A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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April (1 of 4)
A letter of intelligence from Ratisbon.
Yours of the 19th of March I received, which gives me, that your peace with the United Provinces shall infallibly be, to the great grief of many here; yet R. Carolus's ministers and friends proceed, and now are at near end; but very secret. His express, or rather the emperor's, and the elector's of Mentz to Rome, goes from hence to Vienna within ten days, and from thence strait to Rome. The emperor has given him an hundred thousand dollars of his own freely, and the rest of the princes underhand and publickly are to follow, and much more is expected in Italy, to relieve, by the means of R. Carolus, the distressed catholicks of Ireland and in England, upon certain conditions to be made betwixt Rome and emperor with R. Carolus. Time will let you see more of it; but this is all that is yet of it, but very secret; so I pray retain it. I should think it prudent, religious, and noble of the lord protector, to shew himself merciful to all tender consciences, which would frustrate these great machines of R. Carolus and his friends; but he is wise: if God will have it so, it must be. The verses you sent to me in praise of the protector I have shewed in open court, and one prince sendeth them to another to be read. I wish I had some more of them, as you promised to send them. The emperor will depart for certain the 20th instant, to which purpose many boats and barks are here a preparing to carry his train, being great, &c. And that sudden resolution of his majesty's departure caused the catholick states to declare, that they were ready to submit, and to obey his commands; but the protestants to the contrary declared they were unsatisfied, and threaten, if they do not continue their assemblies as hitherto, that they will themselves make a particular assembly, and will not sign any thing concluded in this. Notwithstanding, it is resolved, to publish their acts the 20th instant, and after his imperial majesty will depart. Last thursday, his said majesty sent a courier to the king of Spain; but we do not yet know to what end, though many speak of it. Duke Francis of Lorrain is here, and will to-morrow or next day depart for Flanders. His two sons are along with him, and his daughter in Vienna. The emperor gave him 40000 rixdollars for his journey as a gift. The old empress is very sick, and not like to recover. I presume you have from others nearer, what happened between Mecklenbergh's son and Brunswick and Lunenburgh; they had some little battle, and Mecklenburgh was beaten.
The news from Poland are not good: the Muscovites do much harm; there is nothing
else but some discontents feared to appear at the emperor's departure, of which you shall
receive the best account I can from, Sir,
A letter of intelligence from M. Augier's secretary.
My last will have informed you of the discontent of the commanders of the four little bodies of the armies of this state. One of them having been called before the king, his majesty told him, that he would have him to obey, and forsake the precedency they contest unto the regiment of the marine and another; but instead of answering, as he expected, he drew his commission out of his pocket, and put it into his majesty's hands. Whereupon his said majesty cashiered him; and as he was going out of the chamber, he was made prisoner. Since, one of his collegues, named the marquis of St. John, hath likewise been arrested, and carried to the Fort Eveque, which is a publick prison, his majesty being so much the more resolved to push them to the end, that (as I am informed) he hath promised it to cardinal Mazarin's nephew, which shall command the said regiment of marine; yet nevertheless they remain very constant among themselves to maintain their privileges, and so united with their inferior officers, that many of these last, as I am informed, renouncing the service, sent thursday last their commissions unto Mons. le Tellier in a great packet.
The same thursday, it pleased the king to cause the vice-chancellor of Poland, to be invited to his audience. The duke or Arpajon carried him word of it; and it was in full council, that his majesty, to appear with more splendor, would receive him. As he approached, his said majesty rose from his seat, and uncovered himself, and stood all the time uncovered. The chancellor having made his compliments upon the honour his majesty did him, and upon the sense he had of it, &c. he answered him in three words with his ordinary gravity, I thank you. Afterwards, he saluted the queen, telling her, that without her sight his happiness would have been imperfect, &c. withdrawing himself into a back room, where the said duke of Arpajon entertained him a pretty space; and this is almost all our news. Every week one wonders at the resignation the queen of Sweden makes of her government; and the esteem, which was had of her, is thereby much prejudiced. I hope to send you by my next a copy of the letter she hath written to Mons. Chanut, embassador of France, in Holland, to justify her design, which is to come into Spain with that embassador, and to pass through this city, from whence I am certain they have already sent her passes, as she hath desired.
There are continual machinations in the palace royal against England; and a Scots gentleman is few days since arrived there, to persuade Charles Stuart to go to those mountains, as though all the country was in a posture to receive him; and that when he shall appear, all their treasons should hatch on all sides.
De Vries, the Dutch resident in Denmark, to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
Your high mightinesses letter of the 16th of March last past, together with an extract out of your resolutions, touching the documents relating to my declaration mentioned therein, I have received, and will regulate myself according thereunto; and in conformity therewith deliver the said documents into the hands of the lords the commissaries of the chamber of accounts of the generality.
Since my last of the 14th instant, I have heard, that several masters of ships, arrived
partly from the United Netherlands, partly from the west, have complained, that there
were two small English privateers about Schagen, which had attacked likewise sundry
Easterlings, and other free ships, and taken out of them what they pleased. However
I do not hear, that any of the Dutch have suffered any loss, passing through there by
the good luck of a hard gale of wind, when they were thereabout. There are sent off
two kings galliots pretty well mann'd; but I do not know, if they are ordered to dislodge
the said privateers, or sent on another design. Since it is a common report, that these
galliots are gone to keep a look-out at sea; which is conjectured, because almost all
private letters arrived by the last post by the way of Hamburg report, that the English
have an eye on the Oresondt. Wherewith,
Elseneur, April 11. 1654. [N. S.]
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.
We have sent an express by sea, who we hope will arrive in good time, since the wind and weather hath been favourable unto him. Since we have nothing to inform your lordships about, neither of the fleet, nor of our negotiation; but only that his highness, instead of giving us an answer upon our memorandum, sent us word in a letter writ by Mr. secretary Thurloe, that he did refer himself, as to that business, to the commissioners, who knew all our businesses, and had full power; whereupon we resolved to follow our businesses with the said lords, with new instances, being sorry we could do nothing to-day, because it was a solemn fast-day. We know no particular news to advise. The lord of Neusville is to be fetched in from Greenwich on monday next with all solemnities, which are due to an extraordinary embassador of a king of France. His highness with the consent and advice of his council hath raised the excise, by continuation without limitation of time (fn. 1), which formerly used to be done by the parliament, and never in the power of the king, as we are informed.
An extract out of the register of the secret resolutions of the H. and M. lords states general of the United Provinces.
Received three letters from the lords their H. and M. L. embassadors in England, written at Westminster the eighth and ninth of this month, and these, besides some inclosed papers, all under cover to the lord gressier Ruysch, containing in effect, that they were agreed and concluded concerning the satisfaction of the damages of the twentytwo English ships and goods detained in the Sound, according to the memorandum of the said letters sent over; the said lords embassadors therefore desiring, that their H. and M. L. would prepare all things for the ratification; and withal, leaving it to the consideration of their H. and M. L. whether it be not convenient to send to the king of Denmark with the first, that the said ships and goods, or the proceeds thereof may be ready at the arrival of the claimers; and that the lord resident Vries, or somebody else, may take pertinent information of the constitution of the ships and goods, with the appurtenances thereof, how they were constituted at the time of their detention, and now, how the same may be restored, with the extract of the tolls where the goods were landed; and that the said resident de Vries, or somebody else, may be authorized to pay the 20,000 rixdollars that are promised; and that likewise, a provisional order be made for the payment of 5,000 l. sterling, which the said lords embassadors are to pay at the ratification.
Whereupon being debated; it is thought fit and understood, that to the end aforesaid, a letter be forthwith sent to the said king of Denmark, with a copy of the memorandum, wherein the agreement is mentioned concerning the aforesaid satisfaction; and that also a letter be writ to the lord resident de Vries, with authorization to make payment of the said 20,000 rixdollars agreed on, to the English merchants and masters of ships, and mariners, or their assigns, within two days after their arrival, they giving their acquittances; and the said moneys shall be dispatched at the charge of their H. and M. L. they binding themselves in the sum of 140,000 l. sterling, that restitution shall be made of the said ships and goods, or the just value thereof, with the damages occasioned through the said detention; which act of obligation shall be sent to their H. and M. L. embassadors there, to put the same in execution through sufficient persons, in pursuance of the authorization of the fifth of this month, on behalf of the lords states of Holland and West Friesland, sent over unto them. And withal, the respective provinces are hereby desired to name some able persons for arbitrators on this side, concerning the damages afore-mentioned; who, together with those of England, are to determine that point; and withal, the provinces are desired to send over one or two able persons, who understand the laws of the country, to inform the said arbitrators about them, and to diminish the pretences of the damages sustained and held by the English: and withal, that letters be forthwith sent to the colleges of the admiralty, that they would send out boats and barks, to keep a vigilant eye upon the English fleet, and to bring advice of the course they steer.
Mr. Richard Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
Yours of the 24th of March is come to hand, and the inclosed sent forward. I am glad you were then so neare an end of your truble in the treatie. Peace will be welcome newes to all nations, who by the longe dependinge are prepared to entertaine it with the greater likeinge. But your formidable navie affrights them, all concludinge they will be active somewhere, when the commonwealths are closed. As yet the senate keepe Waites prisoner; but by their manner of proceeding I conclude, that the dissaffected English actinge underhand by the burghers, will shortly prevaile with them to enlarge him. They have often solicited my assent; but my answer is, that they will please, ether to keepe him in restraint untill I have an opportunity to send him for England, or otherwise as a subject of the commonwealth, they will deliver him unto me, which, I am sure, they ought not to deny. If he, that hath so well deserved it, be not made an example, it will have but an ill reflection upon the state, to which he voluntarily submitted himselfe before me, after a long standinge out. If it were not to be faithfull to my trust, I could with more ease and security to myselfe looke through the fingers at such passages in him and others. In my last weeke's letter, I gave you notice of the shipp for the masts, come into this river. I suppose shee may be loaden within a month from the date of my last, though shee hath not yet begunn to loade. If you would have the powder shipt betwixt her decks, (for in her hould it will not fit, because of the moystnesse of the masts) I desire your tymely order for it, and whether I shall send her away upon notice of the peace, with other shipps bound for England, which stay that tyme, or that she must stay for a convoy; which is all at present from, Sir,
Hamb. 4 April, 1654.
The Dutch embassadors to secretary Thurloe.
Enixe rogamus, ut aliquando nostrum negotium absolvatur; eumque in finem omnes ii mercatores admittantur, quorum nomina nostra schedula suere exhibits, ne alicujus nominis omissio præjudicium aliquod adferat iis, qui sese volentes obrulerunt. Interim nos ad majorem cautelam etiam plures requiremus, qui solvendo pares sint, ut abunde satisfiat, quamvis & jam plene hoc a nostra parte actum crediderimus, cum sex solummodo desiderati sint, & in ipsissima hac chartula septem admittantur. Arbitros oblatos accipimus, quemadmodum nulla ratio est, ne nostri admittantur: ille vander Cruyssen, Anglice Mr. Crosse, & notus & bonæ existimationis est, & jam in præsens; ut sæpius ante, ecclesiæ Belgicæ senior; & ut nihil circa isthæc omnia innovetur, sed ad finalem perfectionem cuncta quam citissime dirigantur, enixe desideramus, & manemus dominationi
Westmonaster. 4/14 Aprilis, 1654.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
The post of this day arrived, but yet brought no letters to me; what may be the reason of it, I know not. Many letters written to others, as also some English Gazettes, bring your peace with Holland to be broken, which many here do not yet believe, though they would wish it so with all their hearts.
Since my former, his majesty has given out orders to ten companies of the regiment of his guard French, to march within few days to St. Menehould for fear of a siege; four companies of the Switzers are to go with them too, by the like orders.
Monday last, M. de Ruvigny, the general deputy of the reformed catholicks of this kingdom, being in conference with his eminence, it happened that his said eminence told him, that he recived letters lately from Guienne, by which he was certified, that an order was published among the reformed in Coignac and elsewhere, to fast and pray to God, that he might be pleased to maintain and conserve his highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England; as also, that all the ministers of the said reformed churches have written accordingly to his said highness letters of compliment, which might well testify their affections towards the lord protector, and the contrary towaads his majesty, &c. to which the said Ruvigny answered, craving pardon of his eminency to let him know, whoever writ such letters, he was ill and falsly informed of it; and that they were but people expecting nothing more than division and troubles, which durst not maintain any such publickly, though privately write it; and assured his eminency, they did not fast at all, either for king or protector, in Coignac. As for writing to the lord protector Cromwell by the reformed ministers of this kingdom, that it was never done by them, neither had they ever any such design; and if they had, that they would never undertake it without first advertising the national synods of all the provinces, that are of their religion, of which they never yet thought; yet said, he would not assure, but some particular persons might write to England, signifying how they were abused of their privileges, that the more they might get justice; but that the body of their church should undertake any such, no man could prove it, being certain they would never quit their obedience due to their king, in exposing freely their lives and goods for his majesty's service, and conservation of his crown and state; and so he parted, his eminence being satisfied of Ruvigny's assurance of all the protestants, that they would never go against the service of their sovereign. The great ballet royal began yesterday at five of the clock in the afternoon, in Little Bourbon, where the king, queen, cardinal, due d'Anjou, the pope's nuntio, all foreign embassadors, and publick ministers, as also all the nobility of this kingdom, both men and women, were. It will yet continue three weeks, and be plaid thrice every week, sundays, tuesdays, and thursdays, from five o'clock in the afternoon 'till two after midnight.
When the ball is ended, the king will then to Fontainebleau, and from thence to the army; and it's thought before he comes hom he will be crowned. It is reported, the first president, Mons. Bellievre, desires one of the cardinal's sisters in marriage; but yet, no certainty of it.
It is reported certainly; that count de Harcourt will be here soon, having assurance for his person, and the moneys promised to him in his agreement. It is resolved in court, that prince Conti shall go command the next year in Catalonia, as vice-roy; and duke de Guise in Naples likewise. We hear, those of the chamber of edicts in Castres shall come to Beziers, and keep there; as also the two presidents, with the counsellors, that were hitherto in the said chamber, shall continue still. All the tapestries and goods of the archbishop of Paris left in his house, after his death, were robbed and taken away in night-time, of which all his domesticks and servants are accused by the executor of the archbishop Mons. Gondi, father to cardinal de Retz.
Last week his eminence sent a courier to the embassador the king has in the diet of Ratisbon, that he might endeavour to make alliance with all the electors and other princes of Germany, which is thought the duke of Saxony will not accept of.
Last friday the king offered to the archbishop of Bourges, Narbonne, Ambrun, as also many other bishops, the archbishoprick of Paris by commission; which they, giving thanks to his majesty, refused. Some say the bishop of Amiens, called Faure, a Cordelier, will accept of it, if the rest will not.
The twelfth instant, a packet of letters was carried by a man unknown, to Mons. le Tellier, wherein many small letters were, signifying so many officers to have given and bestowed upon his majesty the demission of their regiments and companies, being no more able to serve without payment; however, little was spoken of it.
The duke of Brunswick, a German, having wars against the duke of Luneburgh, also a German, the first having defeated the last in a field battle; all the king's troops here, the queen's, and cardinal's guard, have orders to be soon ready to go to the field, hearing the enemies in Flanders to be strong, under the command of prince Condé, and the rest of gentlemen there. We doubt not this year but we shall have cruel fights, by reason Lorrain, being prisoner, cannot play his tricks to hinder it, as he has done in time past.
Yesterday, duke of Orleans was to part from Orleans to Blois, and mademoiselle to
St. Forgeaux, being the two days before,-busy with one another to agree between themselves; which is all from, Sir,
Yours very faithfully, &c.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
Here inclosed, we send your lordships the articles of the union and confederacy (fn. 2), which we, by God's gracious blessing, and according to your resolutions and commands, have agreed and finally concluded with the lord protector of this commonwealth; so that there remaineth nothing more for the perfecting of this whole work, but the ratification on both sides, which we shall long to see; humbly desiring, that your H. and M. L. would be pleased to believe, that we do think to have observed their H. and M. L. intentions with all care and faithfulness; and that therefore they would be pleased to accept of our mean services; and since we have spent about eighteen months therein, not witnout inconvenience and hinderance to our domestick and particular affairs, that they would be pleased, after that the ratifications are passed, to think fit to dismiss us of this commission, that we may come to give your lordships a particular account of our negotiation. We shall pray to Almighty God to bless your lordships government more and more, and that he would be pleased, according to his infinite goodness, to make this peace firm, and to remain for ever; and that it may redound for the magnifying of his great name, and the propagating of his gospel, and to the glory and welfare of our dear country.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
We hope that our letters of the eighth and ninth are long since come to hand, since the wind was fair to carry them over; whereby your lordships will find, how that we have at last agreed and concluded the business of restitution and satisfaction, as we think, with less charges than were demanded on this side, without any great trouble of charges; only that your lordships would be pleased to expedite an able person known in both languages, to be joined with the resident de Vries, in case it be not done already, who must be authorized to inform himself of all circumstances, and the constitution of the ships and goods, or the proceeds thereof detained in the Sound, to serve for the arbitrators here. His highness sends two expresses from hence likewise, to take the like information, as also especially to receive the said ships, goods, and money. We think there ought very strict regard to be had of every thing. We thought to have sent one from hence, but we could not pitch upon an able and faithful man; but we doubt not but your lordships will find out one fit for that purpose, there being time enough allotted for it. We here inclosed likewise send your lordships the postulata of the merchants here, which you may be pleased to examine; likewise we desire your lordships, that you would be pleased to ratify also the instrument of submission, which we have here agreed, and to have the business finished and perfected at the time appointed, as also the instrument of submission to the cantons of Switzerland, wherein we were sain to follow their order, yet without finding any prejudice therein; and withal we must humbly desire your lordships to take some speedy course, that the merchants here may be quieted and contented in regard of the caution for such notable sums, wherein they are bound according to the project of the obligation. We have received your lordships private resolution of the fifth of this month; but we did not think fit to attempt any alteration. We hope your lordships will confirm what we have done. We have agreed here with the commissioners, that presently after the extradition of the ratification, to let the treaty be published here, which your lordships, according to wind and weather, may judge, after they have sent away theirs, when that may happen here; and on that side the publication must be made likewise, if your lordships think fit, without staying for our rescription; but we submit all to your lordships wisdoms and discretion.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
We shall with permission humbly offer to your lordships considerations, whether you are pleased to conceive, that after the exchange of the ratifications, we shall do any thing here, by way of solemnity, or demonstration of publick joy, for the conclusion of this great work, either by making of fire-works, or burning of pitch-barrels, or the like in specie; also, whether your lordships think fit, in case any solemn honour of entertainment be made us, as is said, that we on the behalf of the state, and in honour of your lordships, shall endeavour to treat the lords of the council, being fourteen in number, or the six commissioners, wherein we shall be glad to govern ourselves, as your lordships shall think fit; whose advice hereupon we shall expect.
R. Laurence to commissary general Staynes.
Much Honored Sir,
These are cheifly to present my deare love to you, and to preserve myselfe a roome in your hearte, especially in your most serious hours. I hope before this time, you are better informed aboute the Irish dissattisfacktions from my lord Harry, that they were not so dangerous as reported. The Lord preserve his people from sinful unbeleese and repineinge on the one hande, and withall from a fleshly confidence, and vain glorying on the other hand; they are both dangerous rockes: we stand in great need of wisdom from above, to direct us, and I hope the greatest feare or dissatisfaction, that lyeth upon any here, is, that our governers should bee led to doe thinges, that may provoke the Lord, and cause him to withdraw his presence from them. Frinds are all heere in goode health; we are now a-meeting in a general councell, aboute the way of sattisfying landes: pray for us, wee may be kept from a covetous worldly spiritt, that when wee come to injoy the greate thinges of this life, we may nott forgett God. Committing you to the Lord, I rest
To commissary general Staynes, Petty France, Westminster, these present.
Ralph Jennings to Mr. William Howard.
I Received your letter this very night: your commands as to your brother, I will with all speed accomplish. My lord Broghill is this night expected in town, there being tomorrow to be held a councel of all the officers and agitators of regiments in the whol nation. The principall affaires there to be debated are the apportioning of lands to the souldiery, and the reducing (as they say) the army to a much less number; which I believe will not be soe sudden. It may be your brother may be come up with my lord; if soe, he will (God willing) be quickly with you; but if he be yet at Youghall, I will take the speediest course, by the advice of my lord's people, to send him his letters, and serve him to the utmost of my abilities. Sir, as to your grand affaires of Ireland, especially as to the anabaptist party, I am confident they are much misconceived in England. Truly, I am apt to believe, that uppon the change of affaires here was discontent enough, but very little animosity; for certainly never yet any faction, so well fortified by all the offices millitary and civill, almost in the whole nation, did quit their interest with more silence. Some two or three were at the very first imprisoned for plotts and libells, which caused such a generall compliance, that should a stranger arrive here now, he would never believe there had been any difference, unless uppon the sabbaoth a congregation may be discerned, of which Mr. Patience is pastor; from whos church those of profitable imployment dayly (though not per saltum, yet by degrees) doe decline. As to the nature of a plantation, it thus remaines, as neere as I can discerne; every planter runnes two hazards, of his owne losses, and of other mens his neighbours; and I think I shall now unfould an enigma to you; for certainly noe man's industry can so secure him, but that the ill husbandry of his neighbour may undoe him; for admitt a proportion be taxed uppon a whole hundred, if any prove unable to pay, theyr goods are seized, and their persons imprisoned, and the entire tax continued uppon the rest, and soe to the last man, without any distinction of persons or nation. I talkt with a gentleman within thes few hours, lately a captain in the army, who married, and entered uppon a farme rented of the state (such lands not being exempted from tax, unless excepted in the lease); his stock being a hundred head of great cattle, was in a year and halfe, neerly by tax, reduct to six cowes; which also at last were taken, and he imprisoned, and hardly gott leave by pawning his debentures, to come up to Dublin, to sue for relief. This is a case so much resembling a romance, that it is not to be related but between friend and friend. There is a confident report, that after the natives removal from Connaught, halfe the army will be reduced, and taxes proportionably abated; which if it prove soe, both of it and all other changes, of which advantage may redound to you or any friend of yours, I will as faithfully relate, as may become friendship without formality. Sir, as to my owne affaires, they are so uncertain, that they are not capable of a relation. I might possibly have informed you positively ere this, if it had not been for this meeting of officers; but 'till that is done, my suit is suspended. I have a faire promise from my lord Fleetwood and from Mr. Corbett, of an employment in one of the courts here, which may chance hereafter to turne to account. This is all that I can yet inform you of, and it may be, more than youe have patience to read; soe humbly begging your pardon for this trouble of tediousness, I remain
Dublin, 5th April, between twelve at night, and one i'the morning, 1654.
Mons. Rosenwinge, the Danish agent, to sir Oliver Fleming.
Ce mot sera seulement pour vous confirmer les assurances de mon bien humble service, & vous faire scavoir, comment sa majesté de Dannemarc, mon maistre, dès aussitost qu'il a sceu l'heureux succes de l'election de son altesse à la protection generale d'Angleterre, d'Escosse, & d'Irlande; & sa generosité de la vouloir estrainner par une paix tant desirée de toute la Christienté, n'a pas voulu manquer de m'envoyer icy, pour tesmoigner la joye & le contentement extreme, qu'il a receu de cette dignité deüe sans contradiction à la grandeur de tant d'actions heroiques, par lesquelles son altesse a fait esclatter son nom, sa conduite, and son courage, jusques aux parties les plus escartez du monde.
Et à cause que j'espere d'avoir bientost l'honneur de vous rendre conte plus particulier des autres considerations, qu'ont donné suject à mon voyage, je me contente
maintenant de vous supplier, de faire à son altesse mes tres humbles baisemains, & de
luy donner advis de mon arrivée en cette ville, d'où je ne bougeray point jusques à scavoir
premierement ce qu'elle m'ordonne, en regard de mon transport à Londres; lequel je
souhaitte, que soit le plustost qu'il sera possible, à fin que j'aye plus d'opportunité pour
vous y tesmoigner par les effects, combien je suis,
Gravesende, ce 6/16 d'Avril, 1654.
An intercepted letter of adjutant general Allen, to Hugh Courtney esq;
I Perceive you are verry silent; it may be mine hath occasioned yours. Indeed I have not had much minde to write of late, but should be glad to hear from you somtimes. I know you are under trouble, and may say I am not without; but let us not be angry with what we have, that is good, because we have not all of that nature we would have. I confess, I am at a stand in my owne thoughts, as to the governments of this world, and doe expect littl lasting good from them, till they com into his hands, whose right it is to rule, and whoe hath a spirit suited to such a work. But that, I beleev, will not be yet. As to the person in cheif place, I confess I love and honour him, for the honour God hath put uppon him, and I trust will yet continue; I mean that of uprightheartednes to the Lord, though this last change with his atendencyes hath more stumbled me than ever any did; and I have still many thoughts of heart concerning it. But time will tell us more of persons and things. My comfort is, whatever lets and interruptions their are amongst men to the work of God in the world, yet the Lord will go on with it thorough all difficulties and obstructions, to his owne great ends, whatever men imagin. We have heer a great general councell, to satisfy the arrears of our army. Pray for us, that now we com to possess houses we have not built, and vineyards we have not planted, we may not now forget the Lord and his goodnes to us in the days of our distress.
An intercepted letter of adjutant general Allen to Mr. Caithnes.
My deare freind,
I Received one from you about three weeks since, which I had answerd er now, but that I have had noe great minde to writeing, being somewhat at a stand in my owne thoughts as to things of late. That you mention both of your owne laying downe, as alsoe of the sadnes uppon honest hearts with you, ads to my greif. I beleev, as you say, many have and will turn their backs on Christ in a suffering day; and am apt to think, that some such day, in another a kinde then what is yet, may be good peopl's portions er long, partly as a judgment from the Lord upon us, for our ingratitude and forgetfulnes of him, and partly to distinguish Christ's true followers from others, which follow him one the account of worldly interests, which I fearr the greatest part at this day doe. But, my deare freind, I doe not understand yet the grounds of your laying down; nor cannot se from what I am able to discern, that you had cause soe to doe; but you may know more then I at this distance: but surely as it is dangerous to shun súfferings, when called to it, so 'tis very uncomfortable to put ourselvs into them, if not called. Consider whether you are in a better capacity to doe good wherein you now are, then formerly; or whether you might not as well and effectually serv the providence of the Lord, in witnissing against evill, had you stood, as in laying down; but being ignorant of your grounds, I shall say the less. I trust I shall not, uppon the account of honourable, or other worldly respects, stay a day longer in imployment, then I judg I may doe more good in then out; nor after out, I se the powers that are concerting their power without cause, given manifestly to the prejudice of those that fear the Lord; but till then, though things are not as I wish they were, yet I doe not judg that a call to leave a station, in which I am by providence set; but rather shall waite on the Lord in it, till I se him makeing my way as clearly out, as with comfort I cann say he made it in. But 'tis a day of darknes and confusion, verry unlike that day of the glorious reign of Christ, soe much, I feare, on mistaken grounds expected by christians; to whome it might be said, as Christ said to his disciples, Ought not be to have suffer'd, and so to have enter'd into glory? that I beleev will be the saints way to that kingdom, and in another degree than what now it is. The Lord fitt for it. Heer are tongs clamoring on all hands alsoe against the poore people of God, and hearts boiling with envy to purpose; insoemuch as I with some others are all throughout this country to be under a charg of high treason, with many other such-like reasons: but I trust, if we doe suffer, we shall have more comfort in it, then those that dare inflict it. I have not els at present, but with my true love to yourselfe, with all freinds of my acquaintence, remain
April 6. 1654.
Mons. de Baas to Mons. de Langlade, secretary to the cardinal Mazarin.
They have made here great preparations for the sea: my opinion is, that standing in need of those forces to beat the Hollanders, they were to make use of the same means to reduce them to conditions of peace, which might be advantageous; which they have done, particularly that, which doth regard the interest of the merchants of London. These same forces at sea do solicit the neighbour princes to acknowledge the government now established, and do likewise keep in awe some regiments, that were not satisfied, and all discontented persons in the nations; and it doth also shew a formidable grandeur, which doth please the proud and ambitious humour of this nation, and which hath never been seen in the times of the kings. The agents of Monsr the prince, the ministers of Spain, and some of the council, whom they have made, do endeavour all that they can to prejudice us in our proceeding, and to act against us; but I do assure you, I do not apprehend them, relying upon the abilities of my lord protector and his words. I am particularly obliged to him for his civilities. As soon as we have commissioners appointed to treat with us, I will give you some farther advertisement.
Extract of a letter of Mons. de Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Mons. de Brienne, secretary of state in France.
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.
I am informed by Mons. Skute, one of the senators, that the kinge of Denmark had raised some forces, which he had designed to march towards Hambourgh; that if soe, it would be a greate disturbance to my jorney through those parts, and councelled me rather to goe to Gottenburgh, and was earnest with me to saluite the prince of Sweden by the way. I told him, that would be difficult for me to doe, although I was very desireous to shew him all respect from my lord the protector. The queene, on munday last, sent to desire me to take the aire with her; and we had a little speech of my busines: she told me, that to-morrow the chancellor would give me the articles, with some amendments, which she thought to be reasonable, and that that should be her final aunswere; and alsoe said, that after I had considered the said articles, we might againe speak together of them. Tuesday Mons. Canterstyn, one of her majesty's secretaries, came to me from the chauncellor, to excuse his not visiting of me; but that he had by command of the queene sent me a new draught of articles, which I instantly read, and had much debate with the secretary upon them. He told me, that he did not in the least doubt, but that I should, when I spake with the chauncellor, receive all satisfaction. The Spanish resident informed me, that the Danish ambassador havinge ben with him, they had much discourse concerninge the English fleete now at sea; and that the Daine told him, there was ten thousand foote souldiers embarked to come towards the north, which gives great jealousie and trouble to the kinge of Denmark. He then enquired of me, what progresse the French ambassador now in England had made in the treaty there. I aunswered him, that if the queene would please to dispatch me, I hoped to be at home before the conclusion of that treaty; and that I had somthinge to communicate to his highnes my lord protector from the queene, touching the treaty with Spaine, which he himselfe knew of; and that it would not be convenient to make it knowen, before the treaty with Fraunce were finished. He replied, that he was assured the queene would suddenly dispatch me; and I knew they would conduce to it. He advised, not to returne home through Denmark, because it would not be safe trustinge to that king; but wished me to goe to Lubeck, and soe to Hambrough; and that if I found not shipps ready there, that then I must goe over land to Cullen, and from thence to Dunkirk. Wensday in the morninge I went to the rix-chancellor, with whome I found his son count Ericke. We three beinge together, the chauncellor made a longe appologie to excuse the delay of my busines, imputinge it very much to his want of health; but yet he has ben soe carefull of my affares, that he had desired the queene to appoint another in his stead, to treat with me therein; and that her majestie was pleased to substitute his sonne to that purpose. I told him, I had ben much troubled for his want of health, in respect of my affections towards him, and also in regard of the delay of my busines: that my trouble was somwhat moderated, when I heard his sonn count Ericke was appointed to treate with me, and that I rather desired to have my busines transacted by him and his family, then by any others; and that I was now come to him to conferr upon the articles, which I had receaved from him the day before; and thereupon gave him a paper of my observations upon those articles. Upon the 11th article wee agreed, that there should be a particular designation of prohibited goods. I neverthelesse desired, that the catalogue of them might be referred to my returne into England, and promised on my lord's part, that within two months after my returne home, a particular catalogue should be had: but they againe urged a present agreement to it, and shewed me a certaine paper of prohibited goods, which they said was delivered to Mons. Bonnel, by the councell of state. I said, that I remembred not any such thinge, and that I was uncertaine what goods by the edict of the Hollanders were prohibited; and therefore I againe desired, that it might be remitted; by the leavinge whereof to my lord, I knew I was safe as to this particular, and likewise upon the twelfth article, as to the form of the letters of safe conduct. They produced a forme by my lord Lagerfeldt, heretofore delivered into the councell of state; and they pressed, that the same might be by us agreed on. I answered, that that forme was not ratified by the councell of state, and therefore it would not be fitt for me to consent to it; neither remayned there much reason, why they should not consent to remitt it to my returne into England, when the queene's subjects had the benefit of the order of his highnes, which was much in favour and respect to them; which order I had caused to be translated into Latine, and sent to his excellencie. To the 13th article, as to the satisfaction of damages, we had speech to the same effect as formerly. On the 16h article wee had alsoe much debate. I desired these words, viz. de usu littorum in piscatione, &c. might be changed into these words, viz. de piscatione & usu littorum, &c. They said, that would seeme to deny fishinge on their owne shores: I aunswered, that those words were, to my apprehension, as if we should lay downe our right as to fishinge, and leave it free. This was the result of almost three howers dispute; and the conclusion was, that they would acquaint the queene with all these things, and shortly returne me her aunswere. I desired, that the aunswere might be suddeine and possitive; for if they should occasion me to write to my lord protector, to know his pleasure, my letters would require no lesse then the space of two months to be aunswered, before which time the queene would have quitted the governement, and my commission cease. The chauncellor aunswered to this, that he would endeavour, that I might returne into England, not only for my wife and childrens sake, but that alsoe they assured themselves I would endeavour, that the queene's subjects might have right and justice there with expedition. The French resident very much inquired of me concerninge our fleete; to which question he had no greate reason to expect my particular aunswere, neither to much other discourse he had with me. Mons. Woodfeildt alsoe discoursed touchinge our fleete, and told me, that the Danish ambasador complayned against him to the queene, that he had cheated the late kinge of Denmarke of certain summes of money, which he should have paid to the late kinge of England towards his warr against the parliament; and now the kinge of Denmark having been informed, that he had lost his papers at sea, and that he had not his acquittances, he charged him heere before the queene: whereupon he produced all his papers and acquittances, which were imagined by his adversaries to have been lost; and soe justifyed himself before the queene, to the greate discontent of the said ambasador. The ground of the complaynt was, from a letter sent by Charles Steward to the kinge of Denmark, whereby he denyed the havinge of those armes, which Montrose brought into Scotland, and were furnished by the kinge of Denmark. This letter was much to the disadvantage of Mons. Woodfeildt. Thursday Mons. Miller, whoe hath bin resident at Hamburgh for the queene of Sweden, and now newly returned, came with much respect to me, and professed, he desires to serve my lord protector, as he had done, by joining with Mons. Bradshaw, in any thinge that might conduce to the good of England there, and to the passinge of my dispatches hither. In the evening Mons. Canterstyn came to me from the chauncellor with the articles, amended accordinge to my desire, in most particulars, and with a draught of a preamble, and a new article for the confirmation.
This day fielt-marshall Wrangle came and dined with me, and had much discourse
concerning our fleete: he told me, that he had by command from the queene prepared
shipps for my transportation from Stockholme to Lubeck. I shewed him a draught of
the ship Soveraigne, with her dimentions and gunns, wherewith he was much taken. In
the afternoone I waited upon the queene, with whom I had some debate concerninge my
articles, and still finde her more ready to consent to what I propose, than her commissioners: but some things she told me she would not consent to, because they were against
the interest of her people, and not considerable as to England. I gave her thanks for
my dispatch. She said, she had an ambition to have the honor of makinge an alliance
with my lord protector herselfe, before she quitted the government, and that she might
testify her respect to his highnes, and therefore had gon as far as possibly she could;
and indeed there is now very little difference but only in words and expressions, from
the sense and substance of what I first propounded; and I presume that what is agreed
here by me, will give good satisfaction and contentment to my lord protector and to
the councell, and I apprehend it clerely within my instructions. I acknowlege the
goodnes of God to me, that in this busines, where I mett with so many difficulties, and
of so greate weight, in a fortnight's tyme it should be brought to a full conclusion,
with all respect to my lord protector, and the now established government, for which I
have taken care in the articles. They are not yet drawen up, but I hope we shall signe
them the next weeke; and presently after I intend to demand audience, to take my
leave, and to remove from hence; and the rather, because this day the queene told me,
that she wisht me with my lord protector, because she saw I was a faithful servant to
him; with many other expressions to that purpose. She told me likwise, that it would
not be fitt for me to be in Swithland to neere the tyme of the coronation of the new
kinge, and just then to go away; which would shew as a little disrespect to him; but she
wisht that I would see him. I told her, I intended to salute his royal highnes from my
lord protector, and should desire to have my shipps meet me nere that place. She told
me, she would give order for it, and that herselfe would be gon soone after: that if she
had staid heere, she would have ben glad, if I would have stayed longer. Hereupon,
I doe resolve, my busines being concluded, to remove from hence, as soon as I can, to
Lubeck, and from thence to Hambrough; and I have by this post humbly desired my
lord protector to appoint two or three of his shipps to meet me at Hambrough as soone
as they can, for my transportation from thence to England; and I earnestly intreate your
favour, to put his highnes in minde of it; and that you wil be pleased to take the care,
that the orders may be had, and the shipps to come as soone as may be, to Hambrough,
where I intend to stay 'til they meete me; or that I receive his highnes farther
commands; and I choose this way as the shortest, and where I shall meete with any
dispatches that come from England. I presume you wil be troubled with an importunate suitor, especially in this point for the hastening of my returne. I received your
letters of the 17th of March, and the order of the councell, concerninge the Swedish
shipps, for which I returne my humble thankes. The queene and the chauncellor, and
others heere, are much satisfied with it. The chauncellor and his son have ben very
civil to me, and willing to farther my dispatch. I hope the same goodnes of God,
which hath hitherto brought me through this greate busines, will give me a safe
returne to my dear country and freinds, where I may have opertunity with all thankfulnes, to acknowlege your constant kindnes and favour unto
Upsale, 7th April, 1654.
An additional instruction to my lord Whitelocke, our embassador extraordinaryto her majesty the queen of Sweden.
Having considered the particular account, which you have given by the weekly letters, of your negotiation in Sweden, and the delay, which hath been on the part of that court in the treaty you are upon, we might have well given you positive orders for your speedy return; but observing, that the letters and dispatches between this and Sweden are a month on their way, and not knowing how affairs may alter in that time with you; and the pretence of their delay, to wit, the incertainty of the issue of the treaty between us and the United Provinces, being removed, as you will see by these letters, which will assure you of the full conclusion thereof; we have thought it more convenient to leave you a latitude in that particular, and to give you liberty, as we do hereby, to return home at such time as you shall find it for the service of the commonwealth.
2. Whereas by your letter of the 10th March, 1653. you have represented the particular debate, which you have had upon all the articles of the treaty, and the exceptions taken by the queen, upon the second, fifth, and seventh articles; you are hereby authorized to omit the second and fifth articles out of the treaty; and also these words, bona à suis cujusque inimicis direpta, out of the seventh article, if the queen shall still insist thereupon. And as for the comprehending the Dutch in this treaty with the queen of Sweden, notice shall be given from hence, if it shall be found necessary.
3. You have hereby power to agree with the queen of Sweden, that she and her subjects may fish freely for herrings in the seas of this commonwealth, paying the recognition of the tenth herring, or for a lesser recognition, so as it be not less than the twentieth herring, or for the value thereof in money.