A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
May (1 of 6)
Form of additional instructions unto the captains of ships of war, in pursuance of his highness's proclamation of peace between England and Holland.
Whereas by our instructions given unto you in the month of last you were authorized and required to take under your command the ships and to direct your course, either to the Massachusets bay in New England, or to Pequott harbour, Newhaven, or other good port within any of those united colonies, and by such ways and means as you are directed by those instructions, endeavour the surprising or taking by open force the Manhattoes and other places there, in the possession of the Dutch: and whereas since your departure hence there is a peace made and concluded betweene this commonwealth and the United Provinces of the Netherlands: wee have thought fit to give you speedy notice thereof, and to will and require you, as we doe hereby, to desist from that designe and undertakinge aforesaid, notwithstanding any thing contained in your former instructions, received from us or the commissioners of the admiraltie. And for your future deportment, you are to observe such other instructions, as you have received, or shall herewith or hereafter receive, from the commissioners of the admiralty and navy.
Mr. Richard Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
The last week's letters were all broake up by the way neare Brussels, by thieves, as the post-master faith: Amonge them I found yours to my lord Whitelocke, with severall letters to his followers, which I gave covert to, and sent forward; but I suppose his lordship will be come thence ere the post come on, as doubtlesse this pacquet tells you. I likewise found yours to myselfe, being glad the ratification was come, and past the seale. It's good news heere, where it was currently reported, the peace was quite off.
If the French newes be true, a squadron of our states shipps have lately met with and
taken a fleete of sixty saile of theirs, going from St. Malo to Terra Nova. Such banges,
and their fear of the Spaniards shuttinge them out, will make them mend their pace towards you. The shipp is now laden with masts; but as yet I have not your order,
whether to send her away upon the first news of the publication of peace, or to
stay for a convoy. I suppose shee may come alone, without danger; if I must stay
for a convoy, there will be demurrage required within a few dayes. I should be glad
to heare of colonel Morgan's good successe against Middleton, who had so much the
greater strength; but the issue lyes not in the odds. Our rock is not as theirs, themselves being judges. I waite to heare somthing from my master or yourselfe, touching
this senate's releasinge of Waites in such a manner: which is all at present, referring you
to the inclosed paper for what hath offered since my last. I am, Sir,
May 2. 1654.
Mons. Barriere, agent for the prince of Condé, to secretary Thurloe.
According to your honour's directions, I take the boldness to trouble you with the narrative of what happened to me this morning. A while since, having been desired to give way, that a French gentleman, who had some business to treat here, might have a lodging in the same house, where I dwell, I did it so much the rather, that I intended not to protect any man against the course of justice, but only to enable a man to make an end of his affairs, both to his own content, and to the satisfaction of those he had to do withal. And had I received the least intimation from his highness or his council, I would have been ready, rather than to transgress their order, to deliver the gentleman into such hands as they would have commanded me. Now the thing being thus, this morning, as I was hardly half dressed, without any complaint or intimation given me, I heard some rushing in of men into my house; and having inquired into the cause, I heard, that a company of men, led by a Frenchman, were got into the house, as intending some force. Thereupon, in the posture I was then, I went up stairs after them, and without any violence from my part, being unarmed: but having stopped the sword of one of them, he presently drew a pocket-pistol, and fired it upon my breast; but by a good luck not taking fire, I got not the harm intended against me. By that time the Frenchman, who was their leader, having slid away, the rest confessed, they were drawn by him, under pretence they were to take a man in a private house. I kept the men for a while; but perceiving they were misled, I gave them leave to go. Now I make bold to represent unto your honour, that it is very unlikely, that four men should be able to take forcibly a man out of a house, where about five and twenty men are all able to draw sword, and make resistance; so I cannot but think it a design, either to murther me, as often threatened, or at least to force me to do something, which afterwards should bring me to some inconvenience here; both which God in his providence hath prevented. I do not represent these things as by way of complaint, but leave it to his highness's consideration to judge of it, as in his wisdom and justice he shall think meet. I almost forgot to tell your honour, that I had so much the more ground to admit the said gentleman into my house, that coming from Madrid, he was earnestly recommended to me by Mr le comte de Fiesque, who is there from the prince of Conde's highness, who in this occasion doth receive an affront in my person. I crave your pardon for this importunity, and assure you I am ever
Covent-garden, 3 May, 1654.
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
The London letters are this day come, but I receaved none from you; so I have not much to trouble you with at present. You seeme to rellish the peace better than these; for by passengers lately come from Ingland, 'tis reported you have publisht it, and given thankes for the same, which is not yet donne here. What the policy of the governors is in that, I knowe not; but I am sure 'tis expected by the commonaltye, whoe scarsely belive yet the peace is concluded, being 'tis not proclaymed. This daye there is some more satisfaction given them, there being a paper printed, which gives notice, that hostilitye ceases in all parts the 4th of May, stylo Angliæ. We have many merchant-men lye ready in Texel and Vlye, for severall parts, but no convoys yet granted for any place. To the last petition the merchants put up to the admiraltye of this towne, answer was given, they would grante none before the 15/25 of May. I presume, uppon the newes of the hostilitye holding up, they will take new resolutions. There are four courts of admiraltye in the provinces, viz. one at Amsterdam, one at Rotterdam, one at Middleburg, and one at Horne and Enchuysen: these courts dispose of the men of warr for convoys, as they thinke convenient. The states trouble not themselves about it, and there is never any resolution by any of these courts, how many shipps to give for convoye, before the masters and owners of the merchant-men petition; so as I cannot give you an account, how many men of warr will be employed that waye. I shall be able to certifie you, how many they keep in service, so soone as there is a settlement of the navye, which will now be reformed. Tradinge yet revives little: men are still in doubt, whether the act of trade remaynes in force, and how they shall regulate themselves concerninge trade to the Barbados; whether the Duch intend to drive a great trade, and eat out the Inglish. I know there are some disaffected persons to the state of Ingland, whoe are intendinge to get pasports for shipps to goe from this place and Hamborough to the Barbados, and returne; so that you may please to exammine the persons, whoe seeke it, except trade be free for those parts. The malignants have news, that the Scoch and Inglish have ingaged, and 3000 kiled on the place; but the Scoch kept the field. I hope by your next to heare the contrary. They have many well-wishers in these countryes, and some here are apt to assist them. One William Davidson, a Scoch merchant in Amsterdam, is very active for them, and hath and is still assistinge Middleton and his partye. He hath many correspondents in London: whome they are, I cannot yet learne. I have sent my friend a bill, on Mr. John Upton, for 7 l. 10 s. which I beseech you to order payement of, and you will oblige
14/4 May, 1654. [N. S.]
|Charges going to Rotterdam, Hellvoetsluys, and Zealand||4 0 0|
|Charges into North Holland||2 0 0|
|Paid for wach-mony, taxed by the towne||1 10 0|
|7 10 0|
By the commander in chief of all the forces in Scotland.
The commonwealth of England having used all means of tenderness and affection towards the people of this nation, by receiving them (after a chargeable and bloody war) into union with England, and investing them with all the liberties and privileges thereof, (purchased at the expence of so much blood and treasure) and by daily protecting them with their army and navy at a great charge (of which this nation undergoeth no more than their equal proportion with England) against their enemies both abroad and at home, whereby all of them might enjoy the fruits and benefits of peace; yet divers lewd persons, broken in their fortunes, and dissolute in their lives, are run into rebellion, who being assisted and connived at by their parents, brethren, tutors, masters, and people, among whom they live, who secretly conceal them in their houses in the day-time, and in the night suffer them to rob and plunder the country, whereby the peaceable people of this nation are many of them ruined, and the rest disturbed, so that they cannot live in peace. And to the end that no peaceable means might be left unattempted for the prevention thereof, I, by virtue of the authority to me given by his highness and his council, do declare, that all such persons, that are now in rebellion, (except such as are excepted in the acts of grace) who shall within twenty days after the publication hereof come in, and submit him or themselves to the governor of the next English garison, and give good security for his or their future peaceable living, shall be, and is hereby in his and their persons freely pardoned for any offence, spoil, or plunders, committed by him or them in this present rebellion, and the killing of any person, in cold blood only excepted. And I do declare, that if any parent, brethren, or tutors, who have assisted or connived at any their sons, brothers, or pupils, now in rebellion as aforesaid, shall within twenty days after publication hereof cause their said sons, brothers, or pupils, to render themselves, and give security as aforesaid; that then the said parents, brethren, and tutors, who have so offended, are hereby freely pardoned; but if otherwise, then the said parents, brethren, and tutors, who have so offended, shall be impirsoned during the time the said persons do remain in rebellion. And in regard divers persons, who are now in rebellion, and have lived remote from their friends, but could not probably break out in rebellion, without the knowledge or consent of some of the inhabitants of that parish or presbytery, where he or they last lived before their breaking forth; I do therefore hereby declare, that if the said parish or presbytery, where he or they last lived, procure the said person or persons so broken forth, to render him or themselves within twenty days after publication hereof, and give security as aforesaid, that then the said parish or presbytery, so offending, is hereby pardoned. But if otherwise, I do hereby impose upon the said parish or presbytery two shillings and six-pence a day each horseman, and ten-pence a day for each footman, so broken into rebellion, over and above their ordinary sess out of the said parish or presbytery, which the governor of the next English garison is hereby authorized to levy and receive monthly, during the time the said persons shall so continue in rebellion. And I do likewise hereby impower all the good people of this nation to apprehend all such person and persons, as are, or hereafter shall break out into rebellion, or attempt so to do, and safely to deliver him or them to the governor of the next English garison; and in cafe of resistance, to take such weapons as they can get, and to fight the said person or persons; and if they shall kill any of the said persons so resisting, they shall not be questioned for the same; but (on the contrary) shall receive, as a reward of their good service, all such moneys, goods, horses, and cloaths, as the said rebellious persons are then possessed of, besides full satisfaction for their pains and travel therein. And in regard this present rebellion hath been principally contrived, somented, and is now obstinately maintained, by major general Middleton, the earl of Athol, the earl of Seaforth, viscount Kenmure, and major general Dayel; I do hereby therefore declare, that what person or persons soever of this nation (except such as are before excepted) shall kill any of the said principal contrivers, or shall deliver any of them prisoner to any governor of any English garison, the said person or persons so killing, or bringing prisoner as aforesaid, shall not only be pardoned for any thing he or they have acted in this rebellion, but also shall receive, as a reward of his good service, the sum of 200 l. sterling, for every person so killed, or brought prisoner as aforesaid. And lastly, for the encouragement of all peaceable and well-affected people, both English and Scots, I do also hereby declare, that what damage shall be done to their persons, goods, or geer, for their good affection to the public, the same shall be again repaired out of the estates of such as have done the damage, or out of the estates of the friends and harbourers of such wrong-doers, or out of the parish, presbytery, or shire, where the wrong is done, in case they do not apprehend the said offenders, or give the English forces such timely notice thereof, that the said offenders may be apprehended by them. And I do hereby require all provosts, bailiffs, and chief officers of head burghs, in their several burghs, to cause these presents to be duly published and posted up according to the usual form, and to certify their doings therein to me in writing, under his or their hands.
Monsieur Petit to Monsieur Augier.
Those of the reformed church in general do openly feel the great effects of heavenly Providence, by the power and authority God has given unto my lord protector; and the particulars among them do see well their business therein, that the cardinal Mazarin (who had mistrusted the marquis of St. André de Montbrun to be of intelligence with the marquis of Cugnac) having been overjoyed to see and found him, as he passed by Fontainebleau for his government of Nivernois, the said cardinal hath received him with all possible civility, insomuch that he would never speak unto him, unless he sat down and covered himself, although his said eminence was then in his bed something ill disposed; praying him, that he would not put away his regiment, giving him the half-part of the money he would receive of it; viz. four thousand crowns to be taken upon his said government, with promise of the first employment that would present itself, and the first marshal of France's staff, which should be given for a reward and acknowledgment of his long and faithful service; whereof the king was so sensible, that he would cause the survivance of the said government of Nivernois to be granted him for whom he pleased, if so be he himself had no children to inherit it; desiring also to do something, and demanding what could be done for his brother Mons. de Villefranche. The said Mons. de St. André received with much thankfulness and respect the graces the king was pleased to do him by his eminence, to whom he also remained much obliged; and naming the marquis of Montbrun's eldest son, whom he loved as his own, for the said survivance, Mons. de Montbrun did yesterday shew me his joy thereof, so much the greater, that it was unawares, avowing that all these favours came, after God, from my lord protector, for whose prosperity those of the reformed church had cause to make continual prayers; it being very probable, that by that means the consequence of his recommendation would procure them all satisfaction. The wisest of them do much desire an agreement between his highness and France, promising themselves, that in the treaty his said highness will cause some clause to be put therein for them in general, which would settle their happiness, desiring not that the business should come to extremities, judging that would not be to better their advantage, nor that of England; but rather so to balance the things, that the weakness of the present government of France may last, whereof both England and they would draw all the advantage, which could be imagined in this conjuncture, if so be all be guided with address, and that his said highness hath always his staff in hand, it being to be feared, left the said cardinal be followed by a stronger and more courageous one, which might give more pain.
Our English merchants of St. Malo do daily expect their expeditions for the restoring of their goods, whereof I have delivered a memorial of the decree unto Mons. le count de Brienne, and I hope to have some speedy order from the king, to suspend the sale of the ship the Thomas until better.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
The marquis of Malause and Mons. de Vestric, deputies of the reformed church, after they had made their speech unto the king at the said Fontainebleau, who answered them, that they had to be constantly faithful, and that he would protect them; and after that they had also received there confirmation of the promises made unto them by the cardinal, with many new civilities from his eminency; they are again returned unto Mons. de Boucherat, one of the commissaries, who gave yesterday full satisfaction, parties heard, unto the said Mons. de Vestric, upon four demands of the city of Nismes, there remaining but one of them to be agreed, which is that of the hospital, which the papists of the said city will have, furnishing to the protestants wherewithal to build another for their poor; whereof the said Mons. de Vestric has thought fit to write to them before yielding thereunto. He has vigorously contested with the said Mons. de Boucherat, so far as to have clearly told him, that they would tell them yes, or no, do them speedy justice, or send them away without any more loss of time.
There seems to be some jealousy in court against the duke of Vendosme, since some meeting he hath had with the duke of Beaufort his son; and there is still much talk of the king's consecration, which nevertheless will not be done, except it be to cover some design.
Yesterday most part of this court went to St. Dennis to celebrate the king's memory, whilst his majesty, who is never in those doleful occasions himself, recreated in the said place, as he doth still.
The parliament of Paris had resolved to make a remonstrance unto the king, upon the subject of the exiled syndics and payers of rents; but the chancellor hath told the deputies of the company, that his majesty held them for heard, although he had not yet heard them; wherewith those gentlemen are much vexed, as being an answer quite extraordinary.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours are constantly received, by which great quietness appears with you after the peace with these provinces. It is not so here, but much to the contrary. The deputies of the province of Friesland, in the name of their principals, entered their protest the eighth instant, in the assembly of the states general, against the secret article touching the prince of Orange; reserving to their said principals what they should judge sit farther to be done thereupon in due time and place. The province of Holland alone signed this article; and the four cities (I gave to you in my former) of the said province would not sign it. That day, in the assembly of the states general, hot and provoking words passed upon this business, and the minds of the people much exasperated daily about it, that Holland alone would offer to do it; and the embassadors being indifferently sent from all the provinces, highly condemned for going against the rest of the provinces, alleging not only præter, but contra instructiones; and therefore some of the provinces, in their protests, would have the embassadors recalled, to give account of their negotiation in England. The rest of the provinces are the more incited, that the protector is to assist them of the province of Holland against themselves, contrary to the union, oath, &c.
The provinces of Guelderland, Zealand, Utrecht, and Groningen likewise, the day following, protested against the said article touching the prince of Orange, in open assembly, reserving likewise to their principals, to do further therein in due time and place. In all the protests the embassadors are condemned. The copies you shall have per next, and should now, had I thought it were necessary for you.
The two princesses of Orange, mother and grandmother to the young prince, now declared themselves in the matter, and presented to the states general a remonstrance against that article, setting forth the great and faithful services of the prince's predecessors, and such like. It was received in the general assembly, and the copy of it was represented to the states of the province of Holland; but they would not receive it. In sum, one would think, as matters go now, it were impossible to avoid a civil intestine war in these provinces; but the sury of the people may be over, and so all quiet after some noise, if the incendiaries of the Orange faction let the people be quiet.
This has been the fair-day here, and more fairly ended here than was expected, being occasioned by the severe and prudent commands of the estates of this province to avoid tumults, their woeing and winning the officers not to take part with the prince of Orange; but all this hindered not the officers and soldiers to shew all acts of honour and affection to the young prince of Orange with many salutes and volleys of gun-shot; as also to count William of Nassau, exceeding, in that, the orders they had, not to come near the prince's palace.
Another piece remarkable happened to count Brederode, near kinsman to the little prince, and commander in chief of their land forces; who having been discovered to sign among others this article against the prince, and therefore suspecting the soldiers and people's affections, desiring to gain them to do him such honour as they did to count William of Nassau, sent to every company of the soldiers a hogshead of wine. Most accepted it, and some would drink none of it; but when Brederode came after to them, hoping that he had won them by wine, not one company did salute him, or do him honour befitting; which was much noted by most here. Thus the day fairly ended without farther harm.
They do not stick here openly to say, that were it not, that they understand great bonfires and acclamations of joy were made in England, and to answer them in some measure, they would do neither here the day appointed for it.
Notwithstanding all this, next week a day is appointed for all the provinces to proclaim this peace; they that protested, reserving to their principals to do in due time and
place, as they should find just and fitting, touching the said secret article against the prince
of Orange; so that the province of Holland is like to carry it, for all is said; but I cannot
say but some troubles may arise. It is well you are all quiet there. But I can tell you
news from Scotland, as the cavaliers write and report here, though you say nothing of
it (as I believe you have reason); the English are totally routed, lost most of their garisons, and the Scots now upon the borders of England with 20000 horse and foot. Many
other particulars they spread. Your exact account of affairs in Scotland will do you
service; so, if you please, give it here to, Sir,
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The states of Holland do find themselves very much troubled and perplexed with the secret article; for the other provinces do disapprove of it. Those of Holland would make them to believe, that (on the one hand) the protector did constrain them to it; others, yea some of Holland themselves, say, that it is done in revenge of that, which the deceased prince of Orange did attempt against Amsterdam and the states of Holland in the year 1650; and that the said states are concerned to fortify themselves by the protector. On the other hand, the states of Holland do excuse themselves, saying, that they do all that they can to recal or recover the promise or act sent to the protector, having sent an express for this purpose into England; and it is said, that madam S. hath certified, that the protector is well enough pleased with the young prince. Mr. Doleman should have said the like. The lord protector's envoy of Switzerland hath also said the same, that being required, he doth offer to return into England; and he is persuaded he shall be able to prevail with the protector to restore and quit this act and secret article. And the six provinces do speak, that they will write to the protector, that they will fortify themselves, and be responsible for the young prince, that when he cometh of age, and that he be chosen to the charges and offices, he shall as carefully observe and keep the peace, as Holland can do. At the same time the six provinces will write to the embassadors to countermand them, to declare them incapable, and to proceed against them, and the like.
The states of Holland are gone to their own houses for eight days. The three companies of horse, and one of foot, that were to come hither, are countermanded; for it is conceived, that that will cause more harm, and more trouble and disturbance, than it will do good; and the trained bands have promised to keep such good order, that all shall do well; and that they shall not need to fear any harm will be occasioned by the fair, as long as they take the care thereof upon themselves. And in the mean time, the magistrates have forbidden, by found of the bell, the drinking of any wine and beer before in the streets; and the head officer Pauw hath sent for the steward of count William, and forbidden him to suffer any to drink before the palace of his excellency; for there it was, where the greatest disorders were committed these two last years. After what manner the princesses of Oranges have made complaint against the secret article, is to be seen in the inclosed; as also after what manner the most part of the provinces have already declared themselves. And the protector having ratified the 29/19 of April, before he had seen the ratification of the secret article, that doth cause suspicion and jealousy here, that Holland did it without any constraint, yea, with gladness of heart.
Two envoys of Muscovy had audience on saturday last, presenting withal seven pair of sables or furs. They did signify, their emperor had resolved to make war against the Polanders; but coming to the assembly one after another, each having a letter, they kissed them three times, and bowed as often down to the ground; afterwards they presented their letters, and being asked what they desired, they made no other answer, but referred themselves to the letters, which were in their own language, and not to be understood by any there; so that hereafter we shall know the translation. These two envoys had a dispute, who should enter first into the assembly, which they would have had this state to have decided; but they cast lots for it. One of them is to go into France, and desireth letters of recommendation from hence to that king. The other promises to declare, that they will not consent to give any presents to these envoys, unless Holland will consent to give one to Mons. Brasset.
The Muscovites have had a second audience, wherein they said, that the king of Poland had so highly affronted and done so much wrong to his imperial majesty of Muscovy, that the meanest Muscovite would not have taken it. They presented a book in folio, three fingers thick, in the Polish language, containing the particulars of the wrongs, injuries, and affronts.
In what manner they made here the notification of the peace, is to be seen by the inclosed. On wednesday the thirteenth, arrived here an express from the embassadors in England, with letters of the tenth, containing the act of explication upon the third article, and the publication thereof made, whereupon they resolved to do the like here, as they have done. Men do perceive, that till now they did conceal from the third embassador the secret article, which the two first embassadors have made with the lord protector; whereby the Orange party do speak here more and more with open mouths, calling it a bastard production, which Holland alone out of marriage, viz. (the union) hath gotten by the protector, or the protector by Holland, presupposing some promises and reciprocal conventions to be passed between themselves. Those of Holland are patient, and do dissemble as much as they can, supposing that time will allay and sweeten it; and that the sweetness of the commerce and peace will lull asleep these unquiet and almost threatening discourses. But Orange party will not be quiet, and they do speak very ill of the lord of Brederode, because he was the first, that did consent to the secret article; and he will have a sound chiding from the princess dowager.
I perceive, that those of Holland will endeavour to overcome all this through patience, being persuaded, that Zealand, although they are for the Orange party, will never dare to offend the English much. Some of the Orange party do not stick to call those traitors, that did procure the convention of this private article. And there are some that speak, that the six provinces ought by plurality to chuse at present the young prince for captain general, and count William for lieutenant general; that that is practicable, only that it would be done out of order, wherein the plurality hath the precedency. In the province of Overyssel, there are also great divisions for the election of the lord Haersolte in the charge and office of drossart of Twent. There are six members in Overyssel, whereof four are for Haersolte. Twent and Deventer are against him, and say, that the election is made by unjust and Unlawful means. Twent and Deventer are for Holland. Zallant, Vollenhoven, Campen, and Zwol, are for the Orange party; but I believe, that the other four obtain their ends in it.
The commissioners of Bremen have not obtained any thing here yet, but good hopes; but the emperor hath began to thunder mightily against Coningsmark; so that I perceive the design of that siege doth grow cold. The embassador Joachimi, aged 93 years, lieth a dying at present.
I see, that not only some city in Holland, but also whole provinces will make scruple
and difficulty to publish the peace, and will not make any bonfires nor demonstrations of
joy. I rest
15. May, 1654. [N. S.]
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.
On saturday last, beinge with the queene, I told her, that I hoped she would very shortly be pleased to give me audience, that I might take my leave of her, and returne for England; to which she said, that on monday next she would resolve me. I understand that the towne of Gottenburgh hath a designe to sende their syndick into England, there to propose some things for the advantage of trade betweene the English and that towne. Tuesday the master of the ceremonies came to me in the eveninge from the queene, and desired me to have patience for a little while; that she expected the coming of the prince hither within six or seven days, whereby I might have an opportunity to visit him in this town, and that she would give me audience two or three days before his arrival here. Wednesday, grave Erick Oxenstiern and I had much discourse of the busines concerning the Guinea company. He shewed me the answer to the complaint of the English company. I desired to have it to consider of it, which he promised to send me. I observed to him, that the complaints of the English were proved by depositions of witnesses. He answered, that was in the absence of the other party; and that if I pleased, they would produce witnesses on the behalf of the Swedes. I then desired him to take notice, that what I produced was in the affirmative. He thereupon shewed me a map of that part of Guinea, where the Swedes, English, and Dutch plantations were intermixed, and very near one another. I told him, that the king of that place had given a grant to the English, to dwell and traffick there, excluding others; and that afterwards the Swedes had by force put them out of their castle and possession. He denied that, saying, that their fort was no other than a little lodge with two chambers; that the Swedes had not at all forced them away; and that as many Hollanders as Swedes were planted in that place before any grant given to the English; that the Swedes had a grant from the same king, the copy of which he shewed me. I desired to compare the date of both the grants, and a copy of his grant for that purpose, which he promised to send me. This night such a quantity of snow fell, that covered the houses and the country, which was very rare to the English, but ordinary here at this season of the year. On thursday senator Vanderlyne, and the master of the ceremonies, and divers professors of the university, and others, being at dinner with me, did express very much respect to his highness, and all wonder what the intention is of our great fleet at sea. Being abroad to take the air, and on foot, I perceived the Dutch resident's coach coming in the way where I was; and before he came near me, he made a stop, and lighting came towards me. I went likewise to meet him; and after we had saluted each other, he told me he was happy by the oppertunity he had to salute me, though in that place; and he would suddenly give himself the honor of visiting me at my house. I told him he should be very welcom, whensoever he pleased to do me that favour; and I was glad of his acquaintance, and of the occasion of it. Our discourse was concerning the conclusion and ratification of the treaty between the two republiques, and of the advantage, that would redound to them both, as also to all the protestant party, with many other words to the same effect. As we were together, the queene passed by; and seeing us, was pleased to salute us, and said, she was overjoyed to see us together; that now she saw the peace was made.
This evening I received those letters, which I thought to have received the last week, this week's letters not yet being come to my hands. This day being friday, the queen desired my company to take the air, and discoursed much concerning our fleet, and that notwithstanding the peace was concluded, yet she heard, that the Hollander prepared a great fleet, and that it was thought ours and theirs was to join together upon some design, whereof she was very inquisitive. I told her, I believed the preparations were before the peace concluded, in case it should not have taken effect; that I knew of no design, and had been out of England about six months; that I thought my lord protector would take care for the guard of the seas, and farther I knew nothing.
I find her majesty begins to be troubled about the great business of her abdication, as to the settleing of it; but it's thought that within a few days it will be effected. She was pleased upon May-day to do me the favour to take a short collation at her Vacherie, about a quarter of a Swedes mile from this town, where I treated her and her company after the English fashion, which I perceived she did desire, and seemed highly pleased with it. This evening, after I returned from the queen, Mons. Beuningen, the Holland resident, gave me a visit with many compliments and expressions of joy for the happy conclusion of the peace. He told me, he was commanded to return to Holland, and hoped to have his last audience presently after mine. He lives here in very good fashion, and seems to be a civil man. I am every day in expectation of my last audience, and was contented to have it deferred 'til after I have received this week's letters, that if any commands should have come to me therein from my lord, I might have been in a capacity of performing them, which I could not have done, in case my last audience had been part. I have sent you no copy of the articles, because I hope to bring them myself, almost as soon as you should have received them otherwise.
Sir, It is a great comfort to me, for which I blesse God, that although I am att this distance, yett my friends doe not forgett me, as I find by your kinde letters of the seventh of Aprill, and by his highnesse instructions there inclosed, and by the order of the councell concerning the great seale. I doe acknowledge with humble thankfulnes unto his highnesse and to his councell the favour and confidence towards me, wherein, through the goodnes of my God, I shall not sayle them, but be faithfull, as long as I live, in my duety and service to him. The papers concerning the ship Charity are of great use to me, and the articles with the Dutch. The queene desired them of me, to compare them with those, which she received from Holland; and now they beginne to say, that England hath made a good treaty, and very honnourable. I doubt that 224 will be deceived among some, whom 22. 16. 21. trusteth. My 7. 11. 18. 3. 15. 40. is often asked by 16. 59. 17. and I speake truely and faithfully, yet with all respect to 227, whome every body highly commendeth.
I am often ill, and so sickly, that I dare not write it to any body else but yourselfe,
least it should come to my wife's knowledge. If it shall please God to bringe my crazed
carkas home againe, I shall not be able sufficiently to expresse my thankfulnesse for the constant reall favours, which you have bestowed uppon
Upsale, May 5th, 1654.
To the right honourable council sitting at Whitehall.
The commissioners for managing estates under sequestration, sitting at Haberdashers Hall, do humbly represent, that the commissioners for London have certified them of an arrear of three thousand pounds, or thereabouts, due for the rent of a house belonging to the marquis of Winchester from the Spanish embassador, which hath been formerly demanded of him; but the said embassador refused to hear of the same from any committee, or to give his answer thereupon to any other than to the parliament or council of state. This hath been made known to the then council of state, during the sitting of the late parliament about two years since; and they were pleased to take some time to consider the same, but never ordered any thing therein, as we have heard. We therefore thought it our duty, to present the same to your honours, humbly submitting it to consideration, by whom, and in what manner, a further demand thereof shall be made; and whether your honours shall think fit to give any order herein unto us.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
The court so lately arrived here gives me obstacle to write much at this time; but by the next ordinary I shall be free and large with you. Is it possible, that there is no fleet from England upon the coast of France? I am sure, daily intelligence comes to this court from several and far distant places of this land, of English formidable fleets, though your letters say nothing of it.
The terror of Cromwell (for so they call him most here) is such, that naval armies are multiplied by the senses of the people, who apprehend strange accidents coming, and the court itself not otherwise; but C. Mazarin's juggling deludes most as yet.
Pimentelli his secretary and kinsman was here, and nothing done, I can assure you, as to any truce. The secretary must first to court to Madrid, and after no great appearance of accommodation, whilst Mazarin reigns, who dares not but at least to dissemble a willingness to the general peace, though he intends nothing less.
Mons. Bordeaux's last letter to count de Brienne has brought no great satisfaction; but I hear, Mons. de Baas his letter to cardinal Mazarin's secretary has brought much, that it seems Bordeaux knew not of: wherefore it is conceived, that they work apart, to see who shall merit most.
R. C. intends for Scotland, if the business shall go well; and first into Germany to receive his alms, and Hamburgh intended for his seaport; but as I gave you in my former, till the success of our treaty with the protector be known, he will stay in France.
There is one of the O Sullivans here, gone with a small frigat into Ireland, loaden with arms and ammunition, to see if any party be in arms of the natives; and if so, to give them what they have; if not, to return. The frigat went from Nantz.
I need not tell you further of St. Malo's, because I know, the English there concerned
can give the best account of it. The parliament of Bretagne appears in the matter, and
little redress to be expected in this court, more than bona verba. No more at present,
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Having received yours by the last post, I have not much to return in answer; only what follows. Our parliament do continue always their frequent assemblies concerning the rentiers of the town-house, to which the first president promises to do what he can possibly, as if it were his own proper interest. Our embassador writes from thence, that his treaty goes on with his highness the lord protector, of which he has good hopes within a short time it will come to an end, to the advantage of both states. Sunday last the duke of Vendosme went to Suraisne, where he met his son the duke of Beaufort, and besides, about twenty coaches of six horses each. After they dined, were in a long conference together, he and those that were in the coaches, above three hours time. What may be the subject of it, is not yet known; only thought it was desiring his son to advise the duke of Orleans to come to court, of which no appearance. When Vendosme was to depart, Beaufort desired him to tell his majesty and the queen, he was their true faithful servant, and that he would die so; as for his coming to court, that he would never do it, whilst one man should be there, meaning the cardinal. Upon that they departed; Vendosme came hither, and from hence next day to Fontainebleau, and Beaufort returned to Annet.
The eleventh instant, Mons. marquis de Bougy, lieutenant for the king in Candale's army in Guienne, arrived here from Bordeaux, and presently went to Fontainebleau, where he signified to the king, that two great English vessels were near the Garonne not far from Bordeaux, which the people of the country did much apprehend they would be soon landed; since which time, I hear the king writ to his embassador in London, that his highness might be pleased to send passports to some French ships there about Bordeaux, laden with salt and provisions for Normandy. What his highness will do in it, we expect shortly; but in the mean time, seeing no war is declared, it's hoped he will not refuse to give the said passports.
We do hear, the intendant of mademoiselle is in court, to see whether she could prevail for herself near his majesty, that afterwards she might advise her father to do the like. She is not going to Dombes, (as it was said before) but rather she was within ten leagues of Fontainebleau, when the king was there lately.
We have now certain fresh news from Alsace, that the count of Harcourt has deceived us in fine; and whilst he was in treaty with us, he was in like manner with the enemies, as with his majesty of Spain, of whom he received for himself in hand five thousand of livres, besides three musters for the garison, and all the debts he oweth in them parts. He has put in the town of Brisac a Spanish garison, and is governor himself of the place; but Mons. de Charlerois is master still of the castle. They say the king of Spain will send him six thousand men to gain Philipsburgh.
Last wednesday at night, his majesty and all the court arrived here. The cardinal being well in health, would not delay any more at Fontainebleau. Thursday in the afternoon the king and cardinal went to Bois de Vincennes, where they be as yet; but will be here this night. His majesty has invited the pope's nuncio, and all the public ministers here, to be ready against saturday next to go to Rheims in his company to the coronation; and they say he will not return hither afterwards, but go to the wars. We hear the enemies are in the field already in several places, which might hinder his majesty's voyage; of which more by the time.
Here arrived from Brussels, monday last, a gentleman, that belongs to the princess of Falsburgh, that lives in Brussels, who says, Lorraine is still in the castle of Antwerp; and that his intendant had only licence to visit him. He says also, that they made an inventory of all the goods the said Lorain had in Brussels, both moneys, precious stones, &c. which comes to a million of livres. He can himself, he says, dispose of what is necessary for himself and his nearest friends, but not otherwise. However he says, he may be lost in the end; for there are no hopes of his liberty. Prince Conti obtained from the king, that he should have for his lieutenant general in Catalonia Mr. Marquis de St. André Montbrun.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours of the 8th instant I received, and conveyed yours to Ratisbon, as now I do from thence the annexed to you. Your news are contradicted here; for divers letters from London bring, that your army is defeated by the Scots, and I cannot yet persuade here the indifferent to the contrary; but your next letters, I hope, will force them to it.
Your peace with Holland we grant; but here is a strong report, and divers letters that bring, all the provinces but part of that of Holland be discontented at the peace; and some tumults, with a civil war, like to be in those provinces. Time will let us see what it shall be.
Your great preparations for the seas, and your sheathing of ships (as they call it) is subject of discourse to all your neighbours; and every one is jealous, variously discoursing of the design, that might be; but none knows more of it; nay the United Provinces are not free from fears.
There is a new declaration set forth by the archduke, of the imprisonment of duke Charles of Lorrain, not to be in any ways to the prejudice of the house of Lorrain, or any descending from thence: the copy you shall have by the next. Duke Francis of Lorrain, now commander of his brother's army, is to send his second son to the court of Madrid, in testimony of his sidelity to his majesty of Spain. When duke Francis arrived in Brussels, (as you had formerly) the archduke, meeting him half a league off, gave him the right hand in his own coach; where also he caused to enter his two sons. After entrance, they supped together, and duke Francis had also then with much civility the right hand, they after the German fashion continuing for four hours at it. Next day count Fuensaldagna complimented the said duke Francis as embassador extraordinary from the king of Spain. Cond´ was not there then, but at Ternurin, three leagues off; it is thought to avoid disputes about precedency, which happened so ill betwixt him and duke Charles, when he was at liberty.
Prince palatine de Sultzbach, that was arrested in Namur, when D. Charles of Lorrain was committed, sent a gentleman hither to duke Francis, desiring his highness to procure for him his liberty, and to be continued in his place of general of the horse, as he was before to his brother's army. The duke promises to serve him to his power.
The prince of Condé I heard say within these two days, that count de Harcourt tandem has made his agreement with the king of Spain, and now declares for him; but in the archduke's court we have it not yet.
Here are very great preparations for the field, as much as have been in these latter years: most of the foot are already in the frontiers, to be in twenty-four hours warning together; and money is yet wanting, for many bills of exchange come from Spain, are protested in Antwerp by the merchants: but we hope to be full of moneys shortly. The last letters from Spain bring, that the two West Indian fleets are in their way, the richest that have been these many years. By computation, the king may have in them, besides the merchants proper goods, thirteen millions of ducats. The whole fleet, being about sixty fail, are expected about the middle or latter end of June next. The body and force of our army here this field, as near as I can gather, shall be 30,000 horse and foot; 18,000 foot, and 12,000 horse; the archduke's army of 14,000, the prince of Condé's 1000, and the duke of Lorrain's 6000. What their first design shall be, I do not know; nor have I much to tell you more, but that I am, Sir, Yours.
An intercepted letter from Paris.
My dear heart,
YOURS of the 27th of April is the first I had from you this month; the last post brought none. I wonder you make mention of the short letter I writ, and not of all the long ones I sent before. I should be sorry they should fall into other hands. I am glad of Ashburnham Dab's kindness; it is what I did not deserve, when he had an opportunity to make it more satisfactory and useful to himself. I am also glad you sent an express with the bills of exchange. I have not yet heard of him, nor from him, nor do not desire to do, lest when all this house know it, O Nele Mack be not blamed for divulging of it. It is certain, the Scots king goeth hence; but when, he cannot tell you himself, though it seemed that others do, that write thither. The reason of the uncertainty is, because the money for his journey is yet in the cardinal's hands. He hopeth to get it, before the king of France leaves the town, and goes to be crowned at Rheims, which will be ten days hence. He propounds to himself, ten days after he hath received it, to go hence directly to the Spa, where there will be a world of great persons this summer. The queen, with the duke of York, go with the queen of France to the coronation. Prince Rupert will take another way into Germany: he is much unsatisfied with his master; but the impartial say, the wrong is on his side. Till I hear whether this comes safe, I will add no more.
An intercepted letter to — Williams, alias Croxen.
I HAVE received your letter and kind advice, which I am resolved to follow. If there be no other way to obtain my leave for coming over, there is nothing more easy than to obtain such recommendations from hence as I desire; but all the question will be, if that will take any effect with the protector? I am counselled by my friends here, to see what answer will be given to my lord of Buckingham, who hath gone this way to work, and to do accordingly afterwards. In the mean time, I pray, sound some of your acquaintance, such as you believe may rightly inform you; for my crime is not so great as his, by many thousands a year. I write likewise to sir Kenelme Digby, with whom you may consult. I believe him to be my friend. I pray send me word, if by your means and your friends I may get half a score strong mettled geldings or horses over; if it could be by sir Kenelme Digby's means: we are told he is in power to obtain any reasonable thing.
An intercepted letter.
I Receaved yours of the first of May, together with the inclosed from my good cosen, to whom I shall desire you to conveigh this inclosed. I hope your next will give me some comfort of a peace likely to be betwixt my lord protector and this crowne; for then we shall not with any remorse looke backe on those halcion days of the middle of the last king's raigne, when wee had peace with all the world, and foe free and plentifull a trade into all countryes. I find much propension in the cardinall to have friendshipp with his highness. Here is great preparations for the coronation of the young French king; which solemnitie is to be performed about a fortnight hence at Reimes, where is kept the sacred and pretended miraculous oyle, with which the kings of France use to be made sacred. Your care in sending the inclosed, is all at the present from,
I WROT to you in my last, to change the lame nagg, which you say is not for my use. If you cannot, and if you know readily where to have a found gelding, or mare, or stone-horse, if you can procure the money, buy him at any good price, and come away presently with them all; for the nagg, though not sitting for servise, will sell well here, because young. Our journey is deferred for three weekes longer, by reason of the coronation of the French king. Pray be of good courage; foe let your comrade; for I dare assure you of good trading, and quick; but you must keepe this private, for feare our market should bee forestalled. If my wise send you some monies, which she will speedily, returne it by Mr. Lucy; it will be for Mr. Jackson. What you lay out in a horse, send me word, and you shall have it by the next post returned. If you have receaved Mr. S's monies, take it thence, and returne the rest. Make hast; let me heare when you set out of London, and Arthur shall be at Deipe; soe direct them to Mr. Broughton at Mrs. Goddard's in Deipe, at the king of England's head. Make hast; make hast. Adieu.
An intercepted letter from the same person.
I Returne you thankes for your kind acceptance of that small token, which I understand by yours of the first of May, that you have now receaved: but I must confess, that letter of yours was more acceptable to me for the good news, which it brought me of your good success in your physick. And that it may perfectly restore your health, which it hath, as you tell me, in some measure repaired, shall ever be the constant prayers of,
Pray present my duty to my aunt, and my love to my cosens. Excuse my hast.
I doubt not but my goods will at last come safe to me, our journey being put off for three weekes, by reason of the coronation of the French king, which is to be solemnized at Reims about a fortnight hence. I have taken order with my London friend, for the conveighing of monies to me, which will be very seasonable. Present my [Car. Stuar] servise to Mr. White, and be both assured, that in my opinion my cosen Will. Jackson was not in a better way of trading since his father's death; therefore let all his friends be comforted. I have delivered your inclosed to Mr. Edwards. I cannot tell if his multiplicity of busines, occasioned by Mr. Edg: sickness, will permit him to send an answer by this post. Dearest, I know not what to say more, but to let you know, that the promised box shall be shortly sent. God of heaven bless thee and thine with perfect health, and grant a speedy joyful meeting to us; which is the earnest prayer of thy owne,
The knight and J. S. kiss your faire hands. If they are not soe, I shall thinke my receipt ill bestowed. God bless Robin and Mall.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The ratification came with the last post, and was published the day following at the Hague and several other parts of Holland. The stay of it, so long as it did, had like to have spoiled all; for the states of Holland supposing, that the delay proceeded by reason of the instance, that was made by the protector for the exclusion of the house of Nassau from having any thing to do in our government, did in their full assembly, by one voice, exclude the said house for ever. The next day, of nine opiniatring cities four were brought over; so that five only, and most of the nobility, did not assent. The rest of the provinces, hearing of this resolution, protested highly against it; Zealand. Friesland, and Groningen urging they would perish rather than be guilty of so much ingratitude, as to cast off that family, by whose virtue and conduct they were what they are. Both the princesses remonstrated to the states general the services the princes of Orange had done to the country, and how by such an exclusion they rendered those, that had best deserved of them, more obnoxious than the poorest citizen in the country, who wanted not the right of pretension to the greatest charges; and much to this purpose. The whole country began to mutiny; infomuch that Brederode, Opdam, and de Witt, who were the chief among the excluders, have been since to compliment both princesses, and to excuse their forwardness by the necesiity of the times. There is an express sent with letters, to moderate the protector's animosity to the house of Nassau; but some of the wiser fort think his highness too generous to urge such low things, and think, that all this proceedeth from the Lovestein lords, in revenge of their detention by the deceased prince. Hague 16 May, 1654. [N. S.]
The elector of Brandenburgh to the states of Holland.
Our friendly salutation and affection in the first place, noble, great, mighty lords, good friends, and neighbours. We have understood a few days since, that in the treaties of peace lately concluded, those of the province of Holland should have promised and agreed to those of England, that henceforward the present prince of Orange and his posterity should remain for ever excluded from all charges, offices, and dignities, which his predecessors, to the full content of all the associated Netherland provinces, have officiated and enjoyed. We did at the beginning set before us the love, which you bear to justice, and that you would not suffer, that the least of your inhabitants should be consequently molested. We did also consider the honour and reputation of the state, which formerly would not have suffered the meanest inhabitant to have been wronged in their rights and liberties; and most of all, we considered, you would nor suffer any prejudice to take place against an orphan, whom every one is bound to assist and protect by God's appointment, and his own duty, and especially such a child, which doth shew in his cradle so many dear instruments, (which God hath used for the preservation of the true religion) and the essusion of blood, and courageous acts of his predecessors, upon which the foundations of this splendid state are, in many respects, built and grounded. We can in truth imagine the same much less, when we consider the great honour, which the United Provinces have always shewn with so much thankfulness to his predecessors, and wherein especially the renowned predecessors of your noble great lordships have not fallen short of any; as those, who from time to time have shewn their affection to the house of Orange. We doubted not but your lordships would have trod in their footsteps, and have endeavoured to the utmost, as your pious predecessors, out of pure love to freedom and religion, to have kept fellowship with that house to your dying days, and not suffered the only son and heir of so many heroic princes to be excluded of all that prosperity and honour, that hath been fought for. Should this pupil, whose predecessors were amongst the first, who laid that happy stone for the liberties, be now the first, in whom that liberty should lose her strength and courage? We could not partly let it enter into our thoughts, and consequently could not believe it; and therefore thought it needless to write to your great noble lordships about it: but at last we thought your lordships would not take it amiss from your antient ally and neighbour, who hath always taken part of your state's welfare, to be more than careful, in what may tend for the property and welfare of your state; especially since we are charged with the care of the guardianship, we cannot pass it over in silence, without letting your lordships know, how prejudicial this would be to our pupil. Therefore we desire your lordships, in case any thing be agreed unto, to the prejudice of the prince of Orange, that you would be pleased to abrogate and annul the same, and not suffer any thing to be agreed unto, that is tending against justice and liberty, and so consequently against the prince of Orange. In this your lordships will do an act, which will be acceptable to God, justice, and the world, according to the antient Holland courage and virtues, and that which the enemies must be sain to praise and worship against their wills in a nation, which doth not cover their liberties with sins. The pupil himself, in time, will acknowledge the same with all thankfulness; and we, together with the allies, and those that are interested in that princely house, will never fail with demonstration of friendship and neighbourly affection to requite the same. Given in our residence at Coln upon the Spree, the 18/8 May, 1654.