A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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April (2 of 4)
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The earl William governor of Friesland, &c. came hither the tenth of this month, to fetch home the lady his wife, who hath been here all this winter; however it is very likely he will not return so soon from hence. One can perceive no otherwise by him, but that he is well pleased with the peace, and that he doth approve of it, and doth judge it necessary for the state; and in general, the people are weary of the war, and the states of Holland to that effect hath done wisely, for having imposed very heavy taxes, which did cause the rich incline to wish for peace; and the poor having no way to gain a livelihood, by reason of the obstruction made, made them likewise to cry aloud for peace.
Those of the courts having heard, that the protector and his council did make no difficulty in the proviso concerning the prince of Orange, did very much admire at it, fearing, or having heard the quite contrary; and the more, because at the conferences the lord protector should have declared, that the parliament had received more harm and wrong from the last princes of Orange, than from any other place; and that therefore the twelfth of the 27 articles (which the English did exhibit to our commissioners the 28th November) doth speak very rigorously against the house of Orange, and against the princess royal: but men do presume, that the protector doth consider and presuppose, that volenti non fit injuria, that it is a thorn in the foot of Holland; that Holland doth love to keep their own, and that therefore the protector will let them alone.
The minister Sterremont (who doth not love to say any thing willingly to displease the court) did equivocate very much on sunday last upon the goodness of the peace, in case it be fraudulous, that God would confound the Achitophels and their counsellors.
At Amsterdam they have ordered the West-India house and another, for their poor to work in; for the poor begin to cry, Give us wherewithal to eat, (there were so many beggars about the streets, and in the hospitals) or give us something to do, that we may get our livings; for we can find no work.
Those of Holland have been in the assembly of the states general in a great number, several accusing those of the province of Guelderland, by reason they are yet defective in their shares of the first million of the twelve, which are demanded for a subsidy of this war against the English; so that Holland saith expresly, that they must use some other means, to bring Guelderland to reason. The provinces of Zealand and Overyssel were also taxed; and in effect, not any one of them hath done well; all the weight and burthen hath lain upon Holland. Those of Guelderland have propounded to send one of theirs to dispose the states of Guelderland to furnish their share. In short, men see, that the Dunkirk war and the English differ as much as night and day, it being great wisdom in Holland to purchase peace, and a great happiness, that the English are disposed to peace, admitting so easily the proviso.
At last, it was tuesday night first before, here arrived an express from the embassadors in England, with a letter of the 9th, and was confirmed by letters of the 10th, which arrived the next day, that on the 9th the commissioners of the council did give their act of 30 March/9 April, agreeing to the presentation made by the embassadors on the eighth. This hath somewise undeceived all our fearful ones, and unbelieving ones; for the first, because they desired it; the latter, because they did not desire it, would not believe, that the peace would be concluded, not expecting so much moderation nor inclination from the protector. They did also presently resolve upon all things necessary for the execution thereof; and the resident of Denmark not being at the Hague, the state sent an express to the king of Denmark, giving him advertisement of all what had passed; and by four commissioners, as well that night as the next day, communication was made to the lord ambassador of France, as also to Mons. Stockar; the said resident being absent, and notice thereof being also given to the resident de Vries in the Sound, to cause to be paid the twenty millions of rixdollars to the English, when they shall come for it.
The lord resident Brasset hath taken his leave of the states general, representing, that his children being born here in this country, he had designed one of them for the war, who being a lieutenant, and one of the youngest, was of the number of the Reformados, he recommended his advancement; and consulting about his present, those of Holland said, it was impertinent to give presents to others, since the states had forbid and prohibited theirs from taking any from others: but the lord Brasset hath too many friends (having lived here 27 years) not to be dismissed without a present. Upon this occasion it was proposed to give a present to the children of the embassador of Spain; but by reason of good husbandry, Holland doth not willingly incline unto it. In the mean time I do think, that Holland is the occasion almost of a million of rixdollars employed upon Denmark in this war, without any benefit or profit, that is good husbandry.
Those of Holland do so much rely upon the peace, that after the reception of the act of the 30th March aforesaid, they did adjourn, and are gone all of them home, which they durst not do in all the Easter holydays.
Here is an ugly report, that Coningsmark went to assault and besiege the city of
Bremen, or a part of it, called Burgh. If that be so, the war will break out again in
Germany. Between the princess Palatine, and the princess the wife of the prince of
Tarante, there is contention. The princess Louisa, as the daughter of the elector,
doth pretend the precedency every-where of the princess of Tarente; and the princess of
Tarente, as princess of the empire of the house of the landgraves of Hesse, doth likewise pretend to it. I am
Your humble servant.
Chanut, the French embassador at the Hague, to Bordeaux the French embassador in England.
The express sent by the lords embassadors of this state the ninth of this month, arrived here a day before the post, who brought me the letter, which you were pleased to write to me on the tenth. I salute you (my lord) the second time, in the quality which you have deserved, since you are now in the full function of your employment, whereof I conceive great hope for the establishment of the whole navigation. I pray to God to bless your prudence, and that the success may render your ministry famous. The great noise, that the English preparations were to fall upon our coasts, begins to dwindle away; and many believe the Spaniards to be once more deceived in the opinion they have, that the United Provinces will not conclude the peace.
We have nothing to do here, till such time that we see the issue of the treaty of this state at London, which I hold for concluded; but in such great affairs there is nothing certain but what is done. The jewels of the prince of Condé could find no credit at Amsterdam: they have now carried them to Rotterdam, to try what good they can do with them there; but it is thought there are none, that will meddle with them.
The prince of Anhalt to the protector.
Cum propter certa quædam impedimenta non possum pro voto & desiderio meo ad serenissimam celsitudinem vestram de meis quempiam mittere, qui ipsi summam dignitatem, ad quam ex gratiâ divinâ provecta est, meo nomine gratularetur, & cultum meum atque observantiam erga serenissimam celsitudinem vestram declararet; ideo ex permissione illustrissimi domini Anthonii Guntheri, comitis in Oldenburg, & domini avunculi mei, præsentium exhibitoribus, ab ipso jam ante in Angliam ablegatis, Friderico Matthiæ Wolzagen de Missingdorff, & Christophoro Gryphiandro in mandatis dedi, ut mei quâque causâ serenissimam celsitudinem vestram post decentem requisitionem adirent, ipsique justissima mea desideria ore tenus, & qua par est reverentiâ, proponerent & explicarent.
Deum ter opt. max. animitùs interea precor, ut serenissimam celsitudinem vestram reip.
suæ & orbis christiani bono quam diutissime servet incolumem; permansurus, quoad vixero,
Datum Zerbst, 7/17 Aprilis, anno 1654.
By the commander in chief of all forces in Scotland.
Whereas (amongst other things) by proclamation of the 27th of September, 1653, all magistrats and officers of burghs and parishes, and all other persons whatsoever, are required to secure, or give intelligence of all suspected persons, travelling through, or abiding within their bounds or jurisdictions, as in and by the said proclamation more particularly is expressed: Notwithstanding nothing to this time hath been effectually done; but on the contrary, divers rebels, as well considerable numbers as spies, have been, and still are frequently permitted and suffered to pass, march through, and abide in any burgh or parish, within the quarters of our army unquestioned, as if no rebellion were, who thereby take opportunity, not onely to get intelligence, but also to entice many loose persons to joyn with them in rebellion, and commit frequent robberies, and barbarous murders, and other outrages upon the persons, goods and geer, as well of Scots as English: These are therefore strictly to charge and command, that no person or persons, of what degree or quality soever, (not being a member of the English army) do presume after ten dayes next after publication hereof, to passe above five miles from his and their respective aboads or habitations, unlesse he or they first obtained a passe from myself, or the commander in chief of the forces in Scotland, for the time being, or from the next chief officer of the English army, or the judge-advocate of the army (of whose circumspection and care in parting with the said passes to persons well-affected, or upon good caution, I nothing doubt;) which said passe is to be signed and sealed with my hand and seal, conform to the hand and seal hereunto subscribed and affixed, or the hand and seal of the commander in chief for the time being, and subscribed by the said officer from whom it shal be obtained, with his name, together with the time and place of his subscription, (except he or they make it appear, he or they are upon their ready way to the next chief officer for obtaining the said passe) under the pain of being adjudged, deemed, and taken as enemies in rebellion against the peace of the commonwealth, and dealt withal accordingly. And all magistrats and officers, and all other persons whatsoever, within burghs or parishes, are hereby strictly required, that if any person or persons, (except as before is excepted, and not being members of the English army) shall, contrary hereunto, presume to march, travell, passe through, or abide in any burgh or parish, without a passe as aforesaid, the said magistrates, officers, and parishioners of such burgh and parish, are hereby required to secure them, if they shall be of strength sufficient, and them safely keep, untill notice be given to myself, the commander in chief for the time being, or the next adjacent officer in chief of the English forces, (any of whose orders thereanent is duly to be observed) under the penalty of twenty pounds sterling, and such further punishment according to the quality of the offence, as to a courtmarshall to be held for the head-quarters, or any other inferiour court-marshall, before whom the matter shall be tryed, shall be thought just. And whensoever any party of the rebells, which now are, or hereafter shall break forth into rebellion, or any other person, not having a passe, as aforesaid, shall march or travell into or through any burgh or parish; and if the burgh, parish, and inhabitants, shall not be of strength sufficient to secure them, that in such case the magistrates, officers, and inhabitants of the said burgh, and parishioners of the said parish, and every individual person thereof, are hereby strictly charged and required to take care, that such expedient be found out amongst themselves, that upon the first entrance of such rebells, or persons not having a passe, as aforesaid, whether they make stay, or not, immediately to take care, that with all possible speed one or more persons, mounted on as good a horse as at present may be had, or otherwise a nimble foot-man, to post away with all possible speed to the next and nearest forces of the English army, wheresoever they shall happen to be, and give true intelligence to the officer or officers thereof, of the number, and who commands them, so near as may be, under the like penalty of twenty pounds sterling, and such farther punishment, according to the quality of the offence, as to a court martiall, to be held for the head quarters, or any other inferior court martiall of the army, before whom the matter shall be tryed, shall be in like manner thought just.
To be proclaimed at the mercat crosse of the chief burgh in every county or sheriffdom, and upon the Lord's day, the parishioners being conveened together at the kirk, to be openly read unto them by the clerk thereof.
Commission to general Monck to be commander in chief of the army in Scotland.
Signed Oliver P.
Oliver, lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions and territories thereof, to our right trusty and well-beloved colonel George Monck, lieutenant general of the ordnance, and one of the generals at sea greeting. We reposing special trust and considence in your approved integrity and sidelity to the cause of the commonwealth, and in the wisdom, courage, discretion, conduct, and experience in military affairs, do hereby constitute and appoint you commander in chief of the army and forces in Scotland, raised and to be raised for the service of the commonwealth; giving and granting unto you full power and authority to rule, govern, command, dispose, and employ the said army and forces in every part thereof, and all officers and others whatsoever, of and belonging to the same, in, for, or about all defences, offences, executions, and other military and hostile acts and services, for the beating down and suppressing of the rebellion within the said nation, and for the settling and maintaining of the publick peace there; and also (if need require) to lead and conduct the said army and forces, or any part thereof, against the rebels and enemies of the publick peace of the said nation, and them to pursue, invade, resist, kill, and destroy by all ways and means whatsoever; and also to command all garisons, sorts, castles, and towns within the said nation already garisoned and fortified, or to be garisoned and fortified; and also full power and authority to execute, or cause to be executed, martial law, according to the course and customs of wars, and according to the laws and ordinances of wars allowed by any act or ordinance of parliament, upon or against any person or persons offending against any of the said laws or ordinances of war; and also full power and authority from time to time, by yourself, or others deputed and authorized by you, to take up and use such carriages, draughts, horses, boats, and other vessels, as in your discretion shall be thought needful for the conveying and conducting of the said ordnance, artillery, ammunition, money, victuals, or any provisions, or ammunitions of war necessary or requisite for the same army or forces, or any part thereof, to or from any place ot places, in order to the said service; and also full power and authority to do and execute all other things, as belonging to the place of a commander in chief of an army shall be requisite and necessary for the carrying on and accomplishing of the premises. And all commanders, officers, and soldiers of the army, forces and garisons, are hereby required to obey you their commander in chief, according to the discipline of war. And all sheriffs, justices of the peace, mayors, bailiffs, and other officers and persons whatsoever in the said nation, are likewise required to be aiding and assisting to you in their respective counties and places, for the ends and purposes aforesaid. And you are, in the prosecution and execution of all and singular the premises, to observe and follow all such instructions, orders, and directions, as you shall from time to time receive from ourself or our council. Given under our hand and seal at Whitehall the eighth day of April 1654.
Out of Poland no other news, but that the king hath now bestowed the Zittawish Blanck upon prince Radzevil; but the Ryx Blanck his majesty reserves for himself, saying, he knows no person more worthy of it.
A new convention is voted in June next there. If the matter be not compounded, it is like to turn into a rokosz (fn. 1), that is to say, an honest rebellion.
London. ss. The examination of William Metham of Metham, in the county of York, gentleman, taken the 8th day of April 1654. before us Thomas Foot and Robert Tichborne, aldermen and justices of peace for the said city, by virtue of an order of his highness the lord protector and the council at Whitehall, bearing date the 7th of April instant.
The examinate being examined, and asked, whether he was at the New-exchange on monday the twenty-first of November last, he answereth, that he was not there on the monday aforesaid; but confesseth, that on tuesday the twenty-second of November last he was at the New-exchange aforesaid; for, being in the way towards St. James's, he this examinant, did meet the Portugal embassador's own coach coming towards the Exchange, about the Pall-mall; and Don Pantaleon being in the same coach, did call this examinate into the said coach, wherein were (he this examinate believes) a knight of Malta, and the lord of Byone, and some others, whose names he knows not, being Portuguese; with whom this examinate went along to the said New-exchange; and that this examinate, and the said Don Pantaleon, and other Portuguese aforesaid, coming into the said Exchange, one Mr. Philip Howard came to this examinate, and desired him to persuade the said Portuguese to go off the Exchange; for that there were some above, that did stay for them. And this examinate speaking to the said Don Pantaleon to the same effect; he the said Pantaleon answered, that he had no arms, and would offend none; and he did believe, none would offend him, there being but four Portuguese there together at the same time with this examinate, none of them having then any arms. And this examinate faith, that after the said Portuguese had staid there in the Lower-exchange for some little time, they went up into the upper part of the said Exchange; and being there, one Mr. Thomas Howard came to the said Don Pantaleon, and demanded satisfaction for an affront offered the night before; and the examinate persuading the said Mr. Howard to be satisfied, the said Mr. Thomas Howard did cease to speak or act any thing else, as this examinate did see; but immediately upon this, the shop-keepers in the said Exchange began to make a noise with shutting up their shops; and that during the time of discourse between the said Don Pantaleon, Mr. Howard, and this examinate, there was a pistol shot off about the west-end of the said Exchange; and thereupon this examinate did depart from the said Exchange, and did not see any Portuguese, save only the Portuguese aforesaid, before the said pistol was fired as aforesaid; but after the said pistol was fired, he did see divers Englishmen upon the said Exchange with their swords drawn; and that he did also see divers black men there also with their swords drawn, whom he conceives may be Portuguese; but what were the particular passages there after that time, this examinate says he knows not, neither did he know or hear of any design or appointment by the said Portuguese, to be or meet at the said Exchange that night, to injure or affront any persons whatsoever.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
On wednesday last, the day of my foregoing letter, we received letters from Valenciennes, of the 11/1th of this month, containing, that the Lorrain army, consisting of 6000 men, was marched from thence, upon design to inveft Bassée, or some other place in those parts, which had caused the French to reinforce the said place of Bassée and Bethune; and that duke Charles was coming to command in chief; and that in the mean time the prince of Condé was ransacking the country with an army of fourteen thousand men. This sudden news caused presently order to be given to all captains and soldiers of the garisons of those parts, to return to their commands with all possible speed.
The earl of Charost, governor of Calais, who came to Paris to desire some moneys, wherewith to repair his fortifications, is some days since returned home again; some think discontented, by reason they would not allow him any thing towards the reparations aforesaid.
Here is a report, that the prince of Condé is entered into Boulognois, and that he hath a design against Calais, which the English were to besiege by siege at a distance. Here is also news, that Bassée is surrendered unto him; which will not be believed till such time, that it be confirmed. The prince of Conti is designed here for commander in chief of the army of Catalonia, and the marshal of Hocquincourt for his lieutenant.
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
I kindly thanke you for your continued correspondencye, which I shall desire still the favour of. As for our judicatures heere, it is in a very unsettled condition. Wee very much want good instruments for such a work; and I feare our povertye will not afford us libertie to allow that incouragement to persons of worth to come over to us; but indeed that affaire of the administration of justice is in such a posture, that the people are in a very sad and oppressed condition, through delays and want of justice. We heere are of opinion, that there is no necessity at present of more courts of justice, than one in the nature of common pleas, and another for adjudication of titles. The commissioners have thought of making Sir Gerrard Lowther, Sir James Barry, justice Donellan, the atturney general, and the recorder of this towne, to be judges. If wee have a common pleas, wee must have a seale, which at present wee have none. I hope my brother Cromwell hath given you a full account of all affairs here. There is little of newes since his departure; only Mortogh O Brian with 1200 men are transported beyond sea, and more are read to goe after him. I much desire to heare how the Lord deales with us as to the busines of Holland; but in that we have so far pursued peace, if they reject it, 'twil be a great witnes against them: If my lord protector intends that designe, which he writt unto me about, wee shal be able to furnish him with the men; but the difficulty wil be to transport the horse. If the design goes on, I desire to have timely notice. I am
I desire to heare how my lord chief justice doth.
The commissioners for sequestration in Scotland to William Malyn, Esq;
We shall send away those denotter goods, that are at Lieth in readinesse, very speedily by captain Bunn in the Providence frygat; for all the rest that are out of our hands, wee shall doe our utmost endeavour to get them together with all possible speed, and send them by the best conveniencie.
We shall not trouble his highnesse at the present with a particular charge concerning
captain Gardiner, only in general, we have found here in Lieth several goods of considerable value belongeinge to the late king and earle mareshall, (sraudulently taken) which
hee had ordred to be sent to London to a private friend of his, one Mr. John Howell,
linnen-draper, at the signe of the bell on London-bridge. We are certainly informed,
that captain Gardiner hath sent goods to London formerly, and it is beleeved by a speciall
friend of his, that those goods were directed to the above-mentioned Mr. John Howell.
Therefore wee thought meet to offer, whether it be nott requisitt to enquire of Mr. Howell,
what goods he hath received from captain Gardiner, and how hee hath disposed of them.
Lieth, 8th April, 1654.
A dispatch is come in here from Holland, bringing news, that that those states had fully condescended to the articles of the lord protector, concerning the satisfaction for the English ships, that were detained here.
This court is glad, that the returning of the ships, goods, and guns in the condition they are in at present, is all that is demanded of them, (the Hollanders having engaged to pay for the damages) and are now very confident shortly to understand the full conclusion of peace with England.
It is reported here, that the prince Palatine, who is to succeed the queen of Sweden in that crown, is shortly to marry with the duke of Holstein's daughter, which is thought, will cause somewhat more strict alliance between the crowns of Sweden and Denmark, than hath been heretofore.
A letter of intelligence.
I have received yours of the 27th March, signifying your peace with Holland to be near concluded, notwithstanding your great preparations for the seas; which relation is by all letters confirmed, and many constructions made what work your fleet shall have to do after the peace shall be concluded and proclaimed. Time will let us see what it shall be.
I have little to add to what I wrote to you by the last post, but this of R. C. his business. Now the princes, in imitation of the emperor, are contributing. The next may bring to you some particulars of it. The gentleman to be sent to Rome goes within ten days, qualified, as I gave you in several letters before.
This great diet shall be ended the latter-end of this month, notwithstanding that many oppose, to whom the French embassador here gave great assistance; but will no more, for he is dead this day. Good news for the Spaniard; for he was one of the ablest ministers the king of France had.
The emperor goes away about the beginning of the next month. All the nobility are sending away their wives, children, and goods every day. The diet now are making their conclusions touching the point of justice, being this long time in dispute. The rest of the time, till the emperor parts, will be spent in printing and publishing all their conclusions. The diet ends the last of this month.
Duke Francis of Lorrain is gone with the moneys and presents given to him by the emperor, as I gave you in my former, accompanied with his lieutenant and other Spanish ministers, with thirty of the emperor's guard to convoy him. He lest charge with Mons. Fournier, a secretary his brother had, to attend in Ratisbon, to continue his demands to the emperor and diet, concerning the places possessed by some Lorrainers in Lower Alsace, which places were promised to his brother before his imprisonment.
An intercepted letter.
If you can possibly supply me with ten pounds for my voyage for France, it standes me now upon; and if you faile, I shall not know what to doe. Upon my returne, I will not fail to satisfie you. There is a peace with the Dutch, and a warr with France. Some say that our protector intends to be empirour within this three weekes. This all I have to acquaint you with more then that I am
11th April, 1654.
Part of an intercepted letter.
Freinds took up a copy of the indictment. The freinds indicted were Mr.
Vavasor Powell, Mr. John Evans, and his wife, Mr. Morgan Lloyd's sister, Mr.
John Davies of Montgomery shire, Mr. Robert Owens, Owen Lewis, Robert Owen Lewis,
John Griffith, Mr. Henry Norris, schoolmaster, your sister Lowry, and sister Margaret, your
niece Ellen Williams, and one Joan Williams, Mr. Evans maid. I remember no more at present. I know that it is the desire of our friends to hear from you, what is to be done in it; if
you have liberty, it would be very acceptable to us, to have your judgment in writing,
and to send your brotherly councell also in writing by the bearer. The ungodly generally
are in armes, raging maliciously against the ways and truth of Christ: let us exercise faith
a little, and the Lord will shortly appear; for the wicked's covering is narrower than
can hide them, Ifai. xxviii. Mind us of these counties; let us be earnest and instant in
petitions to heaven. I should rejoice to have a word from you. I pray my love to all the
saints respectively, particularly to Mr. H. your man, and your niece Gwynn. All your
friends in nature were all well the last weeke. I am in hast. Committing you to the
keeper of Israel, I rest
11 April, 1654.
Andrew Sandelands to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your Honor,
To give me leave to acquaint you with my serious endeavours to doe his highnesse service in the prosecution of that information concerning the crowne lands of Scotland, which his highnesse and the late councile of state did reserr to the commissioners at Leith, Decem. 2. I have employed Mr. John Philipps (Mr. Milton's kinsman) to sollicite the busines, both with the judges at Edinburgh, and with the commissioners at Leith, who by his last letter promiseth to give me a very good account very speedily. I have acquainted doctor Norton, (a man very learned in the civil, and skilfull in the Scotish law) and who hath gained great experience in soliciting the earl of Bedford's suite, against the lord Balmerino and others. This gentleman is able, not only by the statute-law of that nation, to make the legal part of my information good, but likewise by their law-books and practique-books, which are in as good esteeme with them, as my lord Cooke's reports are here with us. If you desire to speake with doctor Norton before he returne to Scotland, he shall attend you when and where you shall appoint him. Hee lodges in Doctors Commons, and hath a chamber there. Sir, the prime witts of Scotland, Traquair and Dury, are now petitioners to his highnesse, that some course may be taken for payment of the late king's debts, and the publique burthens contracted by that nation, in assisting the parliament of England. If his highness should be pleased but to aske them, whether they would take the annuity of the Scotish tithes (or any other particular branch of my information) for payment of those debts, I am confident, they would gladely accept of it; and if they can make benefitt of it, much more his highnesse. By this touchstone you shall know the true metall and value of all those things contained in my information; and by this you shall lay aside all idle cavills and exceptions, that are or shall be given in against it by partyes, who are somewhat concerned in it.
Your honor can witnesse my diligence in the prosecution of that information I gave in concerning the Scotish woods, and how I lodged it with the committee of the admiralty, and how the stirrs in Scotland did obstruct that designe. Other men will be to blame, if my last information doe not bring greate benefitt to his highnesse and his successors.
Sir, if a winter-journey into Scotland, to doe the state service, and my long attendance here, hath not deserved a small reward, or at least the taking off of the sequestration from my parsonage in Yorkshire, I hope ere long I shall merit a farr greater, when by my means his highnesse's revenewes shall be increased.
Sir, on saturday last, by the abuse of a knavish attorney, I was committed to this dungeon, upon a judgement surreptitiously obteyned, without arrest or appearance, or other legal proceeding; and therefore being, the reformation of the enormities of the law are now in debate before you, I hope some course will be taken to punish or amend such grosse abuses for the future. The attornye's name is Knightsbridge: he lives in Staple-inne.
The resolution of the states general of the 22d of April 1654. at 5 o'clock in the evening.
Upon the relation made by the lords Huygens, and other deputies of their mighty highnesses, upon the letters of their lords embassadors in England, dated at Westminster the 25th of this month, and likewise the signed articles of the union and consederacy, which they have concluded and signed with the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland; after deliberation, it is resolved by these to approve, allow, and ratify the said articles, peace, union, and confederacy, and also the instrument of submission concerning the sentence, which is to be given for the damages sustained by the English masters and merchants by reason of the detention of their ships and goods in the Sound, and also the instrument of submission concerning the cantons of Switzerland, upon the difference, which happened in the East and West-Indies, and in Muscovy and Greenland. It is likewise resolved, to give special thanks to the said lords embassadors for their pains, zeal, and good conduct in this negotiation; and that a convenient act of ratification of the said articles be dispatched and sent to the said embassadors to interchange with that of the lord protector; and that also, the two abovesaid instructions of submission, with authority to supply on this part the blanks of the instruments of submission for the cantons of Switzerland, with the names of those which shall be sent hereafter, shall be likewise dispatched. And to that effect, it shall be written to the lords Vogelsant and Hodenbourg respectively, counsellors of the courts of Holland and Utrecht, as being lawyers, and likewise to Jaque Lones and Jaque Rysset, as being respectively merchants of Amsterdam and Middleburgh, to the end they shall out of hand inform their mighty highnesses, what directly or indirectly they are interested in the companies of the East and West-Indies, or of them of Greenland or Muscovy; and also whether they may attend as commissioners for the matter expressed in the thirtieth article, a copy whereof shall be sent to those proposed persons, being not yet written to upon this subject. It shall be also written to the said lords embassadors in England, to take care, that no person interested shall be appointed on the part of the commonwealth of England. It shall be likewise written to the directors of the East-India company now assembled in Amsterdam, and also to those of the West-Indies, Greenland, and Muscovy, to the end that they shall respectively present in London their pretensions (reckoning from the beginning of the year 1611. unto the year 1650. inclusively) against the 28th of May next, as being the time for the said treaty appointed. It is likewise by these resolved, to require those of Holland so to order and provide, that the merchants of London be satisfied as to point of security, for those great sums, that they have obliged themselves for, with this sense, that their mighty highnesses shall indemnify the province from all damage or loss. The said lords of Holland are also required to find out a fitting person to be joined to the resident Vries, to take circumstantial information at Copenhagen of the constitution of the ships and goods detained in the Sound, and of that which the English shall negotiate in Denmark, that these documents may be put to the decision of the arbitrators, which are to be chosen. And as to the agreement made betwixt the lords commissioners of the lord protector and the said embassadors, importing, that immediately after the extradition of the ratifications, the peace shall be published in England, it is resolved to require and authorize the said embassadors to solicit the said publication, and to declare, that all acts of hostility shall cease of this part, the peace being in England proclaimed; and especially that the respective times, according to the distance of the assigned districts in the thirtieth article, shall begin also to run on the part of this state from the time of proclaiming the said peace. The said embassadors are likewise authorized, after that they have interchanged the ratifications, to make bonfires proportionable to those, that shall be made there; and in case the state of England shall treat by feasting, or otherwise, the said embassadors, they are authorized, at the expence of this state, to invite and treat in like manner the lords of the council, or at least the commissioners, that treated with them, as the exigency of the matter shall require, and the reputation of this state. As for the desires of the said embassadors to return home, being so long absent, after the ratification, the deliberation is yet suspended. It is moreover resolved, that it shall be written to the respective colleges of the admiralty, that their lordships shall admonish and inhibit all merchants and masters of ships not to go with their ships and goods to sea, notwithstanding the treaty be concluded and signed, until the time when all acts of hostility shall cease and be expired; of which expiration notification shall be made, prohibiting the said masters and merchants to contravene the same under the same pains, which are expressed and inserted in the precedent placart. It is also resolved, that to each of the gentlemen, who brought the said treaty, a chain of gold, with a medal of the value of one hundred ducats in plate, be given. And for the further performance of all that is above ordered, all necessary dispatches shall be made without resumption.
Mr. recorder Steele to the protector and his council.
In obedience to an order of the councell of the eleaventh of April instant, these are humbly to certifie his highnesse the lord protector and his councell, that in pursuance of a former order of the seventh instant, directing the court of sessions in the Old-baily to proceed with William Mettam, as by the same order is directed; the said court appointed two of the justices then present to take the examination of Mr. Mettam, touching the busines, which happened between the Portugals and English at the New-exchange, on monday and tuesday, being the twenty-first and twenty-second of November last; and accordingly his examination being taken and made known to the court, (which is herewith certified) and it thereby being confessed, that he came with Don Pantaleon and other Portugals, to the New-exchange, upon the tuesday night aforesaid, at which time Mr. Greenaway was slayne; and continued with them, 'till the pistoll was shot off; upon consideration thereof, the court thought fit, in pursuance of the aforesaid order, to commit the said Mr. Mettam to the safe custody of the keeper of Newgate, where he yet remaines. All which is humbly submitted to his highness and the council.
Extract of a letter of M. de Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to M. de Brienne, secretary of state in France.
Vous trouveréz bon, que je vous eclaircisse du doubte, que je croiois avoir levé par quelqu'une de mes precedentes touchant la suscription des lettres du roy à M. le protecteur. Il a refusé le titre de cousin, & s'est contenté dans toutes les deux depeches de celui de Monsieur le protecteur de la republique d'Angleterre, d'Ecosse, & Irlande. Celui de frere cut eté bien plus agreable.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Since that we had news sent us, that the articles would be signed the 3/13th of this present month, they have counted here the hours, yea the minutes; and there hath been no other discourse than of the messenger or express, who was expected by sea, and by land. In the mean time they advance and further their equipment also, intending to send a fleet to clear the seas of all manner of pirates; for those of Malta do threaten high, and the French do us no small damage. Likewise they do labour hard, chiefly those of Zealand, to redress the desolate company of the West Indies in Brasil against the Portuguese; and it is said withal, that the lord of Opdam will go thither in person. So likewise they must keep a fleet here upon the coasts, in regard of a great fleet, which the English have at sea. Hitherto since the peace, the merchandizes from hence to Flanders and Brabant, and from them hither, do go and come in one vessel, without being unladen at Lillo and Sas; but notice being taken, that it caused great deceit and frauds in the convoys and licences, those of Zealand have laboured hard to have them unladen at Lillo and Sas, and there reladen again in another vessel; and Holland in the end will also agree to it. At last they will also resolve and agree upon the introduction of the little seal (which is to be annexed and fixed to all publick acts and writings) in Breda, although by the capitulation it is said, that the said city shall not be charged with any new imposition, wherewith they did not stand charged in the year 1625. The great treasurer Brassaert hath a sort of gangrene (the cold fire) in his feet, and a fever withal, so that he is in great danger. They have a long while disputed here the free transportation of turf from hence to Brabant and Flanders; but at the instances of the provinces of Friesland, Groningen, and Overyssel, they have at last condescended to it. Here is one colonel Wyeligh on the behalf of the bishop of Munster, to make the congratulation to this state, for and upon the peace with England, as soon as the advice thereof shall be come from England. The dispute and difference between the two princesses, royal and dowager, do still continue. There hath been some submission made of referring it to arbitration. The princess royal would have, that in the first place they should decide the point of the government of Orange; but the princess dowager would not have that called in question; but that it should remain as it is. There being question of giving a present to the lord Brasset, who is returning into France, as also to the children of the deceased embassador of Spain, the other provinces have advised in the affirmitive; but Holland hath singly refused their consent, saying, it is absurd and impertinent, that this court should give presents to others, since they forbid their own ministers to take any. It is nothing but to be impudent. The last commissioner of Genoa, before he had audience, did bargain to have the same entertainment that the former had, and by this means had the present. One of the states themselves told me, we do good to none, but to those who can do us harm. It's very likely, that they will give nothing neither to Monsieur Stockard commissioner of Switzerland. The earl of Coningsmark for Sweden, with three or four thousand countrymen, and six or seven hundred soldiers, hath besieged the house called Bourg, being within one mile and an half of Bremen, which the magistrates had fortified and made a garison, there being at present three or four hundred soldiers in it; but Coningsmark, with the cannon and granadoes, hath so battered the place, that after three days siege they were forced to surrender upon articles, to march out with their arms and baggage. Coningsmark doth intend to fortify the said place with seven bulwarks. During the siege, he caused all the passages to the city to be blocked up, which since he hath caused to be opened again. However the design is clearly seen to be against the city, who have deputed one hither to demand assistance. This state is very ill affected to Sweden, as well the states general as the states of Holland; yet they are much troubled at it, notwithstanding that this peace with England will very much ease them; but if the war had continued, they would have had their hands full of work on all sides. In the end there hath been presented to the states general an act of neutrality on the behalf of the states of the empire. They are to examine it here, to see if it be to their liking. The king of Spain doth also require here, by the secretary of the embassy, the inclusion in the treaty of peace, at the same time and manner, that that king did require it in England of the protector. On tuesday the thirty-first, towards the evening, came three gentlemen, sent each from one of the three embassadors in England, bringing the original and principal treaty signed to the states general, and each brought a copy thereof, one to those of Holland, one to those of Zealand, and one to those of Friesland. The language of the treaty is in Latin; and they say, that the English have shewed themselves discreet and moderate in several words, as for that of murder, in the twenty-eighth article, is to be put, homicide. And this state will draw this advantage by it out of the Latin tongue, that causing it to be translated into Dutch, (for to have it printed and published as is necessary and requisite) they will cause several words to be put more soft and moderate than are put in the Latin, to content the people and others. All those, that did not believe there would be a peace, do find themselves deceived and laughed at. They have here advice from England, (from such a hand as they do give credit to it) that a day or two before the agreement and conclusion, the embassador of Spain understanding, that the business did hang in a suspense, made an express offer to the protector of a million of money down, to bear half the charges of the war, and to consign Dunkirk and Mardike into the hands of the English, in case the protector would break the treaty, and hinder the pacification. I do perceive, that the state here doth believe it; and those that do not believe it, yet do seem to give credit to it; for they have reason not to trust the Spaniards. In the mean time, it would not be the first time, that embassador of France (who doth boast to know the most essential secret of council of state of England) hath sold false drugs; but I refer myself to the truth thereof; and in the mean while the inclusion, which the king of Spain have caused to be made here in the peace with England, doth seem (for the said regard) a notable simulation, and the prayer of, Pulcbra Laverna, da mihi fallere, &c. They have already sent the ratification by sea and land, not daring to name a precise day for the publication, for fear lest the ships going from hence might be deceived, by reason that they are not certain here of the day, when publication will be made. They will permit the embassadors, if they be entertained with any feast, to return the same, and to do the same likewise with bonfires. In short, the trouble from that part of the West doth cease; but there is some storm arising in the East; for the Swedes do seem to have a design against the city of Bremen. It is true, this state did not shew themselves much concerned in it, when the said city had the quarrel with the earl of Oldenburg, who gave the first mortal wound to the city; but I do not know, I do not believe, that Holland will desire, that Sweden should be so near and so powerful to them. Here are commissioners come from the city of Embden for the second time, about the difference of 600 men, which the earl and the states will no longer entertain; and those of Embden speak ill of the emperor: this will also cause some trouble here. There is also a commissioner to come from Bremen. The above-mentioned, which is writ concerning the offer of the Spaniards, was writ by the lords Beverning and Nieuport, who say, they had it not from one of the government of England; but however, from such a hand, that they did affirm it for a truth. Communication of the signing hath been made to the embassadors of France, the resident of Denmark, and the commissioner of Switzerland. The resident of France hath given a most serious memorandum, by reason they do not give him the present; but the lord president thought fit not to give copies thereof to the provinces.
Intelligence from the Hague.
Yesterday very late there was an assembly, to finish the resolution for the execution of the treaty and of the ratification. Those of Guelderland, by express order of their superiors, did propose, that before the ratification, the provinces ought to be bound to one another, and to promise, that by the word hostes in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth articles, they did not blindly understand all such hostes or enemies, as the English should declare for such; but only fugitives, or such as were notoriously known to be such, or rebels. All the provinces agreed as to that; but those of Guelderland and some others desired, that there might be an act or resolution set down in writing of it, wherein neither Holland nor Zealand would or durst not agree to give their consents; so much fear they have of falling again into a war, saying, that if the protector should hear the least hint thereof, that would give him new cause and occasion to quarrel; and it was enough and sufficient, that they had declared so much by word of mouth to one another; that also the word else (denoting the present hostility) did salve well enough the case.
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
I Have this week receaved none from you, which will cause mee to be brief: the expresses, whoe brought the good news of the mutuall signinge of the treaty, are returned yesterdaye morninge with the ratification of the states generall. We hope, so soone as they arrive, there will be a cessation of hostilitye, that our merchant-men may goe freely to sea; for every daye's delaye is of considerable loss to us in this country. I have observed, that any news hath not bin so welcome to these in many years: 'tis not strange, being there is a probability of much advantage in way of trade it may bring to these countryes. We are still kept in ignorance concerninge the articles; which makes us jealous they are not so advantageous for us, as we had them in print. It seems we must give, to sattisfie your state; and we feare the greatest account is behind concerning Amboyna. Some wise men are of opinion, that it will not be ballanced without a new war; the reason is, because many of our grandees are partners in the East India company. If reports prove true, we have as much to pretend of you, as you of us; but I leave it to better judments. Our merchant shipps are fittinge and ladinge for all parts. If you thinke mee capable to serve you, please to command
24 April, 1654. [N. S.]
Beuningen, the Dutch embassador in Sweden, to the greffier Ruysch.
I CAN judge no other by all the appearances, but that their H. and M. lordships may rest satisfied with what I have writ unto them concerning the conclusion, which is to be made here with the English embassador; which the queen hath signified to the lord resident of France and myself. Withal she added, that the English were not wanting in their projects, to have had her to have done something to the prejudice of their H. and M. lordships, and their allies and interested; but that she would not hearken to them. It is thought, that when his highness is made king, he will send an extraordinary embassador for England; and that the earl Erick will be the person, whom they will employ in that charge. He is now employed, together with the lord chancellor, about the chiefest affairs of state.
The knowledge, which they have here of the projected treaty between their H. and M. lordships and Poland, doth cause great discontent in the chiefest lords here, who say, that it is very much to the prejudice of this crown. I told the chancellor, though I knew nothing of the projected treaty, that I was confident, it was their H. and M. lordships desire to prefer the amity of this crown before any other, if they could possibly preserve the same; and that the interest, which this crown had in the East sea and elsewhere, was enough, not to have any suspicious thoughts, that their H. and M. lordships would do any thing to prejudice or offend this crown. The chancellor answered me again, he wondered to hear of such propositions; and that they should be made with demonstration of good inclination to the same. I thought fit to give you notice of these passages.
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.
Though your letters of the 24th of March, which I have received, were shorter than ordinary, yet they were full of your kindnes and favour, on the part of my lord, and on the part of my fellow servant likewise, for which I can returne nothing but my very humble thanks, and to intreate you, that although the newes will not afford an enlargment, yet I may heare from you, to know that my friends are well in England, and that they remember their servants abroade, which is the greatest comfort to us that may be. I have but little neither, to trouble you withall this week, although my letters, I confesse, have been extreame tedious, which (to those that are full of other great bussines) I doubt may have ben inconvenient; but I aske your pardon, and doe hope, that my bussines is now so much at a period, that I shall not have occasion to trouble you with the like. We have had but little done in it this last week; and the less, by reason of the queene's remove to Nycoping, to see her mother, and to speake with the prince about the resignation, which is expected here in the begining of the next month. I desired, that before her goeinge from hence, the powers to her commissioners, with whome I treated, and who are first to signe the articles, might have ben sealed by her majesty; for until that be done, I thinke not fit for me to signe the articles on my parte. This cannot be done untill her returne, and then I am promised a full and quicke dispatch; for all things are agreed upon between us, that are of weight. Grave Erick Oxenstiern and I had some conference on saturday last about my busines, to the same effect, whereof I have formerly given you the account. If it be not too light to trouble you with such a busines, give me leave to tell you, that the master of the ceremonies came to me, to invite me from the queene to a ball at court. I told him, I would waite upon her. He then asked me, if I met with any other ambasador, what I would expect as concerning precedence? I aunswered, that I understood of no other ambasador now in this court, but the Danish, to whom I was resolved not to give place. He said, that paradventure he would insist upon it, being the ambasador of a king, and I, only of my lord protector. I aunswered, that I thought the minister of my lord protector to be the same with the minister of any king whatsoever; and that his honor and the honor of the nations, whereof he is chief, and which I represent, ought to be in the same esteem now, as at any time heretofore; and that I had resolved, not to lessen it in regard of any: whereupon he said, that the ambasador of Denmark must not be then invited. I asked him, if the queene had given him order to speak to me concerning this busines: he said, Yes. I then told him, if the queene would be pleased to invite the Danish ambasador, I would be content to stay at home; but if I mett him, I was resolved not to give him the place. He then told me, the queene caused the ball to be made out of her respect to me, and that the ambasador of Denmark should not be at all invited. There was no speeches nor songs, but only dancers; and the design of it was, to shew that all worldly things are vanity. Afterwards the queene caused her chair to be set close to me, and we had much discourse together, whilst the others were dancing. I gave count Erick Oxenstiern a copy of the order, translated into Latin, concerning those Swedish ships which have been lately taken by our English capers, and which was very much in their favour; which he acknowledged, and for which I return my humble thanks. He shewed me certain letters of other Swedish masters of ships, that complain of being taken since. I told him, that at my return into England I should be in a better capacity to serve him, and to procure a discharge of their ships and goods; and to that end desired him to dispatch me to my country, which he promised to do. This evening general Wittenbergh came to visit me; and on the Lord's day the Spanish resident came to take his leave of me, which he did with very great ceremony and respect, and went early the next morning from hence on his journey. On monday I dined at grave Erick's, and my sons, and major general Potley, who were likwise invited. Our entertainment was with as much magnificence and state as I have seen, and full of civility, not a health being offered to be begun; which grave Erick told me was for my sake, else they use to drink freely. I thankt him for my great entertainment, and my liberty; and after dinner we sat a very long time, I expecting still when they would rise. At last general Douglass told me, that such was the custom of this place, that no person would stir, until I was risen. Being glad to be so discharged, I presently rose from the table; after which only the chancellor and I went into another room, where I shewed him the power given me by my lord protector, since the alteration of the government in England; and he told me, that my original commissions, according to the custom, ought to be delivered to them, to be inrolled in their chancery, and that they would also give me the originals of theirs, to be likwise inrolled in England. I told him, that my lord protector would be always ready to do what should be necessary for the farther ratification of this bussines; and that there were some other things in the paper, that I ought not to communicate; yet he himself hath seen, that I was sufficiently impowered. He desired I would cause the instructions, which I received from my lord protector, to be translated into Latin, which I promised him should be done, except that part of them, which was to be detained. He advised me to go and visit the prince, which he would take very kindly; and that it would testify a respect on the behalf of my lord protector, and cause the alliance to be the better accepted. I said, that I had resolved so to do, not in relation to the treaty, but to testify the respect of my lord the protector, and also my civilities to his royal highnes. He gave me advice in many things concerning England, with great affection to our nation, to be communicated unto his highnes at my return, and promised to dispatch me in a few days. The same day in the morning, Mr. secretary Canterstyn came to me from the chancellor with the articles drawn up in forme, with the amendments, that I might see there was no mistake in them. We read them together, and agreed all but two or three points, on which we had a little difference, viz. concerning the letters of safe conduct, and the last article for the confirmation; and he promised me, that all hast should be made in the ingrossing of them. Tuesday in the afternoon I visited the queen, to take my leave of her, before she went her journey to her mother. We spake of my busines, and she told me, she intended to return within eight days, and that I should be dispatched in a very short time. We had much discourse touching the Guinea busines, which she referred to the same commissioners, the chancellor, and his son. And those here complain as loud of injuries received there from the English, as our merchants do on the contrary. I shall endeavour likwise to bring that affair to the best issue I can. Her majesty spake many words of great respect to my lord protector and to the present government. The next day she went out of town. I sent my son James and Mr. secretary to Mons. Canterstyn, about the articles and matter of form of that part which I am to sign; but nothing could be farther done, because of the queen's sudden going out of town, which grave Erick excused to me the same afternoon; and the next morning the chancellor came and stayed with me three hours together, conferring about the articles and the busines of Guinea, and other discourse, which I must reserve until my return to England. He goes to Stockholm this day, and almost all the great lords and courtiers are gone away, so that here is a lamentable silent place. I shall be heartily glad to receive my lord's order to authorize my return: but my busines being now ended, I presume I may expect his pleasure at any other place. I purpose to visit the queen's mother and the prince of Sweden, because other ambasadors have done it, and I have been particularly invited to it. I think it will be a respect from my lord, which they will take very kindly, and it may be some strength to the alliance, and is not the less requisit from me, because our enemies informed, that none but mechanicks were of our party: but since our being here, the Swedes acknowlege the contrary. I hope within two or three weeks to be at sea; and that my God, who hath hitherto been so good to me, will give me a safe return to my lord, and to my native country; to whom I wish all prosperity, and likwise to yourselfe; and am
Upsale, 14th April, 1654.
I thinke requisit to informe you what came to my knowlege two days since, that by agreement betweene king James and the then king of Denmark his brother-in-law, after the death of those two kinges, it should be in the power of the crowne of Denmark, by paying of a sume of money, about 13,000 l. sterling, to redeeme, as they called it, the isles of the Orcades, and Denmarke to have them, according to the right which they pretended. Whether this may come time enough, or be useful to demand a relinquishment of that right, I humbly submit to better judgments. I have been likewise informed this week, that some Holland shippes are loading here with ordnance, and other provisions of warre.