A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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April (4 of 4)
An intercepted letter to Mr. Graply at London.
We have it for certain, that some of your men of war have lately taken an East-India ship belonging to Holland, called the Rose, of thirty guns; which much affrights the poor-spirited Dutch, who with much eagerness expect the return of the articles of the treaty confirmed and ratified by your gallant protector; for they have many ships now at sea, which are daily expected home. Charles Stuart hath not yet lest Florence; but his trade prospering very well in Greece, it is said he will shortly go thither.
A letter of intelligence.
The states of Holland are met suddenly together, and especially upon the points, or one point of importance, which was communicated in private, and under an oath. I am told it is, that the English, by virtue of the tenth, eleventh, and twelsth articles, had declared the lords Somersdyke, Renswoude, and Boreel, for their enemies; and consequently desiring, that they be forthwith banished. Some do also add hereunto the lieutenant colonel Henderson; others saying, that they are forty in number. But I believe this conjecture cometh out of England, from whence they write, that the son of his highness the lord protector doth embrace the interest of the king against the said protector. That which is afore-mentioned, is very incredible; and yet the contents of the tenth, eleventh, and twelsth articles will produce something.
They have not yet expedited the business of Embden, whereof the commissioners are very importune, desiring that the states would give new orders whereby to continue the raising of taxes, for the payment and maintenance of 600 men, which is in question. The earl and other members of East Friesland are against it.
So likewise they have not yet known how to explain themselves upon the act of neutrality of the states of the empire. They do think they have satisfied the said states by the publication of the peace of Munster, of which peace the 53d article is a member, without being obliged to any other act of neutrality; but the king of Spain, having obliged himself to furnish an express act, must look to the effect of it.
The lord resident Brasset went away from hence on wednesday the 29th. The lord de Beverweert lent him his yacht, or little frigat, to carry him to Encluse. He went away without any present, yet he did not exhibit his protestation.
Extract of a letter of intelligence.
You shall not now need such large extracts and papers as heretofore, since that your peace with these provinces is come to so happy a conclusion, and really the greatest blessing that ever these countries had; for they were wearied and worn out by that war, and seem already so pleasant and proud, that certainly, if they increase in it, God's vengeance must yet fall upon them. They attribute all to their own strength and prudence, and nothing to God, or to the protector, that has been so merciful to them; yet they are afraid something may happen, that might give some delay to the proclaiming of the peace, and so will be till the ratification comes, which daily they expect.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.
We received your lordships ratification, resolutions, and other dispatches, on monday last; and presently gave notice thereof to his highness, and the secretary of state; and we did every day hope to exchange the same, and so consequently to have had publication made; but first there is some time spent with writing of the ratification of this side, which was first begun after the viewing of ours, and afterwards it was hindered by reason of the caution, which we were to give in for the accomplishing of the 28th article, which we have not yet been able to perform, notwithstanding our manifold endeavours, several merchants being by us thereunto desired, making scruple, and his highness persisting to have the same done before the exchange of the ratifications; so that we have made choice of twelve persons, whom we have disposed to the thing; and we do hope, that they will give content. We have been all this morning busy to give them security for their discharge; and we doubt not but to make an end of this business within a day or two, whereof we shall presently advise your lordships. We have also received your lordships resolution of the 13th, and shall govern ourselves precisely according to the contents thereof.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the greffier Ruysch.
It is incredible what trouble and care we have had, and yet have, with the caution comprehended in the 28th article of the treaty of peace; and we must consess, that the merchants, who are twelve in number, have cause to scruple to undergo the trouble and hazard, but that their affection to the state and so desired a business doth put them upon it; and we promising to secure them on the behalf of the state, and in our own particulars. Wherefore we have delivered up to the merchants, to content them, the bond of their lordships, for 140,000 pounds sterling; and have also entered into bond ourselves for 20,000 pounds, to bear them harmless. Wherefore we desire, that their lordships would take some course to secure us also.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augier's secretary.
The cardinal Mazarin has been very sensible of the news received wednesday last, that some English frigats having met with about forty ships off St. Malo, which were going to Newfoundland, had routed them, sunk four, taken fourteen, and forced the others to return to the said St. Malo, where all the goods and merchandizes of the English had soon after been seized, and they themselves so threatened to receive base dealing in their own persons, that the governor of the city had politickly been obliged to cause them to be imprisoned, until the first fury were passed, the said cardinal having thereupon said in these proper terms, I see that Mr. Cromwell is not for us; whereof he is really so much the more suspicious, that he has for certain told the duke d'Aspajon, he has been well informed, the English have newly sent a minister here, to labour some enterprize underhand with the protestants against the kingdom, doubtless grounded upon this, that Mr. Stouppe, minister of the French church in London, has passed by here, to go to his country towards Geneva, by reason of the correspondence they pretend he had with the marquis of Cugnac: but all that hinders not the Stuarts from being always exhorted to withdraw out of this state. It is now said, that Charles and his brothers shall go into Poland, and the little queen and her daughter into Savoy; from whence we are informed, that the duke had like to have been stabbed by a man, who having been discovered, had been put to death.
Thursday the count of Rive, being arrived in Parma, to reside in the place of Mr de Villeré a Grecian, signified to him his commission the next morning, with a commissary, an exempt, and divers ushers of this city, seized upon all his goods, made him prisoner, until this court had ordained what should be done of him, to avenge an old hatred they pretend he had against the cardinal Mazarin, since that his preceding master the duke of Parma's father had forbid him from having any thing to do with the cardinal Mazarin, who has at last procured him this disgrace; having given to understand at Parma, that he could no longer suffer him here, although he is generally reputed for an honest man, wherein he is in some manner repaired. This morning he has been permitted to go forth, and walk where he pleaseth. This affectation in the said cardinal's behalf caused the said duke to be taxed with a lewdness so much the greater, that the said Mr de Villeré had served him 22 years, every one avowing, that if he had had any thing to say against him, he might have signified it unto him at Parma, after that he had called him to an account. I hear, they have found amongst his papers a letter of civility Mr. Milton had writ to him.
The king prepares himself to go next tuesday to Fontainebleau, where they are particularly to confer upon the affairs of war. It is said, the duke d'Anjou will go from thence unto the duke of Orleans, to bring him to court, if possible.
I am newly informed, that the baron of Ruvigny having this morning about nine o'clock obtained audience from the cardinal Mazarin, for the other deputies of the reformed church, they have been brought in: that first of all the marquis of Malause made a short speech unto his eminency, and that afterwards Mr Vestric, deputy of Nismes, represented their grievances with powerful reasons, concluding that, being it appeared they had been faithful unto the king, and that their enemies disorderly oppressed them, to force them to set the kingdom on fire, he ought really and speedily to procure them the justice they demanded, that according unto his majesty's edicts could not be refused them: that in so doing his said eminency might give warning unto Mr de Boucherast, and the other commissioners, to hear and expedite them; and that in the interim he would be pleased to prohibit the knowledge of these affairs unto Mr de la Vrilliere, secretary of state, that he might have no occasion to misuse them as he had done. The said cardinal answered, it was needful to hear the parties, and especially the parliament of Toulouse's reasons in the marquis of Leran's business; but as he saw, the said deputies took that for a continuance of delays, he promised them all, and did so cajole them, that if so be the deeds be answerable unto the words, they will have cause to be satisfied; telling them, that he would, amongst others, forbid the said Mr de la Vrilliere to misuse them; and that as for him the said cardinal, he had been so favourable unto them, that he was reputed an heretick in the conclave of Rome. Whereunto they answered, that his eminency could not be subject unto any reproach in mentioning only the edicts and laws, which (said they) were in France before him. He heard and spoke to them from his bed, being very sick of his gravel. As they went out of his chamber, they met with the count of Charost, who entertained a while M. de Vestric, who giving him ear for ear upon the subject of these designs, and the designs of the English, he told him to return to his government of Calais, where he would ere long be besieged; and to cause masses to be said there for their satisfaction, that they themselves might have cause to relieve him.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours by the last I received, and conveyed yours to Ratisbon, as from thence I convey this to you annexed. Your peace with Holland we are secure of in this court, but fear much your peace with France, which you write is upon treaty; but him of Portugal they value not much here, (or at least seem so to do) whether he makes his peace, or not. Greater noise is here of great matters in Scotland; but you write the contrary, or else all reports might be credited: so you will do well to write the truth of occurrents from thence.
We have not much news here at present; our preparations for the field go on, but not so eagerly, because we understand the French are very slow; and we are content almost to be as slow as they. Some talk of a peace with France to be the occasion of the delay on both sides; but I have no ground for it.
Duke Francis of Lorain will be here within two days. The archduchess sent coaches, horses, nobles and guards to meet him; and most of all the officers of his brother's army are gone to meet him; and here lodgings and preparations are made for his reception, which shall be with all due respect and pomp. He writ a letter to the archduke, desiring that marchioness de St. Croix, reputed wife to his brother Charles, and now in Brussels with the children she had by the said duke Charles, be removed by commands from that city; but the archduke desired to be excused in that particular for a time; for the lady was sick, &c. This duke Francis being next heir lawful to his brother, would have no by-blows stand in his way, lest they might pretend legitimation in any wise.
Prince de Ligne general of the horse is now here; so is the duke of Wittembergh, to assist in the council of war for this campaign. The prince of Condé is also here, and count Fuenseldagna busy likewise in that council. The first is troubled with a tertian ague.
The Lorain troops do more harm and mischief than ever, when they had their master. They kill, burn, ravish, and rob, without respect to place or persons. Their commander cannot for his life rule them, they daily running towards Lisle, Tournay, and Valenciennes; which causes the governors of the three towns to write for the hastening of the duke of Lorain to them, whom the army expects suddenly.
A paper from the Portuguese embassador.
I have order from the king my master, to give from him a visit to the lord protector, and to present him with a letter, by which the said lord the king has made me embassador in extraordinary to the serene person of his highness; of which I thought fit to acquaint your honour, that your honour may from me understand of his highness the form of the audience, and the time, wherein he is pleased to receive the letter; whereof, if need be, I will send the copy unto your honour. I have also an order, after my first audience, to visit the most serene lady protectrice.
These acts are not to hinder the answer I have desired to the articles, by the reasons I have already signified to your honour. The ship tarries until monday night, for my sake; and if need be, it shall tarry a day or two more; and it seems just, not to lose so convenient an opportunity; and so I intreat your honour to advise me, what I am to do in each of these matters. God preserve your honour's person.
Articles betweene his highnes and the Portugal, examined and compared with the articles as agreed betweene the former councell of state and the ambassador, notinge the difference made now by the sayd ambassador.
9. In the ninth article, where 'tis provided, that the king of Portugall shal not seize our men or ships to serv him in his warres, a new condition is annexed in the margent, nisi gravi intercedente necessitate, &c.
For, religionem suam observare & profiteri, atque eandem in navibus & navigijs suis exercere, he puts it thus, religionem suam observare & profiteri, eandem in navibus atque in navigijs suis exercere; and then adds this parenthesis (dummodo provideant, ne detur scandalum Lusitanis.)
By the KING.
Charles the second, by the grace of God king of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, to all our good and loving subjects, peace and prosperity. Whereas it is apparent to all rational and unbiassed men throughout the world, that a certain mechanic fellow, by name Oliver Cromwell, hath by most wicked and accursed ways and means, against all laws both divine and human, (taking opportunity through the late sad and unnatural wars in our kingdoms) most tyrannically and traiterously usurped the supreme power over our said kingdoms, to the enslaving and ruining the persons and estates of the good people our free subjects therein, after he had most inhumanly and barbarously butchered our dear father, of facred memory, his just and lawful sovereign: these are therefore in our name to give free leave and liberty to any man whomsoever, within any of our three kingdoms, by pistol, sword, or poison, or by any other way or means whatsoever, to destroy the life of the said Oliver Cromwell; wherein they will do an act acceptable to God and good men, by cutting so detestable a villain from the face of the earth: and whosoever, whether soldier or other, shall be instrumental in so signal a piece of service, both to God, to his king, and to his country, we do by these presents, and in the word and faith of a christian king, promise, as a reward for his good service, to give to him and his heirs for ever 500 l. per annum, free land, or the full sum in money, for which such a proportion may be purchased of the owners, and also the honour of knighthood to him and his heirs: and if he shall be a soldier of the army, we do also promise to give him a colonel's place, and such honourable employment, wherein he may be capable of attaining to farther preferment answerable to his merit. And because we know, that great numbers are involved in the same guilt with the said Oliver, more through his crafty ensnaring devices, than their own malicious or wilful inclinations; we do therefore freely pardon and forgive all and every man whatsoever, for all and every thing by them done and committed against our person, crown, and dignity, or whatsoever hath been by them done or committed in the prosecution of the late wars, provided that they or any of them so guilty shall within six days after their certain notice of Cromwell's death, renounce and forsake their rebellious courses, and submit themselves to our mercy and clemency; and also whosoever shall before that time upon a just and fair opportunity leave partaking with those wicked men, and declare for the just rights and privileges of us and our people, his king and country, shall not only be pardoned for whatsoever is past, but receive a signal reward, and shall be by us employed and trusted with command answerable to his quality; excepting only from this our pardon, William Lenthall, late speaker of the commons, and John Bradshaw, president of that bloody court, commonly called the High Court of Justice, and sir Arthur Hazelrigge, and no other; but all men else to enjoy the full benefit of this our free pardon, in case they perform the conditions above required. Given at Paris, the 3d of May, 1654. [N.S.]
A letter of intelligence.
Yours of the 3d of last month I received, by which I see all affairs succeed prosperously with the lord protector. The pope inquireth much after that busines; and secretarius de propaganda is very willing now to receive a visit from me every week, to discourse of the state of the protector, and the dominions in protection; and I am sure he makes report thereof to his great master.
The Spanish embassador here, duke of Terra-nova, has reduced the pope from the violent torrent he was in for France, so that now the king of Spain may present bishops in Catalonia, but not the king of Portugal in Portugal, nor no embassador to be received for him here, which are great news.
Mr. R. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
The shipp with masts is allmost loaden. I waite your order, if to send her away upon notice of the publication of peace, or stay for a convoy. This pacquet will tell you, my lord ambassador hath finished his affaire at Upsale. I expect his lordship heere within twenty days, supposeinge ships will be hasted heither for his transportation.
There is one George Ralegh a seaman writes to me from London by the last post, that
upon his late landinge he was made a prisoner by warrant from the council of state, as one
that had beene abroade in the service of Cha. Steward, desiringe my testimonie of him,
in regard he was lately heere, and returned hence for England. All the knowlege I
have of him, or can say for him, is, that he came hither from the shipp James, captain
Curral, a private man of war in the states service, lost upon the Danish coast; and
amongst other of the seamen, which escaped shippwracke, he was heere relieved by the
English company, and sent home. I shall not trouble you further, presumeinge your
next will speake the returne of the expresses, with the ratification; and that I shall in
tyme have some answer from my lord protector, or yourselfe, in the busines of Waites,
that the insultings of that party may cease, at least abate of the height they are at, by
this senate's so releasing of Waites to pleasure them, who with a crew of desperate fellowes lurkes neare this cittie, expectinge (as they say) an order from England to
command me to readmit him. I remayne, Sir,
Hamb. 25 April, 1654.
The agent for this citie, Mons. Peterson, hath writ a letter to the senate, which (as I am told) makes them very sad. They have been in councill all this day about it; but I cannot learne what the bussinesse is. You write not of it: only the report goes, the Dutch have done them some ill offices, and would exclude them the treaty.
The president of the protector's council to the commissioners for managing the affairs of Ireland.
His highness the lord protector and his councell have conceived it most advantagious to the publick service, that the escheated lands of the rebells of Ireland, lying within the four counties of Dublin, Cork, Kildare, and Catherlough, reserved to the use of the commonwealth, should be let at present for no longer a term then from year to year; and have thought fit to impower you so to let the same, and not otherwise, till other order shall be given you in that behalf . . . . do hereby signify unto you at . . . . that in disposing of the said lands . . . . proceed accordingly.
Mr. Will. Cooper to secretary Thurloe.
Being for a little time to goe into the country with my wife, I waited on you to take my leave; and not finding you stirring, I left the inclosed. I have by mee a booke taken from a Dutchman this last yeere, and in that language comprizing all the ports, rods, rocks, sands, and accesses of the gulph of Mexico, from the entrance to the Bahamas; what course you must steere from place to place, together with the exact degrees of longitude and latitude of each place, which things have not bene in the English tongue described by any. How farre this may contribute, I submit to you and others. Sir, in your choice of captaines and others, you must be sure to choose as many as you can, whose bodyes have been used to the heats of those and such-like climates; else you may meet with great obstructions in the service. Among others I recommend unto you one captain Shelley, who hath bene in all the late fights, and tooke the Morning-star, and sundry rich prizes. He knowes most of the American coasts, and hath bene South beyond the Rio de la Plata. This man was commended to general Desborough by general Monck at his going for Scotland, as a usefull man in any sea service, and hath a new frigat conferr'd upon him.
Sir, captain Henry Powel of Ratcliff was roving in the Mexican gulph from top to
bottome, with his brother, near the space of two yeeres, of whom I gave you former
notice. I have noe more at present, but desiring the Lord to bee your sun and shield, to
26 April, 1654.
Col. Robert Lilburne to secretary Thurloe.
Your inclosed to Mr. Ellis was sent according to the directions as you desired. There hath bin no newes from colonel Morgan; only foure scattering parties are going from several parts of the hills, who doe adde to Middleton's number. Colonel Cobbet with a party from St. Johnston and Dundee, on monday last, gave a handsome chace to the lords Montross, Dunloppe, Forrester, and major . . . who had got a rabble of about 500 horse and foot together upon the Breas of Angus; but they fled several miles in fight of our men, divers of them leaving their arms behinde them. Yesterday Malcombe Rogers, (who had bin a great agent between Charles Stuart and Glencairne) being before condemned by a court marshall, was hanged at Edinburgh for a spy. He dyed very resolutely, confest hee had lately murthered one of our soldiers betweene Edinburgh and Curstrophin, and that he had a hand in burning the hay at Leith. I remayne
Dalkeith, 27 April, 1654.
Protestation of the states of Utrecht, &c. against the secret article.
The lord commissioner of the province of Friesland hath upon occasion of deliberation held about the act of publication to be made of the peace concluded with the commonwealth of England, exhibited to the assembly, and caused to be read, a certain written declaration; and desired, that the same might be registred amongst the publick notes of their lordships, as the same standeth here inserted verbatim.
The present lord commissioner of the province of Friesland, having seen the articles of peace lately agreed and concluded between the commonwealth of England and this state, with the ratisication thereof, done the 19/29 of April, doth agree and approve of the same, as he doth hereby; and that consequently the publication of peace be made upon such a day as shall be appointed thereunto, except notwithstanding, that the said lord commissioner doth disagree herewith, and protest in the name of the lords his principals, against all that hath been privately treated and contracted between the commonwealth of England and the lords states of Holland and West Friesland, contrary to the dear-bought liberties, and the concluded union made between the commonwealth of England and the United Provinces, and tending not only against the prejudice of the lord prince of Orange, whose glorious predecessors have deserved so well of this commonwealth, as also their successors; but also to the disrespect and disreputation of the state, yea to a perpetual disparagement of kings, princes, commonwealths, and potentates.
The said lord commissioner doth declare the same null, and of no worth nor value, and not to engage herein in no-wise the right, authority, and sovereignty of the lords his principals, but rather to preserve the same; that so at any time these exceptions and reasons against that may be produced, as occasion shall serve. And he doth likewise understand, that the lords extraordinary embassadors be forthwith sent for to come home, to give an account of what they have done and negotiated, without any order from their lordships.
Whereupon being debated, the provinces have desired copies of the said declaration, which is herewith granted to them; and the lords of Holland do undertake to refer what hath passed upon this subject to the lords their principals.
The lords commissioners of Zealand, having taken notice of the matter and protest of the lord commissioner of the province of Friesland, do also declare and judge, that such private resolutions, or the negotiation of the province of Holland and West Friesland, especially concerning a point of such great importance, doth differ in the matter and form against the express command, order, and intention of the lords their principals; so that they do also find themselves necessitated to protest and disavow all such separate and private resolutions and negotiations: and besides they do reserve to take such farther resolutions or signing, as their said lords principals shall think fit.
The lords commissioners of the province of Groningen, having heard what had passed yesterday in the assembly of their H. and M. lordships, that the lords states of Holland had tied themselves by a private negotiation with the commonwealth of England, never to confer the charge of stadtholder upon the lord prince of Orange, or any of his successors, of the province of Holland, nor ever to give their provincial vote for his capt. or admiralship of this state; and having considered, that the project of secluding the said lord prince of Orange and his posterity out of all the said charges made by the government in England in the last year, 1653. was then judged by all the provinces to be an unjust and unreasonable demand, and consequently declared by all in general, not to be accepted of, but was rejected; and instead thereof the proviso mentioned in the treaty, and concluded on, with express prohibitive command to the lords embassadors of this state, not to inlarge themselves beyond the said proviso: therefore, all these things rightly considered, the said lords commissioners do declare, that all such private, separate, and underhand resolutions and negotiations, are repugnant to the union and express order of their H. and M. lordships, of the 19th February, 1654. being done without any apparent necessity, and the consent of the common confederates; and therefore they do hold, by virtue and force of the said union, the same for null and of no value, and in the name of the lords their principals do expresly protest against it.
An intercepted letter to sir Walter Vane.
If you make haste over, you may get your arrears; here are divers examples: if here should happen disorders, you would lose all; 'tis not without danger. Here is passed a secret article, which causeth great rumours; five nobles and seven towns refused it: it is now brought to the states general, who like it not. I dare name no particulars; it is about the house of Orange; you will hear it from others. This day the peace was proclaimed.
Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
This week's letters, both from Ingland, Holland, and other parts report, the peace is concluded betwixt the two commonwelthes, (as also with Denmark) which maks men here the more wonder at the great sea-forces now preparing in Ingland. I was told yesterday by an Itallian, that 'tis advised from France, the said forces are desyned for Civita Vechia.
His hyghness the great duke intends the Duch shall giv reparation to the Inglish merchant in this place, for the ship with currants, by them taken and sunk in this port; to
which end the great duk has sequestred two of theyr ships. Here ar no more states
men of war in thes seas, I mean ships in their publick servis; however there is not a
Duch merchant ship but has privat commission to tak our ships; whereof they hav bin
advertiz'd, and that they should keep in port, 'til the peace be published. Three Malta
gallyes departed yesterday with a new gally the great duke has built for them; also two
of the duk's gallis departed with merchandic for Palermo fair; which being delivered,
they then go in chace of Turks towards the coast of Barbary. I am,
Leghorn, 8th May, 1654. [N. S.]
Beuningen, the Dutch embassador in Sweden, to the states general.
The queen returned to this city on monday last, after she had taken her leave of my lady her mother at Nicoping, and of the prince of Sweden, who was there then at that time. They had several conferences concerning affairs tending to the management and direction of the kingdom; and amongst the rest, of what had been negotiated with the English embassador, which was communicated to his highness. It is said here, that an extraordinary embassador is to go from hence to England, with full instructions to conclude a firm and near league with England hereafter. The said English embassador maketh account to depart from hence the next week, and hath acquainted his domestics as much. I shall likewise begin to make ready for my departure, now I have leave from your lordships to return home.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Messieurs de Hollande ont assermenté tous ceux de leur assemblée homme pour homme de tenir secret une chose, qui leur seroit proposée, voire meme il leur est defendu de ne dire pas, qu'il y a un secret, ny qu'ils ont presté serment, si que le discours, que les Anglois auroient voulu, qu'on chassat tels à tels d'icy, qui sont leurs ennemis, cela n'est rien.
Ceux de Hollande en estant admonesté dans les estats generaux, ont asseuré l'assemblée, que ce secret ne touchoit que le Hollande, point la generalité, & qu'il ne contenoit rien au prejudice des autres provinces.
Toutesois j'ay bien apprins tant, que cela touche un reglement, ou quelque sorte d'instruction generale pour tous ceux, qui comparoistront dans l'assemblée des estats de Hollande, estant remarqué clairement, que le sieur Reuyl pensionaire de Harlem, le sieur Wevelinckhoven pensionaire de Leyden, le sieur Schagen pensionaire d'Alcmaer, ont des intelligences aveque la princesse royale, ou sont de son conseil. Et puisque l'on sort maintenant d'une si perilleuse guerre, & qu'on doit avoir dessein de bien conserver la paix & union aveq l'Angleterre, on veut mettre ordre à ce que par les passions & interests d'aucuns particuliers membres ou autres la dite paix ne soit troublée, ny donnée occasion & subject aux Anglois de se servir en 10, 11, 12 articles.
A Amsterdam a esté divulgue, mais aussitost supprimé, certain livret nommée schippers pratie, un dialogue, ne contenant qu'un invective contre la paix, disant que comme Cromwell avoit fait tuer son roy, de meme les Louvestainsche (designant par cette sorte toutes ceux de Hollande, qui ont tant esté portés a la paix, & qui ont tant travailles pour icelle) avoient empoissonné le dernier prince. Mais au reste ce livret estoit sans artifice, & sans realité. Toutesois ceux d'Amsterdam ont fait grande & estroite enqueste contre cela.
L'empereur aura fort mal prins les attentats de Koning smarck dans le duché de Breemen, à la barbe de tout l'empire & des estats de l'empire assemblées a Ratisbonne en une diete solemnelle, & contre les decrets de l'empereur & des estats de l'empire, si que l'empereur aura non seulement resolu mandata inhibitoria & avocatoria, mais en a commendé & envoyé les executoriales aux membres des cercles de la Basse Saxe & de Westphalie.
L'on ne veut presque asseurez, que le grand secret proposé & juré dans les estats de Hollande, est un article secret entre la Hollande & l'Angleterre, par ou se promet l'exclusion de la maison d'Orange & de Nassau, hors des employs de general. Cela (vray ou faux) eschauffe grandement le peuple au moins les . . . . . . ., & je crains qu'il causera du bruit.
Comme desja aures veu, l'assemblée de Hollande a esté singulierement occupée par l'acte ou article secret touchant le prince d'Orange, & cela a esté le grand secret, qui a eté proposé, & dont on à tant parlé, a favoir, que la Hollande promet de ne l'admettre point à aucune charge de general ny le prince ny ses descendents.
La plus part des villes aussitost y ont consenty: toutesois Haerlem, Leyden, Alckmaer, Horn, Edam ont contredit. Des dix nobles les 6 ont esté consentants, à savoir Brederoode, Opdam, Wimnum, Duvenvoorde, Vandermyle, & Merode. Wimmenum avoit un peu varié, mais en sin fust consentant. Schagen avoit premierement promis de consenter, mais en apres contredit aveq Beverweert, Noortwyck, Warmont. De Warmont, puisqu'il estoit de la maison de Wessenaer, & catholique Romain, on s'estonne; les autres s'estonnent grandement, que Brederoode si proche allié ait esté le premier, qui a consenty; mais on luy aura donné des persuasions, que son soleil luyra plus qu'auparavant. Opdam, Merode, Vender Myle, Duvenwoorde, Wimmenum, en effect doivent toute leur fortune au prince Henry; mais quand la division & faction se loge en une nation, on ne regarde qu' à se fortifier pour le present.
Ceux qui le plus ont poussé cest affaire, s'excusent par la necessité; que c'a esté un faire le faut; que sur la sin le protecteur a produit cest article; & aux ambassadeurs de Hollande seuls, que sans cela il n'a rien voulu faire, ny passera la ratification: & sur ce qu'on dit, que le 2 Hollandois l'ont fait sans connoissance du Frison, ils disent, que le sieur Jongestal in aura sceu quelque chose.
Les partie d'Orange parlent haut, estants aussy les plus nombreux dans estats de generaux, que specialement le sieur Beverning auroit fait contre son serment, son instruction, & sans aucun sceu ses principaux, qui sont les estats generaux, point ceux de Hollande; que pourtant ils veulent retracter la commission de tresorier general, qu'ils luy ont donnée, voire qu'en un estat bien reglé on luy devoit occuper la teste; mais les autres alleguent la necessité, que le sage doit temporiser; que le temps changera tout; que le gouvernement en Angleterre se changeant (comme l'on se persuade); & que les montaignards en Escosse auroient des grands avantages; & que l'Angleterre plusieurs sois a esté reduit par les Escossois, ce secret article ne sera qu'un grand rien somniumque; que mos gerendus est Thaidi, & par ce moyen l'on taschera de complaire & d'appaiser le mieux qu'on peut les courts & les . . . . . . . Le conte Guillaume se demonstre aussy grandement fasché, quoyque d'autres ne le croyent pas d'autant, que la maison de Nassau n'est pas exclue, ains seulement le prince d'Orange.
Icy s'est commis quelque desordre sur le Kermis les années passées; voila pourquoy l'on y sera venir 3 à 4 compaignies à pied & à cheval; & aux mousquettiers de la garde est donné du plomb & du poudre.
Les villes de Haerlem, Leyden, Delf, Rotterdam, Gorkom, Alckmaer, Hoorn, Enckhuysen, Edam ont contredit à l'article secret touchant le prince d'Orange; mais quand le raet pensionaire dit, que sans cela le protecteur ne ratiferoit pas la paix, les 5 villes abandonneront leur contradiction; mais Haerlem, Leyden, Enckhuysen, Edam ont continué & ont protesté à l'encontre.
Mais du depuis voyant, que le protecteur avoit desja ratifié le 29 Avril notoirement, devant que la resolution approbaire de Hollande sur le secret article pouvoit estre venue à Londres, l'on presume & croit, que ce secret article n'est pas venu du protecteur, ains de ceux de Hollande.
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.
The queene was pleased on tuesday last to tell me, that a Hamburgh shippe was lately taken and brought into England, wherein were divers goodes belonging to her majesty; as wearing apparell for herselfe, and liveryes for her servants, and other things peculiarly belonging to herselfe, which she sent for out of France; and sayd merrily, that she must wear her olde cloths still, unlesse my lord protector would give command, that they might be delivered to her commissary Mons. Bonneale. I promised all diligence to procure the delivery of them to Mons. Bonnel; and told her majesty, that my lord would be very ready to give his commaunds in this perticular, especially considering a ladye's clothes, and her servants liveryes, which could not be spared. This day one of her secretarye's brought me the inclosed paper, by which you will know the shippe, and the parcells which belong to her majesty; and I doe most earnestly intreate you to move his highnesse in it, if there be cause, or to procure by other order a speedy discharge of those goods, and delivery of them unto Mons. Bonnel, which will give the queene great contentment; and for the parcells, I have them from the queene's own mouth, and attested by this inclosed paper under the secretarye's hand. I am the more concerned in honour in this busines, bicause it concerns her majesty's person; and this reason, I hope, will prevaile elsewhere from
Upsalia, April 28. 1654.
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.
The French resident, visitinge me, was very inquisitive concerninge the agreement betweene us and the Hollanders, wherein I told him what my last letters informed me. He said, the Dutch agent had as yet noe newes of it; and then he desired particularly to know that which concerned the kinge of Denmark, which I believe he did a purpose to tell the Danish ambassador and the Dutch resident, and I informed him accordingly. About nine a clock in the eveninge on the Lord's day, the queene returned hither; I believe she made the more hast, havinge promised me so to doe, and hath not to the present broke her word with me. Munday I waited upon her to bid her welcome home; she excused her long stay, and that I should now be delayed noe more, but that she would forthwith dispatch my busines. I aunswered, that neither the chancellor nor his sonns were as yet returned. She assured me, they would be both heere the next day, and that the day following, the articles might be signed; and for that end, she had made all the hast she possibly could to be heere. Tuesday grave Erick Oxensterne sent to informe me, that he was come to towne, of purpose to dispatch my bussines, and that he was to be at court with the queene in the afternoon, where I mett him; and the queene sending for me into the bed-chamber, we fell to discourse of my busines, and she told me, that it was very fitt, that the articles might be signed to-morrow, and that I should have my audience presently after; and that she would give order for all things to be in readines. Accordingly afterwards, speakinge with grave Erick in another chamber, he seemed to be of the same opinion, and told me, that his father would be here to-morrow, time enough to sign the articles. I replyed, that I doubted he would hardly (by reason of his wearines) be at leisure. He said, there would be nothing of trouble, more than to sign and seal, all other matters being in a readines.
Wensday I had much discourse with him, and on thursday my lord Lagerfeldt came to me in the name of the chauncellor, and told me, he was returned hither on purpose to dispatch my busines. I aunswered, that I was obliged to him for that favour. He desired my secretary might meet with M. secretary Canterstine, to examine the books, that in the evening they might be signed. After dinner, I sent my son James, and my servant Earle, with the articles and papers thereunto belonging, to M. secretary Cantersteyne; where they examined the articles, and mended those faults, which were committed in the writing of them, and all was prepared for the signing.
I was well contented with the delay of signing the articles the last week, because I
was desirous they might be communicated to the prince, which the queen did in her late
journey; and my lord chancellor told me, that his royal highnes did very well approve of
them, and expressed a great desire of a strict amity and alliance betwixt my lord protector and this crown. I likewise, having received no letters from England by the post
yesterday, was contented to seal the articles this morning (fn. 1); for if many days longer
should have been intermitted, they could not have been signed at all; because, upon
tuesday next, the rix-datt or parliament here is appointed to meet; and within two or
three days after their meeting, the queen intends to resign the government, and it will be
some time after, before the prince be crowned. I must bestirr myself, or else I shall not
be able to dispatch the necessary ceremonies here of my publick audience, to take my leave of
the queen, and the many visits, which I am to make at my farewell, according to the custom
of this court, whereunto I am to conform, in regard of the honour of my lord protector,
and of our nation; for I was never amongst any people, where they did more insist upon
matters of state and civility, than they do here; and whosoe neglects them, is censured
for a mechanic or a boor. I intend from hence to go to the prince of Sweden, to
salute him from my lord protector, which in my judgment will be a necessary civility
for me to perform; and divers good friends have told me, that the prince himself, both
expects and desires to see me; from whence I purpose to go to Stockholme, where I am
to take shipping for Lubeck, and from thence to Hamburgh, where I shall attend his
highnes's farther commands, or some ships for my transport into England, which I
earnestly intreat you to procure to be sent in time. I hope, before my going hence, I
shall receive his highnes's order, which I long since writ for, concerning my return; but
howsoever, my business being effected here, I presume I may, without displeasure
to his highness, be upon my return homwards, and the rather, because upon the change
which is shortly to be here, my commission will be at an end. It is reported from good
hands, that the queen intends, after her resignation, to go to the Spaw, which I have
cause to believe. In those parts, they say, the king of the Romans will wait upon her;
but that I doubt. Her majesty hath shewed extraordinary assection and respect in her lat'e
discourses with me, as well as formerly, towards my lord protector; and the chauncellor,
and grave Ericke his sonne, and my lord Lagerfeldt, have likewise expressed great
regard to his highness. I shall hope, before your answer to these letters can come to my
hands, to be near England, and to be so happy within a few weeks, as to have an
opportunity to give you a more particular account of these affaires from
Upsale, 28. April, 1654.
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
I HAVE sent you heere inclosed some letters, which came to my view uppon the occasion of an unexpected providence, and hath here a very deepe resentment among some good men, as indeed I thinke there is just cause, if what is alledged therein be true. Though I am satisfied, that my lord protector's heart abhors, that any disturbance should be given to any good people whatsoever; yet indeed I look uppon it as a duty uppon you, to beare the utmost witness against these peace-breakers; for certainly the enemies of our spirituall as well as civill peace, doe much boast and hope for an advantage against good men; and the sooner that spiritt be crushed, the more shall we discharge our duty to the Lord, and those that fear him. There is some sadnes on good people here, because of such reporte. I know it will much trouble our dear lord protector, that any under his government should thus insult. There are some precious good people in Wales, though very few: the generality of people in those parts, I fear, are little better than the Irish: they have invenomed hearts against the wayes of God, and we very well know, were the forwardest and greatest promoters of the king's interest in the time of war, and therefore ought particularly to be looked after. I doe earnestly desire you will make inquiry into this busines, and to take care, that sober, good men may be put into the magistracy there, and that you would get a troop of horse or two, to quarter in North Wales, and the like in South Wales, to suppress the cavaleering spiritt. I did endeavour at the dissolving of the general council, to give satisfaction as to such practices, how much contrary they are unto my lord; and I beleive we are all satisfied of the tendernes of his spirit to all peaceable good men. The officers are now gone to their charges, I hope with very good satisfaction on all accompts. I wish the busines of Ireland were settled, and be sure, we may have none but sober, godly men in commission; the sewer at present, the better, I am sure. I haveing a character, shall write more particularly of this to my brother Cromwell, to whom I shall refer you. I am lesse satisfied with some mens being in, who were in nomination, when my brother was here, than I was at that time. I am
Phenix, 28th April, 1654.
Ratification of an article of the treaty between the protector and the states general.
Cum in tertio articulorum pacis, unionis, & confœderationis initæ, stabilitæ, & promulgatæ inter serenissimum dominum, dominum protectorem reipublicæ Angliæ, Scotiæ, & Hiberniæ, & dominos ordines generales Unitarum Provinciarum conventum sit, quod omnes injuriæ, sumptus, & damna, quæ pars una ab altera pertulit post 18/28 mensis Maij, anno 1652. delebuntur atque è memoria eradentur, eo modo quo neutra dictarum partium alteri negotium facesset ob aliquod istiusmodi damnum, injuriam, aut sumptus; sed omnis & cujuscunque eorum perfecta erit hunc in usque diem abolitio, omnesque eo nomine lites actionesque cassæ nullæque erunt, exceptis iis deprædationibus, quæ in maribus Britannicis committentur post spatium duodecim dierum, atque intra maria Britannica & promontorium sancti Vincentis post spatium sex hebdomadum; & inde in mari Mediterraneo, & ad Æquatorem usque post spatium decem hebdomadum; atque ultra Æquatorem, post spatium octimestre, à publicatione pacis numerandum, vel immediatè post sufficientem notitiam pacis in dictis locis factam: & cum de prædictis verbis quæstiones nonnullæ forsitan oriantur, quæ litibus & disceptationibus ansam præbeant; præfatus dominus protector, & præsati ordines generales, quo omnis coritroversia tollatur, quæ occasione alicujus in prædicto articulo contenti accidere poterit, unanimi consensu convenere & conclusere, atque his præsentibus declarant, omnibusque & singulis popularibus & subditis suis respective palam saciunt, quod immediatè post tractatûs pacis promulgationem, quæ jam facta est, omnes hostilitatis actus ubicunque in omnibus locis in dicto tertio articulo expressis, & ubique alibi cessabunt; & quod omnes deprædationes, damna, & injuriæ, quæ ab una parte contra alteram facta ceu commissa fuerint, post quartum diem Maij stylo vet. proxime sequuturum in quibuscunque locis, quorum in prædicto articulo mentio facta est, vel alibi tam citra quám ultra Æquatorem, in rationum reddendarum tabulas referentur, quæque ablatá erunt post prædictum diem Maij sine aliquâ formâ processûs restituentur; necnon & damna inde nascentia compensabuntur. Et quo stipulatio hæc & conventio magis innotescat, utraque pars eandem in jurisdictionibus & territoriis suis publicabit; & navibus suis bellicis, aliisque, tam quæ in portu, quàm quæ super mari sunt, eandem observare firmiter mandabit. In cujus rei fidem & testimonium tam domini commissarii celsitudinis suæ, quàm legati extraordinarii prædict. ordinum uniti Belgii, præsentes hasce manibus suis propriis subsignârunt. Actum 28° Aprilis, stylo Angl. anno 1654.
Jongestall, to his excellency William Friderick, earl of Nassau, &c.
Yesterday about eleven of the clock in the forenoon, the peace was proclaimed before Whitehall, Temple-bar, Paul's church, and the Old Exchange. That same day at night the guns went off at the Tower, and aboard the ships three times; and bonfires made, according to the customs of the country, before Whitehall, and up and down the city. We did the like on the back side of our house, towards the river, and burnt near eighty pitch-barrels, and we had trumpeters and others to play all the while. The river was so full of boats, that there was hardly any water to be seen; at the same time several lords and ladies of quality came to see us, whom we treated: in sum, all things were done here in great solemnity. God Almighty give his farther blessing to this great work! Yesterday at noon we were invited to dinner to his highness the lord protector, where we were nobly entertained. Mr. Strickland and the master of the ceremonies came to fetch us in two coaches of his highness, about half an hour past one, and brought us to Whitehall, where twelve trumpeters were ready founding against our coming. My lady Nieuport and my wife were brought to his highness presently, the one by Mr. Strickland, and the other by the master of the ceremonies, who received us with great demonstration of amity. After we staid a little, we were conducted into another room, where we found a table ready covered. His highness sat on one side of it, alone; my lord Beverning, Nieuport, and myself, at the upper end; and the lord president Laurence and others, next to us. There was in the same room another table covered for other lords of the council and others. At the table of my lady protectrice dined my lady Nieuport, my wife, my lady Lambert, my lord protector's daughter, and mine. The music played all the while we were at dinner. The lord protector had us into another room, where the lady protectrice and others came to us, where we had also music, and voices, and a psalm sung, which his highness gave us, and told us, that it was yet the best paper, that had been exchanged between us; and from thence we were had into a gallery next the river, where we walked with his highness about half an hour, and then took our leaves, and were conducted back again to our houses, after the same manner as we were brought. I cannot write any thing certain from Scotland. Some say, the king's forces are strong, and multiply; others say the contrary; but I believe, that since Monk remaineth there, there is something to do there. I am confidently told, that the lord protector and M. G. Harrison do understand one another very well, although the last doth keep in the country; yet that he may suddenly come to some great place of honour. It is certain, that the lord Whitelock is expected here within few weeks.
Here was such rejoicing at the peace, that the like demonstrations of joy were not shewn at the coronation day of king James, nor the last, as I am told by some old merchants. My lord protector shewed a great deal of kindness to my wife and daughter in particular.
A letter of intelligence.
It is so longe since I have heard from you, that I cannot know how interests or inclinations stands; and therefore had forborn writing, till the return of an expresse, which I have long intended to send. I could have been better informed, but the present importance of what I have now to say, hath caused me to run this adventure, least he, whom I shortly may send, shoulde come to late to prevent what will speedily bee attempted. There is gone from hence lately colonel John Garet *, a little man, whoe was hurte by the Portugalls in the exchange, and with him one major Hallsy, whoe kill'd Mr. Ascame, and divers others, with an intention to kill the protector, and divers others. One way they propose, is, to atempt it in St. James parke, and escape out of one of the private dores. Other wayes they have, which I cannot * * * * They have another designe in the citty: the earl of Oxforde is to be the chiefe. You may easily shuffle some into this drunken * * * * may discover all. Garet resolved, when he parted hence, to wait upon the protector, to disguise the design. Many are going privately * * * through England into Scotlande. Be carefull of Newcastle. Let not the councell sit, where they did, but let them remove unperciviably, not as though they suspected any plot; for that will * * * * * a friend, from whom I have the advertisements, or to make * * * * find some means to search the chambers under it, least * * * * bee brought in. Have a care of Fitz-James, whatever he pretends, but seem not to suspect him; that will destroy one, that thinkes me * * *, and upon that account is free with me. You are wise * * * to frame pretences for to look into, and prevent * * * without seeming to suspect them, which * * * * I think not sit to mention at this tyme will ruine all; but ere long I shall know all, as soon as things are ripe. In the mean tyme * * * vigilant and secret. Fitz-James is gone hence yesterday, to undertake to discover some of your correspondents * * * * the protector * * * * * * * nor know the author, but the protector and * * * as you tender frends and business, much may shortly be done for you, and more discovered. I am,
For Mr. Thomas Scot, at his house at Lambeth, London, these.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.
Here inclosed we send your lordships the act of explanation of the third article of the treaty of peace, whereof we made mention in our letter of the 8th of this month to the lord greffier, which we out of several respects did think, not only serviceable, but also highly necessary, for all merchants, masters, and mariners, that through the uncertainty of distrusts and times they might not remain in a perpetual, or at least a long disquiet and trouble, and besides the trouble that would have been had to have gotten the ships discharged again after they are taken, to the great prejudice of your lordships subjects, and the state in general. Withal we took notice of your lordships order, to cause all acts of hostility to cease, as soon as it were possible, which we think we have now fully accomplished; whereof we desire your lordships approbation, which we have done to gain time. We have given here security, that your lordships will cause this act of explanation to be likewise published on your side; which is promised to be done here very suddenly.