A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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July (6 of 7)
A letter to Bordeaux, the father of the French embassador in England.
I Know not why you should be so strangely alarmed: all things go well here for you and your son; and the person, whom you presumed to have spoken against my lord your son's proceedings, spoke very modestly of him. Excuse my haste; for his eminency calleth for me. I am, My Lord,
Your most humble servant, Roze.
From hence little of news; only that it hath pleased God to visit our present eldest prince with a malady, which as yet, God be praised, is not very dangerous; and we hope in the grace of God, his highness will shortly recover.
An estimate of the monthly charge in Scotland.
Mr. Charles Longland to secretary Thurloe.
The galley lately dispatcht with an ambassador by the Genowes for Spayn has bin at Alicant, landed the ambassador, who is gone up to the court, and is retorned back to Genoa, from whence the general advys sez, that theyr differences with Spayn are in a hopeful way of ajustment; but here is a pryvat advys, that comes by the said gally, that sez, by letters of the fourth of July from Madrid, pryvat search was made, wher any estat was belonging to Genowes, in order to mak sequestration. This newes came this morning from Genoa, wher they mak greate preparations of arms. It's advised, they are dispatching an honourable ambassador for Ingland to the protector.
The last advys from Provence, of about eighteen dayes, speaks of twelve ships and six gallys redy fitted for the sea, gon out into Toullon roade; but another letter from thence by the sam conveyance maks a dout, whether the fleet would put out to sea or no; the reason he gives is the difference lyk to be with Ingland, and the protector sending a fleet into the seas. The lyk reason you wil see given in the Roman intelligence, and some others, for a breach with France. I saw a letter from Paris does as good as publickly declare a warr with Ingland, by that court.
About ten dayes since cam into port Longone seven Spanish ships laden with soldiers at Naples for Barsalona, where they lye, not daring to go to sea, for fear of the French. Indeed the Spaniard is so low in these parts, that without some succour from Ingland he can hardly subsist. God send al may be for his glory, and the good of Ingland ! I am,
Sir John Hendersone to Mr. Bradshaw resident at Hamburg.
The ansueir of your letter wes zesternicht readie to be delivered at two of the clock afternoone; bot there cam one to me from collonell Ogilbie, a gentleman, quho hes my wyfe's father's sister to wyse, and told, he cam from Holland, to quhom I presentlie made a visite, found him verie intellygible of all affairs, having cum for three monts agoe from Scotland. He told me, that Midltone his express wess three nichts by him, and that he wess cum expreslie from the nobilitie and the armie now on foot to the kyng, humbilie to desire in all haist to cum to them, or if I would not verie suddenly cum at them, they wold be forced to make the best peace they cold for ther own subsistance. He tells only of two ports, that is concluded to be saife for landing the kyng's person, and armes, and ammunition. This day at seven of the morning, I am to have a discourse amplie with him. He has promised to divulge his mynd quhollie to me. He affirmes he will be gone alreadie from the Spa towards the elector of Brundenberg: for all ammunitions, armes, and victuals, is to be sent from him from Pomer. He affirmes also, that he did see a privie seale of the kyng's for his faise imbarking, both for his owin person, and for all armes and ammunitions from Holland; and assures me, that at his departure from thence, the Hollanders and other stats of provinces weir att strong consultations, by no meanes to sufferr the kyng and his partie in Scotland to be ruined. Ther pryme reasonne wes, if monarchic continued, thenn the general ingrossing of trade by the Hollanders sould also continue; and they be kneu hou commodiouslie to goe about vith a kyng for ther owin advantage; bot if the republick did continue, quhich wold look narroulie to the good of the nationns, and the tradeing, as thenn, they saw nothing bot ruine before ther eys, in respect of the act of transporting and importing of such and such commodities, zitt stands in vigour to the great prejudice of Hollanders. He has promised to tell me the names of theese two ports determinat for landing. He has also promised to expectorat himself to me about the Hollandish privities vith the kyng. He thinks the kyng most make all haist to be att them, as having his last pull before him; if not in all haist, they will do for themselves. Ther greatest arguments for his haistning are, they say, they are betrayed by his council, in not suffring no Scots to be in his councell, nor no Scots at all in the manadging his affairs in Germanie, thocht all pretended to be done for the Scots, nou presently in armes for him; zitt nather cann they have his person amongst them (quho promised to be ther Januar last, and everie month since) nor any assistance of armes nor ammu nitions, till the long nichts cum, quich is impossible for them to stand so long out, if a sudden resoluctione be not taking. This is that reasonne, for quich I hold zour ansueir zesternicht upp undelivered. What effect of our private discourse cann be at seven a clock, I fall acquaint your lordship. Housomever I desire, that zour secretarie may be sent to the Angell in the neu toune about twelve of the cloak, and I will wrett at lenth to zou, and at one or two I will be gone in all haist. If I heir at Francfort he be gone from the Spa, then I conclude he is ether gone privatelie for Holland or Brandenburg; for he sheurs me, the kyng is determined with four and himself to take his travell, as thenn, I think it fitting in all haist to cum heeir, and from hence to London to his hyghness the lord protector; bot if he be at Spa, and perhaps retarded by the Inglish councell, thenn I will goe thither, and byde till I knou his resolutions, and mak zou from tyme to tyme ane account of the same. Therefore zou will excuse my zesternicht's not sending of that ansueir. The main poynt of all will be his hyghness his special cair of the bussiness in Scotland, hou by money or good meanes to be ther conductors, or by force to doe the same; for he assures me, the greatest part of the kingdom are for the Inglish, except the kyng cum over with great supplye of armes, as thenn the quhole body of the kyngdome, so many as he can arme, will ryse, and give one desperat about for it. He affirmes, they are 13000 menn, whereof 1500 horse weill armed, and 4000 foot; the rest are not armed, bot expects longing from hence. The somme of our discourse I fall wreate to zou at twelve a cloak. Quhat other things my wife can learne herreafter from him, shee will shou it my ladie zour wyse. So till twelve a clok I fall remain, and ever after
Another letter from Sir John Hendersone.
The discourse I held with gentlman to-day showes a great disperationne of the Scots, if in all haist the kyng goes not himself, or send 12000 armes to them. All ther houps now is the breaking with Ingland, quich I must confess according to his discourse is verie lyklie. As for armes, ther is 10,000 in the hands of one Sir Johne Mackleir in Gottenburg in Sueden. These lyes in paund to him for 15,000 dollars. These fall be releived and sent home; therefore it is most incumbent, that one or another have a vigilant eye upon the actionns of that mann in Gottenburg. The state of Scotland (as he tells me) generallie all are verie discontent, and more lyklie to break in pieces, if the kyng in all haist doe not remeid it, quich, in my opinion, he cann hardlie doe till the long nichts cum. The great bussiness the princes of Orange is gone to hir brother is, to lett him know of quhar great pouer the houes of Nassau is in the United Provinces, in making Groningenland, West-Frizland, Zeland, and sum others, declare against the Hollanders making that shamfull peace with Ingland, (as they tearme itt) and nou having also great faction in Amsterdam for the hous of Nassau, as the other partie is; and he conceaves, if his hyghness the lord protector will bot for a little tyme complye with that rigorouse poynt, of extirpating that houses, as thenn the generall state of Holland hes nothing to say. In the meane tyme the Scots bussiness must be taking in hand: that being done, ther is no feare of any uproare in Ingland, Irland, nor in Scotland. The landing ports, quhich are faise, one is in Stranaver, the other in Skyracsin, or thereabout. The greatest part of the Hylanders are still, and will not rise at all vith Mildton, puts off till the kyng cumm. The bodie of his kyngdom, and most part of the nobilitie, is very affectionat to the government of Ingland. Argyle has 4000 menn, and his sonn joyned with him for the Inglish. In summa, if the kyng doe not cum verie suddenlie to Scotland, all is verie desperate, having ther troups onlie placed upon the Holland's rupture with Ingland, quho lays doun niu positionns of state, (as he affirmes) that if 10,000 menn be landed in Scotland, they with the other fall give the lord protector more to doe, than 300 saile of menn of warr. Therfore all ther houps goes upon this. They are also confident, that if the Hollander be forced by the provinces to break that from the Roman impyre, they are able to have 20,000 men; bot all these positionns may turne to smok, if the Scots bot agree with Ingland, quich I dout not but his hyghness will use all possible midle witt, ether in a fair way, or per force.
I besech zour honour not to forget hir in the business I wrett last of, in respect I have left hir purse verie emptie. Just nou I had reseaved zour letter, and accordingly I think I have done. I thank zour honour for zour favour about my wyse. I fall no more for the present, but fal remain
Written in the same letter by Mr. R. Bradshaw.
That his lady would shortly learne out the lord Wilmot's intelligencer at London, and give me notice of him; and that for the affaires of Scotland sent home, all is dispatched by the lord Miuburgh to one Richard . . . . ., a silke-dyer in Thames-streete, London. His other name he would learne at Spaw.
A letter of intelligence.
In my precedent letters you had what I could afford. Since I have to add, that the president of this week of the states general-assembly, who was of the province of Groningen, endeavoured by all means to conclude by plurality of voices, that the river Schake should be shut at Lilloe, requireing that all ships and barks should be there discharged; but those of Holland did insist firmlie in not consenting thereunto; and the province of Overyssell joyned in that with the lords of Holland; so that with the resistance of these two provinces, the business is left undecided, and it is the opinion of some, that if the English have written hither, that the protector or English have given over that resolution in the letter of theirs to the greffier of the twenty-fourth instant.
The province of Groningen, the twenty-third instant, gave in a paper to the states general, most bitter against the act of excluding the P. of Orrange, and against the embassadors Beverning and Newport, for negotiating and concluding the same, contrary to the union, instructions, gratitude, &c. This paper is not inferior to that of the province of Friezland, and so like, that I need not say more of it, having sent that of Friesland to you already.
Count William of Nassau, governor of the two provinces of Friesland and Groningen, is returned from Utrecht, where (although he has not gained wholly that province to his devotion) he has at least so divided it, that the town of Utrecht alone stands for province of Holland.
The partial party of the P. of Orange in the province of Overyssel are wholly near masters thereof, and have recalled with much indecency William de Riperda, their president in the states general, who was one of the plenipotentiaries at the truce in Munster, and was only recalled for being ally'd to some of the principal ministers thereof.
The manisesto of the states of Holland against the states of Zealand is ready, and in the press, by the orders of the said states of Holland, notwithstanding they have not yet presented the same to be read before the states general; but it is thought they do expect the next week, being their turn, to have a president.
They do publish here, that the protector will pay the pension due to the queen of Bohemia, or at least pay her debts, which amount to 300,000 patacons. This you know
best. Here I have no more to add, but that I am, Sir,
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
On saturday was read and concluded in the states of Holland the long deduction, which that province hath made against those who do rail at the seclusion: I am told, that it was five hours a reading, containing a world of relations and cases, wherein the other provinces have shewn themselves unthankful to the house of Orange, and of affairs, which do injure the union. Amongst the rest, they do reproach the other provinces with the siege of Amsterdam; and indeed it is a pretty jest, to talk of the union, a virgin, that hath been forced more than a thousand times. He that hath the power, makes use of the laws, as of a nose of wax. Force and interest doth govern all things. I am told, that this long deduction is called a recrimination: there will be many things to be seen in it. Many will open their eyes; and I believe, that those of king of Spain will find their account in it, together with some pleasure; for as to religion, king of Spain could do no less than maintain their own; and as to the laws, if king of Spain hath not kept them, (he will say yes) states general (the one against another) do accuse one another; yea do convince another, or have satisfied their own laws, yea the fundamental laws.
Those of states of Holland have wisely made peace; for and by Cromwel and by Spain, (si dicere licet) they will make their party good; and yet I see, that royalists are as much troubled for making peace, and do with, that they had continued in the contrary for many reasons. well-affected of Holland do almost believe, that between Spain and pr. of Orange, there was no other difference but about the name; in short, alterum de retinendo, alterum de acquirendo regno egiffe, & adbuc agere; and the most zealous royalists do now no longer dissemble to say, that they will maintain the seclusion; although all the states general should disapprove of it; yea, that they would do it willingly, without being required to it by protector. Count William is returned from Utrecht, whereby the states have not yet taken a provincial resolution as to the seclusion; however, the two first members are royalists; but the power of the city is so great, that it doth yet hold back the rest; and besides, all that will be to no purpose for Holland will stand firm, and in all the provinces, all those, who are low, will hold with peace; and if formerly men have been able to prevail against Spain, peace will imagine to be able to prevail against pr. of Orange.
The lord Ripperda, (commissioner in the states general) on the behalf of Twent, hath carried himself very boldly in this business against the said Haersolt; and for that reason is recalled by the states of Overyssel to justify himself; so that likewife in Overyssel they have appointed a siscal, who hath two advocates joined with him, to inform themselves concerning the excesses, that have been committed by those, who do oppose the election, Now the opposers are the nobility of Twent, and the city of Deventer. The other four members (Sallant, Vollenhove, Campen, and Zwoll) are for the lord Haerfolt.
The said revocation of the lord Ripperda is in effect a very rare thing, a very extremity. It is true, that the most part of the nobility of Overyssel is for the lord Haersolt; but likewise there is a considerable member of the nobles, that are against him; and in effect it is nothing but the faction of friends of pr. of Orange, and peace, whatever other name or occasion that it hath.
The quarter of Velauw in Guelderland, and the nobility in the provice of Utrecht, have also declared against the seclusion, declaring it null; and designing at present the young prince for captain-general and admiral, to exercise the charge, when he shall be of age, and in a capacity; but the other members do still deliberate; and yet it is easily seen, that in the end the plurality will be every-where against the seclusion; but Holland doth sufficiently declare, that they will not care a pin for what they can do, that they will notwithstanding maintain the peace with England by the means of the seclusion.
The protector, in letting fall the design of keeping the Escault open, hath thereby obliged this state, and especially Holland; for already friends of the pr. of Orange did expect thereby some new disturbance.
Those of Holland do cause so many copies of their present deduction to be writ, that they will give a copy to the generality, and seven others for the seven provinces; and in the mean time, they do likewise cause it to be printed; but however not many copies, only as many as will serve to furnish the cities of Holland; but there will be enough of them to be had afterwards; and because it is of such a length, there is no getting of a copy writ out; therefore we must stay till it be printed.
General Schoppe, who is come from Brazil, hath made his report; the substance whereof is, that he layeth all the fault on the council; and I am told, that the council layeth the fault upon him. A great number of soldiers, that are come from Brazil, do walk the streets here demanding their pay. There are commissioners appointed to examine the one and the other. For the reception of the queen of Sweden they had already given order; but she passeth by Cassel towards the Rhine, without coming hither.
Sir, Bremen doth find itself here very much frustrated; for the states of Holland, chiefly since the return of him, who of the states general hath been in Sweden, it being to be noted, that Sweden should do some harm to the states of Holland Now the states of Holland do perceive well enough, that in the end all the states general will be against states of Holland, and in all likelihood it may happen, that Holland themselves do implore the aid of the protector; so that I see none or very little likelihood, that Holland should do any thing: now Bremen doth once more desire, whether the protector would not be pleased to accommodate Bremen with some money, which might be done under colour of commerce, and would give no offer to Sweden. In truth, protector would very much oblige the cause of religion, otherwise Bremen will be constrained to fling themselves into the arms of those of the other religion. Expecting some favourable word of answer, I am
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states general.
Wheresoever in this kingdom any sea preparations are in hand, presently your lordships subjects feel the ordinary inconveniencies thereof, by reason that they do make their ships to serve them; yea also those ships, which are brought in, and their causes, upon hearing in the admiralty, are seized upon, and made to serve them for men of war, notwithstanding my complaints and solicitations, and endeavours still used to prevent the same.
Jongestall to Assuerus van Vierson.
There hath been this week nothing done about the plotters; many are of opinion they will put to death no more. Here are still above three hundred prisoners. As far as I can learn, the earl of Oxford hath no danger. The fleet of this state is now about to take on board their men. I cannot yet learn of a certain, what their design is; but certain it is, they have pitched upon some exploit or other, which they are now to put in execution. Here were two ships blown up yesterday, the one outward-bound, the other was come home from the Streights richly laden.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Chanut, the French embassador in Holland.
Your example, and your reasons, are too strong, not to cure such jealousy, which the adjunction of a reasonable person might occasion; and you do me right to believe, that I was never troubled at the sending of Mons. de Baas, although that at the begin hing we ought to have had some kind of rule settled, which would have produced no other effect, than the establishing of a subordination, and the preventing all the differences, which the zeal of the service might have raised. When the said lord departed hence, he did seem to me to be persuaded, that I had done my endeavour to have obtained of his highness the alteration of the order; but you know, my lord, that oftentimes, to the prejudice of the Christian charity and of the truth, men do lay their trespasses upon others; yet I have not hitherto any cause to accuse of injustice those, of whom I expect the approbation of my conduct; but I should be exposed to some reproach, if my negotiation should not have a happy issue, whereof I cannot yet write any certain news, although the commissioners be but newly parted from me, and that I have received an answer upon the difficulties, which are found in my articles, there being no resolution formed, and every one remaining firm to his pretences. It seems however, that they would have a peace, but upon very unequal terms on their side. They do build a pretence of money upon the promise of Mons. de Baas, which he made formerly. The commissioners have declared unto me, that all must be accommodated before next parliament. It is not, that all the words of the country be evangelical, having received, during the space of eighteen months, fair words enough without effect. Men should believe their words at present to be of a better alloy. The distrust is increased through the extraordinary embassy, which is to arrive here from Spain, under pretence of passing a compliment upon the lord protector. After all the reports, that have been made of an alliance made with this state, one may believe, that it is for some other design. My consolation is, that all my mischiefs are upon the point of a crisis.
Jongestall to count William.
This week is already spent, and nothing done. The merchants, who are bound for our state, do earnestly desire to see their money coming, which I likewise do; for I hope, that business being once ended, they will at last grant me leave to return home. We do expect to have audience of the lord protector very suddenly; at which time, we shall demand copies of the treaties made by this state with Sweden and Portugal; but I am of opinion, we shall not have any in haste; for I am informed from a very good hand, that the lord protector will not easily ratisy the first. Here is every day expected the marquis de Lede, governor of Dunkirk, in the quality of embassador of the king of Spain. The negotiation of the lord de Bordeaux is almost dead, and many rubs it meets withal in the way. The earl of Oxford is said to be in no danger. Yesterday there were two rich ships burnt in the river, near the bridge.
Mr. John Jeanlett to secretary Thurloe.
According to his highnesse pleasure signified by your letter of the twenty-second of June, I have sent you in the Dutchy, whereof captain Edmond Smyth is commander, the bodyes of John Selby (formerly called Seamur) and Mr. Richard Wharton, (whom I conceive to be) his confederate, and with captain Smyth, the commission of captain Selby, together with an information concerning him, sent to and given in by captain Sherwin, comander of the Primer Rose. I have this day, according to his highnesse order, received the body of colonel James Gourdon (fn. 1), prisoner at warr, by warrant from Sir William Constable, high sheriff for the county of York; and humblie desire his highnesse further pleasure, how he shall be kept or disposed of, may be signifyed to
W. Clarke to Mr. Errington, post-master at Newcastle.
Since my last, the general resolved easy motions after our hard marches, and to drive Middleton's almost tired forces on colonel Morgan, who was fresh in Ruthven, which took effect on wednesday last. Then they marching to Loughgary to quarter with an eye of fear backwards upon the generall, and being soe intent upon the waies of avoiding him, that to know where colonel Morgan was they neglected, whoe met with their horse in a narrow pass, and totally routed them. The account is hourly expected from colonel Morgan, whoe is in chase of their foot towards Loughaber, they being, at the engagement, about four miles from their horse. Middleton is narrowly escaped, by quitting his horse in a bogg, which we have taken with an Englishman upon him, that did run from colonel Reade's regiment. We have taken about twenty-five prisoners, that escapt from the route, and very many run away from him, that probably they are quite broken; and that most of or all their horse spoyld, and great part of their foot dispersed. The general sent yesterday major Bridge with a party of horse to secure the country. Hee fell into Macgregor's quarter, who was to bring the stragglers up after Middleton. Wee tooke two prisoners and nine horses, with divers portmantuas; among the rest, the earle of Atholl's with his cloake, diverse letters, and papers of concernment, from Charles Steuart. Sir, I am
Lord George Fleetwood to Bulstrode Whitelocke esquire.
Youers dated the twenty-fifth of June is safely come to hande. I am hartily glade to heare of youer excellencie's . . . . . . . . . . and well contented jornie soe farre, but especially youer prosperus arivall at Gravesende, which I am informed . . . . . . . . resident's letter, and hope ere long to have it from youer lordship's penne. Ouer kinge hath bin very inquisitive after your excellencie, and seemed to be very well contented, that youer honer was safely come on in England, which I informed him yesterday. Concerninge ouer late queene's resignation and coronation, I dare not particularise, supposinge, ere this, it is in print in all languages. Ouer noble kinge (who gaineth the affection daily of all men by his affable carriage) is involved in new troubles, before hee is once setled; a warre fomented by the Bremers, and begune without . . . . . . . . unknowne to his majestie or the privie counsell heare (as they all pretende). I suppose it will not be soone ended, being consident the Bremers would not have begun, had they not bin backed by greate ons; but . . . . they are like to be loosers. Ouer whole worke heare in sending out forces hence, divers from Colmer and Gottenburge allready gon; those from this porte to go aborde to-morow; earle Gustose Stenebocke to commande them under Koningsmarke. They say, in all, 8000 shall be sent out. God send them good successe.
Before ouer late queene's resignation, the Portugall embassador was commaunded to departe, not acknoliginge his principall; but our kinge did underhande excuse it, and since with all civilitie salved it what possible, as I heare.
Counte Ericke is to set saile from hence in sewe dayes to Keele, and thence to the duke of Holsten's courte, to fetch ower new queene (the duke's second daster unmarried). Ower kinge regulates his jornie according hee feeth the winde serve, intending to meete at Colmer, where the nuptials are solemnised. They repaire heather, where this winter a parlament shall stande. Then the queene is to bee crouned, and all affaires of this kingdome setled.
Count Sliffenbacke is sodainely departinge hence ambassador to all the princes in Germanie, to demonstrate the Bremers unrite proceedings, and to protest against any mischance can happen to the empire by this meanes.
The riks-chanselor was lately very sike; but now (God bee praised) reasonable well recovered. The kinge courts him much. Thus much for publique. Counte Gabriell Oxensterne, aboute two dayes since, desired me to write to youer excellencie, that now the hotte weather was past, hee would sende over the lord protector's rine-deare; they are now six or seven alive, and these very fresh and lustie, that hee questioneth not there liveinge now. Hee desireth youer lordshipee would sende over one skillfull in ketching hawkes, and you shall have as manie as you please; but withall importuned mee, to put youer excellencie in minde of English horses and doges hee pretendeth promised.
The fifteenth of this present kame ould felt-marshal Lesly heather, and departeth hence in few dayes; his buisnes, as hee pretendeth, to give ouer queene thankes for hir gratius assisting him in his buisnes by the lord protector, which compliment he hath layed of to ouer kinge.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours of the last I received, by which I understand the common occurrents there, for which I have not much to return at present; but that the dissentions in the United Provinces do continue, as you may have better from other hands.
The gentleman you designed for the Spa, within two days begins his journey; for I could not receive the moneys by your bills till this day. He is not perfect yet in health; but will come time enough to overtake R. C. at the Spa, before he stirs from thence, as you had in my last but this; and since, I cannot give you further relation of him.
But of the queen of Swedeland, I can assure you, lodgings are provided for her at Antwerp and in this city by particular persons; yet I believe the archduke will give orders, that for some days her majesty may sojourn in the palace here; and it gives me to believe, her majesty is to stay for some time in these parts, because houses are consigned for her. And it may be what is said to be; for R. C. may fall to the archduke's lot, if he will be so virile, which is all I have at present of that.
Of the sieges at Arras and Stenay, I have not much to say since my former. It is hoped here, Arras shall be taken before Stenay; for already one gate of Arras is possessed by the Spaniards, and in their camp powder was wanting to complete the work, as you had in my former; but now all supplied, and the several armies very faithful and vigilant; and beyond all, P. of Condé, whose valour and vigilance is much applauded. Marshal Turenne's encamping at Monchy, so near the enemy, hinders all convoys from Doway. The enemy some few days since appeared before our army, but did not advance. They looked upon us, and after retired to their camp, where they are yet. In the mean time, another desperate sally has been made by the besieged horse, and worsted at first ours, but at last were beaten back. The enemy, to facilitate all succours to the camp, have gathered together some forces from their garisons at la Bassée and Bethune, and left them in Laon. The twenty-fifth of last month arrived in our camp a convoy from Aire, with twenty-five waggons laden with powder and some pieces of artillery; so that as now we are provided.
The prince of Condé has taken the counterscarp from them, being greatly beaten from it, near the gate of Ronvill, which we possess; but by the wing of the Spaniards and Condé, his men being most Irish, eight captains were lost of our side, besides other officers. The Lorrainers in like manner gained a demi-lune in the place where they are; so that we hope soon to be masters of the town.
Some reports are of an engagement betwixt the P. of Condé with 8000 horse, with a convoy coming to this camp; but I have no assurance of it, and therefore will forbear till my next. It is written from Basil in Switzerland, that the cantons confederates assembled the eleventh of last month at Baden, where the Spanish and French embassadors were; and the last endeavours to rejoin the High and Low Alsace to Brisac could not prevail.
To the marquis of Barriere the prince of Condé's agent.
I HAVE received your letter of the twenty-fourth of the last month, and a packet to his highness, which I have sent him; but the passages are so unsafe, that we have enough to get any sent or come from thence. I have had no news from his highness since the twenty-fourth of the last month. However there are some come, that bear date the twenty-eighth, which do advise the battering of a half-moon, and afterwards they intend to batter the wall of the city; so that we have great hopes the place will be suddenly surrendered. It is that which we must all desire; for his highness doth continually expose himself to much labour and hazard, notwithstanding some little distempers of his ague, which do still hang upon him; so that some rest, and a place of security, would be very welcome unto him. Stenay holds out stoutly; the besiegers do advance something, but with the loss of a great many brave men.
Count de Brienne to Mons. de Bordeaux the French embassador in England.
There is just now an express from Stenay, who bringeth us news, that the besieged, seeing our men lodged upon the point of the bastion, did demand to capitulate; but that the treaty was broken off, by reason we would not allow them any time to send to the prince, to see if they could not be relieved. Let them do what they will, the town will be taken. I could no sooner get any time to answer your letters, which you may very well wonder at, having enough to do to advance the siege of Stenay; and besides, being a business of great importance you write about, we would take time to debate and consider of it; and I do find them no ways willing to condescend to such conditions. If I had time, I would tell you what was practised at London, where the deceased lord of Villeroy, whose memory can never be extolled enough, did rather chuse to leave the kingdom in an uncertainty of peace or war, than to agree to any dishonourable or disadvantageous terms; and that is that, which you are to speak, and to stand upon. We rely much upon your capacity and gallantry of spirit, to manage the affairs of his majesty for his honour, and the reputation of the greatness of his kingdom and power.
As I was going to sign this, there came an express from the siege at Stenay, who hath brought the news of the capitulation and hostages given on either side; and that the garison was to march out to-morrow, to retreat to Mount-medy.
Chanut the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux the French embassador in England.
That you should have contributed any thing to the disgrace of Mons de Baas, is a suspicion so extravagant, that I cannot believe, that it can enter into the thoughts of rational man, if you had not the advice from Paris. I am very glad, that all my friends, who write me very freely of all passages, do not mention one tittle of it in their letters: there is not one of them, that is troubled with that foolish imagination.
They all write me word, that they do think it to be a wilful quarrel, which the lord protector would fain make with us; but that the lord protector should engage by his own reputation in a business, which can admit of no mediocrity; for if Mons.de Baas be guilty, the king must cause him to be punished for an example, and must shew him no favour, though the lord protector should desire it; but if he be not guilty, the lord protector must make satisfaction to the king, and to Mons. de Baas likewise, having put a kind of affront upon his majesty, and gone about to take away the credit and honour of an honest man, who is none of his subject, and one that is sent from a great king.
Behold, my lord, these are the judgments and opinions of my friends at Paris. Hitherto I have not heard any thing from my friends at court about it; and for my part, I do expect to hear what the king will be pleased to order in a business of this nature, wherein I never saw nor read any examples.
I must needs confess to you my weakness; for not being able to contain my indignation in answer to yours, wherein you are pleased to do me the honour to write me word, what my lord Beverning had told you concerning my carriage here, will add now no more as to that, knowing well enough, where that gentleman's shoe pincheth him.
I know not what to judge of the success of your negotiation; for my part, I am still of the opinion I was formerly, that there will be nothing effected but upon very hard terms, which do concern our masters to judge whether they will be for their turn.
The lords of Holland have made ready a large writing in answer of that of Zealand, wherein they do very amply justify their proceedings. I will send you an extract of it; for it seemeth it is very handsomely joined together. The states general are resolved to suffer the English ships to go directly to Antwerp; and I do perceive, that all the merchants do complain, that the peace, that is made, is only a cessation of arms, or, to speak better, of hostility, here being not one point as yet regulated concerning the commerce. And when I have said sometimes, that the first articles, which you have given to your commissioners, concern the freedom and navigation, and the security of commerce amongst the people, all of them have rejoiced, and praised your proceedings.
The business of Bremen doth begin to grow more violent: the new king of Sweden is wonderfully scandalized, that those of Bremen durst be so bold, after they had retaken what they had lost, to put the subjects of Sweden under contribution; but in my opinion, that is no act of insolence, but of necessity. This city, which is very poor, not knowing how to keep a body of an army, which they do stand in need of, is sain to imitate other sovereigns, and maintain them at the charges of others. They write me from Hamburgh, that the queen of Sweden doth take this business very much to heart, and that she doth caress the princes of Low-Saxony, who do visit her, to take them off from engaging to protect the said city of Bremen. The emperor, who was not angry to see this fire kindled, and who did encourage the city of Bremen, hath now cause to be quiet, and not to make any disturbance in the empire, having no certain successor in his house. Certainly the death of the king of the Romans is a blow of a very great consequence to the house of Austria.
News from Zurich to Mr. Stouppe.
Naples is still in fear, pardons exil'd persons to have soldiers, and presses Milan to send some. Sardinia fears also, chiefly from Lemos, and fortifies places of importance. The French fleet will be strong. The pope is well, will live in the place Navona, and is angry with the Venetians for causing books to be printed in their towns against his see. They excuse themselves, pretending ignorance, and that many books bear the name of Venice, which did never see it. Genoa continues to arm. Milan can act nothing, not well knowing, on what side she may be assailed: she mistrusts the Irish. Mantua sends a garison into Casal. The French grow strong in Italy. Some few soldiers are gone into Savoy thro' Switzerland, but without arms. Geneva is still molested by the prior of St. John, who has had commissions from Rome to the parliament of Dijon, which will act against Geneva. The cantons will embrace their interest. All Germany is at a stand for the death of the Roman king. They write, that the emperor, although sick, goes into Hungaria to facilitate the election of the palatine and king of that country. The diet at Baden is ended. The deputies will make relation of all things, and give answer to Mr. Pell's propositions, and upon the matters Mr. Stokar hath related to them.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to the protector.
May it please your Highnesse,
My last weeke's dispatch inclosed to Mr. secretary Thurloe my addresse to your highnesse, with a letter from Sir John Henderson, one that now solemnly professeth himself your highnesse's most humble and faithfull servant, which I believe he is; of all which I doe now remit duplicates to Mr. secretarie, least the last post should have miscaryed. These inclosed letters I received just upon his departure towards the Spaw, which for the matter in them contained, I thought fit to present to your highness owne perusuall, adventuringe this post his own hand-writinge; but I presume hereafter a caracter will be sent me, that I may make use thereof, to impart the needfull to Mr. secretary Thurloe.
It may well be, that Ch. Stuart will hast for Scotland; for the generall report goes, he will shortly be here, in his way to the D. of Brandenburg; and at Stoade, the Swedish garryson upon the Elve, the present governour, one collonel Moore, a Scottish man, writes to a friend here, that he provides to receive him at his house. He travells but with few in company, Langdale, Compton, Northampton's son, and several other cavaliers of his party, being here alreadie waytinge his comeinge with one Carpenter, their chaplaine, formerly a Jesuite or secular preist, who came lately from England in the companye's shipps, and is goinge thither agayne, havinge here beene much countenanced by all the disaffected English in the company. Though the Q. of Sweden gave it fourth, that she was goeinge to the Spaw; yet since her departure I am certainely informed, that she intends for Brussells, and where shee will meete with C. S. is yet uncertain; but well they may encounter; for she goes in the same way to Brussells, that he comes in from the Spaw. I hope your highnesse will take into consideration the great concourse of cavaliers to this place, where they intend to reside under the winge of Ch. Stuart's agent, George Waites, the revoulted, and for present banished merchant of the company, soe soone as he returns with this commission, which he is gone for to his master at Spaw, as in my last was signifyed to your highnesse, and which undoubtedly this towne will permit under their smooth pretence of neutralitie, if your highness shall not please to command me specially and speedely to mynd them of their engagement, as included in the articles of peace with the United Provinces, not to permit any declared enemies of your highness and the state of England to harbour with and among them. If this should not be speedily ended, it will be no liveinge here for me, or any the friends and servants of your highness. It's long since I hinted upon this, as foreseeinge it upon the conclusion of the peace; but multiplicity of affaires hath hindred, that I never received any answer thereto. Here's a great quantity of armes and ammunition loaden by English and Dutch for Spaine and Portugal, at least so pretended; but beinge done by disaffected men, I doubt it may be intended for Sotland; yet there are so many laders in the shipps, and such diversity of commodities, that it may possibly be really intended for those parts. The ship with armes, &c. which Sir John mentions, I have discovered shee is to be loaden by one William Grissone, a Scottish Dutch merchant here. So soone as Marsh and Waites return with money and orders, I doubt not but your highnesse will give order with speed, how to proceed in that and other businesse remonstrated in my last. For other particulars of weekly intelligence I humbly referre your highnesse to the inclosed paper; submislly remayneinge
Extract out of the resolutions of their noble great lordships the states of the province of Groninen and Omlanden.
The states of the province of Groningen and Omlanden, having seen and thoroughly considered a certain act passed upon the fourth of May last by the lords of Holland and West-Friesland, whereby they have formally obliged themselves to the lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, never to chuse the young lord prince of Orange, or any of his line, for stadtholder-general, or admiral of their province, nor that he be ever chosen to the captain-generalship over the militia of the generality, and delivered by the lords Beverning and Nieuport, extraordinary embassadors of this state in England, to the said lord protector, by order of the said states of Holland, after the concluding and ratifying of the peace, union, and confederacy between the commonwealth of England and this state; besides, having read the resolutions and protestations of some provinces, already brought into the generality, and also the protests made by the commissioner of this province in particular, in the assembly of their H. and M. L. upon this subject; their said lordships can see nor judge no other, than that the separate negotiation made by the said lords of Holland with the said lord protector, without the least communication thereof given before-hand to the other provinces, is not to be allowed of, or that the same ought to tend to the prejudice of others, as being contrary to the express letter of the ninth and tenth articles of the union of Utrecht, lately unanimously renewed by all the provinces, and so religiously entered into by all the provinces, and to be observed especially in the conjuncture of times, where the generality itself, with the advice of all the provinces, and with singular care, had already concluded a common treaty by their embassadors with the commonwealth of England; contrary to whose intention and express resolution of the nineteenth of February, the province of Holland, upon a pretended necessity, durst undertake alone to negotiate apart with the lord protector; and for his contentment and satisfaction, besides and above the security, which was solemnly given him by the provinces for the preserving of the peace, treating with him in private, did wave the same, and thought fit to alter it, and to give such other conditions and provisoes, as seemed fit in their own wisdoms, where the treaty itself is much slighted; and withal they have taken upon them the superiority over all the provinces, to whom they intend to give laws, by this separate negotiation and obligation of theirs: besides, this unheard of and abominable seclusion of the young lord prince of Orange doth draw after it not only an indelible ungratitude against the whole house of Orange, from whence the first freers and founders of our liberty did originally proceed, and who have continually, and so gloriously deserved well of this state, (which then can never be answered before God and the world) as also us and our posterity; but hath also occasioned a notable ignominy and irreparable trouble and prejudice to the said young prince, who in his innocent years is taken into the special protection of this state, and remaining amongst whom, without the least fault, is put by and frustrated of all hope of succession in those high charges possessed by his father, and his illustrious predecessors.
Wherefore the said lords states do disavow the said separate negotiation, as also the said seclusion, and do hold the same for null and of no value; and they do persist by that special resolution of the twenty-third of December, 1652. for the chusing of the young prince captain-general, with their desire, that the rest of the provinces will take the same into their serious considerations.
A letter of intelligence.
All your instructions I received, and your moneys of twenty pounds; a considerable part whereof I was driven to expend for apparrel and equipage, having changed my long habit, &c. I hope you will perform with me. I came hither but this day; and I cannot give that account, which you may expect; but by the next I am confident to give you contentment; and by God's assistance, I dare undertake to give you satisfaction in your desires to the utmost of my power in every particular; and that R. C. shall not stir, but I shall be near him and his actions. All I can tell you now is, that R. C. is here, and all his embassadors and agents from all parts flock to him in such an assembly, and as merry as if they had the three kingdoms; and they give out it shall be so shortly, sed ad calendas Græcas.
The queen of Swedeland is here expected, and a house is taken for her. My coming
hither is but sudden. This is only to give you notice of my being here; by my next you
may expect more from, Sir,
A letter of intelligence.
Having received both yours by this post, I have not much of news to acquaint you more than I writ in my former. However, as it is, you will be pleased to accept of it. The parliament sat here the first instant, assembled upon the elections of some new deputies to receive the rent of the town-house, which, after many oppositions by the masters of requests, have chosen four intendants, called Hausset, Payet, Brisauer, and Boisleue, of which each of them has paid for his entrance 200,000 livres.
The rest of Guise's train, that parted last week, (as I writ formerly) being arrived at Melun in an house belonging to Mons. Breteville, master of requests, endeavoured to go into the garden to eat some fruit, which the people of the house endeavoured to hinder, but were paid, four of them being wounded. The said Breteville having complained of it to the duke of Guise, orders were sent presently by Guise, that such as had done the injury to the people, should be turned away out of his service, and called to justice in Paris. The said duke is to depart this very day.
The siege of Stenay continues always; and last friday in the evening the regiment of la Marine hazarded themselves there most gallantly in the king's presence, casting in quantities of granadoes, fourneaux, and such, by which many were lost on both sides: on our side three captains of la Marine's, so many lieutenants, five serjeants, and twenty soldiers, by reason they did not retire themselves timely after throwing of the said granadoes, many more officers and soldiers of the said regiment were slain, and wounded in a manner: of 700 rest but 200. The enemies lost likewise a quantity of men, and ours took two of their officers, which would not timely retire back; which say, that Rochefort lieutenant of the citadel was dead, and that they had not many granadoes or bullets in the town: that the burghers were forced to give all their plate to the governor, to make bullets of them. The enemies sallied out twice since, to turn ours out of the counterscarp: we gained by Marine's regiment, but could not prevail. The 28th last month, our mine, being burnt under the demi-lune, made a great breach, where ours is now lodged at present, tho' we lost about 100 soldiers, and eight officers of the guard wounded; of which one called Viol: in so much we were advanced; and the 30th last month all ours took courage, and worked hard in the ditches; so that within eight days we are in hopes to be masters of the place.
The letters from Turenne's camp being still at Moussy, of the first instant, bring, that the brother of Mr. Cumont, that was slain, as you heard of before, having commanded the troops of his brother, being 400 horse, was taken near Peronne, and was brought with his troops into Cambray, by the garison of that place; also, that they have taken with them the corps of M. de Beaujeu.
The enemies at Arras receive always relief by many of their cavaliers, that carry it behind them sooner than they want it. The first instant, 150 horsemen of the enemy's coming from Cambray with powder and ammunition, passing near Bapaune at ten of the clock, M. de Peuse went in ambuscade to surprise them; had some of his pieces of artillery play'd in Bapaume, to advertise Turenne, that the enemies were passing. Upon which all Turenne's cavalry went to the field, and have beaten this part; took what provision they had, as also some of them prisoners, within half a league to Arras, and were brought to Turenne; which declared to him, next day 1000 horse, laden with the like munition, would come the same way from Cambray. Turenne, hearing of that, sent M. de Bar with the most part of his horses towards that way, but found nothing in the end: however the enemies, to let us know they wanted no powder, shot an hundred pieces of cannon before Arras, the second instant; so they brag at us. The same day Turenne sent some foot and horse to the field, hearing the great convoy was coming; but as we are informed, count Broglio met them with 300 horse, to guard them before the rest: which Broglio seeing, was sure they were his; so the guard fled away, and Broglio took possession of the waggons: but Condé came behind him with 6000 horse, and cut him all in pieces, and Broglio escaped narrowly into la Bassée, being wounded. During this time Turenne endeavoured to raise the siege, hearing Condé was absent; but all in vain; he was repulsed with loss. Some say the great convoy entered; so which we would not, though believed here. By the next you shall have the certainty of all this. The munition-bread in the enemy's camp is only worth five sols; wine and beer is scarce. Some say, Stenay is capitulating, and Chamilly to take the amnesty, to enter into his own goods: but we must expect the confirmation of it, before we believe it. King Charles is at Spa; which is all we hear from him.
Your friend in Rome writes only at this time, that some differences are between the cardinals there and his holiness; the last being for the common good, and the rest not. Great promises of the Portugal embassador's entrance. Prince Ludovisio is commanded out of Rome, and quitted his office, being general of the pope's galleys: some say he is going to Naples.
Prince Pamphilio's secretary is committed to prison, and the prince himself disgusted. This is all he gives at this time: by the next he promised to satisfy you at large; and such shall be the endeavours of, Sir,
A letter of intelligence.
Both yours of the 27th and 30th last month, I received by this post with yours for Rome, which are sent away, and from whence at present I have nothing for you; but for myself, I had what you have in the end of the letters of occurrents. R. C. is now at the Spa, and certainly will relieve Scotland by all the means he can, and go himself, if it be possible; knowing well, that without this little will be done in Scotland. As the said R. C. passed through France into Flanders, many Irish soldiers and officers saluted him in his way; and I have seen one, that was present, who heard him give them great hopes, that before long he hoped to see them in better condition. Not only R. C. but also France, are confident to see dissentions in England and Holland, and more troubles in Scotland, notwithstanding all treaties with the protector.
Of M. de Baas I have no more yet to say, but that justice shall be done to the protector, if he has deserved it. I hear the king and cardinal have given answer to the protector's letters upon that subject, which you will find there. The articles sent by the commissioners from the protector to our embassador Bordeaux were sent hither, as I writ to you before; and some orders sent since to Bordeaux, touching them: but what is desired in them for the Huguenots of France, will not be assented to, to the best of my intelligence; neither will France give any moneys. I presume M. Bordeaux has given there more of this than I can learn; to which I must leave you.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
The siege of Arras and Stenay are now far advanced, and men do believe, that the one and the other will be suddenly taken; but in all likelihood, Stenay will be the first surrender'd; for the last letters that came from Stenay, do speak, that all the outworks were taken, by reason whereof they did believe the place would be taken before the eighth or tenth of this month.
At Bourdeaux they begin again to be discontented and to mutiny, by reason of the excessive imposts, which they endeavour to establish here through the favour of the castle trompet. There have been placarts fixed up and down the town against Turenne; and many do believe, that the commonalty will be stirring there, here, and elsewhere, if Arras should be taken.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Here is no business spoken of besides the two sieges; whereof it begins to grow doubtful, which will be the sooner over. The king hath again summoned the town of Stenay by a person of honour: the governor returned answer, that whilst his provisions lasted, he was resolved never to think of surrendering; all which notwithstanding, I hear the king is resolved to have it before the fifteenth of this month. Arras is no ways short of the like resolution. A few days ago, there was a hot dispute between a party of the French army, and the Spaniards. The archduke hath committed the whole conduct of the siege to the prince of Condé, with absolute power to give battle, if he think fit: and indeed without him it would go coldly on; for he is in every place. There is a convoy arrived safe in the Spanish camp, which hath furnished them with provisions for three weeks. The duke of Guise hath raised some men; but it is uncertain yet, for what place they are designed.
A letter of intelligence.
I KNOWE not, whether this maye come safe to your hands; so shall be short, and only tell you, that I am come as farr as Luyck, and this morninge for Spa, where I hope to arrive by times. The K. is still there; and as I heare by some come from thence, his trayne increases: so we hope, if he stays a while, he maye have a little army for to guarde him; and I am sure, if he doth not remove suddenly, many of our partye must leave him: for the place is too chargeable. News here is none. I beseech you, when my wife waites on you, to furnish her with that money I desired. The post parts from the Spa and this place soe unseasonably, that my letters will be ould, before you have them; and for more certaintye I will send them by waye of Amsterdam: and so please to write to me, and direct them under cover of Mr. Lawrence Coghen. In haste I rest