A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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An extract out of the letter of the lord ambassador Boreel, of the 30th of Jan. [1654. N. S.]
There is an express sent into England with order to Mons. de Bordeaux, commissioner of this king there, to assure the lord protector, that in the harbours of France, they will admit nor lodge no ships, which would do any damage at sea, with commissions of foreign princes, to the subjects of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
The letters out of England, and also those out of the United Provinces, do yet differ very much concerning the departure of their lordships commissioners out of England; and upon what terms they should be departed from thence.
There is new instance made again on the behalf of the pope by his nuncio, for the further recommending of the peace between the two crowns. The Venetian ambassador doth expect order from his commonwealth to the same purpose.
Letter of intelligence.
Our negotiation hath not made as yet any progress, by reason of the absence of the most of the senators; but now that the grand chancellor is come to town, I suppose we shall in a short time see what their intentions are, as to an intimate alliance with us.
The chancellor speaks very much love and affection to the commonwealth of England; and since his coming hither, he hath paid a visit to my lord ambassador, demonstrating much civility and respect to his lordship. I hope there will be a good account of this affair. Her majesty intends to take a progress, for about the space of a fortnight, to see the copper-mines.
The states of the empire are hitherto come no further concerning the capitulation, viz. whether or no the same should be taken in hand in pleno, or per deputatos, then that the same should be done before deputies; and that, in the mean time, the point of justice should be taken in hand. The introduction of the new princess is now upon certain conditions permitted, and will shortly go forward. A wildshut keeper in Silesia, who by his own confession, hath murdered 182 persons, amongst others two little children, whom he affirmeth to have gotten by his own sister, whose hearts having cut out, he had devoured, is imprisoned, and will shortly receive his reward.
From hence there is little, we being shut up with ice. The peace in Poland holdeth, if the ensuing parliament approveth thereof. The king demandeth 18 powers or subsidies for the defraying of charges, and disbanding of the army; but it is supposed the parliament will not be persuaded to grant any, before they have an account of what hath been raised these two years; which is near upon fifty subsidies; and yet the soldiery hath wanted their pay, which hath caused much to ruin and destroy the country, by plundering and taking free quarter; so that upon the examination of these things, there is like to be great troubles, the gentry venting themselves with much eagerness against some publick ministers, and likewise against the queen herself, charging her with the transportation of the greatest part of this treasure, whereby she hath provided a bank for herself and favourites.
There is a flying report in town, that the English frigat, which went to carry Mons. Beverning back to England, should be cast away, and Beverning drowned: but there is no certainty of it; I hope the contrary. This day I saw a copy of a very sharp letter from the emperor to the states, concerning the restauration of all goods and privileges belonging to the order of St. John, which doth import very much. It may perchance bring war betwixt them and the emperor, which would prove very prejudicial to these countries. I presume this is the work of the Brandenburgher, and the house of Nassau.
Letters of intelligence.
The lord ambassador Whitlocke is now entered into a treaty concerning the business of England with the rixchancellor, to whom the queen hath referred the business to confer with his lordship about it. If it please God to give a blessing to it, I doubt not but it will prove happy and successful. The queen hath been absent to visit her mother; but is now returned again, and is pleased to manifest a great deal of respect to the commonwealth of England. The rixchancellor is very courteous and civil to his lordship, and so are generally all the persons of quality in this place. The news, which came out of England, is very well liked of here, and I hope will be a furtherance to all the affairs of that commonwealth.
Mons. Williamson, one of the late residents for this crown in England, is departed hence some days ago, with commission from the king, to congratulate his highness the lord protector of that commonwealth, the king being overjoyed, that he is included in the Dutch treaty, thinking that his satisfying of the merchants is all that will be required at his hands.
The states of the empire, being now for the second time, per decretum, admonished by his imperial majesty to absolve the major part of the said chief difficulties within the space of three months, or less, (his majesty being resolved at the end of the said three months to move hence) meet daily, and are very earnest in dispatch of their business. A very considerable sum of money is come to the emperor's court out of Bohemia, as also great quantities of wine, whereof a good part was presented to his highness the prince elector of Bavaria.
The Tartars, withdrawing themselves out of this kingdom, have, contrary to their promise, (and notwithstanding 150000 gilders were given them only for that purpose) spread themselves far abroad in the country, plundering and spoiling the same all over, and taking away many thousands of men and beasts, which the 1500 Polish horsemen, that were given them for their convoy, had not been able to hinder, if another party of 5000 horse had not been in all hast sent to their succour; who having undertaken them, beat some parties of the Tartars, and relieved a great many prisoners. Notwithstanding all this, it is given out here, that the peace will hold, and be confirmed on the atstanding rixday; but there is small hopes of it.
The news of the English fleet being strong at sea, and made ready to get out, puts us to strange conceits. I presume the Swedes delay, until they see what event the peace will have. Here is a suspicion the French will close with England, which is not pleasing to these.
There is a Dutch agent come on here from the Hague, to reside in this city (as is thought) to obstruct the trade of the English, if the peace succeed not. Monsieur Williamson, late Danish resident in England, is also come to town, whence, as he gives out, he is going again for England to congratulate the lord protector; he takes the Hague in the way, to see the issue of the treaty.
Beuningen, the Dutch embassador in Sweden, to greffier Ruysch.
All that the English embassador to this court doth negotiate, is done with the queen and the rixchancellor, with whom, in the absence of the queen, he hath had this week two conferences; so that it will not be possible to write any thing of certain of this negotiation. It is a common saying, and also of those who do think they know something, and that do penetrate far into state affairs, that besides a particular complaint concerning that, which the English pretend to suffer against their rights by the Swedes upon the coast of Guinea, where they trade, he hath not propounded any thing material, and doth still talk in generalibus of the affection of his masters, or at present of the lord protector Cromwell, to this crown; of their power abroad; their authority at home; the pretended justification of their arms; the sincerity of their designs; and now lastly of the security, safety and advantageousness of this change lately happened in England; and such-like discourses more, wherewith he endeavoured to gain credit and favour to lay the foundation of his negotiation; intending also thereby to penetrate into the affairs of this crown. I find in the mean time to have nothing else to do, but to persuade them of the quite contrary here with all imaginable arguments; and I do my endeavour to assure her majesty and the lords, that their H. and M. L. will never forsake that near amity and alliance, that hath always been between this crown and the United Provinces; yea, though the peace should take effect, or that the wars should continue, their lordships would still endeavour to confirm the old amity more and more. In the mean time it is to be presumed, that as long as our negotiation in England is in hope of success, that they will not declare themselves here for the one or for the other side; and if so, the lord chancellor spoke as he thought, when he said two days since, that the embassadors of England and I told two several tales; that we both of us endeavoured to know his opinion; but that he only did it to hear what the one and the other could say. I gave his excellency yesterday another visit, and did once more recommend the expedition of the resolution, which the queen hath so often promised me concerning the harbour of Gottenburgh, as you shall have seen in my foregoing of 23. of this month. What the issue will be, I shall endeavour to find out in my next audience; but I was strangely surprised at the lord chancellor, who told me, that her majesty told him, that, at her return from Newcopping, she would speak with him further about it; but a day before her majesty's departure thither, promise was made to me, that the resolution should be drawn out, and signed. I used several reasons to press this business; but was presently taken up with an old complaint often made to me here, concerning their H. and M. L. prohibition of contraband goods to be carried into England. He told me, that those that will prohibit Sweden from carrying of goods, are not to be looked upon as friends, but enemies, extending himself moreover concerning the oppressions and wrongs this crown suffered by the English war, and the general destruction of all commerce, which was like to-follow upon it; and withal his excellency said, that he knew no better advice, but to lay aside all trade, and turn here all the ships into private men of war, and so take all they could meet with on the eastland sea. I debated the complaint he made against the prohibition of their H. and M. L. of contraband goods, and endeavoured to make it appear to him, to be according to jus gentium, according to what other nations have practised against their H. and M. L. but all would not prevail, so that I do perceive this will give some offence there, in case the war continue.
And as to the wrongs and oppression, which the Swedish subjects suffer in their commerce and navigation, I told his excellency, that I did concur with him in it; and that their H. and M. L. did also concur, that, if the war should continue, it would utterly destroy the commerce and navigation; and that there was no way to prevent it, but by a salutary peace; and in case the treaty in England should not take effect, all manner of reason would persuade this crown, yea, necessitate it, to engage in the common interest. I thought, by using of so many arguments as I did, to have discovered his excellency's mind concerning his inclination; but I was heard with patience, without any interruption. I had also much discourse with his excellency concerning the late alteration of the government in England, and left it with his lordship to ponder with himself, what disorders do arise out of such great and irregular revolutions. The English embassador in the mean time doth extol the same for a great advantage to the English affairs, and, at the first arrival of the news, caused bonsires to be made before his door. I am told, that he had no new credentials from the lord protector in his last audience, and that the queen did scruple at it; but I know not what to believe of it.
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.
I Thought fitt to give you a particular account of passages here since my last letters unto you. On Tuesday the 17th January, the rixchancellor came unto mee in the morning; and in discourse of the newes of England, for his better satisfaction, I read him part of my letters. Then he discoursed about the forme of gouvernment, wherein I satisfied him. Hee asked, by what authority that power was given to the lord protector. I answered, by the generall consent of the people; of the governours of the citties of London and Westminster, of the magistrates, and of the parliament ittself, who, by writing, did resigne their power unto the lord protector, and agreed upon this forme of government. Besides, the officers and souldiers of the army and navy, in whose hands the strength of the nation is, freely consented hereunto. Wee then fell into discourse about the businesse of my negociation, wherein I desired to know, whether hee had received satisfaction by what I had discoursed to him before, and by what I had now shewed him concerning the settlement of government of the commonwealth: to which he gave noe answer; but said, that in my credentiall letters, which I last presented unto the queene, hee conceived there was an omission, in that the letters desired her majestie to give me credit, but doe not at all expresse, that my lord protector will ratifie what I shall agree to; and read the copy of my credentials from my lord protector, upon which he made this observation, and said, that it was the course in credentialls to have that clause inserted. I answered, that I had not observed that clause in the credentiall letters, but in the commission and authority whereunto the credentialls refer; that in my first letters, which I delivered to the queene, that clause was not inserted, yett not excepted against; that in my commission this clause was inserted of ratifying what I should doe; and that I had received from my lord protector authority to proceed in my negociation; and that my comission under the great seal of England was yett remayning in force; which comission, and my first credentialls, I shewed unto him; and then desired to know, whether he were satisfied in these points; without which satisfaction, it would be in vain to meete upon the particular articles, which I had given in three weekes since, and as yett had noe answere or conference upon them. I told him, that my occasions in England, especially att this tyme, and in relation to my office, were very greate; neither could I forgett my private family: that I did beleeve, I should hardly be permitted any long tyme of continuance here; and therefore I desired such proceeding and dispatch in my busines, as might consist with the other great affaires of this nation, and with the conveniency of her majestie, and with his excellencies liesure; but in the first place I desired to know, if he was satisfied upon the aforementioned points concerninge the settlement of our commonwealth, and concerning my powers: to which he answered, I had fully satisfied him in both those points; that what he had discoursed, was onlie to this end, that he might the better understand the affaires of England, about which he was to treat with me by command of the queene; and therefore it was requisite for him to endeavour to be fully informed of all those thinges, which might be material therein, not that he had the least disrespect of the commonwealth of England, or doubt of its continuance or prosperity which he heartily wisht, and did beleeve, that, by their last settlement, it was in a much better condition then before. Then he did desire to congratulate the same unto me, and the deserving honour of my lord protector, whereof he was very glad. And as to what I said concerning my haveinge binn here soe long without any answere, hee said, the reason thereof was, that neither her own affaires, nor her publicke ministers, were so ready and neare about her, as when she was at Stockholme; that for his part, he was readie to give all the dispatch that might be unto the businesse, and for that purpose would give me a meetinge, if I pleased, the morrow morning; and hee desired the rather to meete in the mornings then in the afternoones, finding that tyme fitter for businesses then after dinner. I told him, I would waite on him the morrow morninge att his owne house, between 8 and 9 of the clock; and soe betweene 11 and 12 of the clock at noone we parted. The 18th of January, betweene 8 and 9 of the clocke in the morninge, I went to the rixchancellor att his house, according as I promised him the day before, where we read the propositions and articles, which I carried with me (a copy whereof I formerly presented unto the queene); and after a second perusal of them, he objected nothinge against the first article of the propositions, but graunted it. Upon our reading againe of the second article, hee made a long speech to this purpose, that in these propositions were contained, as hee apprehended, two thinges; the first whereof related to a mutuall friendship, correspondency, and commerce betweene the two nations, and was of lesser weight then the second, which tended to a league both offensive and defensive, and to the conservation of the interest of both nations; that the present condition of both states were to be considered; that the commonwealth of England was already involved in warrs, of which the Swedes should make themselves parties, if they consented unto the second article; that the kingdom of Swedland had peace with all nations att present, although formerly they had warrs with their neighbours, the Danes, Polonians, Muscovites, and alsoe in Germanie; al things were now setled with them, and quieted there. And in speaking of Germanie, manie things were remembred concerning the generalls Leven and Ruthen, and of their service there for the crowne of Swethland, and what the chancellor, upon their departure for Scotland att the beginning of our warrs, foretold them, which afterwards they found to be true. Hee spake something alsoe concerninge the warr with Poland, and of their king there att that tyme; neither did he passe by unremembred the affaires with the Muscovite. Then hee discoursed concerning the Swedish warrs with the Dane, in which he affirmed, that the Swede had received so much injury against the ancient league betweene those two nations, that itt was necessary, for the conservation of the interest of Swethland, to wage warr against the Dane; in which matter not any prince nor commonwelth had assisted them, either by counsel or otherwise; and although it was proposed to the French ambassador then in Swethland, hee answered, that in that businesse hee had nothing in command from his king. The same being urged to the Dutch ambassadors here, and how much itt would be for their advantage, as to their trade and commerce to the Sound, received the same answer from them, which the French had formerly given. Hee said further, that att that tyme the queene sent letters to the parliament of England, in which shee earnestly desired their advice concerninge that businesse, wherein shee likewise offered them to bee included in the treaty as to the trade of the English into the Sound; but neither the parliament was at that tyme pleased to give her an answer, before there was an agreement made betweene the Dane and the Swede. He affirmed also, that whilst the care of the government of Swethland lay upon him, neither hee nor the queene, from whom hee had the administration of the kingdom, brought any detriment upon the parliament of England; but rather favoured their parties, which hee still doth. And since the late change of government, and the constitutinge a protector there, hee hath had more hopes then ever of the stability and prosperitie of our commonwealth; notwithstanding, as hee was a counsellor of the kingdome of Sweden, and a delegate from the queen, hee ought to bee carefull, that the kingdom of Swethland, being now in peace, might not bee ingaged in the warrs of others, which could not be avoyded, the second article being graunted; and therefore it would require a further consideration. Hee thereupon desired my excuse, if his long discourse had too much taken up my time; and said, that his late king Gustavus alwaies gave way to him to speake his mind; and thereupon desired tyme to consider of the propositions. To which I answered, that hee might take what time hee pleased for the more ready dispatch of my negociation, itt being uncertaine how soone I might be called home to my lord. And to that, which he was pleased to remember, the letters sent to the parliament, to which there was noe answer, they were dated 1643. att what tyme England was in a great distraction; but assoone as there was an opportunity, they gave an answere, the parliament of England having appointed colonel Potley to deliver their letters to the queene; and that I was assured, the parliament of England looked upon the queene of Sweden and the rixchancellor as their verie good friendes. Concerning the warr with the Hollanders our neighbours, it was by them, without any provocation on our parte, injuriously brought upon us by them; which unjust proceeding of theirs God hath binn pleased to declare, by giving the English several victories over them: That the commonwealth was not by any straights reduced to crave a friendship; but they having binn victorious both at home and abroad, were willing by me to offer their friendship to the queene and kingdom of Sweden. And that in that second article there was an equall advantage and honour offered them, if not more, then would accrue to the English thereby; because that by that very article is intended a free trade and commerce through the Sound against all opposing the traffique of either nation; which if by an allyance with the commonwealth is preserved, the navigation and commerce through the Sound and Baltique sea will be of greater emolument to the crowne of Sweden, then to the English, which hitherto had not binn free; and therefore, in my opinion, that article ought especially to have been accepted. And what related to a mutuall assistance, that was to be left to further considerations, and particular meetings to that end. And that itt was worth notice, that they would not ingage therein for the English, since it was improbable they could be long without warrs, although at present they were in peace, the Swedes havinge many enimies, which was better known unto himselfe then me. Hee replyed, that it was knowne unto him, that the crowne of Sweden had manie enemies, nevertheless they were in peace; but that the English were ingaged in a warr at sea. To which I said, that it was soe; but that the English power at sea was (God be praised!) every where well known, and their friendship therefore rather to be desired. The chancellor said, that the mention of a friendship with England was very acceptable; but the consideration of this parte of the article required more time. The 3d article being againe read over, the chancellor desired an exposition of the latter part thereof; what lawes and ordinances were thereby meant. I answered, the lawes of the comonwealth of England in England, and of the kingdome of Sweaden in Sweaden, necessary for both, since they have regard to the peace, commerce, and traffique of each; with which answer being satisfied, we went to the 4th article; which having bein twice read, hee said, that since there were some at this time in Sweaden, which had binn of the king's party, there residinge with their families, having houses and revenues, whom it would not be just now to drive away. I answered, that if such for the future endeavoured any thing against the commonwealth, and if there were any here excluded from the pardon of the parliament, they were not to harbour here, nor the rebells nor enemies of this crowne in England; that I would bee ready to consent to an alteration, as farr as it should be reasonable in that article. Itt being then past eleaven a clocke, (the time of dinner among the Swedes) I would not then detaine the chancellor any longer. This afternoone I attended the queene, and had two howers discourse alone with her, wherin I found her inclinations very well sett as to my buisnes; and she told me, that she would moderate any difference betweene her chauncellor and me. I send you heere inclosed the coppy of a paper, which I thought sitt to deliver under my hand to the queene; to which she promised me an answear, butt I have not yett received it. I have also sent you a paper, given unto me by Mr. Berkman, secretary to my lord Laggerfeldt, of which buisnes, and the stay of those shipps, there is too much talke heere. I earnestly entreat you to be instant with the councell in this buisnes. It seemes strange, that a shippe having the queene's passe and my lord Laggerfeldt's, should be seized, especially in this time of treaty, and cannot be discharged. I speake not att all in relation to my selfe, but the honour of my nation, and the succes of their buisness heere is concerned in such buisnesses. There is likewise some bales of goods of the queene's, and of one of her wardrobe, now in the prize-office, which were ordered to be delivered before I came out of England, butt are not yett had. I begge you to remember these buisnesses, and to continue your favours to me; and also to pardon this most tedious letter to you, which you may make use of to his highnesse, and to the councell, as you thinke fitt. I hold it my duety to give a particular account of my transactions, which causeth this trouble to you from
Upsale, Jan. 20. 1653.
An intercepted letter.
I HAVE not time to write to you much at this time, I being in hast, but only give you thankes for your many letters I receaved from you, desiring you to continue it still. Wee have noe news as yet; the talle teller Mr. Powell is but newly come into the country; he preached yesterday at Lanbister, but what matter he had I cannot tell as yet; but time will demonstrate. I receiued an order of his highness my lord protector and his council, declaring what was treason (fn. 1). I met with one parson yesterday, as [he was] going to church, and desired him to publish the same; but Philip, colonel Tayllor's man, told him, he ought not to do it, unless he had received it from the sheriff; and if so, I am confident wee should neuer have had it published; whereupon I caused it to be read by Henry Posser, in the open congregation. This I thought good to let you know, that you may understand the spirits of men here-abouts. Thus in hast I remain your very loving friend,
The 20th of Jan. 1653.
A Letter of intelligence.
By the last letters from Holland we have, that their deputies arrived safely there from England, and for certain the peace is concluded with England, tho' not yet signed; and yesterday I have seen half a dozen English and Hollanders in this city, drinking merrily towards that peace.
His holiness endeavours the best he can to have a general peace among the catholick princes, as Spain and France; to which purpose he sends now two cardinals legates a latere to Spain and France; of which by the time.
I forgot in the former to write to you of the three governors of Aire, St. Omer, and Graveling, committed to prison, by orders from his majesty of Spain, for having a design to deliver those three places to his majesty of France, being a high piece of treachery.
The 28th instant the procureur general came to the great chamber, where the parliament assembled that day, and told the first president he came in his majesty's name, to let them understand, that his said majesty had allowed the rentiers of the town-house the half-quarter payment, which they desired hitherto; therefore desired them not to assemble any more concerning that matter.
Two days ago happened some differences between the chancellor and Mons. le guard de sceaux, by reason the last has signed many arrests of the council before the first had seen them; which being sent to the chancellor afterwards to be signed, he turned them away, and would not look at them.
The 29th of this month, the first president went to his own house at Montrouge, where he entertained that day all the presidents en mortier, as also some counsellors of parliament, being the day of St. Charles Magne, alias, Carolus Magnus, olim rex Galliæ, which they observe as a holy-day in parliament.
Last week the council gave an arrest against the commanders Paul, M. chevalier de la Ferriers, and others, to deliver the vessels taken by them from the English at sea, with merchandizes in them contained, to their possessors, to oblige the English to do the like with the two ships they took lately from the merchants of St. Malo's. How they will proceed further, I know not.
His majesty sends expresses always to the count of Harcourt, to see whether he could advise him to alter his mind, and stay in France, as he has thursday last; and that he might not be lost altogether, his said majesty offers him yet Philipsburg for his retreat, with all his family, and besides 500000 livres in ready money; but that is to get Brisac out of his hands absolutely. We hear certainly, if he does not accept of this last offer, that his person shall be seized upon, which will be his total ruin; for Mons. de Charlerois, lieutenant for the king in Brisac, has gained all the officers and soldiers there; and (which is worse for him) that the emperor quits him, by reason of the loss of Philipsburg.
Our last letters from Sedan bring, that Mr. Faber their governor parted with 5000 men of the army that Turenne commanded, to take their winter-quarters in the Païs de Liege, by the king's orders; as also to join with the elector of Cologne's troops and Liegeois, which made a league or union with those of Provence, to accept of no troops of Condé and Lorain for their winter-quarters. Some say they be in all 16000 men.
Here arrived, three days ago, deputies from the parliament of Dijon, their first president being dead; and hearing the king was about to send them another out of Paris, they sent the said deputies, desiring his majesty to be pleased to let them chuse another out of their own members, being the custom of the place; and if his majesty had done otherwise, that it had been against their privileges, which they could not in justice endure. What shall come of it, I know not as yet.
We have from Brussels by the last letters, that M. count de Fuensaldagna is in disgrace, and has received orders from his majesty of Spain to return to Spain, and give an account of what money he received, and how he employed it hitherto.
I have nothing to say of the English court; only they have many consultations to remove for Holland, they expecting still the issue of the peace betwixt you and Holland; as also divisions amongst themselves, which is a thing they are more sure of, as they say daily, that it is impossible for the lord protector to continue long protector, having used his parliament as he did, &c. They fear much the Irish shall have liberty to live with their priests and friers as they desire; and afterwards that they will never look after themselves, nor any Roman catholick.
They still doubt here of the peace between the two commonwealths, which makes them delay an embassage purposed for Sweden, as also protract the time of Charles Stuart's depart for Germany, from whence all those of the royal palace daily expect money to pay (say they) their debts.
The rentiers of this city are so pressed for the payment of their half-quarter of rents, that this court hath been forced to give them fair words, and a continuation of good promises to appease them; whilst their parliament hath verified some edicts (of the declaration whereof I made mention in my last) concerning laces and other sumptuous apparel; alledging that the dearth thereof will fall upon the superfluity of the rich; the said parliament having rejected the other points of the said declaration, as being too chargeable for the publick.
All pursuits against the archbishop of Sens are suspended, by reason that the dispute doth daily increase the number of Jansenists, which makes the said archbishop think he has already won his cause; and prepares him so much against all his enemies attempts, that having been threatened with a brief from Rome, whereby the pope will condemn him to an ignominious punishment, and other mortifications, he hath declared, he feared them not; and that he would remain at his own house for a fortnight, to look for the signification of the same; whereof he makes no account, saying always, that it is not for the pope to reform St. Augustin. The cardinal Mazarin would have had a hand in this business, to uphold the pope's interest; but the bishop of Comminges hath dissuaded him from meddling with such matters, telling him, that to do it with reason, he had need to be as good a theologician as he is a politician.
Be it remembered, that captain John Williams preached at Cannigull in the county of Radnor, and did take his text out of the 3d of Amos, and the 3d verse; and after a short space, he fell of from his text, and out of a discontented spirit began to speak of the alteration of this present time, and to resemble some profites of these times unto the profite Amos, and the ruleres of this time unto Jeroboam; and resitinge a scripture in the 8th of Amos, and the 9th verse, that the sunn should goe downe at noone day, and our light turned to darkness; that, lo, in these dayes our sunn was gone down at noone daye, and our light turned to darkness; and sayd there was a seede sowed in darkness, which would springe in light; and he did believe this next springe; and alsoe resembling this present government unto a king suxsidinge his father, which kinge sayd his little finger should be heaveir than his fatheres loins. And further explaining it by thes wordes, We were like to have a good tyme, and some easement; but now our taxasion and burthen is greater, and like to be as long as hee liveth, naming the lord protector; and further saith, this and more was spoken to his safe: and further speakinge unto the people, they cried for a kinge; and hee assumed and sayd, they should have a kinge, and they had one alredy, for any thinge he knewe. This will be proved by sufficient witneses.
Ratification of the states of Utrecht.
The states of the country of Utrecht, after foregoing lawfull summons, being assembled together, have after the reading of the 29 articles, comprehended in the project of the union, peace, and correspondency between the commonwealth of England and the states general of the United Netherland Provinces, agreed and adjusted between the lords commissioners of this state and those of the government of England, due deliberation and examination of the papers being first made, unanimously concurred, and do concur hereby with the said 29 articles, without any reserve. Also their lordships do approve and ratify the same. The said lords states do think fit and understand, that on the behalf of this province there be declared to the generality as the provincial advice of that province, that the lords commissioners, namely, Beverning, Nieuport, Vander Perre, and Jongestal, have special thanks given them for their good endeavours and offices used by them in the said negotiation, with extraordinary care, good conduct, and sincere faithfulness, for the good of the state, and for the effecting of their high and mighty lordships good intentions, according to their successive instructions, resolutions, and orders; and the said states do hereby also ratify their said negotiation, and the said lords states do also resolve, that on the behalf of this province all manner of endeavours shall be used, to the end the ratification of the other provinces may be speedily effected; and that in the mean time, the lords commissioners, or any one of them, do return forthwith into England, to agree and adjust the said 29 articles with the lords commissioners of his highness the lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and to sign the same; and also to endeavour, the sooner the better, that all acts of hostility may cease; and that notice may be given, in the mean time, to all the publick ministers and consuls of this state, in any part beyond the seas, that they should admonish all merchants and skippers to remain in their harbours for a while, till the issue of the English negotiation be made known unto them; that also their said lordships commissioners, or any one of them, that shall be sent into England to effect and finish their high and mighty lordships resolutions, may be authorized and ordered to congratulate his highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, in the name of their high and mighty lordships, with the dignity of his lord protectorship; and to declare unto him especially, that their lordships were heartily glad to understand, that his highness was arrived to that step of the government of the said commonwealth, whereby he was enabled to execute of his own accord his good inclination and affection for the perfecting and concluding of a firm and near alliance between both the commonwealths. Done at Utrecht, the 1st of February 1654.
Resolution of the states general.
The lords deputies of the province of Friesland, here present, have declared in the assembly, that their lordships had first been informed by common report, and that the lords of Zealand had afterwards likewise declared from others, to have heard, that one of their high mightinesses commissaries for the English negotiations was again set out for England; and whereas not the least notification was given to their high mightinesses, to what end, and with what orders, the said commissary was dispatched, they find themselves necessitated to declare, that their noble mightinesses the lords states of Friesland, their lords and masters, do reserve to themselves their right, to explain themselves further thereupon, and to resolve what they shall think requisite, without consenting thereto. Whereupon this resolution was taken.
Extract out of the book of resolutions of their noble mightinesses the states of the city of Groningen and country.
The lords of the city and country having read the projected 29 articles of peace between the republick of England and their state, which have been concerted, together with the report, and the advices of the lords commissioned for the secret conferences; all which being heard and examined, it was resolved to approve of the projected articles. Provided however, that at the head of the said articles, instead of, states general, shall be placed the words; The state or republick of the United Netherlandish Provinces: and so throughout in all the following articles.
Further, that it is highly necessary, in relation to the seventh article, §. 1. that the declaration of the king of Denmark must be first had, before the ratification of the treaty; and in case his majesty should not be satisfied with the contents of the said seventh article, that this state, according to the treaty made with the crown of Denmark, cannot proceed to the ratification of the said seventh article, at least not without a new and vigorous resolution being taken by their high mightinesses before the ratification of the treaty, to declare especially, earnestly, and seriously by the lords the commissaries of this state, to the government of England, as follows; to wit, that in case the government of England, on account of some former pretensions, should come into a war with the crown of Denmark, and that the same could not be amicably adjusted, that then this state would be obliged and forced; and accordingly had also taken the resolution, in that case, vigorously to support the crown of Denmark with help, advice, and assistance, and to defend the same with their strength, according to the treaty of alliance concluded with the said crown, and the iterated resolutions of their high mightinesses of the 5th of June 6th of September, 25th of October, and 7th of November 1653. taken here, upon the ratification of the treaty made between the crown of Denmark and this state.
That in the second article, §. 7. the word league be left out; and that as to the eighth article, the remarks of their high mightinesses be urged concerning the affairs of the marine; viz. that the peace be concluded, a regulation being made with mutual consent touching the marine and prohibited goods, after the example of France and Spain.
As to the proposition made by the lord Chanut, extraordinary ambassador of the king of France, made in the assembly of their high mightinesses, it was thought just, reasonable, equitable and necessary, that the said crown, as the oldest and most faithful ally of this state, should be comprehended and included in the alliance, which is to be made with England; and this must not be desisted from, for any reason whatsoever.
A letter of intelligence.
Ye will doe me a singular favour to let me know, if my former letters be com to your handes; for this is the eighth tyme I have writin to you, bot have not as yett hard from you. I shall be ravished to receave your commandes, the which ye may be confident I shall obey, so far as power or abilites can reach. Ther is nothing, that shall pass in this contrey, of which you shall not be advertised; for my acquaintance is such, that I have particular intelligence of every thing that passeth heir.
Sir, ye may be pleased to give me another adresse then Humes. This last action of the parlament of Tholouse hath mightily irritated the protestants heir; a sparke wold put them all on fire. Ther is nothing they ar so panting after as a happie peace betwixt the two republiques; for till they have certain newes therof, they do not enterpryse aney thing: they talk, that if wars continue betwixt the two commonwalths, that their adversaries will indevour some plott agenst them, being so inraged since the buisnes of Vals. Ther only confidence ar in your nation, thinking that it shall pleas the Lord to mak you the instrument of ther delyverie.
Another letter from the same hand.
The troupes of cavalrie we have sein leatly passe heir, are the regiments of Ganzargue and Guiris, and of Cavillar, the which regiments are come from Xaintonge, as also three others, which ar newly composed of dismonted troupers com from Catalogne, under the conduct of Ciniargues, Durand, and Rochsort; all the forsaide troupes doe not excead 1500. It is reported, that their ar 2000 foot to joyne with the foresaid cavalrie, of which the regiment of duc of Rohans aught to be on of the number, the which passed this day; such regiment did I neuer sie; for I am confident 30 or 40 well armed men would have put the whole regiment to flight. Those of Provence resisted in the beginning to lett them enter; bot we have hard since, that they have passed the bridge called the St. Esprit. The common bruit heir is, that those troupes are going for Naples, but as yett we can learn no certaintie. One of the councellors of the parliament of provence being putt in prisone, for favouring the prince of Conde, in the city of Sistezon, which is on the river of Durance, had almost killed himself, indevouring to escape, bot taken bak, then putt in close prisone. The said parliament, which holds at Aix in Provence, is very eveil—intentioned agenst the protestants. The stats of Languedoc at Monpelier have condescended to give a million of livres to the king, over and above the common taxes, that ar exacted on the province. The parlement of Languedoc, which holds at Tholouse the 21st of January last, have condemned to death, and caused to be executed, Monsieur the baron of Leran, a gentleman of our religion; who having declaymed and denyed ther authoritie, as having no power about him, did appeal to the Chamber of the Edicts of Castres, who by the edicts of Nantes are constituted judges of the Protestants of Languedoc. This action has alarmed all the Protestants of this countrey, who unanimously resolved to have reparation of this injurie, but first to send commissioners to complean, and remonstrat the injustice of the action to the king. The Chamber of the Edicts of Castres have nominat four the most considerable of ther companie, to witt, messieurs de Saussand, de Ranchin, de Carlot, and de Rozel, to goe to court, for to signifie to his majestie the affront they have received, as lykways the injustice don to the foreseid gentilman. All the rest of the churches of Languedoc ar to send commissioners, the names whereof you shall have in my nixt. Those of the Court of Aides of Montpellier have given foorth an act, to take and lay hands on the second consul of this towne, as also on others; bot they dare not put in execution this arrest, thogh it hath pleased the king to send two arrests for the establishing of the church in Vals; nevertheless one of the papish counsaillers, who is nominat by the king for the establishment of the same, doeth absent himself, being so concelled by our adversaries, till a revolution and more savourable time appeare. The sad and lamentable accident, that hath befallen our brethren at Charanton, make those of this province to lament the miseries of these poore people, (not being abel to assist them otherways) who have not the permission to assemble themselves within the walls nor fauxbourgs of the towne; bot ar constrained to reteir themselves from the towne three or four myles, for to goe about (in the winter tyme) their spiritual exercises.
Mr. Richard Bradshaw, the English resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
The last week's letters are but now come on: I shall be carefull of the inclosed to my lord ambassador, from whom I received this paquet per last post. I am sory, the intimation I gave you of the receipt of your letters, and dispatches of them, was so longe in cominge to your handes; for I neglected not to doe it by the returne of the very same post, by which I received them; but it is allwayes twenty days in the ordinary course of the post, to have answer of a letter hence. Ere theise can reach you, I suppose you have notice what scuflinge there hath been at the Hague, 'twixt the maritime and the inland provinces, about signeinge the article their deputies brought over. It is heere thought and feared, the Orange party will be the strongest. The French ply them so as they will be too hard for the other; but all conclude them a lost people, if they signe not the ratification. Whatever the issue be, wee have cause to blesse God, that peace on our part hath been so clearly pursued, and that we may hope for successe in the warre, if forst to it. It should seem you discoursed them so well ere they parted, as it nothing abated your care in our naval preparations; and the people's cominge in lyke with the government daily more and more ministers encouragement and hopes, that the Lord will blesse us in the successe, whether by peace or warre. What hath occured since my last, you will find in the inclosed, which is all; and that I am
Hamburg, 24 Jan. 165¾.
If it be expected I should heere provide shippinge for the masts at springe, pray let me have order for it per next. The more tyme I have, the greater will be the advantage to the state, for other thinges formerly writ of, which I suppose you will have leasure ere longe to let me know what I may depend upon; which I desire of you.
Intelligence from the Hague. Febr. 4. 1654. [N.S.]
The court is intirely resolved to support the affairs of the lord prince of Liege, and his bishoprick, as well against the designs of the duke of Lorrain, as against the prince of Condé and the Spaniards: partly they disturb and weaken thereby their open enemies, as also (which I now learn here) by reason of a certain treaty made at Munster and Osnabrug, with the princes, whose territories are situated upon and below the Rhine. For this purpose Mons. Faber, governor of Sedan, is marching with 5000 men of the army of the marshal de Turenne, to join the troops of Liege, that are encamped to defend those parts from all troubles. They would sain see here, that yours would join them likewise, since they say, that bishoprick, bordering on France and the United Provinces, is of great consequence, since in time of need one might send that way a speedy succour to one another.
They have here certain advice, that Spain has offered to the present government of England an offensive and defensive alliance; so that France fears there is some mischief a brewing, and intends, besides the former, to send one more extraordinary ambassador to England; and the council has publish'd already here this week an ordinance against the commodore Paul and the chevalier de la Ferriere, that they shall restore to the English all the ships and effects, which they have taken at sea from the English; for they pretend, that this ought to be done, in order to oblige the English to restore likewise to us two ships of St. Malo, which are taken by them.
They have also resolved here, to send an extraordinary ambassy to Sweden, to keep a balance of affairs there, since they observe that the Spaniards gain every day more credit with that court; and therefore they suspect, that both these powers may perhaps conclude an alliance with England. They have constantly observed here with a pretty deal of uneasiness, that they form several strange pretensions against this court, which might be afterwards easily made use of as a pretence to go further. It is said that Mons. Avancourt is to go in that character.
Mons. d'Estrades has sent an express to this court, whereby he sends word, that he has discovered at Bourdeaux the chief of the l'Ormer, and secured him in prison; wherefore, since he is excluded from the amnesty, he desires instructions on that head.
They begin to divulge in Spain, that a marriage between the king of the Romans and the infanta of Spain is agreed, and will speedily be concluded; which is very much dreaded here, and in Germany. On the 27th of this month, the attorney general brought a message from the king to the parliament, that their majesties had granted to the collectors of the rents of the Hotel de ville the one half quarter which they desired; and therefore that it was unnecessary to meet on that account.
The king has sent again an express to the count d'Harcourt, to bring him to his duty, his majesty offering him Philipsburg, to retire thither with his whole family, and 500,000 livres in ready money. If he doth not accept this, he is undone and lost, seeing he is under the hands of Mons. de Charlerois, as are also the other officers and soldiers that are at Brisack.
The chief thing, which every body gives now his attention to, is the peace between the two republicks, which the ill-affected, and those that are gainers by these troubles, pretend to be intirely broke off: but those that wish the welfare of both republicks, and have the deepest insight in the affairs of secrecy, (as this is kept as yet a secret) say and assure, that every thing is already done and concluded, and that nothing is wanting herein, but the ratification on your side, which we expect with the greatest impatience; the more, since it is dangerous, in affairs of that nature, to be tedious and slow. The rest of our affairs, God be thanked! have succeeded well. Every body, as well here as from abroad, comes to congratulate our protector: France, the cardinal Mazarin, Spain, the prince of Condé, Hamburgh and the Hans-towns, Florence, and other states, have done the same, either by their ambassadors or agents here; and all the corporations have proclaimed him their protector; and all the parties of the army every-where have sent in their consent in writing; nay, the nobility themselves seem to be wonderfully pleased.
Our fleet, to the number of forty ships, is gone to the coast of St. Helen's; a like number cruiseth upon the French coast, against the rovers of Brest. From Scotland we hear nothing else but the arrival of a Dutch vessel with arms; and that they are still continually raising a great number of men.
They are fitting out at Tilbury Hope a new fleet, viz. 15 of sixty, and 15 of forty guns, wherewith the Soverain is to go to sea. But it is hoped, that the peace will alter the design of this armament to something else. They are still bringing in daily a vast many prizes.
They write to me, that they have sent from Brabant the nomination of three gentlemen to Spain, to chuse there one of them, in the place of the ambassador de Brun, who died at the Hague: those gentlemen are, Mr Molinaer, who is at present at Ratisbon, Mr Bureur, and Mr Friet.
There is no news yet, that any of the provinces have sent their approbation or ratification to the Hague: however they are expected all together against the tenth of this instant, when the states of Holland are to meet again.
Resolution of the states of Friesland.
The states of Friesland having heard and examined with attention and serious deliberation in our assembly the circumstantial report of the lord Allart P Jongestall (having been one of the commissioners on the behalf of this state in England) made unto us both by word of mouth, and in writing, concerning the 29 articles, for the making up of a treaty between the commonwealth of England and this state, they have thought sitting and convenient to compare in good order and method the said articles with the instructions of their high and mighty lordships, given to their commissioners in England from time to time; and what they shall find to be agreeable to their instructions, they will approve and ratify the same, as they do hereby approve and ratify the same accordingly; and also the 29 articles agreed on between the commonwealth of England and this state, with the reserve and precautions as followeth:
Furthermore, that the declaration of the king of Denmark upon the 8th article ought to be accepted, before the ratification of these treaties; and in case his majesty is not contented with the contents of the said 7th article, we do understand, that this state cannot proceed to the ratification of this treaty, according to the clear text of the alliance made between the king of Denmark and this State, running as followeth; (fn. 2) That it shall not be free for this State to treat with those of the present government of England, or to lay down their arms, without communication of the allied king; neither can any peace, truce, or cessation of arms be made with the said government of England, unless the said king, with all his respective kingdoms, be included and comprehended in the said treaty of peace, cessation, or otherwise.
That the last of the 36 articles ought also to be the last article of this treaty, as being used by all civil people to be inserted at the end of their treaties and alliances; Hostes erimus, exceptis regibus, civitatibus & portubus, quibuscum fædus nobis & amicitia est: for this state never yet made any treaty or alliance with any potentate or commonwealth, but still they did comprehend their allies in the same.
That since the government of England did declare to the commissioners, that they would live in good peace and amity with all their neighbours, and yet they will not comprehend in this treaty all the allies of this state, and especially the crown of France; this is very strange, and of dangerous consequence, and a presumption, quod latet anguis in herba; and that the government either hath, or in time to come may have, the thoughts, which once Ferdinand king of Arragon had, at the making of a treaty with the king of Navarre, as Bodin doth relate it in lib. 5. de republ. cap. 6. in these words: Ferdinandus Arragonum rex, ut Petrum regem Navarræ imperio spoliaret, nibil prius habuit, quam ut illum a Francorum societate sejungeret, ut tandem ab omnibus desertus facile opprimeretur. The including of the crown of France in this treaty is the best security of this state, and of great honour and reputation; so likewise the power and opposition of both states, as well of France as this state, being joined, would be formidable to all those who should offer to injure them. The including of the crown of France and Denmark in this treaty will be the best means to secure the commerce and navigation throughout the narrow seas, and to bring it into a flourishing condition: and withal, if the crown of France and the commonwealth of England be continually in arms one against the other, you can expect no other than a perpetual disturbance of the commerce, and no security or safety for those that trade.
And as commerce and trade are the soul and life of the state, therefore it is an undeniable maxim, not only to have peace with all their neighbour nations, but also that they endeavour to make that all their neighbours have peace one with another. The least commotion amongst them is a disturbance and destruction to the trade, commerce, and navigation of this State.
If it be true in any commonwealth, it is most true in this state, that which Sallust faith, Non exercitus neque thesauri præsidia regni sunt, verum amici. — Non autem istud sceptrum est, quod regnum custodit, faith Xenophon; sed copia amicorum est regibus sceptrum verissimum tutissimumque; nec ullum magis boni imperii instrumentum, quam boni amici. Tacit. l. 4. Hist. Videtur amicitia rempubl. magis continere, & majore quam justitia in studio fuisse legistatoribus; nam si amicitia inter omnes esset, nihil est quod justitiam desiderarent; at si justi essent, tamen amicitia præsidium requirerent. So judgeth Arist. l. 8. And of this opinion were their high and mighty lordships, when they from time to time, by their serious and iterated resolutions of the 5th of June 1653. did agree and conclude, that the interests of France should be as much taken to heart as those of this state; and that the crown of France, as well as this state, (these are the words verbatim) should be brought to an agreement with England; whereof communication should be given to the king of France by the lord ambassador Boreel; and all the provinces of this state did approve of the articles for the renewing of the alliance with France; and conferences were had with his majesty about it, and were advanced so far, that they were near concluding.
Which reason we do all judge to be of that consequence, that this state ought not to ratify this treaty, than with the express inclusion of the crowns of France and Denmark; whereof the first is the ancientest and most considerable ally of this state, that upon several occasions hath assisted us with such considerable supplies and subsidies, that the memory thereof never ought to be forgotten by the governors of this state.
And we do also understand, that the said lords commissioners, together and at the same time adorned with the characters of ambassadors, ought to be sent into England with all speed, with this instruction; we verily believing, that the government of England against reason and justice will not earnestly insist against the inclusion of the crowns of France and Denmark, in regard they have declared the same, to be willing to live with their neighbours in good peace and amity: And we do thank the lord Jongestall, one of the commissioners of this state in England from this province, that his lordship did not engage or prejudice the free deliberation of the whole State, nor of this province, by signing the projected articles, according to the resolution of their high and mighty lordships, of the 5th of June 1653. Likewise we do hereby return thanks to his lordship, for his care and pains taken therein for the service of this State. All this done and resolved at the general assembly, held the 4th of February, 1654. [N. S.]
Resolution of the states of Friesland.
The states of Friesland, with ripe deliberation, having examined the inserted proviso concerning the lord prince of Orange, do understand, that the obligation made therein ought reciprocally on that side of the commonwealth of England to be also inserted in the treaty, after this manner, that the lords protectors, governors, and captain generals, councils of state, and all other high officers, at present and in time to come, together with the parliament of the commonwealth of England, shall swear justly and uprightly to maintain these articles of the treaty, and cause their successors to maintain and observe the same, according to the utmost of their power. So likewise all those, whether the lord prince of Orange, or whosoever he may be, that shall be chosen by their high and mighty lordships for captain general, or admiral of their militia by land and water, or by the states of the respective provinces for stadtholder or governor of the same, shall be obliged and bound to swear to this treaty, and the articles thereof; and consequently to promise, that they, as much as lyeth in them, shall help to maintain the same: for if the obligation be only made by the officers of this state, after the manner as the proviso is made, this state will thereby seem to receive laws from the commonwealth of England, to make no consederacy; in which the conditions ought to be equal and reciprocal to both the contractors. And because the government of England in a formal and after an unusual manner doth set themselves against the prince of Orange, we do therefore understand, that the name of the lord prince of Orange ought to be expressed in this article or proviso. Thus resolved the 4th of Febr. 1654. [N. S.]
A letter to secretary Thurloe, from one of the persons who translated his letters of intelligence.
The inclosed this French post broght, and little else, but repeating the gentleman's being sent from cardinal Mazarin to your lord protector, and to M. Bourdeaux, to instruct him, how to behave himself in ceremonies and otherwise with the said lord protector; all which is known now better here.
They say in Paris, but none dare report it, that count Harcourt gave a defeat to mareschal de la Ferté Senneterre, wherein the most part of the duke of York his regiment is slain; but of this I cannot assure you.
A letter of intelligence.
By this post I have nothing from you; neither did I write to you the post before, having little to adde to what I gave you a week before. Great admiration is continued here by the creation of the lord protector Cromwell; and truly I finde indifferently most men give great acclamations, as well to this as the rest of his resolved valiaunt actions. Some English alsoe here seem not displeased at it, and less generalie all the Irish; but the Scotts are mad at it, cursing, swearing, and threatning, &c. The lord Wilmot wondered not at it, as he sayes, beinge by him always expected.
The affairs of R. Carolus here are yet in eodem statu, and not ended or concluded the tyme of payment nor the summe, but dailie sued for by the ambassador Wilmot, who is much affraide, that the treaty betwixt England and Holland retards, although the dissentions here in the diet seem to be the obstacle. This is the true state of Wilmot his negotiation here this day, whatever is sayd or written to the contrarye; and you may depend upon it.
The whole world have their eyes fixed more upon your lord protector, and your treaty with Holland. I pray give what relation you can of both duelie, because the emperor is desirous of it, as he told an acquaintance of yours.
I need not write to you of the incursions of Leige and Colen's differences, you being nearer Brussels, from whence you may have them: here we have not much. The emperor sent a decree to all the states, that he sees they proceede slowly, to the great damage of the empire; and he out of his paternal affection doth admonish them to dispatch and make an end within two months; for he cannot stay longer at Ratisbon, because certain affaires of Christendom call him to Hungary, and other places; and this ayre agrees not with his complexion and health. The old empress cannot escape this spring.
It was concluded to pay the duke of Lorraine now 250000 crowns, and the rest within two years, to evacuate two places he has in Germanie. It is concluded here to assist the elector of Colen against Lorraine and Condé; but it will be too late. The Sweeds pretend to have Bremen; what shall be the ende, I knowe not.
The equalitie of voices in the councell of electors to both religions is not granted, nor to make nine electors. Matters are suspended in many points, but great hopes all shall goe well. The French ambassador complained of the levies made for the king of Spain in the empire, to be against the peace of Munster; but the diet adjudged it not to be; and nowe at present the Spanish ambassador here is levying 10,000 horse and foote.
The Muscovite declared war against Poland, thinking no peace to be between the Polanders, Cossacks, and Tartars; but that peace is made, as you may see by the copy of that king's letter to the emperor, and another of the vice-chancellor's, which you have here inclosed. No more now from,