A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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July (5 of 7)
Mr. James Jollie to the protector.
May it please your Highnesse,
To receive my report concerning Mr. Akehurst, vice-master of Trinity-colledge, who is accused before thee of atheism and blasphemie, &c. Mr. Akehurst is a man knowne to myselfe, who hath been of late in great troubles both of body and mind, and his ease and refreshment hath not been comparable to the misery he hath endured, so that my very soul hath mourned over him. And what will not a man say sometimes in the bitternesse and anguish of his spirit, when the arrowes of the Almighty stick fast in his sides, especially when the torment of his mind hath been such sometimes, that he could give no account whence it proceeded, nor whether it tended, it being occasioned by no forgoing thoughts, which might disturb his soul? Mr. Akehurst is one, whose soul cannot be satisfied with blind tradition in the things of God, and therefore has travailed to find out a reason of his waies, by reading, meditation, by discourse with men; and finding them weak and insufficient, and sometimes not favouring their own discourse, hath in the anguish of his spirit reproacht their shortnesse, parrat-language, in such expressions, as seem to reflect upon God, whereas it might be but a chargeing of their apprehensions, misconceptions, scantnesse, unfavorinesse, &c.
I am perswaded, that whatsoever proceeded from Mr. Akehurst, was not to wound or weaken the true faith of any; but an earnest desire to receive satisfaction himself, and withall to shake all præsumptious and carelesse faith, which produced nothing; not to withdraw any from God, but settle himself and others on more rationall foundations. All the course of his life, of late, hath been a perpetuall breathing after compleat satisfaction, that he might justifie God in all his proceedings; so that he hath been wholly carelesse of his credit, if so be any whereof he might find rest to his soule.
These things have I written, not that I would excuse any levitie of spirit, or lavishnesse of humour, which sometimes probably might possesse him; but all things being considered, the bruised reed may not be broken, nor the smoaking flax quenched.
The Lord direct thy highnesse to steere betwixt, and to judge aright. Thus have I declared my mind. Let not my folly in this addresse, if there be any, be prejudiciall to another; for this paper proceeded from me alone.
My lord, I call to witnesse the living God, that I desire, not that any contempt of his majestie may not passe unreproved, or any sleighting of his truths, but that there may be a due ballanceing of things, that the glory of God may suffer on no hand; and therefore have I writ with much fear, least I should be found a liar for either partie. The Lord make you as wise as Salomon!
A letter of intelligence.
Yours by the last I received, to which I have not much to answer at this time, nothing being now here treated of R. C. his business, or any others; but his imperial majesty in his sadness, after the death of his son, passing his time with the embassadors and residents, that come to visit him, at Ebersdorf; from whence he parted with his court to Newstadt, where he is to give order to the diet of Hungary to assemble on the fourth of November next, when, if not before, his now eldest son shall be king of Hungary.
Upon the remonstrances presented to his imperial majesty by those of the city of Bremen, how they were treated by the Swedes, and praying his majesty's assistance; the emperor has deputed the bishop of Munster and duke Christian Louis towards general Coningsmark, to let him know, that if acts of hostility shall be further continued against the said city of Bremen, orders shall be sent to the five cantons of the Switzers, the High and LowSaxony, Westphalia, and the electors of Brandenburgh, and the High-Rhine, to assist the said city of Bremen; so that the difference must be composed in some fair way, or a new war may ensue.
Of R. C. I can say nothing since my former. I am now far from him, or his embassador Wilmot, they being near you. When I shall know any thing of them, or their proceedings, you shall be assured of all I know, from, Sir,
Mr. W. Clarke to Mr. Errington, post-master of Newcastle.
On fryday last, after five weekes march above 400 miles with almost inaccessible mountaines and boggy places, wee had on fryday last (after sixteen miles march the same day) a view of the enemie under Middleton; and there being a steep hill two miles high between us and them, yet we got over the severall parties of horse and foot; but the enemie, having four miles advantage of us, disperst themselves severall ways; soe that we only took some few prisoners, some of their portmantuas, hampers of provisions, which for hast they lest behinde. The night coming on, we could not pursue them further through. I beleive they will not deserve the name of an enemie, being dispersed severall times; and now their course will be to spoile the country in almost those inaccessible places. They had in their march burnt the house of Finlarick, belonging to the laird of Glenorquie, and were beginning to fire other houses; but their hasty march could not permit them; so that I hope the worst of the summer's march is at an end. The earl of Seafort, St. Mungo, Murray, Mr. Cloud, Mr. Claur, with about six hundred men, were lately in the isle of Skye, indeavouring to raise the country, but were withstood by Sir James Mac Donald, and the captain of Clanrannold. I desire your care of the inclosed, and remayne
A letter of intelligence.
Their imperial majesties are in very good health. They have been three days in the deserts of Manerstorff, and from thence ere yesterday they went to Ebersdorf. It is now considered by his majesty to resign the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia to the young archduke Leopold, eldest son to the emperor at present, being about seventeen years old; and, they say, of a riper wit and courage than his brother that died.
The king of the Romans was buried with magnificence and pomp, his father the emperor being present. He was buried at the Capuchins, in a chapel, that the emperor Rodolph built; and now this emperor will cause another chapel to be built in the Augustines church, which shall be called Castrum doloris.
It is remarkable and true of some things, that happened at Vienna some few days before the death of the king of the Romans. The night he sickened, being saturday, an eagle, that was fed in the castle forty years, flew away, and placed herself upon the top of St. Michael's church, where many other birds of several sorts gathered about her, where of mere grief she died; and the night the king died, the young eagles flew also out of the castle, and not yet known, whither they are gone. Many other signs happened too tedious to be written.
The parliament at Warsaw is happily ended, to the great contentment of all. His majesty hath got satisfaction in every thing, which he desired; so that in a short time he will be in a very considerable posture. The alliance with the Tartars is likewise concluded some days ago. Our forces sell upon a party of three thousand Muscovites, who, according to their custom, very securely celebrating the feast of St. James's day, were all routed, and for the most part killed by them: the rest were taken prisoners.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
The tyme by this post is spent, it being midnight ere I could finish my dispatch inclosed to his highnesse. It was but yesterday, that I first closed with Sir John for this service, of whose faithfullnesse I dout not, and no man can doe the like service in all Germany. I am to-morrow to finish the carracter 'twixt him and me, and so the next morninge he will depart; but pray faile not to send him a caracter for yourselfe, and give me notice of it; allsoe to send to some trusty frind in Brussells to write to Sir John, how to convey his letters safely to him, that you may have them that way allsoe. I thinke it might doe well to have one neare the Spaw, to receive the intelligence quickly from Sir John, and passe it to you; however I shall hasten it hence assoone as comes to my hands. If you faile but one post to order how I shall proceede with the shipp of armes, &c. she may be gone ere the next. If you expect this senate doe any thing in matters of assistinge me, it must be by writinge specially to them. By the Dutch articles, in which they are included, they ought not to permit armes, &c. to be shipt for the enemie, nor such agents as Waites, if he get C. S. commission to abide heer; but of that and other things per next. I am in more than hast, Sir,
Least theise should miscarry in the pacquet, I send copies of all under my owne hand to a friend sealed . . . . . . my lord protector per this post. Pray be carefull this businesse come not to the knowledge of Mr. Farrington, or any other of your clerkes, least some discourse be made of it to the loss and ruine of the gentleman. I have great hopes to . . . . . . . certainly the empire will assist against us; and this is C. S.'s last game. Be careful at home of all your posts. Everie stone will be turned to undoe you; and I doubt, they that smooth you most, are not your friends.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to the protector.
May it please your Highnesse,
Haveinge duely informed myselfe of the present resort of many great personages to the Spaw, and haveinge here observed, that the kinge of Denmarke, D. of Brandenburgh, and almost all the princes of the circle of the Lower Saxonie, (under pretence of visits) have been often in private consultations with the queene of Sweden, who departed but yesterday towards the Spaw to meete C. Steward, as some of the gentlemen of her owne partie give it fourth, I thought it my dutie, concludeing there must be some further reason of that meeting then to drink those waters, to endevour, if possible I could, and as Mr. secretary Thurloe had desired, to find out a fit man to penetrate their councills and designes; in which I trust providence hath directed me aright, to effect the needfull in soe important a service to your highnesse and the commonwealth, by the present signinge this inclosed humble addresse to your highnesse, whose abilities and interest in that partie and their friends must needes (as I humbly conceive) render him more capable, if the point of faithfullnesse be secured, as I conceive it is by the solemne engagement he passeth to your highnesse, then any other, in whom that partie have not the like confidence. However, I could find noe better or more likely way for the present expedition, not doubtinge but your highness will approve, and God succeed, my reall intention of serveinge your highnesse in this gentleman. I shall be carefull, if he should prove otherwise then I expect, that he hurt no body but himselfe. I know not what to thincke of his opinion of the queene of Sweden's intentions, beinge so contrary to what she hath held fourth to my lord ambassador. It's true the Swede and Dane breath both in one ayre, and this gentleman speaks but the common opinion touching the queene's goeinge to the Spaw, to meet with, if not to marry the Scots king; who, he faith, he hath here at Hamburgh heard her stile the king of Great Britaine; but it's the crowne of Sweden, which . . . . . with your highnesse. The inclosed paper speaks all that at present can here be certainely knowen of the Swedish forces coming towards Breme. Whatever that queen and others may intend, yet I presume your highnesse will look upon the other advertisement as considerable and providentially given; and that this gentleman going to the Spaw at such a time as this, and under such a conjured engagement of his own, to render a true and faithfull accompt of all transactions there, so farr as they can be discovered, to be no diservice, but well worth the charge it may require; and that by the returne of the post, tyme being presious, your highnesse will please to order, how I shall proceed as to his allowance; and for the ship with arms and ammunition, which will be dispatched hence so soon as March, and Waite's returne, who by this gentleman's accompt, and their friends expectation, will be here again within three weeks or a month at furthest. I shall carefully endeavour to improve this oppertunity for the utmost service of your highness, having desired Mr. secretary Thurloe to hast orders to some sure friend in Brussells, to give notice thence to Sir John privately at the Spaw, by expresse or otherwise, it not being farre from thence, that he may with safety send his letters to him, to be sent to your highness, which way they will sooner come to hand by any than through this cittie. I had sent or writ to Mr. Thelwall, had I been assured of his being there. Submitting the premissed to your highness consideration, together with the inclosed copie of what Sir John wrot to this day, as omitted in his former letter to your highness, I make bold to subscribe, as I shall ever approve myselfe,
Sir John Hendersone to the protector.
May it please zour Highness,
Since my freedome from Edinburg's imprisonment, by your hyghness his singular favour, have since acknoledged my lyfe to be holdin (under God) of zour hyghness; and fall ever be found verie thankfull for the same, so long as my blood is warme. I acknoledge also att that time many other particular favours done to me, bot more especiallie my sone's freedome, takeing at the battale of Worcester, thocht verie ingratly and contrair to my will, he has ingadged himself with Middleton against your hyghness his interest, zitt in in short tyme I houp to bring him off that ingadgment the best I cann.
In consideration of all these favours done, if I werr ingrate to zour hyghness, the earth and creatures therof wold be tediouse of my being. Therefore laying asyde all considerations quatsomever, I humblie heir prostrat myself att zour hyghness his feet, presenting my service, lyfe and blood, for zour hyghness his interest, of quom I acknoledge my lyfe to be holdin; nather in conscience can I doe otherwise, since I am tutched with a sensible acknoledgment of God his fatherlie providance, by preserving zour hyghness so extraordinarlie in zour actions from all machinations quhatsomever; and being now in Germanie, knouing most part, quhat courses are contrived again zour hyghness for the interest of these, that are in armes in Scotland; I thocht good, not onlie to mak notifyed to zour hyghness att present such things as I know, but also to remain heir in Germanie for three month by the contrivers of the same; and from tyme to tyme give zour hyghness trew notice of quhat may be concluded contrair to zour hyghness his interest, by quhat persons, and quhat their negotiations may be, out of quhat ports, how to be conducted, and quhair to be sent; so that zour hyghness may in seasonable tyme prevent all. By this I engadge my life, my honour, and reputation, and all I have, for zour hyghness his interest, humblie desireing secrecie, that by the contrair I be not ruined for my inteir affectionne to zour hyghness and the commonwealth of the three nations; and first of all I humblie desire a character may be sent me, so that quhere I sall have occasionne of wretting bussinesses of importance, I may be secured, by not knowing quhat my letters may signifie.
Next, I give zour hyghness humblie to understand, that by the kyng and his councell a defensive warr in Scotland this sommer is concluded, and by no meanes that they may hazard the least ingadgement, till armes, amonitionne, and victuall be provyded, qhuich can hardlie be done till the nichts grow longer, without hazard of intercepting. Forty thousand armes are intended for ther succours, with a compleat artillerie, and chieflie good mortar-peaces for fortifications. Three shipps are ordeined to goe from the Elve out of Hamburg; one is presently ready with 4000 musquets, 100 barrell of powder, six pittards, with abundance of match, musquett-ball, lead, and four great moulds of iron, for zetting musquett-ball; two surgeons with their chists and servants; the other two ships are to follow: 'tis to be managed by one collonel March, a Kentish man, quho is this day gone in all haist to the Spa, quhere he is to receave his last orders from the kyng and the lord Willmot, and in all haist to returne heir again for the effecting his business heir. If this bussiness fall be published, as therin they are to agree with one Leonard Marsellyes, that he the kyng of Denmark his maggazin at Gluckstat in his hand; from thence he will furnish armes and ammunition at pleasure, for ready money; so that allwyse the kyng's maggazin may be compleated again. Collonel March is to goe with the first ship for Scotland, ther to receave all succurs quhatsomever fall be sent thither, to be by him disposed of at's general commissarie; and George Waites, as agent, to remain in Hamburg for plotting and sending quhat shall be thocht sitting for their use, quha also is gone upp to the Spa with collonel March to receave his patent and orders. I conceive no great danger this sommer, save the transport of armes and ammunitione to Scotland, quhich before my departure from heir sall be made notifyed to your hyghness his resident in this place, so much as I know, or heireafter shall learne, being above at the Spa amongst them. The town of Zermouth wold be verie weill looked to; for the discourses goes heir wonderfull of the quein of Sweden's proceedings. Certaine it is, that twelve or sixteen thousand men are to arm out of Sweden to the Weserr; sum affirms, that it is from Bremenn; to quich purpose shee hes mett with the greatest part, if not all the princes of the Nether Saxon circle, as also with the kyng of Denmark. Sum affirmes, all is to dispose them to a neutralitie, till the Swedish attacque the citie of Bremmen. Others affirmes, that Bremen is pretended as the first rendevous of that armie, upon the Weserr. The nixt is thocht to be in England, shee having concluded a mariadge at the Spa with Charleś Stuard, therby intending a royall work worthie such a hyghe spirit as she hes. In this bussiness the resident heir will be carefull of any thing of such a nature, maturlie to acquaint zour hyghness vith; and quhat fall be concluded above, I fall not be sleeping. One thing I humblie desire zour hyghness to command, that all letters comming from one Richard Lasie from abroad to London, directed to one Johne Dasie, may be catched up in the post, till I acquent your hyghness with a further plott, verie dangerouse, if not prevented, and that is of a suddentie in impatroning the blokhuse of Linn and the toune also; and consequently the seat of the warr to be made in the island of Elye. This Johne Dacie is the correspondent of this bussines with one Richard Lasie by the kyng so nominat, bot his richt name is collonel Pamerr. Of this, at my cumming to the Spa, I sall in all humilitie acqueint your hyghness with, and tymelie aneuch for preventing the same. The train'd-bands of Elye wold be trusted in the hands of a sure mann to the commonwealth. This business is driven on by several burgers of Linn, as also by sum pryme menn in the island of Elye. And that zour hyghness may know more cleirlie my real intentions to zour hyghness, and the commonwealth, at Ratisbone I did break a bargain betwixt the lord Wilmott, ambassador, and one major general Suingle, of armes, ammunition, victuall, artillerie to the rate of 70000 dollars to be presentlie sent for Scotland, lying readie at Lubeck to be scipped in for that purpose; but I broke the plott, and caused him to be dismissed with great discontent, re infecta.
Three dayes hence I am to goe for the Spa, quhair I sall be verie carfull to give zour hyghness ane account of what passes ther, as weill of the kyng's actionns as of the quein of Sweden's. My correspondence sall be by the resident in Hamburg, vith quhom I have a character. To this purpose I have borrowed 50 l. from him for my voyadge thither, till I heir from zour hyghness from London, humblie intreating, that a honorable meanes be made over to the resident for me for three months aboade ther by the kyng and his council; as thenn, God willing, I sall be able to give zour hyghness a full account of all quhat may be præjudiciall to zour hyghness his interest, about the last of October at London, myself in persone. Certainlie ther is a great plott in hand by the quein of Suedenn, quich I houp at the Spa to cum to the knoledge of itt by the meanes of sum about hir of hir ownn nationne.
I humblie beseech zour hyghness to give me trust, and beleive the internall affectionne of my proceidings towards zour hyghness his interest; for as God hes created my soull to be saved by the pretiouse blood of his deir sone, so wish I my soull to be damned eternallie, if I shall not prove true and faithfull to zour hyghness his interest. I also humbilie desire zour hyghness to beleive, that my quitting the other partie is not for any discontent or lowness of my fortoune; for I am ingadged to the duck of Meklenburg for levies of 1000 men for the service of the kyng of Spain; bot this I have resolved to doe zour hyghness better service, of quhom I hold my lyfe, zitt the cause quharrupon I ground my doings, is the poure of God, quich tutched my heart with the reall acknoledgment of your hyghness his actionns to be both just and godlie; to the performance of quhich I fall adheere so long as my blood is warme. Heirwith recommending zour hyghness and all zour actionns to the protectionne of the God omnipotent, I shall ever continue
Sir John Henderson to Mr. Richard Bradshaw, the English resident at Hamburg.
I have forgott to certifye his hyghness of the collections in the Roman impyre, of that which has been consented by the dyett. First, the Austrian circle, I beleive, is comprehended under the 100,000 dollars his imperiall majestie hes promised, which cannnot now be gott, till this 40 niu Romer month consented by the major part of the dyet be gott; for I beleive the consent of 100,000 dollars turnns upon that promise; nather am I certane, that the Austrian circle sall pay over and above the promised 100,000 dollars, till I cum to Spa. Howsomever Mr.Taylor the resident at Vienna is ordeined for congregating the moneys ther and in the Bavarian circle; Sir William Gunn, a Scotsman, is ordeined to congregat the money, in the Suebish circle; and I beleive Sir William Curtius of Francksurt is ordeined for the Over-Reinesh and Neder-Reinesh circle: who sall be for the Westphalish circle, I doe not knowe as yitt. The Burgundian circle, that the Burgundish ambassador hes promised in the name of his maister the kyng of Spain, to find out a secreat contentment for that; the Frankish, Over-Sachsish, and Nether-Sachsish circles, are preserved for the ambassador himself, who intends to . . . . . . . . this amongst the electors of Sax and Brandenburg, as also to all the princes, particularlie of these circles, Ther cheif hoaps is in these circles, and the princes thereof; as in the electors of Saxen, Brandenburg, prince of Veymar, Altenburg, Gotha, Bareut, Anspach, bishop Maydeburg, Brunswyk, two Lunenburgs, two Meklenburgs, Denmark, Holstein, and Heersun; as also of the kyng and quene of Sueden, as princes of Pomerania, Bremen, and Verden, with the count of Oldenburg. From the Ryn they expect nothing bot money, in respect of what cummes from the Ryne, cummes by Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Lastlie, they have no hoops of the transport of any thing, nor from the Weser, nor the Ems, onlie ther hoops is on the Elve and the Baltick sea; but cheiflie from Pomerania under Brandenburg, and Sweden, and from Rostock under Meclenburg; armes from the Elve, victuall and armes also from hence, as also from Curland. Itt were good 7 friggats and 4 or 5 catches could lye till the dead of the winter in Calsound upon Hollandsyd in Denmark, four or six myls further then Elseneur, for the visiting of ships, which may transport armes and ammunitione, to the prejudice of Ingland: neither cann searching be refused by any prince, Ingland alon being in warr, and other kyngdomes in peace. I beleive the kyng will visite many of the electors of Germanie, and some princes, at his removall from the Spa. Of this all which I have wrettin, I desire your lordship to give an account thereof to his highnes; and att my cumming to Spa, I sall be no less carfull to observe and mak notifyed what may be prejudicial to his hyghness and the state, with all occasionns. If your lordship cannot reid this hand, I will allwyse continue the former; so till a privat occasionne of taking my leive, I shall ever remain
Intelligence from Mr. R. Bradshaw.
Sir Marmaduke Langdale, and Compton, Northampton's son, are come hither to Hamburgh, and will stay till some further news from Spa. Many other cavaliers resort hither from all parts, to wait a good hour for C. S. by some imperial help.
On sunday last, about six a clock in the afternoon, the queen of Sweden, together with all the present dukes and princes, went out to Wandsbeck, half a mile from the city, where they continued till one a clock at night, and then came back again to this city. The chief burgomaster, personally attending in the main guard, caused the gates to be opened for her majesty, who at four a clock the same morning went out again, and lest the city very privately, attended only by grave Steinberger, one of her greatest favourites, and his lady, besides the rich Jew's eldest son, where she lodged. It is said, her majesty is gone for Zell, which is the court of the reigning duke of Lunenburgh; and intends thence to go to the Spa, where Charles Stuart is come on already, and the princess of Orange is to be upon the way thitherwards. The Bremers are now a little at rest, and resolved not to proceed any farther, except they be provoked and urged thereunto by the Swedes, who are only waiting for competent strength, to regain their lost land and reputation; to which the general Wrangel is come from Wismar with 1200 men, and hath lain these five days at a place called Denmitz, lying at the river side, about a score leagues from this city; but is not safe to pass any further. There are some five thousand more at Gottenburgh; which, if these procure free passage, are ordered to follow them.
The state of Venice to the protector.
Fu cosi grande il giubilo de nostri cuori per l'assuntione di vostra altezza al posto cospicuo di protettore di cotesti regni, mentre ben s'aggiusta al grado emminente, in cui e riposta il merito delle sue conditione prestanti, & le prove che ha date di se stessa nelle funttioni fostennute con virtu singolare, che non capaci li nostri animi di trattenner in se stessi gl' applausi convenemo dissonderli con voti di sincerità & farglieli giungere col mezo del Paolucci hora che à tali sentimenti di essultanza s'aggiongono quelli che concepisce il senato per la pace seguita sotto la condotta della prudenza sua & li serenissimi stati ne palesiamo il sommo contento nostro con le presenti & preghiamo l' altezza vostra gradirlo assicurandosi della stima & affetto pienissimo, con che accompagniamo le conditioni dignissimi dell' animo suo, & d'un desiderio ben intenso, di renderle in ogni tempo le prove certe di cordialità, auguriamo a vostra altezza lunghi felicissimi gl'anni & incrementi di glorie sempre maggiori.
The Venetian resident to secretary Thurloe.
I Commandi della mia serenissima republica, mi portan l'honore di comparre all altezza vostra per attestarle il contento publico per l'essaltatione dell'altezza vostra, & per la pace seguita tra questi regni e gli stati d'Ollanda; nella qual occasione, si come si e data a conoscere la gran forza di quest' armi, cosi in essa si e confermata sublime la virtu, e prudenza di chi supremanente lo commanda, per la qual causa tutta la gloria, e tutta la commendatione, e dovuta alla grandezza dell' altezza vestra. Dalla medesima sono derrivate impresse d'alta virtù, e valore, e dalla medesima, attende la christianità tutta risolutioni di beneficio suo, e di essaltatione maggiore, al nome dell' altezza vostra.
Lunga & ostinata guerra del Turco softenuta per dieci anni continui dall' armi della serenissima republica, è quella chi invitta la pietà, è generosità dell' altezza vestra a qualchi risolutioni, accioche sii posto qualche termini alla temerità Otthomana, è senza dubio volontà di Dio, il grado supremo, & essaltatione presenti dell' altezza vostra, accioche havendo il potere d'assistere i prencipi amici, & di consacrare all' eternità li sue imprese, lo facci tanto più prontamente, quanto che la causa di Dio per appunto l'invitta, cosi seguirà certamente, se nella gran copia di queste navi, vostra altezza ni destinera qualche d'una in doppressione d'amici del nome Cristiano, dal che ni rissulterà incessanti le benedittioni all' altezza vostra, con merito, & essistimationi sempre maggiore della natione Inglese sempre amata, e stimata dalla mia serenissima republica, & che di presente governata dalla autorità suprema, & dalla singolar prudenza unitamente con essa, si rende celebre al mondo, e formidabile a tutti i prencipi.
Le presente lettere publiche per l'altezza vostra confermeràn i sentimenti del eccellentissimo, senato auttenticheràn la debbolezza delli mie espressioni, e valeran (spero) per riportare dalla suprema auttorita dell' altezza vostra, qualchi pia è generosa rissolutione a favore del publico bisogno, e pregando Dio che nel bene della pace multiplichino li prosperità a questo stato, & al nome dell' altezza vostra syno sempre maggiore li glorie, io resto lasciando in scritto quanto ho havuto l'honore di rappresentare in voce all' altezza vestra; aggiongendoli di piu con questa occasione l'ottima publica dispositione per sodisfar il capitano Galiley, racommandato per parte dell' altezza vostra, quando ne sia fatta instanza da suoi intervenienti, & resti liquidato, quanto il vero effettivo suo credito sommamente desiderandosi dall' eccellentissimo senato di Compiacere in tutte le cose possibili l'altezza vostra.
Mr. H. Elsynge to secretary Thurloe.
I am ashamed and begg your pardon, that through the tediousnesse of a disease, I am ensorced in this way to make my first addresse unto you, whose respects to me doe require more than a verball acknowledgment, and shall bee performed upon all occasions with all faith and sinceritie.
Uppon falling into my late desperate disease, I was by Sir Lewis Kirke and his brothers
entrusted with the care of demanding and procuring satisfaction for them from the French,
uppon the treaty, for their great losses and injuries sustained by the French at Canada. A
memoriall of their losses, and of the justnesse of their demands, was presented to his highnesse: it was then likewise hinted to his highnesse, that this buysynesse, in the consequences
of it, did in a high degree concerne his highnesse and the state. His highness was pleased
to resent it in that nature, and did in a very particular manner recommend the care of their
memoriall to Sir Anth. Ashley Cowper. I wayted once uppon him in it, before my sicknesse: he has been since out of towne. The gentlemen know not, whether there has been
any thought of, or proceeding in their buysynesse; and have importuned mee to give you
this trouble, and to begg of you, that their buysynesse of so vast consequence may finde
some place in the treaty, with the demands of others. Sir, I hope this may be an opportunitie to lett mee in to serve you further; who am, Sir,
18 July, 1654.
A memorial, inclosed in the preceeding.
Lewis Kirke, John Kirke, and James Kirke, interested in the affairs of Canada, in execution of the treaty made between England and France, of the 29th of March, 1632 upon restitution of the fort of Quebeque, taken by the English of the French, in the country of Canada, and of the ships taken on both sides, punctually executed on this side in the said treaty; and according to the ninth article of the same paid the sum of 827,000 livres Tornois unto the general de Cane.
And although, according unto the fourth and fifth article of the said treaty, the said De Cane is debtor unto them of the sum of 121361. 6 s. 9 d. sterling, mentioned in the under-written articles; and that for these payments they have employed all manner of diligence, charges, and expences, since the time expressed in the said treaty; and also caused the sum due unto the said De Cane by the associates in New France to be seized at Paris the 20th of October, 1634. as it is justified by authentical certificates, unto the eighth of August, 1651. yet nevertheless they could never receive the least satisfaction, because of the letters of state, respects, and supports, the said De Cane hath from time to time found in the said court, till the beginning of the troubles in England, happening in 1640. during which the said De Cane obtained release of the said seizures, insomuch that the said interested could never since receive the reason nor justice of the same.
In consequence of the said treaty for the liberty of the trade, and unto particular commission of the late king, the said Kirke having sent the seventh of March 1634. the ship the Mary Fortune of London, to trade in the rivers of the said country of Canada, being arrived at Tadissaie, where they made some traffic, captain Bontemps commanding the vice-admiral of the French fleet shot upon the 25th of May, and after many rage passages till the next day, after one hour's fight, overcame them by number of his ship's men, two English killed, and all wounded; the French having only lost one man; this admiral, which had already fix foot water within, ready to sink, seasing upon all beavers, furniture, sales, and powder of the English, and of the said ship the Mary, the which his company and equipage brought to Diepe; of which violence the captain having complained to the officers of Diepe, the discussing of that business having been sent and remitted unto the cardinal of Richelieu; and the said captain having had his recourse to him to have again his ship, equipage and victuals, ammunition, merchandizes of beavers, and others not yet exchanged, with reparation of 30000 livres penalty against the said Bontemps, for their loss, damage and interest suffered, with prohibition to use henceforth of such ways of fact, nor trouble their trade, under penalty to be punished as infractors and perturbators of the public peace, although the said cardinal gave to understand at that time, that he would do justice unto the said English, and desired that business should be compounded between the particulars, to avoid the question, unto whom the country did belong; yet nevertheless he caused a sentence to be given the 20th of February, 1636. signed by him and the secretary of the admiralty, whereby, without hearing the parties, he declared the ship and merchandizes of good prize, save his right to the tenth part; and what instances the said English captain made to represent their right to the trade in this said country by the first discovery, and by the prize of Tadissaie, during the war; and that although the said English had rendered the fort of Quebeque, they did not understand to be excluded of the liberty of the trade in other ports of the said country. Finally, they gave to understand unto the said captain after a pursuit of six months, that if he thought to expect a judgment, he would always be condemned, the offers, which were made him, appearing so little unto his pretensions, that he chused rather to return into England without accepting, than to consume himself more in charge; of which sentence finally, after many instances, a copy having been delivered in form unto Mr. John Kirke the ninth of May following, 1636. who came on purpose to Paris for the businesses, without he could receive the least satisfaction, he brought his complaints to the parliament, of the unlawful possession of the French partners to have of the said country of Canada, in consequence of the said judgment, to exclude the English out of it, and of the great loss suffered by them by the unjust confiscation of the said ship, amounting, as by the ensuing articles, to the sum of 34062 1. 6 s. as it is justified by authentical certificates.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Having received yours of the 23d of this present month, I can tell you, that your government is much admired here by all men; you hanging and cutting off heads, yet no divisions or trouble, which is much expected by your enemies. It is believed, your government cannot hold long in that fashion: yet the beheading of the Portugal embassador's brother is not displeasing or wonderful to honest men; but the action he committed is worse esteemed, and only taken for madness and temerity, not for any gallantry or courage; so they say, justice should be considered over all things, yet concerning such a person, that grace should take place; which is all here said of that matter.
Hence the letters from Stenay, dated the 22d, report, our infantries were very ill used by that garison; and that all we have done there, or gained hitherto, we lost in an hour's time, and the same day the regiment of Bretagne was wholly deseated, endeavouring to surprise a demi-lune near the citadel. That regiment consisted of 400 men, the first day they came to that siege; now all that rests of them is four officers, and eleven soldiers; and in fine, we are no more advanced now at that siege than the first day. 160 Switzers of the guard were slain there, and the rest of our foot say plainly, they will not meddle in any more: upon which the council sat, and resolved to continue the siege in form; and Faber's advice was to it, who expects the baton du mareschal, if the place be taken. Now the said Faber begins to work two places, near the counterscarp, where ours were beaten off, before he began; and also a gallery over the fosses to pass; but we hear the enemies set it on fire. Other letters from that place of the 23d bring, that the king was to go to the camp that day; and that Faber sent to his majesty, signifying Mr. Chamilly governor of the citadel desired him to send him a chirurgeon in the place; but that was refused, because they had not enough in the camp of such: yet they told him, if he had pleased to send them his son, they would cure him as well as they could. Marquis De Quernadan a Breton is dead of his wounds, on our side; so is count de Blays, the marquis De Bouvray captain of the guard, and Mons. De Geuvers; also marquis De Humiers wounded. It was written before, that the court was to depart Sedan the 27th: but these last letters do not confirm it; and so 'tis thought they will remain there, till the 4000 men, that come from Guienne, be arrived at the siege; for the most part of the troops at Stenay must be with the king, where he goes. In 15 days they expected the said troops there.
As for the siege of Arras, the letters from the frontiers confirm, that the enemies will find much difficulty to take that place, Turenne and la Ferté being well posted to hinder their provisions in one way, and count de Broglio with his garison in another way.
Mr. de Turenne writ a letter to his wife here, of the 23d instant, in which he signifies, he defeated a convoy of powder and bullets of 500 horse of the enemies, coming to their camp, the day before he writ the said letter, and forced them to leave the bullets there; for which he was to send a convoy: as for the powder, he gave fire to it.
But other letters from his camp of the 25th bring, that a convoy of the enemies of 3000 horse passed through Turenne's camp, and arrived safe in the prince Condé's quarters, who, they say, is a little indisposed. The son of Mr de Cumont, a counsellor in parliament, being wounded dangerously, and taken prisoner by P. Condé, was sent upon his word by the said prince in his own coach to Peronne, and the prince offered to cure him, if he had stay'd; and offered him also a priest, to consess and receive: but he, being of the Reformed, would not accept of it, saying, he would die a Huguenot.
Here is now a fresh letter from Turenne's camp of the twenty-sixth, signifying, that the 22d an hermit came out of the lines of the enemy, being taken by some of ours; which made them believe they were Lorrainers; so brought him to their quarters, as to the Lorrainers, and made La Ferté come to him in lieu (as tho') of prince or count de Ligneville, who examined him, from whence he came: he answered, he came out of the camp, to shew the way to a great convoy of 4000 waggons, full of beer, bread, and other victuals. They asked him, where were the letters? He answered, they were hidden in a certain place near him, where they went and found them all in cyphers, except one letter written in the Spanish language: all the rest were decyphered by M. Turenne, and he presently gave orders to all the cavalry to go to the field, sent 400 horse to Bethune, and so many towards Laon, to discover where the convoy was to pass, and commanded all the rest not to stir out of the camp. In the mean time the Lorrainers went to St. Omer's, and one of our troops followed them. What happened since, we shall know per next. However, the enemies are within forty steps to the counterscarp; but their works are not yet much advanced, by reason they were so long busy with the double line, being all perfectly ended. We have from Turin of the 15th instant, that quantities of water fell in those parts, which ruined many houses, and more of men and women, in the vale de Conté and Yvré, where by force of the water a great mountain appeared of itself, being now full of black, stinking, thick water within it, the smell of it being so strong, that no man durst come near. There is at least a mile between the two parts of that mountain under that water. They apprehend much the plague, the air being so black and moist as yet: some are dead already by that smell. The corn is all spoiled.
A gentleman from card. de Retz arrived at Rome the sixth instant, who told his holiness, to content the king and card. Maz. his master was resolved to give the demission of his place in the hands of his holiness, to be disposed of as he shall think fit; but some think other things were sent before underhand: which is all at present from, Sir,
A letter of intelligence.
I have little to add unto my last. The post arrived from Sedan the 22/12. of this instant informs us, that the king and his eminency for certain returned to the camp before Stenay: that the undermine was made, and that the trenches were opened at the bottom of the ditch. The apocrypha add, that a relief is enter'd in the place, and that the siege is in so good a condition, that it will shortly be raised. But the place is held as lost for Monsr le prince, notwithstanding M. de Persan's endeavours with the forces he hath towards those parts.
As for Arras, it is also thought the Spaniards will take it, especially by reason of the great interest Flanders hath to desire the same: but 'tis hard for us here to know the truth of their progress. The last letters from the French army have confirmed us the mortal wound of M. de Cumont, son to the counsellor of the parliament at Paris, as he went out with a little party, who at first had advantage against another Spanish party; the which drew at last the said French party into an ambuscade, where it was defeated, and the said M. de Cumont taken, but soon after sent by M. le prince's courtesy to be cured.
There hath been some small rumour at Bourdeaux, by reason of a bricklayer, who through zeal for liberty misliking the fortification the king hath caused to be made, had been condemned to be tied and whipt at the pillory; of which sentence he had appealed to the parliament of la Real, where there is no question but it will be confirmed.
I hear M. de Marin, lieutenant general of the king's armies, was enter'd into Rouergue with 1200 men, to facilitate the raising of a great sum of money; but that the people have risen and repulsed him with much vigour, whereof we expect confirmation.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
The deputies of those of the religion in Languedoc receive letters at this instant, that the assembly held at Nismes upon the subject of Florensac, not thinking itself able to resolve, had only concluded, that a greater one should meet on the 25/15. of next month, to chuse the necessary means for their security, according to the edicts; and that those of Nismes should be charged to invite thereunto the Cevennes; those of Montpelier, all Dauphine; and those of Uzez, all the country of Foix, and of the Upper Guienne; which assembly should be kept at Alez.
This is newly told me by M. Perol, deputy of Montpelier: this ought, in my opinion, move this court to some speedy justice, if it intends to avoid the consequence thereof. M. d'Aligré has told the said deputy, that the only cause, which has hinder'd the expedition of the business of this consulate, was the fear they had of some rumour, by reason the Popish were the stronger in the said city. But he answered, that if that was the only reason, they had only to go on, and then leave the rest to those of the religion. The said deputy has for the last time declared unto M. de Ruvigni, that unless satisfaction be given them, they will, at the first election near to come, chuse their consuls in spite of their enemies, happen what will.
News arrive at this moment of a considerable encounter of parties, and of the dispute of a convoy coming and arrived at the lines of the Spaniards at Arras, wherein the count of Beaujeu's brother has been slain.
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states general.
Your lordships have been pleased long since to recommend the furthering and endeavouring of the right of Mr. Lewis Godin, citizen of Amsterdam, concerning his ship, called the Helmet of France, and her lading taken from him some years since by captain Misuillet, in the service of this crown, about which your lordships have writ thrice in his behalf to his majesty, and after much charges and soliciting, the business was brought so far, that the same was reported to the king's council, and there decreed it to be restored to the said Lewis Godin. Now he, that doth solicit his business for him, has been to complain to me, that the decree or sentence is torn out of the registry, and upon his own authority substituted another; whereby Lewis Godin will lose his cause. I could not believe this at first, and did therefore complain thereof to some quality, who have alleged to me more of the like example, that have happened formerly.
In confirmation of my former writings to your lordship, it is certain, that the pirates here, and their confederates, have so much power and respect shewn them, that by ordinary course of justice it will be a hard matter to overcome their injustice.
Mr. W. Clarke to Mr. Errington, postmaster at Newcastle.
I have nothing to adde to my last, but that having given the enemy a turne here, and though we could nott engage them, reduc't them 500 in their hasty flight, we have left their tyred partie to col. Morgan to follow them with his fresh party, and hope by that means to make them weary of this summer's worke. Wee shall lie heereabouts for some time, till we hear what becomes of them, and to prevent them from going into the marquesse of Argyl's, whose country they had begun to burne, but were driven away by an approach. I am
Cardinal Mazarin to Bordeaux, father of the French embassador in England.
I have received your letter, and was glad to understand thereby your arrival at Peronne, where I doubt not but your care, next pains, will contribute much to the service of the king. I write something to M. le Tellier, concerning somewhat you are entrusted with, of which you must have a special care. I will refer myself to what he shall write to you about it, and will add nothing more, but that I am
Boreel to the states general.
The suppression of the lieutenant-governor of Havre de Grace doth still continue more and more. Therefore upon your lordships resolution of the second of this month, received by me, I shall humbly desire, that your lordships letter to the king may be sent to me with all speed, as also to the duchess of Eguillon, lady governess of Havre; that so, according to form and custom, I may further the establishing of M. van Denrecom to be consul upon the place.