A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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May (4 of 6)
Monsieur Petit to Monsieur Augier.
The count of Brienne daily delaying me in the affair of St. Malo, I have been forced to take direct ways, and employ some friend towards the cardinal, in case he had not time then to hear me about the same. Mons. Berthemet entertained him therewith from me on thursday last; to whom he answered, that I had only to inform the count of Brienne of the business, and that I should receive satisfaction. But be it that the said count was not informed of that good intention shewed by the said cardinal, or that he made himself deaf, I pressed him to no purpose that day and the day after.
Monsieur de Bordeaux, the embassador de Neufville's father, whom I have also seen, has also spoken to the said cardinal touching my complaints in our business; whereunto I told him, we saw no end. The said cardinal told him, he had to make articles of my demands, and that he would recommend the whole unto the count of Brienne for our satisfaction. I will draw up to-morrow the said articles, to see what that will produce; and will nevertheless press the said count, especially upon the business of St. Malo, there being no likelihood for our merchants to follow the court, nor temporize much longer.
I think this court goes to the campaign with no intent to return so soon. One knows not what can happen: France respires, and the said cardinal thinks more upon making himself a pope, than upon paying of debts. France will try to come to some compensation with England, having already sent every-where to have the grievances of their subjects; whereupon Mons. de Boucherat, heretofore your commissioner, has received some orders; and Mons. Ariste, commissioner to the said count of Brienne, has maintained to me again to-day, that their losses amount to ten millions more than ours.
I come newly from seeing again the count of Brienne, whom I have found a little milder than usually in the affair of St. Malo; but he has, notwithstanding, given me no manner of satisfaction, telling me, that although we should have a decree, the Malouins would not obey it; complaining, that we have taken from them four millions of gold, and that they were made desperate.
A letter of intelligence from Monsieur Augier's secretary.
The night of my last dispatch, the embassador of Holland made a little bonfire in this city before his door, in rejoicing for the peace between the two commonwealths; whereunto many merchants, most part being Hollanders, were invited, noted in a list, where my name was also inserted. Two barrels of wine were in consequence broached in the street, to give drink unto the passengers; and his excellency gave with the dance a little collation, where three healths were drank to with respect, in a great silver cup gilded over, viz. that of the United Provinces, and of the good continuance for friendship with France, and that of the said embassadors by the said merchants, and afterwards that of the same peace, and of his highness the lord protector, who had so much contributed thereunto, by the said embassadors. This action began very late, by reason of the king's permission to make the said fire, which came only at ten o'clock at night. The count of Brienne would not give it to him, before he had spoken thereof unto the said council; so that it was two o'clock in the morning before the company returned home.
You have heard of the great complaint made by the said embassador unto his majesty, who had found his speech rude. The politicians gloss thereupon, that his excellency made the said fire in spite, being that it is certain the Hollanders are in an exceeding discontentedness; and that they are daily misused, and their trade troubled, as it is happened to some captains newly arrived here from the coasts of Bretagne, to reclaim five or six ships of new prize.
The same day the prince of Conti parted from hence for Catalonia. The duke of Candale will shortly follow him, to go and command the army in quality of his lieutenant general; and the king doth also send thither great number of marshals de camp; so that it is thought the court has a great design towards those parts; and that the duke of Guise may make his landing there, whilst Mons. d'Estrades shall remain in Guienne with 4000 men, for fear of the English.
Yesterday we received notice from Flanders, that no treason has been discovered therein, as had been said; and that the Lorrain troops remained in their duty; but that a conspiracy had been discovered against Clermont, which some officers of that garison framed.
This day the whole court is parted for Rheims by Meaux, where the king will lie to-night. It is thought the cardinal has resolved to attempt some design towards those parts at this beginning of the campaign; and that it is for that purpose, that all the king's guards had been extraordinarily called for near his majesty's person, and amongst others, those that were out of quarter. Marshal de Turenne follows within two or three days.
The deputies of the reformed churches have done their best endeavours to be expedited before this departure; but all of them have not had the satisfaction they looked for. And Mons. Guiran oftentimes complains amongst others, that his brother having been put out of the office of general provost in the said city, in virtue of a decree given at the council upon the states of Languedoc's petition, (maliciously saying, that such offices possessed by protestants are ruinous unto papists, although the said Guiran sheweth, that his predecessor, notwithstanding he was as well a protestant as he, hath better served the king during forty years in his office, than any papist before him had done) notwithstanding these ministers of state have refused to cashier the abovesaid decree, and have sent it unto the council of state for the same, which is nothing but delays, instead that he could be expedited in twenty-four hours in the great council.
An intercepted letter from Paris.
I perceive you do not look on any of my letters, when you write, or that you are resolved not to comply with my desire touching England, Scotland, fleet, negotiations, &c. which really I take very unkindly at your hands. I am told for certain, that Charles Stuart will send something considerable to some part of England, Scotland, or Ireland, this summer; and I believe will go himself to one of them before Allhallow-tide.
A letter of intelligence.
In conformity to what you had in my last but this, the deputies of Friesland by a late paper replyed to the answer of the province of Holland. The substance you have hereafter, with others the like.
The said deputies of Friezland also viva voce demanded, that the embassadors in England should be required immediately to send to the states general all secret acts and papers delivered by them to the protector, upon pain of being punished, as having acted against the mind and intention, by which they were employed, and upon oath.
The pensionary of the province of Holland, seeing that most of the provinces were inclining to that demand of the deputys of Friezland, desired that the resolution thereupon should be suspended untill the tuesday following, being the 26th day of this month, when he would deliver in a paper from his superiors, which should give to all those provinces full satisfaction. And so the provinces at that time rested contented herewith, expecting with great curiosity the said paper; which was no other in substance, but what you have beneath with the other extracts.
The same day, the said pensioner visited the princess dowager, grandmother of Orange, to assure her highness of the sincere and . . . . . intentions of the states of the province of Holland towards her grandchild; at which, for all was alledged for their justification . . . . . . princess remained unsatisfied, yet dissembled pretty well . . . . . . . notwithstanding that publick office done to the said princes, and the satisfaction, which some of the deputys shewed to have of the last paper of the province of Holland. The deputys of Friesland do vigorously prosecute their discontents, having the day following declared in another sharpe paper, the contents whereof you have ensuing with the rest.
The province of Holland, seeing all these passages, think now upon nothing more than to procure friendship with the provinces of Utrecht and Overyssell, to divide the province of Guelderland, and to frighten the province of Zealand, threatening them, that if they continue to prop the interest of the prince of Orange, the English will take away their commerce.
The day before that, they made here bonfires for the peace with England, where was nothing else of fire but burning barrells of pitch, and fourteen peices of ordnance, which played from six in the morning till eleven at night, with sounds of trompetts, and ringing of bells, admiral Opdam being the busyest amongst them, to see all things well done.
The deputy of Bremen here pressed earnestly for aid for that city; but the resident of Sweden opposed strongly, and declared it should be taken as hostility, if the states general should give any succours or assistance to Bremen; but by interposition of kindly offices for accommodation, &c. the ambassador Boreel sent a letter to the states generall from Paris, whereby it seems, that the king of Denmark does pretend to have damages sustained by his subjects in the warr with England.
The second of May, Beuningen, deputy of the states generall in Swedland, writ a letter to the said states, that . . . . . . being absent, and to return within three days, the . . . . . . of England should be dispatched to return two . . . . . . prepared for him to that effect by the queen's orders . . . . . . be ready within fourteen days. The said embassador's negotiation consists of 15 articles, containing in substance amity and liberty of commerce, and some promises for damages sustained by the merchants of Swedland, by the English.
Don Antonio de Pimentelli, publick minister of Spain, (he writes in the same letter) took his leave of the prince royal; and after being magnificently entertained, was presented with a jewel worth 6000 pieces of eight.
The ambassadors of these states in England, in theirs of the 13th of May, write to the states general, how they recommended to some of the council, to reconcile all differences betwixt the crown of France and England; and that they found a very good disposition in most of the council thereunto; and that they very seasonably framed a paper to that purpose: but having consulted with the French ambassador, he advised the suspension of the delivery thereof for some days, expecting an answer from the protector, which might cause some alterations in the said paper.
The sixth of May there was delivered a letter, and read to the states general, of the ambassador Boreel from Paris. In substance it contains the loss of some forty French ships belonging to merchants, by England, for which the opportunity of time admitts not yet of a revenge, the English being masters of the seas, and therefore all means possible used in France for a present accommodation with England.
The ambassadors in London writt hither the 15th of May to the state, upon the instances made, the towns of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hambourg, as also the duke of Holstein, and the count of Oldenburgh, shall be comprehended in the peace; and an instrument apart drawn to that effect in Latin, wherein are first named the cantons of Switzerland, &c.
The 23d of May the deputies of Friesland gave in a paper to the states generall, in answer to that of the province of Holland, which you had in my former; but this by full extract. The paper was an invective, setting forth they could not sufficiently admire how the deputies of Holland disrespected them. They represented in their persons their principals, by whose orders they gave all they had in writing, and nothing therein contained but according to the tenor of the union; also affirming, that one province had no more authority than another, every one of them being alike; and that never any superiority should be allowed to Holland; and that they were very much dissatisfied, that the province of Holland gives not satisfaction as to the point desired, according to the plurality of votes, &c.
The province of Holland gave in another paper, of the 26th May, declaring their intents ever were and are, not to desire any superiority over any of the rest of the provinces, but to maintain most sacredly the union in general terms; but gave no answer to the particulars in the paper of the deputies of Friesland.
The deputies of the province of Friesland the day following, being the 27th of May, gave in another paper in answer to that of Holland, which contained, that they were much joyed to hear, that the intents of the province of Holland were to maintain sacredly for ever the perpetual union; and wished, that their deeds might correspond with their words; and that all indifferent and impartiall men may judge if it be so, by considering whether the prince of Orange, who is a native of the province of Holland, ought not to be maintained, and not excluded or wounded in his reputation and honour, by being sett aside all places, which his predecessors have enjoyed, it being a shameless act in the eyes of all kings and potentates, and smelling of distinction; which cannot but cause great disgusts and animositys in the people, who for the great services done are so affected to the said prince. In the same paper the said deputies, demand a-new very seriously an answer in particular to that, which has been desired concerning that, which was acted apart with the regency of England by the province of Holland, to inform their lordships their principals thereof; the said deputies not seeing any reason wherefore they should be denied the same, &c.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours are sent to Ratisbon, from whence you have some letters herewith at present, that import some discontents (as other letters do) there. Likewise in Holland their dissentions increase, as letters bring hither. I know the news come to you by another hand; so I leave that.
Nothing is more desired here, than to know what success the Spanish and French em bassadors have in their treaties; and wise men believe, that the slowness of both armies appearing in action, proceeds from their intelligence with England; but it cannot be long now, before they appear in the field.
At Gravelin happened a strange accident last week, which well might have been the loss of that strong town, if the enemy had had but the least notice of it. In substance the thing was thus: In the castle, wherein the magazine was, some leads were . . . towards the roof, and the artificer, by the governor's appointment, was mending of it; some drop or drops fell by chance into the magazin of powder, which presently took fire, and thereby six hundred barrels of powder in three magazines blew up all that was near; and if all the barrels had been in one magazin, much harm had been done, though enough what has been; for that inexpugnable castle is ruined, and all that was in it of all sorts of warlike provision. There are many houses adjoining suffered, but the works about the town remained untoucht. About 250 souldiers, men, women, and children, perished outright; a great many more are hurt and wounded. Marquis de Leda, governor of Dunkirk, having with all speed notice of this loss, immediately marched into Gravelin with two regiments of Spaniards, and two of Italians, with store of ammunition, and all things that were wanting; and instantly set all men at work, for the reparation of the castle. Count Fuenseldagna is also gone in all haste to Gravelin, to secure and repair the castle and town; and left the enemy should take any advantage of it, our army is now marching towards the borders of Flanders and Picardy. What shall ensue further upon this, time will let us see: but the governor is much blamed for not removing the powder from under the place where the leads were mended.
Here is newly come from Spain 400,000 crowns in specie, for the payment of our armies; of which 100,000 crowns for the prince of Condé, which he has already received, and dissatisfied he had it not sooner; but now he is well contented, only some aversion betwixt him and duke Francis of Lorrain, who seldom meet. But it is endeavoured to bring them to an agreement by the best mediators here. Prince Condé is in this city as yet, and duke Francis with his army, where he has been well received. The archduke is here: his highness and duke Francis of Lorrain his second son were haunted with a kind of fever, but are now well recovered.
His imperial majesty kept counsel the latter end of last week, concerning the . . . for this campaign, and great preparations made, as also a strong . . . . for victuals and provisions to be sent to Cleremont and Stenay . . . . troubled by the forces under messieurs de Faber and count de . . . . . very often.
It is here but secret, that Don Antonio Pimentelli, come from Swedeland, shall within three or four days go into Spain, and by the way of France. What that shall conduce to the general peace, I yet know not.
A paper of the commissioners of Friesland.
The commissioners of Friesland having considered what the lord raedt pensionary John de Witt did declare by word of mouth on the 29th, and how he did threaten the lord Wyckel in person; also what he delivered in writing the next day to the assembly of their lordships; they do find, that he spoke more than what is expressed in writing: and because it doth consequently seem, as if he did repent and disavow that unfashionable and uncommunicative manner of speaking against fellow members, who upon publick letters of credence, on the behalf of a province, are met; the commissioners afore-named will therefore let it pass, with a reserve to report it to their superiors. And concerning the said writing, they do declare, that the same is punctually answered with what was delivered in, the 21st May, on the behalf of this province: but because there is mention made in that writing of matter of discontents and commotions, that they should infuse into the commonalty, the commissioners are necessitated to declare themselves to this illustrious company, yea to the whole world, who those are, that have furnished the commonalty with matter of discontent and commotions at present; who the occasion is, that at present in boats and in waggons there is no other discourse almost, but of murmuring and cavilling against the secret act of seclusion, concerning the lord prince of Orange. The lord pensionary De Witt is convinced in his conscience, that neither the province of Friesland, nor any one of all the United Provinces, had the least knowledge of the said seclusion; and yet to this hour could never obtain any formal information thereof, how earnestly soever they have desired it. It is very true, that the said lord pensionary De Witt did make to one particular member or other some declaration of this seclusion and act, that was sent over, but never to the assembly, how earnestly soever, as is said before, it was desired by them from time to time; but on the contrary, he hath declined to do the same against all reason, and to delay the provinces with words, endeavouring thereby (to speak the truth) to smother the trespass of the lords embassadors, as also of those, who gave them direction for it. And because the world might not think, as if through silence and omission they did either connive or approve of what is done, the commissioners of Friesland do refer it to the judgment of their principals, wherein the lords embassadors have done amiss, and still do against their great lordships, by reason they did not design, nor do not yet design to write to this house one word concerning this dangerous treaty, which was not only beyond, but expressly against the commission and instruction, which they did receive from their great lordships, to whom they were and are still obliged by oath. What punishment now consequently, according to the rights of all nations, embassadors do deserve, that exceed their instructions, and act contrary to their orders, is very well known. It would have had some colour of excuse, if they had presently smothered the proposition of seclusion as a monster; but having cherished the same, it is necessary, that the same be either presently handled according to law, or at least that a time be appointed to inform your great lordships circumstantly, what there is in the business itself, and who were the chiefest conductors of it, that so through connivance or omission, as afore-mentioned, their act may not be authorized; whereof the commissioners of Friesland do discharge themselves hereby, to be and remain innocent and guiltless. Now then, to remove all matter of discontent and commotion from the commonalty, to settle the country in peace and unity at home, and also to give no discontent, but on the contrary, all content and satisfaction, to all good neighbours, and allied kings and potentates, especially France, Denmark, and the duke of Brandenburgh, who have writ very seriously about this business; the commissioners of Friesland do still maintain, that there ought to be something resolved concerning this; which being done, the same may be disposed of farther (reserving themselves and their lords principals) resolved and ordered, as they shall think fit, for the preservation of the respect and the splendor of the state in general, and of the province of Friesland in particular.
Some points, wherein the intention of their high mightinesses doth essentially disagree from what is set forth in the scheme of the treaty, sent over to their high mightinesses, in December of last year, by the lord embassador Boreel.
The foundation and intention of the lords the states general, to enter into an alliance with the king of France, is, that they should assist one another reciprocally by promise of succours and subsidies to defend and preserve such places, the preservation whereof the respective allies are highly concerned in, however so, that the assisting party shall not be obliged thereby to engage in a war or open rupture with him, against whom such succours and subsidies are sent and furnished. But contrary thereunto, in the 29. 30. and 31. articles of the said projected treaty, it is mentioned, that in case France, after the peace concluded with Spain, should come to a rupture, this state should then likewise be obliged to break with Spainn: in like manner, that this state coming to a rupture with England, France should also be under a necessity to break absolutely with England: to which reciprocal obligation, viz. to come to a rupture, in relation to the said two states, their high mightinesses can no ways consent; since according to the peace which their high mightinesses have concluded with the lord protector of the republick of England aforesaid, the 15th article contains, that in case any one of the two allies should happen to make any treaty with any king, republick, or state, the same shall be obliged to include the other ally, if he desires it, therein; with which stipulation such a particular obligation to come to a rupture with England is inconsistent.
2. In consideration whereof, it appears evidently, that the intention of their high mightinesses is, not to extend on their side the said alliance for the said defence, by succours or subsidies, further than to those places, which the king of France possesses as well in France as in the Netherlands; when on the contrary, by the said projected treaty, art. 2. the said alliance on both sides is proposed generally, and without any restriction.
3. By which said consideration is also refuted, what is proposed in the said 30th and 31st articles, as likewise in art. 32. of the said projected treaty, viz. that this state in the said case against Spain, and France against England, should be obliged to break, upon the single declaration of the requirent, setting forth, that the same was come to a rupture with the one of the other of the said two states; as also that hereafter neither with England, nor (after the peace which is to be concluded) with Spain, no war nor peace could be made, but jointly; when it is the intention of their high mightinesses to enter into no obligation for granting the said succours or subsidies any otherwise or further, than against those that shall happen to attack or to make war against the one or the other of the allies, in those places and territories, that are comprehended in the said treaty.
4. It is also the intention of their high mightinesses, according to the examples of all the former treaties made by them, that before the obligation for the sending of the said succours or subsidies be complied with, a sufficient time shall be allowed to the required ally, to try the way of accommodation.
5. Their high mightinesses take very much to heart to make a good and salutary regulation in the point of the marine, the same being for this state their chief intent, that shall and ought to be aimed at in the treaty which is to be made. Nevertheless it is observed that many considerable matters, proposed for that purpose by the said lord embassador Boreel to the commissioners of his royal majesty, are left out of the said treaty, which ought indispensably to be inserted therein, in order to maintain in some manner thereby the chief interest of this state. Besides which, there are also sundry points concerning that subject mentioned in the said treaty, which are found to be couched in such words and terms, that justice and equity do not seem to be most consulted therein; especially in the point of contrabanded goods; concerning which it is said in the 18th article, that in case the same are conveyed to enemies of any one of the two allies, all shall be condemned for lawful prize, as well the ship with all her appurtenances, wherein the said contrabanded goods are laden, as also all the other merchandizes, that shall be found in the said ship, besides the said contrabanded goods themselves. In relation to this, the proposition of France cannot be further agreed to, than that the said confiscation may be extended to all the goods laden by, and belonging to, the same merchant or company, that shall have caused the said contrabanded goods to be shipt, as also to the share in the ship of the master, provided that it clearly appears, that the shipping of the said contrabanded goods be made with his knowledge and privacy.
The council of Ireland to the protector.
May it please your Highness,
The correspondence and amity betwixt the commonwealth of England and Spaine encouraged diverse officers of the army, and other merchants, to embrace all warrantable opportunities of compliance with the king of Spain, and of strengthning him against such nations as were his enemies. In order whereunto they entred into several capitulations with him for transportation of Irish souldiers for his service; and accordingly have shipped over many thousand Irish, upon that account; for which there remaines due (as they alledge) to those undertakers from the king of Spaine and his ministers, (authorized by him to contract with them) one hundred and fifty thousand pounds sterling, and upwards; for satisfaction whereof, due upon the said capitulation, (as is like alleadged) that they have by major George Walters, and their agents, long (but fruitlesly) attended at the court of Spaine, albeit the late council of state (upon former applications made to them, resenting the equity of their cause and sufferings) procured the said king's ambassador (then at London) to mediate the king his master in their behalf; which (as well as his excellency's own letter to the ministers of state there) hath proved ineffectual. Now in regard the immediate welfare of so many well-deserving persons is concerned, besides diverse owners, masters, and sea-men, to whom the said undertakers are indebted, as they informe, above threescore thousand pounds sterling, whose maine subsistance depends upon payment; we are suitors unto your highness in their behalf, that you would so farr take notice of this great debt, as to appear for them, by causing their case to be represented to the Spanish ambassador, to the end the undertakers may be satisfyed; which if hee (in his master's behalf) refuse to do, 'tis their desire, that your highness would please to grant them letters of marque, by that last refuge to endeavour their private reparation, there being no other visible way left them for enabling them to make good their engagements. This is a business of a very high concernment; nevertheless their importunity, and the deep sence we have of utter ruin of diverse honest wel-deserving persons, upon failure of payment, prevailes with us to present their sad case, as well as their desires, unto your highness, who, wee are assured, will both compassionate and extend your help so far towards their relife as shall consist with justice, and good to the commoners. We are also desired by collonel Mayo, Francis Owen, and Lucas Lucy, merchants, to acquaint your highness, that according to their capitulation, they have (as they inform us) transported thirteen hundred Irish men for Spain, the like number for Flanders; and should have been paid one half of their money by the Spanish ambassador at London, and the other upon their landing; but alledge, that they have not received any money upon the contract. Which we present to your highness consideration; and remaine
The confession of Theodore Naudin, living in Long Acre, Middlesex, to Edward Whalley, William Goffe and Charles Worsley esquires, justices of the peace of the said county, 23 May, 1654.
About a month or five weeks ago I was invited by one Mr. Charrier, domestic of the French embassador, to come and see Mons. de Baas; which I did accordingly the next morning, the same Charrier having fetched me from my house, and being with Mons. de Baas . . . . . . . . . . . . him news of England, and especially what forces there were in this land. For the matter of news, I do not remember what I told him. Concerning the forces, I told him, that I did not know them; yet for Ireland, I thought there were about twenty-four thousand men. Then he asked me, whether I was acquainted with general-major Harrison; and I told him, that I was not. Then he asked me, whether he was a man of credit? I answered, I thought he was. Then he told me, that he thought there were great divisions and dissentions in this land, and in the army: I answered, I thought so. And he asked me, whether I was acquainted with any of the army, that was so? I told him, I was, and especially of one that was a courageous man, and allied to several men of credit. Then he asked me, whether he would be able to embrace a design to divide this country? I told him, I thought he would be, and that I would persuade him to it. It is to be noted, that all this story was not at the first visit, but in two or three. Then I told him, that I had disposed my friend, not only to employ himself, but also his friends; but that there was need of the consent of the cardinal Mazarin, and that the said cardinal should not only promise to perform . . . . . would be. Then Mons. de Baas engaged himself to write unto the cardinal, and desired me to come, and visit him, to know his answer. Thus he held me to this day in expectation of this order; but told me still, that he had received no answer from the cardinal about this. I have been with him at every post-day, according to his desire. Mons. de Baas farther told me upon this design, (that of dividing the army) he liked it very well; and that it would be more easy to make his agreement, than any other way, and less chargeable.
A letter of intelligence from Brussels.
The discovery with you in England of an assassination intended against his highness causeth great talking and admiration here, also the great discontents in the United Provinces; but our preparations for the field divert us much. Our armies must now be somewhere in action; they are yet in the same posture, as you had from me last week. Of other news we have little here at this time. The governor of Montmedi sent a cap tain with some soldiers to the castle of Chamase, to relieve the place, being blocked up by Monsieur de Grandpré. The commander defended the castle gallantly, and forced Grandpré to retire from it, after he had battered all the walls, and some made unfit for a garison. After Grandpré's retirement, the captain conveyed himself and his men safe to the army.
Our armies here had six places appointed for their rendezvous, where now they are; first, one for Lorrain's troops betwixt Aire and St. Omer; another at Luxemburgh for Condé's troops and Wittembergh's, and the other four for the king's army towards Maubeuge, Valenciennes, Douay, and thereabouts. They have orders all to be ready to march at a call. All the officers are parted from hence to that effect. The archduke, Condé and . . . . . . follow. Duke Francis of Lorrain, having visited his army, is gone with his son Ferdinand to visit St. Omer's, Gravelin, Dunkirk, Ghent, Bruges, Oftend, and other places; and is received with great pomp and honour in all places; all the burghers being in arms, and great and small guns playing. He is gone to Antwerp to confer with his brother, and after comes hither.
A regiment of horse was raised for the prince of Condé, in the territory of Mecklemburgh; and they being near ready to march, the emperor sent orders, that no officers nor soldiers should depart the country till such time, that the princes, that would have them, should have security not to enter into any part of the empire under pretext of winter quarter; so the prince is like to lose the regiment for this season, they being already dispersed.
Letters from Sweden bring hither, that after Pimentelli's departure that queen sent orders to the minister there of Portugal to retire out of her dominions; and that she acknowledged his master only duke of Braganza, and no other king but Philip king of Spain. Pimentelli by the way of France goes to Spain, and visits Mazarin in his way, it is expected here, in order to a peace, which is much wanting to all these countries; being all the news you have now from, Sir,
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Yours of the twenty-fifth and twenty-eighth of last month I received after the last post parted, by which I am guided to present some things to come. I have staid here after the court for some occasions, and to-morrow morning I go strait to them. You shall be sure to hear from me once a week. I find here some secret security for a peace with Spain, closely and most secretly pursued; of which I shall endeavour to learn more for your satisfaction in time.
Marshal de Hocquincourt is discontented, and his viceroyship of Catalonia taken from him, and given to prince Conti, who is departed thither, and duke Candale commander next under him. We shall be here, as to Flanders, this season, se defendendo, if our friends there prevail not by making way for us.
R. C. tandem has taken his leave of the king of France, and goeth to Germany within fifteeen days; which is a sign C. Mazarin expects no peace with England, though Bordeaux our embassador writes to the contrary; but lately Mons. de Baas writes, he much fears it.
C. Mazarin doubts not to be pope after the death of the present; but others are not
so. And if your protector be settled, his condition by many is reputed to be the worse.
When I am at court, you shall hear farther from, Sir,
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Having received all yours hitherto, I can only tell you, from Italy I received nothing at this time, at which I wonder much, the post being arrived. I am afraid your correspondent is indisposed; by the next we must expect more of it. Hence you have at present, that our king, queen, and cardinal, as also all the court, parted hence for Rheims saturday last in the morning at ten of the clock, to be that night at Meaux, ten leagues off, where they were to remain till monday last following, whence they departed for Soissons, and from thence they will depart this very day for Rheims, where he is to be sacred and crowned next sunday; afterwards he will to Compeigne, where he is to stay a while, as you shall hear hereafter.
This day my lord nuncio, all the embassadors and public ministers here, do depart together in great pomp, directly for Rheims. That journey comes to much charges to them. I do not know they shall be recompensed for it, either by their masters, or his majesty of France.
A certain preacher, called father Boux, an oratorian friar, and a famous man in these matters, in his preaching, before his majesty parted, and before his said majesty, the queen, and cardinal, was much against his majesty's going, in regard it was not absolutely necessary for him to hazard himself to be sacred, by reason he was king, when he was born, and that by succession; and that it behoveth only kings by election to use such ceremonies. Yet all his discourse was in vain; for the queen would have it so, though not the cardinal; so rigorous is she, by reason now the king may say what he pleases, independently from both queen and cardinal, or any else. At the last audience, Mons. Boreel, the embassador of the United Provinces of Holland, had before the king and queen, before they parted, represented, how the duke of St. Symon, governor of Blaye, without comparison to our Saviour, when he sent for the ass to enter into Jerusalem, when he said to his disciples, if they had been questioned where were they bringing the said ass, you may say, that the Lord and Saviour hath business for her; so in the like manner, when he demanded of the said duke, to restore the vessels he took from the merchants of Holland, as also the merchandize contained in them, he answered, the king had business with them; which is all one to say, as the Saviour had business with the ass, without any other reason; yet the said Boreel having obtained an arrest from the council of state, for the restitution of the said vessels, which they have done; yet did as the rogues when they cut a purse, they restored it, and kept what it contained, the moneys; so they have kept the merchandize that was in the ships, and restored the ships. So Boreel told them plainly; to which the queen answered, he spoke very bold, as if he had power to do it. He answered, he had power to do it, and to shew for it, and for much more besides, so say, which they shall fee by the time.
Some say, he shall not be admitted any more to audience, and that he must retire; which time will let us see. Last friday four merchants fishers were committed to prison for not paying 8000 livres taxed upon them, by the orders of council. The gressiers, and masters of writings of any city are taxed likewise, to pay each of them 500 livres.
The same day, about eleven of the clock at night, the cardinal sent orders, in the king's behalf, to duke de Rocquelaure to retire; which the said duke would obey; but next morning, when the king was rising, he came to his bed to take his leave of him, seeing he gave orders he should retire. The king denied, that ever he spake a word of it; and desired him to tell, who said so; which he would not tell, (as though) yet he told it was his eminence. Says the king, Tell his eminence, I commanded you to stay; and then we shall see, which is the higher master. So he staid, and followed the court; which is the end of the story.
Last saturday, at the king's departure, arrived a courier from Champaigne, with letters signifying, the enemies were in the field, and ready to enter into Champaigne with the number of 12,000 horse, and 6,000 foot, which yet we do not well believe.
The king's deputies to Rheims offered to the burghers, that govern the king's house there, forty thousand pounds, and to furnish the said house with meat and drink next sunday, being the day of his majesty's coronation; which they refused, and said, they would not accept of so much more, by reason the king was obliged to furnish the council that day as himself.
The prince Conti has for his lieutenant general the duke of Candale, and another of his is Mons. l'Estrades, who will convey him the 6000 men that are in Guienne, and they will come to Catalonia. They are to besiege either Barcelona or Lerida by land; and the duke of Guise, who they said was for Italy, is to go and besiege the same place by sea. The said duke has lieutenant general, the marquis du Plessis, Bellieure, who ought to join the said duke with a quantity of vessels, that the king of Portugal sends to his majesty of France; which is all I hear of that as yet.
It is written lately from Chalons in Champaigne, that the governor of Clermont imprisoned some friers, who were in the town, for keeping intelligence with Mons. de la Ferté Senneterre; and having a design to fire all their provision-house, and deliver one of the gates of the town to the said Senneterre afterwards. It is written likewise from Chalons, that the garison are revolted against them, by reason they are not paid.
We hear from St. Malo's, that the English there at sea summoned the governor there, and the inhabitants, to restore the English merchant ships taken by them; or else, that his highness the lord protector would use his own discretion to come at them otherwise; to which they gave no answer as yet.
An intercepted letter.
My Deare Heart,
I doubt mee you are growen as litle ingenius as a Scots presbiter. You in your last tell mee of a baker's dusin, and writing by every post. I tell you, these two monthes I had but three of your letters, and these two last posts non, which I can't atribut to interceptione, because I have one att the post constantly, when he arives: therfore find the fault ther; for ther, I am sure, it is.
This inclosed is answere to Dab's letter to my fellow-servant. Dutton is gone hence two days since; by him I have sent to Dab a very excellent hatt; to you I would have sent another, but that your cossen could mee, hee would make you a present of one; for which I have called more than once.
The litle queene a monday last went hence with her two younger sonns; with her eldest shee had hot disputs the night and morning before shee went, about prince Rupert, Sir Edward Herbert, and Sir John Barkley, in all which shee had little satisfaction; for he said, they had so behaved themselves to him, that they should never more have his trust, nor his company, iff he could; which frank declaration has begot a resolution in prince R. to go hence with his family a friday next towards Heidelberg; in Sir Edward Herbert to quit his great seal, and retyre from the palais royale with his family; and in Sir John to slaighten saile, least he should have as litle to doe with his maister's finances, as he has with the others counsells. My lord Garrard, if I am not mistaken, is uppon as ticklish tearmes, and so will all those that think to use this young man, as they did his father; for though in apearance hee iss gentle, familiar, and easy, yet hee will not be purmanded, nor governed by violent humors, such ass thyse are. If I am told truth, the litle queene and her Jermin had more of show then reality in their last attempt; for these men are ass uneasy to them ass Cha. Ste. and are glad to be rid of them att another's cost. Cha. Ste. has taken his leave of the French court, but not of his mother; soe that I conclude, this month will be spent in France; but I am confident that is the last for this bout.
I am now to tell you somthing concerning myself, which is, that I am not ashamed to tell you, that my credit and banck is exhausted; that with infinit industry and trouble, I have hitherto, without much incommodating my mistress, sustained myself; and that hereafter I must live upon her, for there is noe other way; which that I may doe with the more ease to hir, and advantage to myself, I shall desire your assistance; that iss, that iff Dab bee to send any more sugar to my mistress, I may have early notice of it; for I doubt not, she'le give mee to pay the Jacks, and you and the rest of my creditors. H. S. went hence two days agoe; if I did not consider his bisines more then himself, or the satisfactione hee gave mee, hee had not left France ass quietly as hee did. I am toulde, that the French ambassador has taken Newport-house, and that you are goeing to live att Winchester. If this be true, lett me know how wee shall correspond.
Mythinks, the young fayre knyght deals but unhandsomly with his ould banished frind, neyther to money nor a horse for the deabt he owes him; let mee have his answere, and whether the horse he sent hither, was to my mistress or no, shee believing it was to hir.
A letter of Thomas Sandford.
I have receaved your lordship's, and delivered the inclosed; but not as yet heard from captaine Mosse. I shall quicken him, and prevent the returne of the 200 l. into the tresury, and hope spedily to give your lordship an effectual accompt thereof. All things are here in a very quiett posture, and doubtles, not such generall satisfaction these many years as now. Colonel Alured hath bine tampering with some of the Anabaptists judgments here, and manisested noe little discontent at the present government, if he have not a latitude politically to try the tempers of men, which hath been my thought. Doubtless, if judgment may be drawne from his words, he hath rendered himselfe incapable of the trust reposed in him; the particulars I have ground to beleive are imparted to your lordship.
Affaires doe much suffer here for want of a settlement. A careles selfeish acting by some, that expect their removes, and thinke there time short. 'Twere well, if your lordships did follow that worke.
My lord, there is one thing hath bine much in my thoughts to represent to your lordship; but being of that tendancy, and relating to the army's satisfaction, I could not prevaile with myselfe to impart it to your lordship; but uppon second thoughts, if it come not to late, I have conceaved it might be of publique advantage to leave the consideration of my weake conceptions to your lordship.
I beleive 'tis well knowne unto your lordship, that the supposition of an overplus of land occasioned that act of grace and favour from the state, that all the army, which had served in this nation since forty-nine, should have lands for there arreares at the adventurers rates; but that presumption, uppon which that act was grounded, failing, I suppose it no prejudice to make voyd the act, which to me in equity is cleare.
Uppon this ground of lands falling short, the generall councell in November last did unanimously agree to raise the rates of lands, according to the goodnes of the respective counties, and were then resolved to be concluded by what was at that time done, and much was spoken of there selfe-deniall in that busines. The disbanded had their lands given them at the advanced rates, contrary to the act; and doubtles it had bine well applycation had been made for the confirmation of what was then done; but in this last councill nothing must be complyed with but the letter of the act, though by the most exactest of estimates of debt and credit, that at present could be taken, it would not pay above two thirds of arreares, and that only since forty-nine; and all before very inconsiderably provided for (there argument was, if this were short, there were church-lands, and then the four counties); which indeed occasions grounds of discontent to such as served before forty-nine. They say, 'tis strange, that twelve yeares service should merit a lesse reward than such, who served not half the time. Two things induces me to offer this to your lordship.
I. That 'tis a reflection and distinction put betweene such as served one interest; and so an occasion ministred for future discontent, which I humbly conceave should carefully be avoyded in this most hopefull way of settlement wee are now in, and not to lay any grounds for jealousye justly to rest in.
II. If this way of the act for satisfying of the army be proceeded upon at the adventurers rates, the state will part with all their credit of forfeited lands in this nation, (except bishops lands, and the four counties, of which two in quantity are not in the possession of the commonwealth) and yet contract a debt of at least 600,000 l. unsatisfied; which I suppose is worth of most serious consideration. Now, when government comes to be settled, 'twil be sad to leave so heavy a charge upon the state, which may yet be prevented, by causing this present security to be so valewed, as that it may pay the charge, and so the state not farther questionable. 'Tis likewise to be remembred, that most of the crown lands, queenes and princes in England, are all sold; which will make a low revenue; but may be supplyed here, if timely prevented by improving the bishops lands, and four counties, to most publique advantage. 'Twas put to the question in the last councell, whether they would acquitt the state of the remaineing debt, when they had given all the forfeited land in this nation (except as before) into their possession; but it passed in the negative, so much was their last selfe-denying vote forgot. 'Tis good to be cleare, that there be no future demands; it may occasion trouble; 'tis good to prevent it.
III. 'Twill discontent the disbanded party, who had their lands at the advanced rates, but promised by the councell, that they should be made equal with the army, contiguous to there present possessions; which they will not be in a capacitye to doe, because they have already disposed of that which is adjacent. And again, if they are to have equal with the army, they must have as much more as they now possesse. And truly, my lord, they judge themselves well rewarded. Upon the whole, I shall presume to offer my poore weake opinion to your lordship.
First, that lands may not be delivered out for satisfaction of arreares, at the adventurers rates; for there is ground enough to evade it. The supposition, uppon which that act was grounded, now appearing to be true, 'tis rational, that the state should thinke of some other way more equal for payment of arreares, which may not leave so vast a debt uppon the state. It hath bine said, Why should not England pay the remainder in money, or at least the adventurer, whose possession we have obtained ?
Secondly, my lord, I humbly conceave, that the rating of the respective counties, according to there intrinsique vallew and goodnes of land, wil be the only way to accomplish this end of satisfying the debt, both before and since forty-nine; for as the rates are now, one may have a thousand acres worth more that 1000 l. and another in the same barony, a thousand acres not worth 200 l.
My lord, this is a great generation-worke, and abundance of future happynes will depend uppon the prudent management thereof. I hope, your lordship cannot imagine, that this proceeds from any prejudice against those deserving persons, whom the Lord hath owned and honored in this worke. It is far from me; but as much as in man lyes, that all occasions of emulation, envy, and heart-burnings against the state, or perticular persons, may be laid aside, unity preserved, and the state discharged of so great a debt; which I humbly conceive can no otherwayes be done. With pardon for this perplexitye, and indigested method, for want of time, I humbly subscribe myself, My Lord,
A paper of the Swedish resident.
As to the busines of the Charity, where the judges of the admiralty have declared their opinions for the delivery of the goods to the private man of war upon bail, it is conceived the same is altogether irregular, and upon a mistake; and therefore it is desired, that the council or commissioners for the admiralty, to whom the same was referred, would but vouchsafe to hear the judges of the admiralty, what they have to say for the maintaining their opinions, and to hear the counsel for the subjects of Sweden, what they have to say against it; and then to confirm or disannul the judges opinion, as they see meet; or else to refer it to the lord chief justice Rolle and justice Hales, or any other learned and understanding men, to hear both sides, and report their opinions. And if neither of those shall move, then to send for the advocate of the commonwealth, (who is conceived to be a very knowing man) and laying aside any thing of being a counsel, or concerned for his sees, that he speaks sincerely and bona side, whether the judges of the admiralty have not mistaken the matter about the Charity, and gone against the rules of law.
For as to the putting the subjects of Sweden in this case, which is very short and plain, to an appeal, where there are not set nor stipendiary judges, but such as act meerly upon courtesy, the same would be both tedious and chargeable, and very prejudicial and destructive to trade between the two nations, &c.