in our former conference, as also for several other reasons, which did cause us to fear some sinister issue of our negotiation; which we thought to be our duty to prevent with all imaginable means and endeavours, firmly believing, and yet nevertheless humbly desiring, that their H. and M. lordships would accept of our faithful care for the best of our country, and prepare all things for the ratification thereof. We do find ourselves by their H. and M. lordships resolutions, taken the 19th and 20th of February, as well upon the articles in general, as the point of satisfaction in particular, fully authorized to the pretended restitution and submission; and therein we proceeded no further than to an obligation for the performance of the said conditions, which we could not avoid upon any terms; and neither durst we debate them very hard, by reason they still made some doubt every time of the execution and perfect performance thereof; and withal they did endeavour to avoid the absolute comprehending of the king of Denmark, without which we knew their lordships would not conclude: and we will leave it to the consideration of their lordships, whether there ought not to be writ to the king of Denmark with the first, that the ships and the proceeds of the goods, that are sold, may be ready at the arrival of the claimers; that also full and pertinent information be taken by the lord president De Vries, or some body else, of the constitution of the ships and goods, with the appurtenances thereof, how they were constituted at the time of their detention; and now how they shall be restored, with the extract of the tolls, where the goods were landed; and so furthermore all that may serve for instruction, and the debate of pretences of this side. That also the said resident De Vries or somebody else may be authorized to pay there the twenty thousand rixdollars promised: that also a provincial order be made for the exchange of five thousand pounds sterling, which we must pay here with the ratification, yet with little noise, by reason the knowledge thereof would raise the exchange here incredibly; both which sums we could not avoid to pay: all which we do hope to declare further unto their lordships by word of mouth. We shall now only, and once more humbly desire, that they would be pleased to believe, that we have endeavoured to the utmost of our power to serve the state with less charges and more satisfaction; but that necessity and the constitution of times and humours made us to resolve upon it. Yet we shall leave the whole work to their lordships ratification, praying to God, that he would assist them in their weighty deliberations with his good Spirit, and bless their resolutions with peace and prosperity. We do hope to send over the articles signed within few days.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
On sunday the 5th day of Easter arrived a galliot or pink, with letters of the 2d of April, from the embassadors; whereby they found here, that then the conclusion and signing of the treaty was not yet made, by reason of the excessive sum, which the English demanded for the 23 English ships. If there be on either side a true desire and inclination of peace, men ought not to let it hang for a sum of gold more or less. Here they do as certainly desire peace, as the fish the water. Formerly men did believe, that the sea was the element of our commerce; but the true element of commerce is the peace with England. There have lain a great many merchant-men a long while since, ready to go to sea, provided with mariners, yea some ships bound for the East Indies. Now the style or custom is, that the mariners or seamen receive no wages, 'till they are out at sea, and are past the last buoy; and by reason they are kept so long from going out, and that consequently the mariners get nothing but their victuals, it doth make them stark mad. One ship bound for the Indies, the men on board of her have mutinied, crying for money; several are imprisoned, and will be severely punished for it.
Holland hath formed a very curious and exact advice upon the project of the French treaty, and hath also declared, that they will enter into conference with the lord embassador Chanut, to try if they can come to an agreement together; and since the English have been so rigid and immoveable concerning the word the enemies, in the articles 8, 10, 11, 12, the intention of this state is, not to take that according to the letter, or to banish any whom the English shall declare for their enemies; and therein Holland likewise hath declared to give some farther declaration to the other provinces; which doth put me in mind of the deceased greffier Musch, saying, We never make an alliance, but at the same time we study how to elude it. But we do not believe likewise, that the English do understand that according to the letter, but that all must be done with some knowledge of the cause.
They have sent a galliot or pink express to the embassadors, to instruct them to transact and determine in some sort that demand of 140,650 l. which the English do demand for the 22 ships stay'd in the Sound; for they will and must take up the quarrel, and make peace; but this tempest and contrary winds will hinder the said galliot from getting over yet, without it will arrive before this. If men do add to this 140,650 l. the 192,000 rixdollars, which this state hath given to Denmark, and the 192,000 rixdollars, which that king was to give, of subsidy to this state, by virtue of the treaty of the year 1649, (which two sums they have given and released) to help stay those 22 ships, men will find, that the king of Denmark hath stood this state in two millions and a half.
Since the letter of the second of April, which came from the embassadors in England by an express, they have received another of the fourth by the post, which faith nothing more, but that the memorandum, which they had exhibited to the lord protector, to debate the demand of the 140,650 l. (the Danish satisfaction) had effected no other thing, but that the lord protector had referred it to the commissioners. In the mean time the pink or galliot will arrive with order from this state; or an express sent by land with the duplicate, which will authorize the embassadors to finish that point of Denmark, as they shall find it most useful and expedient for this state; and Holland will furnish the money by merchants remaining caution for it, for which the other provinces promise to bear Holland harmless.
The lord of Amelandt hath sent hither, according to the desire of the state, the act of neutrality granted by the lord protector, to be examined, whether the said act doth not contain any thing prejudicial to this state.
Withal they do still fear here the great equipage and arming of the English; and they do take more care here for Denmark, than for themselves. All ships stay from going out to sea, in expectation of the peace.
However, a good fleet of ships is to go for the Mediterranean sea, to secure that navigation against pirates and picaroons. There remaining still several disputes and controversies undecided between the princesses, mother and grandmother of the prince of Orange, (especially that of the government of Orange) they are now about to reconcile all differences.
My lady, the wife of the lord embassador Nieuport, hath demanded a boat to carry
her to Zealand, desiring likewise to go from thence into England; which is a sign, that
he makes account to be one of the commissioners for composing of the differences in
pursuance of the 29th article. I remain
9th April, 1654. [N. S.]
Daniel Searle, governor of Barbados, to the protector.
May it please your Highnes,
Since my last to your highnes, dated the 17th of February, there hath come into my handes severall declarations of your highnes and greate councell, relateing to the presant government established in the three nations and dominions thereunto belonging, under that authority constituted in your highnes person, and successive trieniall parliaments.
In obedience to your highnes commands therein, extending implicitly to us in those remote parts, (as this island is a limbe and member of the commonwealth) that this place might be in a dew conformitie thereunto, the quiet and peace thereof maintained, and regular proceedings in courts of justice not obstructed, the sixth of this month I summoned the councell and assembly of freeholders to meete, to whom was comunicated those printed declarations of your highnesse and greate councell; the one bearinge date the 16th of December, 1653. sett forth by the right honourable the councel, declaringe the resolution of the late parliament, and your highnesse as lord protector of the three nations proclaimed and published; the other your highnes proclamation set forth the 21st December, 1653. continueing all persons lawfully possest of any place of trust in the commonwealth, untill your highnesse pleasure be farther made knowne; as also an ordnance sett forth by his highnes and greate councell, bearing date the 26th of December, for alteration of several names and forms hearetofore used in courts, writts, grants, &c. which to the end the inhabitants of this place might take notice thereof, we on the 8th of this month here published at the Indian Bridge-towne, and caused the same to be read the next saboth day in all meeting-places and churches of this island; all which soe much bespeaking pour highnes and great councell's care, to bring the restless state and condition of the commonwealth in a quiett repose and settlement of peace and tranquillity, doe find noe other acceptance amongst this people, but a generall seeming contentment, and ready compliency therto.
And for the confirmation of the civill and millitary power amongst us, I humbly conceave it necessary, least there should be a demurr in the administration and execution of the justice, untill the forme and stile of all commissions formerly by me granted in this island (by virtue of a power derived unto me from the supream authority) could be altered and changed, and the stile of them run suitable to the present government of the commonwealth, I have caused the inclosed declaration to be heare published. I humbly presented in some of my former addresses to the right honourable the councell of state, for the good of this colony and other plantations near us, the greate use and necessity there was, for to have one or two friggats, to spend some time heare for the preservation of the trade of those remote places against some Dutch pickeroones and ships of war that annoy us; and doe humbly present the same to your highnesse and grand councell's consideration, if the differences betweene the commonwealth and the United Provinces be nott composed. Some time since I receaved orders from the late councell, commanding my endeavour towards the gathering some fower hundred thousand weight of the Muscavadoe sugars, dew in this island upon account of prize goods, remainder of what was left uncollected the last yeare, and to returne the same home; which I shall with all diligence endeavour to see effected. I have latelie seene a copy of a petition, which hath bin presented to your highnes and greate councell, by some marchants in London, representinge in general expressions the state of this island, and the government thereof; as in some distractions. That your highnes and councell are misinformed therein, and their suggestions appeare wholy untrue, I humbly present to your highnesse with the inclosed, signed by the councell of this place. Since the surrender of this place to the supreame authoritie of the commonwealth, I have to my utmost endeavoured to answere the ends in the exercise of the government, for which the same was committed to my charge; in management of which trust, as through mercie I have not bin disposed thereto through byassed or sinister respects; soe the effects thereof hath bin no other hitherto, but as much tranquillity, peace, and concord, as in any parte or member of the commonwealth; and what the injoyments of this people are in the free and distribution of justice in the several courts of record and places of judicature in this island, without exactions or dilatorines; and how much there studied (according to that necessity is here thereof) the management of humours and interests, and opertune cariing on what may concerne the interest of the commonwealth, and good of this place, this whole people having bin sensible thereof, not any of them have bin able, I hope, to justify to particular any neglect, or willfull miscarriages in the government, or the least abridgment of their privilidges, or breach in the least tittle of their articles. Yet are we not without some few here, who at all times have bin and are still persons of clamorous dispositions, and troubled spirits; who for not beinge in authority, bend themselves by oblique and sinister wayes, if possible, under specious pretences of greater freedome and liberties, to trouble the quiett and peace of this place; which not beinge able to effect, may be feared use instruments to promote the untrue suggestions to your highnes and greate councell, that thereby somewhat, as is to be doubted, of their owne designes might be brought to pass. It is therefore humbly desired, that at this distance your highnes and great councell would be pleased, as to what concernes the publique in this place, to receive from time to time that accompt thereof, returned from that authority your highnes is pleased to constitute heare; and that noe petitions or informations at home may conclude in your highnes judgment and censures, untill the same be communicated unto us, and answer to your highnes commands thereupon returned; humbly conceaving it may otherwise prove as unsafe to what authority soever your highnesse shall heare settle, as a distraction amongst this people, who having bin formerly ensnared by the secret practises of some Achitophels amongst them, to committ actions repugnant to their true and proper interest, may not be blamed to be tender, least the same spirritt is again working by themselves heare, or agents at home, obtain such an extent of power to be granted to the government in this island, as to rule with more advantage to themselss and former interest, and less dependency on the commonwealth.
This daye myselfe and councell haveinge mett with the assembly of freeholders, several
requests have bin made knowne unto us, to be presented to your highnes and greate
councell by coll. Drax; who haveing of long time bin a planter heare, is desired by
sayd assemblie to present the same; all which is humbly referred to your highnesse and
greate councell, to grant such perticulars, and soe much thereof, as may conduce to
this island's future happines, and the interest of the publicke in this place, and protection and incouridgment to all that are faithfull. I humbly crave pardon from your
highnes for these my rude lines, and subscribe myselfe ever
Barbados, 30 March, 1654.
A petition of the council of the island of Barbados.
That havinge here seene the coppie of a petition, which is certified to have beene presented to your highnes and councell by some persons in London, alledging this island of Barbados and the government thereof to be in some distraction, doe in all humility conceive it thir duties, hereby to certifie to your highnes and great councell, that this island is in a generall tranquility, peace, and concord, under the administration of the government of the same, and allway have beene since its surrender, and still doe remaine in a readie, cheerefull, and willinge compliance and obedience to the supreame authoritie of the commonwealth. This humbly we have thought fitt to certifie unto your highnes.
My lord embassador presses very earnestly to have a conclusion of his long attendance, and he had audience to day and yesterday. The queen seems now to be in good earnest to lay down her crown. She did discharge last week most of her servants and retinue, and hath reserved to herself a very thin court.
I must confess, I do not understand the mystery of it. She professes her desires of solitude and retirement; and some others say, the debts grew so high, that she hath been, as it were, forced hereunto. But whether any other secret thing is couched under it, time will discover.
Don Pimentel the Spanish resident had audience on wednesday last, and took his leave of her majesty. He intends to take his journey homewards within these few days, by the way of Denmark. I believe he doth not well relish our likelihood of peace with Holland. He hath carried very fair to my lord embassador; but we think we spy some little alteration in him, since the news of the treaty being almost finished hath arrived here. Spain would gladly kept us still at odds.
Beuningen, the Dutch embassador in Sweden, to the states general.
Since my last of the 4th of this month, here hath happened nothing considerable. The embassador of Spain took his leave yesterday of the queen in his publick audience, and maketh account to be going from hence the next week. His royal highnes hath presented a list of all such officers as he will entertain in his court, after he is crowned king. That, which is most upon debate at present, is the business tending to the reforming of the finances, whereof some considerable fruits to the benefit of the crown are expected. Concerning the exportation of guns mentioned in my last, the grave Erick told me himself, that her majesty had given permission, that the ship, which was sent hither to transport them, should be laden, and sent away without any hindrance; and moreover, that it should be considered how to accommodate your lordships with more, without any prejudice to the admiralties here; but by reason of the holidays, and the absence of the lords of the admiralties, nothing hath been done further in it.
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassadorin England.
I was comforted by that letter, which you were pleased to write to me the 3d of this month, by reason of the apprehensions which the common report of this city give me, that the great preparations of the English were designed against us; many amongst them here, who are held the most powerful in this government, being of this opinion; which was made the more considerable, coming from the lord Beverning, who is said to have a good share in the secrets and graces of the lord protector. But I perceive by your letters, there is no such thing; and my reason doth forbid me to think, that his highness will so easily open himself to M Beverning.
Monsr the prince of Condé, not being able to raise any money upon his jewels at Antwerp, hath sent them to Amsterdam; from whence I understand, that they do make scruple there to deal with him. Here the states are busy to examine the articles of alliance with us; but it goes on but slowly, hearkening to what is done at London, both for them and for us.
Mr. Cha. Longland to secretary Thurloe.
Althoh the Duch ships hav had theyr comissions taken from them by order
of theyr states, the 18th February last, and amongst the rest the Whyt Elefant,
wherof Henry Char is comander; and althoh the Duch here do frequently report,
that al the provinces have subscrybed the articles of peace, and knowing very wel with
what glory and civility theyr ambassadors were received in London for consumation thereof; yet this day the abovesaid Whyt Elephant took an Inglish ship after som howers
syht, coming into this port; which savers more of mallignity or mallis then hostillity:
whereby 'tis clear what manner of peace they ar lyk to keep, til they synd it less advantageous to break it. Whensoever this Whyt Elephant passes the Channel, 'twer fitting
he wer cald to account for this action; for I believe he has no commission for what he
has don. The Duch report, they hav ten weekes tym to tak ships in the Streits, after
publication of the articles: if so, I wish a squadron of frigats wer sent hether to make
the sam use of the tyme of limitation. I am,
Leghorn, 10 April, 1654. [N. S.]
The Dutch ambassadors in England to the states general.
We did fully advise your lordships the day before yesterday, and this last night by an express, to what points we had brought our treaty; to which we know nothing more to add, than that we have this afternoon resumed the whole treaty, and have drawn up the whole business into a form, so that we hope to sign the articles on sunday next, or monday morning, and send them away by two several expresses; praying to God, that it may be to the honour of his holy name, and the welfare of our country.
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.
Monsr Bloome came to me with a compliment, that the chancellor was troubled he could not visitt me before his goinge from this towne; that he withdrew himselfe to be free from businesse, and to recover his health; and that at his returne he would come to me. This gentleman did beginn some discourse about my businesse; and I takinge him for a spie, thought it reasonable to tell him what I beleeved he would againe report. I told him, that France, Spaine, Portugall, Italy, Flanders, Holland, Switzerland, Denmarke, and other princes and states had sent their publique ministers to his highnes my lord the protector, to seeke his friendship; but his highnes havinge sent his embassador into this kingdom, soe little respect is shewed him, that in three or four moneths an answer hath not bin given him.
The queene alsoe of late hath bin lesse forward in giveing me audience then formerly, excusinge herself by reason of her indisposition, when at the same time the Spanish resident and many others were admitted.
Tuesday, the master of the ceremonies and other courtiers came and dyned with me. After dinner the master of the ceremonies desired to speake with me in private, and told me, he had heard, that I had expressed some discontent; and desired to know, if any thing heere had displeased me, and wherein he might be serviceable to me. I thanked him for his civility, and told him, that I was troubled, that haveinge bin in this place well neere four moneths, I had not yet obteyned an answere to what I had propounded. He excused the delay, by reason of the queene's designe of quittinge the government. I aunswered, that I imagined there was cause of much trouble to her majestie, and gave me some reason to thinke, that my frequent visiting her might be some trouble; whereupon I did forbeare. He said, that my company would be very acceptable to the queene, notwithstanding she was at present full of businesse; and asked me, if I would not stay untill the coronation of the new king, to have my businesse concluded by him, sayinge, it would be more firme then if it be only done by the queene, who is neare leaving the government. I told him, I could not stay soe long tyme as to see the coronation; and that I had no credentiall letters nor commission but to the queene; and that I believed, all acts done before her resignation would be authentique, and perticularly that concerninge friendship with England, and would be very acceptable to his royall highnes, and would be inviolably kept by him. He aunswered, he did not in the least doubt of it; and although I had noe credentiall letters to the new king, I might write into England for them. I told him, that would require more tyme then I could spend in this place; that I believed, the new kinge would not be crowned in two or three moneths; and that I should be two moneths after that, before I could receive new credentiall letters from England; and then two or three moneths more, before I could be upon my returne towards my countrey, whereby I must be necessitated to be eight moneths more abroade, by which tyme the winter would be cominge on, and that it would be too long for me to stay from my relations in England. He replyed, he would goe and speake with the queene, and returne to me very shortly. I believe he was sent out of designe to found me, as alsoe Mr. Bloome; but I have satisfied them both.
Wednesday, the master of the ceremonies came to me, and told me, he came from the queene, to excuse my not havinge audience at the tyme I desired it, by reason her majesty had many occasions, which hindered her, and perticulerly duringe the Easter hollidays; but if I pleased to have audience to morrow, she should be glad to see me. I desired him to present my thankes to her majestie for her favor, and that I would be ready to waite upon her at such hower as she should please to appoint; of which he said he would bringe me word, and soe went from me.
In the afternoone Mons. Douglas, a Scotchman, came to visit me. Hee hath been an antient servant to this crowne, and general of the horse, and at present is a barron, and rix stalmaster of Sweaden. Hee excuses himself, that he had not bin with me sooner, which he said was by reason of an ague, that had ben upon him almost three quarters of a yeare, and had not yet left him; and then asked me, if I had noe thoughts of stayinge heere untill the crowning of the new kinge ? And upon this subject we had the same discourse, as I had formerly with the master of the ceremonies.
Grave Ericke Oxensterne came to me, by command of the queene, and excused the delay in my business, as alsoe that some of my audiences have ben put off, and that her majesty did understand from the master of the ceremonies, that I told him, I had demanded audience three tymes, and had not obteyned it. I said, there was a little mistake in that, but there was somthing neere in it; that it was not my desire to bring trouble to her majestie. He said, that the queene desired I would excuse her, by reason of the holydayes, duringe which they doe not meddle with busines in this country, as also by reason of many other hinderances; and that at all tymes, and as often as I pleased to come to her, I should be welcome. Hee told me, he was to goe to his father, to accompany him to this towne; and that within a day or two hee would come to me, and my busines should receive a conclusion very suddainly. I sent my sonn James with some other gentlemen to be present at the audience of don Piemontell, whoe this day tooke his leave of the queene. They told me, he spake to her in Spanish; that she answered him in Swedish, and that count Tott did interprete; that the Spanish resident made many ceremonies, and that he was very much astonished in speaking publiquely to the queene; that he looked pale, and trembled much. This gentleman of late hath forborne to visit me: I conceive the reason of it to be the probability of peace betweene us and Holland; or because he havinge desired me to speake to the queene to grant a pardon to a Swede, who had kild a man here, and that he would second me in it, I answered him, that I being a publique minister, I thought it not fitt to intermeddle in any perticuler business of Sweden, and especially in a matter of blood; and prayed him to excuse me, since which tyme he hath ben more strange then formerly.
Yesterday whilest I was at dynner, the queene sent one of her lackies to tell me; she desired I would come to court at two a clocke. I beinge a little sensible of the quallity of the messenger, did not speake with him, but sent him an answere by one of my servants. At the tyme appointed I went to court, and was mett att the councel chamber by count Tott, and many other of the queene's servants, with more respect then ordinary, and presently carried in to the queene; whoe began to excuse my not having audience before, when I desired it; which was by reason of the holydayes. I told her, that I hoped she had not conceaved any discontent against me; and that I desired not to give the least disturbance to her other busines, but only endeavoured a dispatch of my negotiation, on which I had soe long tyme attended. She told me, my busines should be suddainly dispached, and that my cominge to her gave her noe trouble, but that I was welcome. I then gave her a draught of articles, according to the observations I had made upon her articles and mine, and which I the last weeke sent to you. Shee readinge them over, told me, that I would not consent to one of her articles, but insisted upon all my owne. I then shewed her, wherein I consented to many of hers, and my reasons whie I could not consent to the rest. We had much discourse upon the whole to the same purpose as formerly. Shee said, that if the articles were not concluded, the amity between the two nations might nevertheless continue. I told her, that there would be noe increase of amity, nor testimony of respect to my lord protector, to send back his servant, after soe longe a stay, without any thinge effected. She then said, she would dispatch my businesse in a few dayes, and she hoped to my content. I answered, it was in her power soe to doe, and that I could not stay untill the change so much spoken of; that I had received her promise to be dispatched, which I knew she would not breake. She then desired I would leave with her the copy of the articles untill the morrow, and then to come to her again; and soe fell upon other discourse.
The Spanish resident visitinge me told me, that he was resolved to goe towards Flanders within seven or eight dayes; that yesterday he took his leave of the queene; and that he was now come to take his leave of me. I thank him for the honor he did me, and told him, I was sorrey he was goinge, by reason I should be thereby deprived of the good conversation of soe honourable a friend. This afternoone I waited upon the queene, according to appointment. After I had read her some newes, and his highnes paper to Mr. Bonneale, upon which I tooke the boldnes a little to paraphrase, her majestie was very well pleased with it, and wee fell into discourse of my businesse to the same effect as formerly. The chancellor came forth from her, and told me, that the queene hearinge of my beinge there, had sent to desire me to come in to her; but I stayed the less tyme with her majestie, because I presumed the chancellor and his sonne grave Erick waited to speake with her about my business, to which she promised to send me answere to-morrow, and that a ship should be ready at the Dollers, which is the mouth of the haven of Stockholme, to transport me to Lubeck, when I thought fitt.
I am desirous to remove from hence as soone as I cann, and not to be heere too neare the time of the new kinge's coronation; but I purpose to send a civill message to him. I have bin very high uppon the point of my delay, and audiences not graunted to me, when the 209. 17. 21. 3. 11. 40. 8. 14. was admitted, which I looked uppon as a dishonour unto 229. and ranted uppon it, and had satisfaction. If I come to a conclusion of my buisines, I shall make haste home; butt within a weeke or two I hope to receive my lord's order to authorise my returne. 224. is circumvented, and poore 9. 7. 11. 6. brought to undoe herselse by the crast of ill willers. 228 is noe friend to my buisines, whether out of envy, or because he hath a share in trade, I cannot say. I have received all your letters. I cannot find one weeke, wherein your kindnes, and savour, and care of your friend hath bin wanting. I am extreamly obliged to you for it, and returne my most hearty thankes. It hath bin a great reputation to me, and furtherance of my busines; but I ill requite you by beinge thus tedious.
Articles of a treaty between England and the states general, in the handwriting of secretary Thurloe.
I. That the people of both states and nations may freely and sincerelye saile and trade in all kingdomes and territoryes beinge with them respectively in peace and neutrality, and shall not be disturbed by the people of either, by reason of any hostility, which is arisen or may arise betweene the one and the other of those, who shall remeyne in friendship and neutrality with the other.
II. Neverthelesse neither of the sayed confederates or the people abidinge, inhabtinge, or dwellinge within either, shall by colour hereof give any aid or assistance to the enemies or rebells of either, or suffer, that any of their ships or men be made use of by such enemies or rebells, to the prejudice of the other; nor shall transport or carry to those kingdomes and territories in hostilitie with the other, any prohibited goods or wares of contraband, but shall with effect hinder the same, as beinge expresly contrary to the seventh article of the peace last made between the sayd two confederates.
III. And to the end that accordinge to the said treatye of peace, which shall most strictly and inviolably be observed in all perticulars by both these confederates and their respective people, there may be a specification and designation of such goods, as shal be esteemed and adjudged prohibited and counterband, it is agreed, that under the same be comprehended all armes workeinge with fire, and their appurtenences, as cannons, guns, morter-pieces, petars, granadoes, saines, . . . of pitch, carriages for cannon, forkes, bandeleirs, gun-powder, matches, saltpeter, bals; and alsoe all other sorts of armes, pikes, swordes, potts, helmetts, breast and back pieces, halbards, lances, or halse-pikes; and all such other armour, men, money, victualls, horses, harnesses, pistols, pistol-barrels, holsters and capps, bitts, and all other furniture for warre, and all shipps of warre; and alsoe cordage, sails, masts, and materials for shippinge.
IV. That none of the sayd prohibited goods be carryd by the one or the other subjects to the enemies of the one or the other, on paine of forfietinge the same, as also the ship, wherein they shall be found; that other lawful goods found in the ship shall be free.
V. That the one people and subjects may trade with, and carry to the enemies of the other all other goods and merchandizes, without any interuption, or other trouble, unless it be to such ports and places, as are beseiged by the other, in which case they may either sell their goods to the beseiged, or freelie passe therewith to some other port not beseiged.
VI. That in case the shippes of warre of either state, or any ship carryeinge private commission, doe deteyne, take at sea, or bringe into port, or otherwise wronge or prejudice any of the ships of the other, or their respective people or subjects, contrary to the aforesaid peace, or this present agreement, all such ships with their lading shall be forthwith, and in a summary way, discharged, without being putt to their attendance of the ordinary processe; and the captains, commanders, and officers of the said ships, doeinge the wronge, shall be corporally punished, accordinge to the nature of the offence, and be compelled to pay the damages susteined by such detention, or bringing into port, as farre as his whole estate will extend; and in case justice be done therein, that then the state, to whome such officers are subject, shall be lyable to pay the damages.
VII. That the masters, commanders, and mariners of all ships goeinge to sea, and carryinge the commissions of Charles Stewart, or of any other pretended prince or person, havinge noe territories in possession, shal be esteemed as pirates and robbers, and proceeded with accordinge to the fourteenth article of the said peace.
VIII. That neither of theise consederates shall suffer, that any shippes, vessels, goods, or merchandises belonging to either, or the property or subjects of either taken at sea, or otherwise, by their respective enemies or rebells, be brought into the ports, harbours, or dominions of other; and if any such should be, all such shippes, goods, and merchandices, that shall be found in beinge, yea, though they have beene sold, shall be restored to the right owners, or made good to them or their procurators, due proof being made of the proprietye in the court of admiraltie, accordinge to lawe; and also their people brought in there sett at libertye.
IX. If the ships of either come to perish, or be stranded about the coasts of either, all that is saved shal be restored to the proprietors, if they doe sue for it within the time of one whole yeare, paying the expences, with a reasonable recompence to those, by whose labour and diligence the same have beene saved and kept in custody.
Part of the treaty between the protector and the states general.
That none of the people or inhabitants of the commonwealth of England, or any of the territories or dominions thereunto belonging, shall be detained prisoners aboard any ship or vessel of any foreign prince or state, failing with any sea-commissions, letters of mark or reprisal, with the people, subjects, or mariners of any foreign princes or state, or aboard any prize or prizes, taken by such ship or vessel, which shall enter into any of the harbours, ports, roads, creeks or rivers of the United Netherlands; but that all and every such person and persons, so detained prisoners on board such man of war or prize, shall immediately on notice thereof to . . . . . . . . . . . be set at liberty; and that no accord or agreement, made between the master or commander of any ship, which shall be so taken prize, and the commander or captain, or any the company of such man of war, by whom such ship shall be taken, for compounding for such ship and goods, shall be any bar or hindrance to the restoring any such prize or prizes, which by virtue hereof ought to be restored.
That all and every captain or commander of any private man of war, having commission, letters of mark or reprisal, from any foreign prince or state, against the people or inhabitants of the commonwealth of England, that shall come upon the coasts, or into the havens, ports, creeks, or rivers of the United Netherlands, with their ships and prizes, or with their prizes only, shall at the first place where they shall arrive, address themselves to the officers of the place, established there to look after ships, that enter, and shew them the commission, wherewith they went to sea, and declare the cause of their coming in, and the merchandizes therewith entered; and shall not continue in the harbours, havens, creeks, roads, or rivers of the said United Netherlands, any longer than by tempest, or other accident happened unto them, such ship and ships shall be constrained there to continue; and shall not send such prize or prizes into any town of the United Netherlands.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
It is true, that the states of Holland propose to grave William not only the seclusion, but also that he deliver up the states of Overyssel; but in the mean time there will be a good many provisoes about the seclusion, which will gild or sweeten this pill, and which will make them to swallow it with ease. The business of Overyssel will have somewhat more difficulty in it; but however the one and the other will yield a little; and grave William, having a very great desire to be master of the militia, will not mind a small thing, knowing also very well, that the objection of seclusion is only a little dust, which is flung into the eyes of the protector, to the end he should be blind, and not see the ways and maxims of states of Holland. In the mean time also I can tell you, that amongst the friends of the pr. of Orange, there are some very obstinate ones, and will endeavour to direct the grave William, and to animate him, to the end he do in no manner of way ply under seclusion, as seeing sufficiently the weakness of states of Holland, and of Amsterdam, who do flatter pr. of Orange, Denmark, and princess dowager, and do seem to be ashamed of liberty; as also Holland in general are enough and amongst themselves divided, and also mutable. But withal, they do fear Cromwell, yea more than Sweden, at least in appearance; for they give money to Denmark, and 170 is so cunning as to say, that he doth not desire any money, that he hath enough; but that he hath desired infantry, and all that to the end to embark and engage them the more in alliance against Sweden; for by this means Holland will of necessity stand in need of pr. of Orange, and grave William, in regard that to give infantry is more alliance than not to give money. Formerly king Henry the fourth having also discovered the plot of the marshal of Byron, seeing of him play at a certain game, told him, Monsieur de Byron, you play well, but you have chosen a bad party. I leave you to judge, whether Holland do not do the like; for of 170, (though he doth win) they can only expect the great making of p. of Orange; from Denmark the same, although that Denmark is more wife, not being willing to engage himself, and in all likelihood 170 will be a party very ill chosen; for I cannot comprehend how he can subsist alone against Sweden; and in case Sweden doth not succeed, he will say, (at the least) you have given so much of money to 170 against me; give me as much; or he will take it upon commerce. To give, whether it will be willingly or by force, will be shameful; and if they embark in amity, it is that which Holland are greatly jealous of what Sweden doth with Cromwell. The embassador of states general hath writ, that in an audience which he had about the business of king of Poland, Cromwell answered so obscurely and ambiguously, that it was easy to be seen, that Cromwell was agreed, and in alliance with Sweden. And upon this discourse I know what hath been spoken, that they could not do better than to speak to king of Spain on the one side against Cromwell, and emperor on the other side against Sweden; wherein if they have yet chosen a good part, I know not: time will make us wife. I am
Your most humble servant.
P. S. I perceive that Holland do accommodate very much; they do bring so much moderation and provision, that the other states general cannot alledge any thing against it. It is true, that literally Cromwell cannot have any thing against it; but however Cromwell is not so blind, nor so insensible, that he should not see or feel, that Holland, by accommodating after this fashion with pr. of Orange, grave William, Denmark, and princess dowager, at the same time doth alienate from Cromwell, will unite with Sweden; as also that Cromwell will in no wise hearken to a maritime treaty.