A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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June (3 of 6)
The act of the province of Friesland, concerning the seclusion.
The states of Friesland, with serious deliberation, and perfect knowledge of affairs, having examined the letter of the lords Beverning and Nieuport, that was sent over to their H. and M. lordships, the 2/12. June, 1654. with a copy of the resolution of the 4th of May, 1654. taken by the lords states of Holland, for the secluding of the lord prince of Orange out of all charges, as well of the province of Holland, as of the generality, together with the two letters of the states of Holland of the 22d May, and 12th of June, 1654. writ to us about it, with all that doth concern that business, which hath happened and passed at the assembly of their H. and M. lordships betwen the respective provinces; the said lords states do declare hereby, to have seen, heard, and read, with much inward sorrow and trouble the bitterness, that hath passed formerly and of late between the respective provinces, and especially the unheard of and prejudicial resolution agreed on by the lords states of Holland, without the knowledge and consent of the common confederates, in these sad and dangerous times, and delivered to his highness the lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland; which resolution is not only contrary to the union, the instructions of the lords embassadors, the secret resolution of their H. and M. lordships of the 19h February, 1654. but is also tending to the prejudice of the lord prince of Orange, and his line.
Wherefore we are necessitated to disavow and to declare for null and of no value, all that hath been by the lords of Holland privately, without the knowledge of the common confederates, negotiated, agreed, or concluded with the government of England; and chiefly the resolution agreed on by the lords states of Holland, the 4th of May, and delivered to the lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
The said states do also order and command the commissioners of this province at the assembly of their H. and M. lordships, together with the commissioners of the other provinces, to lay hold of the fittest and likeliest means, to the end the states of Holland may be moved to repair all what is past, and to reduce the same into its former condition; and to take such course, that the like may not be attempted for the future by any province, whereby no other but ruin and a breach of state can be expected.
And whereas the lords of Holland say, that what is resolved in their said resolution, doth only concern their province; yet we know very well, and it is to be seen in the 10th article of the union, that in and concerning such a business, no province can make any agreement with neighbour lords or countries, without the consent of the common confederates, to whom jointly and alone, according to the 9th article of the said union, all condition and agreement of truce, peace, or war, are deferred, as being all interested in the same.
Besides, that the obligation in the said resolution, made by the states of Holland, how that they will never permit, that the prince of Orange shall be elected to the captain generalship of the militia of the generality, is prejudicial to the free deliberations and the common advice of the confederates, to whom the conferring of those high charges is only deferred; wherein the union is clearly broken and transgressed against. Again, such being the nature of all societies, that not one, but the joint confederates, or the plurality thereof, ought to have the conduct and management of the chiefest affairs; how much more hath the same place in the confederacy of this state, whereby the provinces are so strictly united, as if they were but one province? And the conduct and direction of such important affairs and charges is alone conferred upon the common advice of the confederates, according to the articles of the union; which the better and stricter they are observed, the state will be the better preserved and maintained in that lustre and splendor, to which it is arrived through the union, next to God's blessing; which is that right and only Palladium, which can preserve this state in everlasting peace and happiness: also the same being broken and transgressed, it is able to cause a total ruin and destruction to fall upon the same.
Wherefore, to prevent a farther breach under the respective confederates, and to increase love and amity amongst them, we have thought fit, and do agree, that the charges of captain and admiral-generalship of the state of these countries be conferred upon the lord prince of Orange, in pursuance of the other provinces. We do appoint our commissioner at the assembly of their H. and M. lordships, to recommend the same in the best form to the other provinces, and to endeavour, that the same may take effect according to the union, that the said lord prince may be confirmed in the possession of the same, when he shall be of years of discretion; and that in the mean time (besides their highnesses the prince's mother and grandmother) there be appointed by their H. and M. lordships some other able persons, for the educating of his said highness in the reformed religion, and in the knowledge of these countries, and the manners, laws, and privileges thereof; whereunto we desire the assistance of the other confederates.
What concerneth the lords Beverning and Nieuport, we do yet understand, that they shall not be admitted into any of the colleges or foundations of the generality, before they have given an account of their separate and private negotiation, without the consent or knowledge of their H. and M. lordships, and contrary to the instructions with the government of England, that the said lords shall be sufficiently censured and corrected for doing of it; to the end that for the time to come the inhabitants of the one and the other province, employed in the service, and oath, and commission of their H. and M. lordships, may be deterred from doing the like; and in disparagement of the state, to transgress their instruction and commission, and to effect contrary designs in the name of the one or other particular province, without order or command of their H. and M. lordships, to the great disservice and trouble of the state, is a fault not to be pardoned. And whereas the lords Nieuport and Beverning do not only excuse it in their letter of 12/22. June last, but they also endeavour to lay their own crimes upon the shoulders and ill management of their H. and M. lordships, it seemeth to us very impertinent: wherefore we do suspend our vote for conferring the charge of treasurer general upon the lord Beverning, till he shall have purged himself as he ought; or that he be punished according to the merit of his crime. Besides, the said exorbitant affairs of the lords Beverning and Nieuport do imply a great deal of ingratitude against such a considerable inhabitant and illustrious personage of this state, to whose great-grandfather prince William the first, of immortal memory, by public declaration of the state, this testimony is given upon his tomb at Delft, that he was a father of our country, and that he esteemed the welfare and service of the Netherlands, more than he did the prosperity of himself and his.
The Portuguese embassador to secretary Thurloe.
Secretarius mihi resert, cum ad suggerendam conclusionem, & subscriptionem articulorum, dominationem vestram adiret, dominationem vestram illi dixisse, prætermittendam esse nominationem personarum indifferentium ad decidendas mercatorum causas, & arbitrum constituendum, a quo, nisi inter se conveniant, controversiæ omnino tollantur.
Primum dico, quod non videtur ex hoc dependere confirmatio articulorum a commissariis altitudinis fuæ, ut eos ego approbandos majestati regis domini mei mittere possim. Dum enim ad eum perveniunt controversiæ istæ, componi potest; quod si a me interim huic negotio mercatorum satisfactum non fuerit, liberum erit altitudini fuæ ab obsignando tractatu abstinere, donec iis satisfactum fit; atque ita temporis quod jam nimium provectum est) jactura non siet, ut remeare extra brumam in patriam possim.
Secundum, scire ex dominatione vestra vellem, utrum ejusmodi personæ indifferentes nominandæ sunt in chartulis anno præterito mihi datis, in quibus ad eum finem locus vacans erat; an sint in pacis capitulatione nominandæ?
Tertium, constitui oportet, cujus arbiter iste futurus fit; cujus judicio omnia transigenda, mercatorne an jurisconsultus; & quomodo in eum convenire debemus? Id quippe fieri nequit, nisi vel in collatione, vel coram dominatione vestra; ut cuncta penitus una vice maneant decisa.
Quod si serenissimo protectori placeat, id ut fiat eodem die, quo a me cum commissariis articuli signentur, singularis beneficii loco ponam ob eas quas attuli rationes. Valeat dominatio vestra. E domo, 13 Jun. 1654.
The Genoese resident to the protector.
May it please your most serene Highness,
Their most serene highness the duke and governors of the commonwealth of Genoa, my masters, notwithstanding they have very much approved the congratulatory office which I used in their names to your highness, upon your exaltation to the supreme government and protection of these nations; yet out of their cordial affection to your highness, have thought good to confirm it with these; the presentation of which, through the multiplicity of your highness's weighty state affairs, hath been until now deferred.
By special orders from my masters, which yesterday came to my hands, I am expresly commanded to present myself before your highness, and represent unto you the extravagant and tyrannical resolutions of the vice-king of Naples and governor of Milan, in sequestring all the revenues, goods, and moneys belonging to their citizens and subjects in those territories; which hath been executed in so vile and unhandsome manner as not to be expressed, nor practised against rebels, (much less with so consederate and devoted friends as my masters have ever been on all occasions to the crown of Spain) by taking a very exact inventory of all houshold moveables, as much as to shopkeepers, and the lowest fort of people, keeping all in safe custody; this being done under vain and affected pretences of acts of hostility, not dreamed of, much less attempted against any of the subjects of his catholic majesty, as on the behalf of those ministers is given out: for not any thing hath been therein acted, but with civil, just, and legal terms, to oblige the Finarini to their duties towards the house of St. George; and with no other motive than to defend and preserve the jurisdiction, which the commonwealth of Genoa holds in the Ligustic sea, by just title, long possession, approbation of emperors and popes, and particularly by a declaration of his catholic majesty, with his orders made therein, and his express commands to his ministers in Italy, as by his letters patents appeareth.
That in observance thereunto, my masters have willingly omitted, what they might or ought to have done to suppress the boldness and contempt of the said Finarini, arrived to such a height, as openly to lose their due respects to our commonwealth, not only by many attempted frauds in its duties, but also to violate in the face of the city of Genoa its jurisdiction, as was done in the depredation of two French vessels upon that port; and that when my masters should justly have hoped for a remedy and recompence of the abovesaid wrongs, and that their forbearance in punishing the offenders should have been commended and thankfully acknowledged, they could not believe, that in lieu thereof, and the mighty services done to his catholic majesty in his greatest exigencies, should come from the hands of his ministers such notorious great offences, wrongs, and injuries; nor that reprisals should be granted against their citizens or subjects, as they have now done: of which my masters, out of the good-will and sincere affection they owe your highness, have thought good by me to impart you with; and that the weight of this accident and evil consequence may thereby arise, hath necessarily forced them to provide against so great an extremity; and unanimously resolved and declared in a most perfect union to engage their lives and fortunes for the state's defence, and preservation of its rights and liberties, and accordingly to make all those provisions shall be requisite thereunto.
Mr. John Edwards, and Mr. Michael Evans, to secretary Thurloe.
Since our last, we have delivered to Mr. Henry Freeze, our demand in English and Dutch, which he undertook to hasten unto the rix-hossmaster; and on monday, the 5th of this month, we received 20,000 rixdollars of Mons. de Vries, resident at Elsinore for the states general; after which, because we would not lose time, we had conference with the king's vice-admiral, who viewed our commission, and received our demand, which we had also ready in writing. None can pretend more kindness to us than he hath done, nor a greater readiness to further us in the receipt of such ships and goods as are remaining: in order whereto he designed some persons that very day, to go with us on board the ships, to join with two shipwrights, appointed by our English masters, for viewing the same, and taking inventories and notice of what rigging and furniture remains, and how much the damage may be: in which matter they have used all possible expedition, and have almost ended their survey of the ships, being now 19 in number, by the addition of two of them, which lately arrived here. They are generally found so extremely defective, that we fear, the 20,000 dollars will not sussice to fit them for sea, most of their fails and furniture being wanting, and that which remains almost totally unserviceable: and besides, one of them, called the Charity of Yarmouth, is in such a condition, as renders her incapable of being brought into England. Of the other three, one is in Holland, and two in the West Indies. Concerning the goods remaining, your honour will observe by the inclosed list, what they are, and in what condition. The hemp we find to be repacked, and so bad, as will not bear the charge of transportation into England, being only the refuse of the whole, and such as would not be accepted upon sale here; and this also grown exceedingly worse by lying, and therefore we dare not adventure to meddle with it; but some wood, iron, and tar, we may.
And so, the main bulk of restitution will rest in the satisfaction for ships and goods
disposed of, and damage upon both; but that this satisfaction will be made here, or any
part thereof, we see no probability: concerning which the vice-admiral, when we first
saw him, had no answer to give, but promised us an account at our next meeting; against
which time, we understand, he applied himself to the resident of the states general, hoping
there to have found some order as to the particular of satisfaction; but missing thereof, he
hath sent to the rix-hoffmaster for a resolution, which we expect; but in the mean time,
by other persons we perceive, it will be negative as to our receipt of moneys; for Mr.
Freeze, who sent our demand to the hossmaster, hath informed us, that he hath answer
of the receipt thereof, and that the rix-hossmaster cannot avoid the insisting upon a liquidation of their losses in England, until he hath spoken with the king, which he should
speedily do. Just now Mr. Freeze informs us of a letter he hath newly received from the
rix-hossmaster, declaring the king's answer to what Mr. Freeze had written him some
days past, in reference to our busines; viz. That in case the 20,000 dollars already paid
be not sufficient for setting out the ships, the like sum, or somewhat more, shall be added,
rather than the ships should be any way hindred: that such goods as were refuse, are to be
tendered to the Hollander, to make what he can thereof: that his majesty desires amity
with his highness and the English nation, and hopes he may be as useful to them as any
other nation; and that those of impartial judgments will, upon consideration of the great
fleet of Hollanders, which was here, when our convoy came, and of the league and contract
they had with Holland, interpret favorably what hath passed in that busines; and for the
money for goods sold, the Hollander must satisfy the same, as they are engaged, they being
indebted to the Dane for their customs, &c. Hereby your honour may observe, they decline
the pretence of their losses in England; which we believe they would willingly pass over,
in lieu of that friendship they desire, whereto we suppose they have a vehement desire,
and would express the same by their compliance in this payment, were they in a capacity.
But the post stays; and therefore we humbly rest,
Your Honour's most faithful servants,
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
I have receaved yours of the second and tenth present. By the last post I wroate not unto you, being then on my journey from hence to Zealand: there I found few ships. At Terveer weare three; one new, never at sea, of 48 gunns, one of 36, another of 28 gunns. At Middleburgh laye two in the haven, making ready for to trade to the Streights. At Flushinge were three: Jan Evertsen's ship lately come from Gravesend, of 50 gunns, other twoe of 36 gunns. At Hellevoetsluys weare nine, amongst them the ship Tromp was kiled in; and eight others, of 40 to 50 gunns; four of them wear the new shipps built at Rotterdam: where there lyes now ready the admiral Opdam's new shipp, and five of the last-ordered new shipps are buildinge there, the least above 40 gunns. They labour dayly uppon them, yet are backwards, there being a want of carpenters: all the haste that may be, will be used by them, whoe have undertaken the building of them, that they may the sooner have their moneys: nevertheles, I cannot thinke they will be ready in three monthes tyme. Few of these ships of warr, which weare sitted for their fommer guarde, are in harbor, being imployed on convoyes. De Ruyter and Tromp are gone to sea with ten ships of warr, to convoye for the Streights and Spayne; and sixteen shipps are gone with the herring-busses. The merchants will give their men of warr imploiement enough, every man being bussie in trade, to recover the former loss. I never saw so few merchantshipps at home. Our nation looses no tyme neither; for ther hath bin entered in the custome-house at Amsterdam, since the peace, about eighty; and at Rotterdam, 160 English ships, most with corne and other graine. The generallitye of the people are not yet wel pleased with their governors concerninge the peace: it will be much, if there arises no mutinye. I suppose here are plotts underhand against some of the states; for 'tis vulgarly said amongst them, they must come to account. The Lord be praysed for the discovery of that bloody desingne against the protector and government! 'Tis necessary, examples be made of some of them; indeed too much favor hath bin shewed that party. The princes of Orange (as I heare) hath bin perswaded by her counsell, to leave her journey to the Spae, to meet her brother Charles, who, 'tis said, will be there the next weeck, and from thence to Ceullen, hoping there to receave some monies from the emperor, to carry him for Scotland, whether he intends, as I am informed. His friends saye, he will make some staye at Ceullen. I presume he expects contribution from his friends here: many of them, peradventure, goe thither to waite on him. I will be careful of performing your commands, assuringe you, none shall ever be more dilligent to serve you. What you desired in your last, I have donne as well as I can at present, having short tyme; which is all I have now to add, then that I am
Your humble and faithfull servant,
At the Hague is,
Sir John Culpeper, going for France.
Sir Edward Nicolls, secretary to the late K.
Sir Francis Mackworth.
Sir Edward Brett.
Sir Miles Hubbard.
Sir Marmaduke Langdale, gone for Antwerp.
Sir Charles Lloyd.
Sir John Sayers, major to the earl of Oxford.
Captain Morton, and many other officers in these states service.
Mr. Michael Honniwood, formerly a preacher.
Sir William Swan.
Alderman Bunch and Massie have their residence at Breda; but run up and down, to incense the people, by forging lyes.
Sir Edward Walker, (K. of armes to the late K. and clerk of the council to his sonn) a pernicious man.
John Webster, merchant.
William Davitson, a Scots merchant, an assistant of Middleton.
Richard Bridgman, merchant, houlds great correspondence with the royal partye.
Henry Bruyn, merchant.
Edward Man, merchant.
The two preachers, Mayden and Price, violent incendiaryes.
A letter of intelligence.
Of the plot happily discovered, to murder the protector, his council, and others, I need not write to you, since you and others write so much of it, that we know nothing of it but what we have from you; so I will say no more of it, but pereant proditores, &c.
Here from Sweden in the last letters of these states deputy Mons. Beuningen to the gressier of the states general, we have confirmation of the Portugal minister's being commanded out of all the dominions belonging to the crown of Sweden, in the manner and form as you had from me at large the last post but this. And so the said deputy Beuningen writes of the great honours done by the prince royal to the lord embassador Whitelocke, giving him the right hand, a visit, &c. extraordinary honours, not done to others. I presume you have it sooner there from the said embassador, or some of his gentlemen, or you should have more of it from me: but now to the affairs here.
These states embassadors in England write hither in their two last letters to the states general and the gressier to the said states, the one of the twelfth, and the other of the nineteenth instant, giving account of their being in Guildhall met with some commissioners appointed by the protector: the progress of the meeting is fresh with you, and not necessary to be sent from hence. The said embassadors write in the same letters the small hopes they have of the act of navigation to be recalled; because the English merchants, that trade to the East Indies, Asia, Africa, and America, knowing well, that if that act were repealed, all the beneficial commerce and trade should fall into those provinces; and therefore the English merchants have that power with his highness the protector, that they will procure that act to be maintained, as well as they procured the making thereof; and so no expectation at all in their opinion, that it shall be repealed; and that they do not find the states general have any counterpoising act of that nature against the English: and therefore, by their mighty highnesses authority, some other way was to be taken by declaration, or otherwise, as not to desire an express repeal of the act, but that in effect it should be nothing; which they leave to their mighty highnesses consideration.
They write also in the same letters at large of the plot against the protector, about which many are imprisoned, great searches made, &c. also of Middleton's being numerous and considerable in Scotland. They farther write, that the duke of Courland desires to be included in the peace with England; which they leave to their mighty highnesses consideration, &c. This was the substance of their said two last letters, as I collected it, besides the account of the actings apart.
It is said, that there is a letter from the commissioners in England, for composing the pretensions of the respective subjects; whereby it is seen, that they give and receive small satisfaction the one to the other. And the satisfaction, which passeth between the provinces here, is less, as may be seen by two resolutions of these states, of the seventeenth and eighteenth of this month, setting forth, that the act made and concluded the 4th of May last, by the lords of the province of Holland, concerning the exclusion of the prince of Orange and his line from commands, &c. being expressly contrary to the temperament agreed and assented to by all the provinces, the said states general do declare, that they do take that same to be of danger, damage, and ruinous consequence, being against the union of Utrecht, &c. And the said states general declare further, that they found themselves obliged to disapprove and disallow in express terms the said act, and all that relates to it, in the letters of the embassadors in England of the 12th June to the states general, being read the seventeenth; wherein, as they were required, they gave account of their actings apart; which were all by the states general disallowed, disapproved, &c.
The lords of Groningen and Ommelands have taken copies of the said act, and the embassadors letters, for the examining them, and after due consideration to give in their resolutions; and in the mean time do adhere to their declarations made upon that particular, of the 8th May, the 6th and 16th June last.
The lords of Zealand voted, and unanimously resolved again, that their vote, once given for Beverning's being treasurer general, for the good service they then conceived he had done for the commonwealth, should be recalled, as if it never had been; since that they have found the said Beverning had the boldness to act apart, &c. and this resolution to hold and continue, till the said Beverning (who so negotiated contrary to their intentions, and without the knowledge of the rest of the provinces) appear here, and give full satisfaction to all the provinces, &c. Farther you may see the misunderstandings and ill correspondence these provinces have, by the reply of the province of Holland, of the nineteenth instant; which being short, you have here, word by word.
"The states of Holland and West Friesland, having seen the declaration read this day, by the present lord deputy of Zealand, in the name of his lords principal, have declared against it, and by these presents do declare, that as to give the known act, with all its dependencies, any approvement or disapprovement, the same wholly concerns the province of Holland alone, and none else but their noble high and mighty lordships; because it is a provincial business. Done at the Hague, 18th June, 1654."
Against the paper delivered in by the lords deputies, on the behalf of the lords of Holland and West Friesland, thereby presupposing, that the act of excluding the prince of Orange and his descent, with all the dependencies thereof, being a provincial business, and that the approvement or disapprovement thereof concerns only their noble high mightinesses; the present deputy of Friesland has delivered and declared, that he does not in any way approve the same: and taking a copy thereof, did leave it to the decision of all the confederates; reserving nevertheless to himself and to his lords principals, to do further as they should esteem fit and necessary upon this matter, and adhere to his precedent annotations, &c.
They quarrel thus by provinces, and begin by towns. The states of Holland writ a letter to the magistrate of the town of Enchuysen in their province, which still retains the party of the prince of Orange, declaring the great benefit they and all the rest of the provinces may enjoy by the peace made with England; and if that town will not desist from their opposing and delaring against the said peace, they shall not receive the benefits of the said peace, nor of the herring-fishery; and other such threats: but these letters gained nothing.
The like letters were written and sent by the states of Holland to them at Zealand, of 19th June, but prevailed very little, by reason the preachers in that province being very partial for the province of Orange, work'd much upon the hearts of the people. And as I hear, those of Zealand have commanded a deduction to be made, very favourable to the prince of Orange, disapproving altogether the said act of the province of Holland, and refuting all the arguments, which they have alleged in the defence of the said act; and insisting, that it is convenient and fit, the said prince of Orange shall be captain general of those countries.
I hear farther, that those of the province of Holland are upon framing a manifesto, to justify their proceedings, and lay their foundation much upon being necessitated to have done what they did; and among the rest, that some two days before the peace was signed, the Spanish embassador was with his highness the protector, and made very high overtures to hinder the peace; which had been accepted of, if the said embassadors had not concluded and signed the peace.
The admiralty of Amsterdam to the states general.
High and mighty Lords,
In what manner the grand duke of Florence doth continue in his injustisiable proceedings against the takers of the English ship taken by captain Bree, your high mightinesses will be pleased to observe out of the copy of a letter written to us by the associated merchants at Leghorn, which we have received this day, and which we have thought fit to communicate to your high mightinesses; and besides, to leave it to your high mightinesses consideration, if you would not be pleased to think meet, for the reparation of the said insolent proceedings, in the speediest manner to give such sufficient orders, as your high mightinesses, according to your usual wisdom and prudence, shall judge necessary for the best service and respect of this state. Wherewith,
High and mighty Lords, &c.
A paper of the commissioner of Overyssel.
The commissioner for the province of Overyssel, for the time being, hath made known to the assembly of their H. and M. lordships, that some weeks past the states of the said province were lawfully called to keep their general meeting or assembly at Deventer, this year, it being their turn, according to custom.
That then, before the ending of the said assembly, there happened to arise a question, concerning the disposing of the vacant charge of drossart of Twente: some of the members endeavoured to promote the lord of Harsoelt to it, who is at present drossart of Lingen; others there were, that opposed this election to the said charge to be conferred upon the said lord Harsoelt.
Whereupon there happened several debates in order hereunto; at last, those that would have promoted the lord Harsoelt to the said charge, by reason of the said opposition, left the general meeting, and abandoned the assembly of the states, and went out of the town of Deventer, notwithstanding that they were desired to return with all imaginable reasons, and amicable interpellations, to attend the affairs that were then in hand. Hereupon those that had deserted the assembly, undertook to meet at Zwol, and there to treat of affairs, and to make some pretended resolutions to represent to your high and mighty lordships, contrary to the customs in use, from time to time, it not being lawful to hold any general meeting than at Deventer, for this year, it being their turn.
The commissioner of Overyssel doth find himself obliged to give timely notice hereof to their H. and M. lordships, to the end that such pretended resolutions, if at any time presented to the assembly of your lordships, may not be reputed for provincial advice; but on the contrary, that they may be held void and of no effect.
The Spanish embassador to the protector.
Haviendo entendido que Juan Southwel Ingles ha sido acusado de fer sacerdote catholico, y como tal ha sido oy condenado a muerte en las sesiones, y haviendo algun tiempo hà, vivido en mi casa, me hallo obligado a recurrir a la piedad y clemencia de V. A.; y suplicarle sea servido de haçerme el fabor de mandarle reprivar por algunos dias, hasta otra orden de V. A. que ferà un acto de la generosidad de V. A. de que yo haré siempre singular estimacion; y guarde Dios la serenissima persona de V. A. muchos anos como deseo. Londres, 6/26 de Junio, 1654.
This parliament continues still, but as yet there is little or nothing done considerable. The late queen is departed hence, intending, as is given forth, to take her journey through Denmark, and to go for the Spa. Some think she is going to the emperor's court, and that there is a match in hand between her majesty and the Roman king; but all uncertain.
An extract of a letter from a man of great worth and integrity; dated at Amsterdam, the 26. June, 1654. [N. S.]
The coronation in Sweden is already passed, and madam Christina hath resigned her government. We shall see now, whether she will be permitted to go out of the kingdom to squander away so vast a sum of money, which might pay some of those many debts, which she hath contracted. I cannot believe it; but time will shortly determine our conjectures. At Ratisbon it was asserted, that she would travel by the way of Vienna to Rome, and there make open prosession of the Popish religion. Those, that have had a personal and near relation unto her, count her a very atheist. I shall long to hear what kind of report and character the lord embassador Whitelocke will give of her, when he is returned: for my part, I can make no more the best sense and construction of her person.
A letter of intelligence.
Tuesday last, the ceremony of Midsummer-fire was made here, which did represent the peace of France overcoming her enemies, and signified the greatness of the king's government, with the trophies this field would add unto the glory of his majesty.
Thursday, other bonfires were made in Paris, as a rejoicing for his majesty's coronation, whereof the Te Deum was sung in the cathedral church, in prefence of the sovereign courts, the chief officers of the city, and several public foreign ministers.
We hear from Rhetell of the 22/12. of this instant the following words; The orders have been given to render ourselves the 25th or 26th at Sedan, the marshal des Logis being gone this morning to mark them. The siege is framed before Stenay, and marshal Faber gives hopes of a quick and happy issue, the trenches being already well begun. There is some difficulty, but we hope, that God, who hath made us victorious in worse encounters, will bless us in this. Their majesties have seen this afternoon here, hard by, Mons. de la Ferté Senneterre's army, which is about 6000 stout men.
Other notice of the same date doth add, that the prince of Turenne was to convey the court to Sedan, and go and oppose himself to the relief, which might come unto the said Stenay by Luxemburgh, whilst the count of Grandpré did hinder the marquis of Persan to cast himself therein by another place: that the chevalier Bourlemont was said to have been killed, as he repulsed some party of the king's forces; and that there was not above 800 both French and Irish in the citadel, commanded by Mr. Chamilly; the rest of the garison, which is in the city, being compounded of Spaniards. I am informed, the place is beaten with seven pieces of ordnance; and I am still assured, that the cardinal has there good intelligencies, and that he alone hath caused that attempt.
The letters from Brussels of the 20/10. of this instant bear, that Mons. le prince did press hard the archduke Leopold for the relief of that place; but that the necessary troops were not granted him to succeed therein; and that the duke of Lorrain's had already refused to engage themselves therein: so that there is great likelihood, the Spaniards will let it be taken by the politique you will have seen in my preceding dispatch, unless they have a design to let the French army perish, then to undertake the more easily something very considerable: whereupon I will tell you to have heard from very good hands, that Mons. le prince hath sent here a certain disguised Gascon, named Davidon, to know the true case of his friends forces, and what they are able to do, and assure them, &c. that the said archduke's army did preserve itself for considerable designs, and that they intended to approach Paris all together; which Gascon had betrayed his commission, and declared all the contents of the same unto the marquis of Sauvebeuf, who had given notice thereof unto the king.
Yesterday the six bodies of merchants were by deputation to visit the overseer of the exchequer, to continue their opposition unto the coming of Liards, for which some partners offer to give money; and the overseer, changing of discourse to cover that new abuse, told them, that instead of formalizing themselves, they ought to advise of some means to provide against the affairs of England; and consider that France had been forced into cowardice so far, as to send an embassador towards that commonwealth, which had yet done nothing; meaning, that they should prepare themselves for the war, which doth always serve them for a pretext to oppress the people. But they answered, that they were only there to speak of the business of the Liards, which was hurtful unto them.
I will add to that purpose, that when the cardinal feasted the embassadors, and other public foreign ministers, after the coronation, and that he had exaggerated his own deserts so far, as to say, that he had done more than the late cardinal his predecessor; and avowed, that as for the general peace, whereof the pope's nuncio spoke unto him, his eminency saw no likelihood of its making, by reason that France could not at this present make the first back-step, but Spain would do the like; and that hardly the one or the other would submit their honour and interest unto the pope, because of the factions money did make at Rome; he excused himself, that although he was thought to maintain the war, to have occasion to make levies, which were needful to have wherewithal to bear the burthen thereof, nevertheless that was not; that he knew notwithstanding, that France needed a war, therein to employ its nobility; and that when that should be ended, it would be very easy to renew one against the unfaithful and the heretics, &c.
Cardinal de Retz hath sent his gentleman usher to Rome, to tell the pope, that he hath willingly forsaken the archbishoprick of Paris; and prayeth him to consent thereunto, that they might have no more pretext to detain him prisoner.
Mons. d'Estrades in Guienne, and another, which hath been put in la Rochelle in his stead, stand much upon their guards. The synod of those of the religion of the said province of Guienne hath been held at St. Foy, wherein the marquis of St. Luc hath assisted for the king, according to custom.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
I had the honour to give you notice by my last of the Roman clergy's resolution, and of their sending to the court. The success thereof is not yet known, nor whether or no the cardinal Mazarin will have so good a brain as to foresee his own enemies preoccupation, who under a pretence of religion try to undo him by the means of England, vexing to the utmost those of the religion, whereunto the bishop of Montauban made again use of all his rhetoric in a speech he made unto the king after his coronation, calling them fautors of heresy, companions of that horrible monster, covered with the blood of one of the greatest kings of the world, in the proper terms. Mons. de Ruvigny, having been informed of that speech, has answered thereunto by letters he writ to the court; but he is so little regarded, that all he hath hitherto done, has been as good as nothing, insomuch that the former grievances remain undecided, whilst several churches are still molested, and those of Rennes and Bourges, whereof the temple of the first has been burnt, and the other plundered, there being only the church of Nismes that has received satisfaction, and only for its particular interest; Mons. du Vestrie, its deputy, having had nothing but words concerning the business of Tholouse, which is public; and that lies more to heart unto all the party, and especially unto the gentry, who fear to be dealt with as the marquis of Leran. As far as I can see, it's a business hard to agree; for besides that that parliament has all the common fort and superstitious for him, the cardinal fears, lest the duke of Orleans, governor of that province, should sling some oil into the fire, if that parliament were offended, as those of the religion desire, and as reason requires. Therefore one must not doubt, but that will be a great block in Mons. de Neusville's treaty, if so be the commonwealth of England holds hard thereunto, as all the gentry wisheth exceedingly; I say, if it is obstinate in the present execution; for to give good words thereof, Mons. de Montbrun thinks one will really do, if so be my lord protector has always the staff in his hand; although, faith he, that the English will never be well considered, until they have taken Rochelle, and made a free and hans-town of it, without making use of any pretence of religion. He is a person that loves peace exceedingly, and who has now a great increasement of means to preserve; but he has nevertheless told unto Mons. du Vestrie, that when they should draw their swords, they should sling away the scabbard so far, that they could never take it again. I prepare him a cypher to write one to another upon that subject, by the means whom he shall find good at Montbrun.
The embassador de Bordeaux writes himself, that Naudin has accused Mons. de Baas of some intelligence, and that his highness himself has confronted them: in consequence whereof, he had shewed some indignation against the last, who was much deceived, when his said highness sent for him, thinking it was for some other business. These people ground some hopes upon the convocation of a new parliament, as though my lord protector's authority should thereby receive a notable escheat; but I hope his highness's wife foresight will deceive them. I have but little time. I hear the marquis de la Moussaye is at court, and that he has obtained a decree at the parliament of Rennes, bearing, that the temple of the said city shall be re-established by those that burnt it. Mons. de Montbrun parts next week from hence; he tells me, that Cugnac's brother is not gone into England by the cardinal's order; but that his words were indifferent. Mons. de Villefranche is to be paid next tuesday off some arrears due unto him; but he accepts no pension notwithstanding what hath been said.
The king of Sweden to the protector.
We Charles Gustavus, by the grace of God, king of Swedes, Goths and Vandals, great prince of Finland, duke of Eastland, Carelia, Bremen, Verden, Stetin, Pomeren, Cassubia and Vandalia, prince of Rugia, lord of Ingermanland and Wismar, count palatine of the Rhine, duke of Bavaria, Juliers, Cleves and Mons, &c. to the serenissime and most high, our good friend Oliver, lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging, greeting, and increase of prosperity.
Serenissime, and most high lord protector our good friend! since hence, by the providence of God, who doth rule all things on the earth, and at his pleasure disposes of kingdoms, it hath so happened, that the ferenissime and most potent princess and lady, the lady Christina, by the grace of God, queen of the Swedes, Goths and Vandals, great princess of Finland, duchess of Eastland, Carelia, Bremen, Verden, Stetin, Pomeren, Cassubia, and Vandalia, princess of Rugia, and lady of Ingermanland and Wismar, our mother, whom we are ever to respect with all filial observance and veneration, hath, thereunto being moved by certain reasons, resigned her hereditary kingdom, and out of a more than motherly care and singular affection to us, hath transferred the same right of governing unto us, thereunto concurring the general consent of all the states of the kingdom; we thought it most agreeable to our duty and inclination, at the first beginning of our government, to pray unto the most high God, that that work might prove for the welfare and happiness of all Christendom, of us and our kingdom, and of our common friends, and upon consideration of that tie of mutual affection and friendship, which is between this our kingdom and the commonwealth of England, to advertise your highness of this beginning of our government; and lastly, to wish you all kind of prosperity and happiness, and to promise you our most entire affection, and all that may be expected from a friendly mind. Therefore we shall endeavour in all such things as your highness shall be pleased to desire of us, so to carry ourselves, that not only the antient bonds of amity and friendship might be preserved whole, but also, if possible, the same might be more streightly tied, and much increased; hoping, that ever your highness will answer the same with a very good will. And thus ending these presents, we wish a good fortune, a prosperous health, and all happiness, to your highness. Given at Upsal, the 17th of June, 1654.
De Vries, the Dutch resident in Denmark, to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
The English commissioners receive the clapboard and wainscot, which is in being, as also the pitch and tar, with the iron; but the hemp they will not receive, saying, the same is damnified, though the same hath been inspected, and found to be as good as at the first; for all the harm is done to it, is, that it is unbound, which may be repaired for five hundred rixdollars.
For the making good or restoring the value of the three ships that are wanting, as also of the goods that are missing, we see as yet no means nor likelihood; as also the hope doth vanish, which we had of getting to the knowledge of those actions committed by the English themselves, about the making away of their goods at the time of their first coming hither.
The king had ordered (according to the writing of the lord rix-hoffmaster) a certain lord of this city to speak to me, to deliver 20,000 rixdollars to the English commissioners, for their better content; but I durst not accept of it, not knowing upon what account to receive it, nor upon what receipt to pay it away: so that there is this answer returned to the rix-hoffmaster, from whom I expect further order.
The Danish agent to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
As the sign of true friendship doth consist herein, that men are held and bound to be assisting to one another, not only in adversity, and to help and to divert all that may happen to the prejudice of each other, but also to participate in all that may be acceptable and prositable to either side; so likewise there is no doubt to be made, but your lordships have sufficiently and effectually taken notice in your foregoing conjuncture with the commonwealth of England, with what care, neighbourly and sincere affection, his majesty of Denmark hath always endeavoured to second your lordships intentions, and to secure as much as in him lay, the common commerce upon his streams, and to preserve the high interests of this state to the prejudice of his own; and can assure you, in the name of his said majesty, that he did understand with joy, that through God's gracious assistance and special providence, after such a bloody and long war, which did threaten ruin and destruction to both nations, and almost all Christendom, the noble peace was happily concluded between the two powerful commonwealths. His said majesty hath therefore commanded me to congratulate your lordships for this peace, tranquillity and unity, and to signify unto your lordships his good wishes for the continuance and durability thereof, for the safety and prosperity of your renowned government, for the decency and welfare of the good inhabitants, and the increasing of the commerce, as also for the settling and confirming of a good and neighbourly affection. Besides, his majesty doth return thanks to your lordships for that great care and provision, which you have been pleased to make and demonstrate during this treaty, in regard of his majesty's interests, as also of his kingdoms and countries, by comprehending him in the treaty concluded with his highness the protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland. And likewise he doth firmly believe, that your lordships will always persist and continue in the like good intentions; and that you will farther instruct your lordships embassadors in England to be helping and assisting his majesty's commissioner in England, the lord Rosenwinge, in his farther negotiations, as depending upon the proper interests of your lordships; to the end that his majesty's subjects may obtain equal restitution of their ships and goods taken by the English, and there confiscated, in regard to the interested English, by reason of those ships and goods stayed and arrested in Denmark, (by reason whereof the others were taken) full satisfaction and restitution is given at London of all the charges and damages. The parliament itself (as hath been formerly alledged) hath heretofore offered the same by the lord Bradshaw in Denmark, in case they would then release their ships and goods. Besides, your lordships have promised in your treaty of guaranty, to bear off all that might any wise accrue to any prejudice of his majesty in the staying of those ships and goods. It would be also unreasonable, that the subjects of his majesty should suffer so much damage for his majesty's affection and amity.
Wherefore his majesty will expect the effects of your lordships neighbourly affection and inclination, (who doth always highly esteem the same) and upon all occasions be willing to demonstrate the like reciprocal amity.