A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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July (7 of 7)
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to the count de Charost, governor of Calais.
The last post will bring you none of my letters. I can add nothing of news to my former, here having past not any thing of late worth your knowledge. I am still entertained with fair words, and a parcel of promises: they will conclude day after day; however, I have much to do to expect it; and in the mean time, the best course your frigats can take, is, not to fall into the hands of the English. Notwithstanding all our endeavours for a cessation of arms, and our civilities shewn to them, we cannot be used in the like manner; as you may judge by the denying to restore the ships, that came from the Newfoundland.
A letter of intelligence.
We believe here, that Stenay is over. 2dly, The king is gone from Sedan to Amiens, to the end to encourage by his presence his soldiers, to cause them to relieve Arras. 3dly, Some Irish do abandon the Spanish lines, and come over to the French; only the duke of Guise departed hence yesterday, to command his forces, designed, I know not whither. 4thly, All our astrologers and mathematicians are preparing their instruments, to speculate upon the great eclipse, which is to be seen on wednesday next at ten of the clock: many do apprehend the consequences and effects. They do abandon here in all things. The government is firm and settled: there are only some reliques de la fronde, qui grondent; they do laugh at the threatnings and designs of foreigners.
A letter of intelligence.
Several letters bring hither great diffentions to be in England the next parliament, as also in the United Provinces. These letters gain credit here, and assist R. C. in the collection making for him. Here is one at the emperor's court earnestly soliciting for the proportion promised by his majesty; but he has not yet received the money. Of his affairs here is no more; and being now in Lower Germany, you may hear more of him. There is no mention of his coming to this court. The king of the Romans death is no small loss to him, as to his affairs here.
We have news, that since the last fight of the Venetians, as you had formerly from
me, they have taken five Turkish ships laden with provision and ammunition, sailing
towards Candia; the Turks having taken above 2000 cows from those of Zara, and some
horses. Which is all of news from this place, at this time, to the knowledge of, Sir,
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
I have finished the business of M. de Baas, in rejoicing with you, that those, who are our judges, have wholly discharged your conduct of the accident, which is happened unto him. I read more in your last than I had hoped of the progress of your negotiation. If it could be finished through a happy conclusion before the beginning of the parliament, you would not repent of all those bad nights, which you have had. God bless your labour, and that all your friends may rejoice at your glory, joined with the peace and prosperity of the kingdom. Here all things hang in suspense, and all business at stand, till the first heats of the provinces be somewhat cooled; which cannot happen, till they have slung their fire into the assemblies of the states, and that by these commotions they have shewn their ingratitude to the house of Orange. This makes them to consider the welfare of the country, and the great interest, not to divide, for fear of relapsing into new wars with England. The age of the prince, which doth not press, and the present condition of the state, the consideration of all these will with-hold the most zealous, and prevent the several mischiefs, which do threaten these provinces. Those of Guelderland do incline to declare the young prince general of the armies, and head of the union. Those of Utrecht do not differ much from them, but the deliberation is not yet finished with the one or the other.
For the business of Bremen, it is to be believed, that it will be accommodated, and that Sweden will not engage in a war at the very first and beginning of his reign; but will dissemble the injuries of that city. However, they are sending soldiers; and those of Bremen do continually solicit for relief here. We are told, that those of Bremen are about to make a league with the protector, alledging their religion; in favour whereof they think to have him favourable to them: but we do judge, that he will not offend a kingdom to gain the love of a city. As for religion, (except the Catholic, which being a true, doth produce a true zeal) we do believe, that all that is done under pretence of religion, hath no other true foundation than the interest of great ones, or those who would become great.
The queen of Sweden is past from Hamburgh to Lunenburg, and from thence thro Zwol, Amersfort, Utrecht; and from Utrecht to Gorcum, where she pass'd the Maese, and so went directly to Antwerp, where she is at present. She pass'd all the way disguised, and accompanied only with four or five persons. Her train is arrived at Amsterdam by sea; so that we did not see her. She is a princess, who having made herself particular, hath gained herself the liberty to do what she pleaseth.
They write me from Switzerland, that M. Stockar hath made his report before the Protestant cantons alone, and that they make a mystery of this negotiation, as of the beginning of an alliance, which must cause all the antient friends to be forgotten.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Chanut, the French embassador in Holland.
The discourse, which was made upon the subject of the lord de Baas, was altogether conformable to the orders, which I had received from the court, to demand of the lord protector reparation of the injury, which was done to the king in the person of his minister; or the proofs and depositions, which did cause his suspicions; that so his majesty, by exemplary justice upon M. de Baas, if he be guilty, may make known to the people, that he had exceeded his orders. This was the subject of an audience, which his highness gave me on monday last; and he took this last part. You may believe, that the audience did not pass altogether without speaking of other affairs: however, nothing was resolved, and I was referred to my commissioners, with whom I have had some conferences. I did this day expect to have had their last resolution upon the terms we stand upon; but as yet none is come. Some little circumstances, which have been told me this morning, do almost persuade me, that our differences will be composed between us; yet I dare not be responsible for what may happen: for the minds of these people are not so resolute, nor so disposed to determine any thing, as those, who do not know them, do imagine them to be.
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
I must neads acknowledge, I have bine very confydent in representing the state of affayres heare to yourselfe; and perhaps possibly I have bine thought too pressingly sensible of thos perticulers, which relate to the publick management of things: yet let me say, if I have mistaken, I have this pleade, it was what I conceived of publique advantage; as also what I have presumed to hint as to those affayres relating to England, it hath bine what I have heard, and did conceive myselfe obliged to impart it, both concerning my lord protector, and in him the state; and knowing the confidence and trust, which deservedly is put upon you, as one my lord hath a more perticuler affection unto, and opinion of, made me the more free to adventure my weake conception; and so great an esteme I have of your merrit and publicke spirit, that I can with more freedom mention that to you, which I cannot to many others. I must neades adde this, the affectionate recentment I have of what you mention concerning my lord protector's tendernes to the Protestant party, who though under more darknes as to many things then ourselves, yet surely it is an interest to be regarded above any thing in this world: and I must neades say, that scripture is of weight to me in many such cases: He that gives a cuppe of cold water in the name of a disciple, shall not, &c. and what though they have bine opposers, and possibly may be to the worke ? but to beare wittnes against them in that, and yet to minde their as our own buysnes, may certeinly well consist together. In what concerns the account upon which they stande, in relation to all states, amongst whom they are; and the more oppressed and persecuted, the greater argument to owne and appeare for them, even on the account of liberty, as liberty, take it in either sence, as well civill as spirituall. The truth is, thos two interests are so intermixed in this day, that we canot sever them; and that will be found more than a phansy, when throughly discussed. I confesse the worke of the Lord abroade is to me wonderfull, and we are greatly in the darke; but we shall see it more clearly, though it is against the rules of politicks; yet whatever comes, it will be found the best, surest, and lasting way to minde thos most, who com nearest to the name of saintshippe: and I hade rather my lord showld breake with France and Spayne, &c. then to heare he hade left behinde him the interest of thos poore (and even darke) people, called Protestants. Wheare ther is most of God, ther is the best choyce; and I hope amongst them ther is a pretious seade, who rather waite for a spring-time to budde forth and appeare, then that they want life in the roote. The worke begun will not ende in thes three nations; pardon my rudnes. I might add much. Your letter did revive me, as to that past. I must not take up your time; but the more you minde that worke, the greater will be your mercy. As for Ireland, I have severall things to say; but have not freedom by this conveyance: and at this distance, the work, I feare, suffers by delays. Sende whom you will, so we may have honest, good, sober, able men. But since you desire my freedom, I must tell you, that as to Mr. Goodwin, I know him very well, and cannot except against him, if his age will not hinder his dispatch of buysnes: I hade some experience in England of him. Mr. Stephens is a good man, I hope, though I fear his rigidnes, if the same as in parliament. And why should you put such a discouredgment upon honest Mr. Corbet, as to make him above the latter in place, who, I beleive, is no wayes inferior, but above him on all accounts ? Mr. recorder would exceedingly have answered the buysnes heare; and if he canot at present com, yet let him have the name, and waite what providence will order concerning his coming or stay; and let me tell you plainly, we must not have above two or three upon the payment of the states pay, which is large, and canot well be lesse for any deserving then 1000 l. per annum to each. Ireland will not beare many large sallaryes. As for the other person, Mr. Hopkins, he is wholly a stranger; but if what you write he is in truth such, I shall be satisfyed. He that comes for Ireland, if you expect good from him, and a blessing upon his endeavor, he must be a man fearing God, able, and hateing covetuosnes, the great temptation of Ireland, which most that come, if not impowred with a very selfe-denying spirit, will fall into: and indeade keepe off any, whom you suspect of a covetuous selfe-seaking spirit. Heare are too many snares to intrappe even very good men, who are given up to this lust; and now adventurers and souldiers lands come to be set out, besids other advantages, we had neade have very self-denying spirits. I se ther is no certeinty what you intend as to any officers of the army to be of the counsell; but if any, I shall desire coll. Hewson and coll. Sancky may be two. They are both good men, and faithfull to my lord protector; and thos, who, I trust, will act uprightly and righteously. I am glade to heare of our 40000 l. The future settlement, as to forces and pay, will, I hope, take away the jealousyes of a banke. You will easily belive me, when I tell you, how much my interest is concerned both as a man, and as a Christian, in my lord protector; and therfor shall not neade to apologise for myselfe, either in the former troubles, or present given you. If my lord St. Johns would accept to serve for Woodstocke, I should heartily rejoyce therin. He is one I dearly love, and highly prize. If I mistake not, such men will be more wanted then ever in parliament, as this last choyce is. The Lord teach us to live more upon him. I am
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloc.
We have this week had strong reports here, that the French fleete at Tollon was put to sea, about 30 sail of ships, 12 gallyes, and 50 tartans; but by what I can gather, this is but a meer reporte, here being no vessell com from thence this week. 'Tis rather believed, they delay tyme, til they se what will be done with the treaty in Ingland. If that tak not, 'tis supposed they will not go out at al, fearing that fleet, which is by the protector intended for the seas; neither is the duke of Guise yet come into Province, who is to go general of this fleet. He has entertained about 200 fugetiv Neapollitans, some of them men of quallity; which makes the world beleiv theyr desyn is for that kingdom, the rather in that the pope may lend the French some assistance.
The affaires of Genoa are stil in suspence, till they hav answer from theyr ambassador gon for France. They ar nothing so forward as they wer for a breach. The Spanyard deals very closly, gives them good words, imputs the faults of what is past to his great officers of state here in Italy; but 'tis thot, if he can mak a league with Ingland, he will look no more on the Genowes, he is so enraged against them.
The pope has layd down his former thouhts of receiving the king of Portugal's ambassador, not to distast so much the king of Spain: but the truth is, he is afrayd the Inglish may be perswaded to com against him by the Spaniards; so for the present he only creates new bishops in Portugall, which hetherto has so long forbor, that there remaines but one in that kingdom. 'Tis reported the pope labours much to make a peace betwixt Spayn and France, that in occasion they may join together to defend the papacy; for a Protestant legue is much feared. Nothing els presents. I am,
A letter of intelligence.
Arras and Stenay are neither of them yet taken; but it is believed, that Arras will be first taken; for the prince of Condé hath beaten a party of the French army, which was to fall upon and to hinder his convoy between Doway and Arras. He killed 4000 upon the place: he lost 2000 himself, but did his business. The French were 7000: they were wholly defeated. Besides, we have taken marshal Turenne's camp within a legue of Arras. When the marschal was marched out upon a design, the prince, having notice of it, fell upon his camp, and defeated those that were left, which were but a few; yet a matter of consequence to the prince: so that now the French have given over all hopes of relieving Arras, and have laid strict siege to Stenay, which before was only blockt up. I believe Arras will be taken this next week. The king of France and the cardinal had like to have been taken the last week; the king coming from the siege to Sedan, as he had often done, Masseene the prince's lieutenant general was gone into a wood, where the king was to pass hard by with 500 horse. The king and cardinal coming after their wonted manner, the king being before with some twenty or thirty horse, Masseene let them pass; seeing two or three hundred coming close after, imagined the king was there, and so fell upon him, and killed and took most of his men; but his prey (the king) by that mistake got away, and also the cardinal, safe into Sedan.
The duke of York is with mareschal Turenne, and so is my lord Gerard. His master hath not been so kind to him as he was wont, since his falling out with Sir Ed. Hyde. Charles Stuart is very merry, dancing at the Spa, where is expected the queen of Sweden. I do begin to believe, that the rebel rogues in Scotland have done our friend some mischief; for I hear it confirmed with many circumstances by a ship, that is come out of the north into these parts, that divers of the English are run over to the Scots; and that the Scots are masters of the field, and never come near the borders of England; and many other things, which I cannot believe; but I am afraid, that in following those wild people amongst their inaccessible hills, we may have received some loss rather by the difficulty of the march, than the valour of the enemy.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Since my former of this day seven-night, I have collected what follows:—That our embassadors in London writ hither to the states general, by their letters of the thirtyfirst July last, that there they have convinced the English councils, as for any of that nation to pass or trade (as presumed) in the river Scheld. In the same letter they give large account of the business as agitated, touching the differences of the English merchants loss in Denmark; the murders of Amboyna; also how they demanded audience from the protector by the means of Mr. secretary Thurloe, declaring to him the cause to be, to procure the copies of the last treaty with Sweden, as articled and concluded: but all this you have at full there; so I will say no more of it. Many here do wonder, the English would let pass so good an opportunity as that of the trade in the river Scheld; which if they had insisted upon, should be permitted to them. There has been a great debate amongst the states general, touching the shutting up of the said river; but those of Holland and Overyssel remain firm in not suffering the same. But it may be, next week, being the turn for the president of the province of Zealand, some stirs may be about the same; and if that river be once shut up, the English (for the present at least) have quite lost the offered occasion.
The states of Zealand are very much irritated against Holland; and it doth evidently appear, how partial they are for the prince of Orange; since to please the people and preachers, the magistrates of that province have been forced to set up in all the towns the banners of the said prince, and particularly in Middleborough, wherein upon the top of their town-house, in which they use to assemble, the said banner is placed.
The first day of this month the states of Guelderland presented a paper to the states general, containing their resolution touching the prince of Orange his exclusion by the embassadors Beverning and Nieuport, in secret. The said paper is agreeable to that of the rest of the provinces, and particularly to that of Zealand and Friesland against the states of Holland, contrary to the union, honour, gratitude, &c. also to recal their vote of Beverning's being treasurer general, and to recal him and Nieuport to give account of their negotiations, with desires the prince of Orange may be chosen captain general, &c. as you had in the resolutions formerly of Zealand, Friesland, Groningen, &c. Some are apt to believe, the town of Utrecht itself will make some favourable resolution in the behalf of the prince of Orange; but I cannot aver it yet.
I do believe, that the print of the manifesto of the province of Holland, which will be of 34 or 36 sheets in folio, shall be finished this week. Yesterday it was begun to be read in the assembly of the generality, the part thereof being read that day lasting for four hours; and the deputies of all the provinces were desired by the counsellor pensioner of Holland to assist that day for the continuation of the reading of the rest, the counsellor being author of the said manisesto, and of so great power in this province, being not above thirry years of age, himself conferred upon his younger brother the charge of drossart of Mutten, being one of the very best, if not second offices in that province.
The province of Holland hath sent into England out of this town fourteen tuns of gold, to perform the payments, for which security was given, in order to pay all damages sustained by the English merchants in Denmark, as agreed upon in the late treaty; and it was not possible at present to induce any of the rest of the provinces to contribute to the said payment.
The vice-admiral de Ruyter failed out with twelve great ships of war, towards the Mediterranean sea, with orders to attack the French ships, that they shall meet in those seas, in revenge of the continual robberies and piracies, that those of that kingdom have done, and continually do, against the subjects and people of these states.
In fine, I conclude, that the province of Zealand's great fear for want of trade, and the powerful fleet of the protector's near at hand, keeps these provinces from being in great broils; and I have some cause of knowledge for it.
A list I have seen sent by our embassadors there last week, of all the persons excepted by
the protector in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and in these provinces; which I presume
is so well known to you there, that I need not give you or myself the trouble of it: neither have I any more at this time to say, but that I am, Sir,
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The lord Huygens, president, proposed the last week, whether it were not convenient in the end to give to the princess dowager the pension, during her life, of 20,000 guilders per annum, as a widow; and which Holland itself presently after the death of prince Henry would have bestowed upon her, but the princess pretended forty thousand guilders per annum. At present she hath signified, that she will be contented with twenty thousand. The other provinces have agreed to it; but Holland, after some deliberation in their assembly, doth scruple at it.
Formerly you will have heard, that the four members of Overyssel have recalled the lord Ripperda, since that the two members of Overyssel have recalled the lord Mulart: all which revocations are as so many demonstrations of a great weakness, yea disorders of the province.
Holland doth take it very ill, that the earl Freder. de Nassau hath lent twenty horsemen, to take the lord Wynenthal, saying, that it is a like case to the taking and surprising, which the deceased prince of Orange made of the six Lovestein lords; and Holland will have the earl sent hither, now duke of Frids.
They do insist still, that the commissioners of the duke and states of Friesland should renounce the imperial mandates against Embden. The said commissioners desire rather to be gone. Having writ thus far, I do understand, that those of Holland have resolved directly not to give any thing to the princess dowager for her said pension, as being a thing which they have formerly denied. Count William is gone for Groningen, where there is to be a general assembly; and there as well the act of seclusion, as their provincial difference, is to be debated.
Those of Zutphen and Velauw have advised in the same manner as Friesland, or very near it. In short, all the six provinces will be sufficiently united as to that; but that will make those of Holland but the more obstinate.
At last those of Holland promised to produce their apology, or contre-deduction, after that already it had been sent to Gueldreland and Utrecht some days since. It is said also, that the other provinces will take the same liberty to make their counter-apologies, and will likewise cause them to be printed. There are some, who do prognosticate to Holland some harm from this apology; as in like manner in the year 1617. when Barnevelt published his apology, exposing himself at that time to the assaults and insulting pens of so many famous writers, who writ against him.
But the states of Holland have supporters, which Barneveldt had not; for Barneveldt and the states of Holland were not masters of the militia, as the states of Holland are at present. Secondly, those of Holland are and will be back'd and assisted by England.
At Utrecht hath been a fair this week, where the citizens made a shew, being in arms; and men speak, that the scarss and orange-ribbons were worn very brief amongst them; yea that their ensigns were of the same: which is something, but not all; for in Zealand they did also dress themselves with the same colours, upon the like business; and yet in Zealand more than half the magistracy do hold in their hearts with the maxim of Holland, and do not yield to the prince, no not what doth belong to him, as the right of first noble; which is the chiefest pearl of his crown.
Those of Holland have endeavoured to interpose for the city of Deventer against the other members of Overyssel; but the other members would not admit of it. Holland admonisheth continually the other provinces, for the furnishing of one hundred and forty thousand pounds sterling, for the business of Denmark, with little success; for the provinces, little or nothing interested in the war, do not much mind it.
Yesterday was read the great deduction or declaration of Holland, during all the session, from nine to one of the clock: the provinces have demanded to have copies of it. Those of Holland have offered to withdraw and suppress this deduction, in case the other pro vinces will likewise withdraw and suppress their writings in opposition to the seclusion, upon which nothing is yet resolved.
Mons. Morus doth expect attestations from Geneva, Middleburgh, and Paris; afterwards he will cause them to be printed: he hath bought all the examples sent from London to Amsterdam; so that there is not one to be had of the impression at London; and that of Vlac is a very small letter. I pray send me a copy of them at London.
Extract of the secret resolutions of the lords states of Holland, taken upon friday, the seventh of August, 1654. [N. S.]
There appearing in the assembly the lords commissioners of the council, and having proposed to their noble great lordships the ways and means, which they in pursuance, and for the accomplishing of their noble great lordships resolution, dated the fifth of this month, and considered to be most conducing to the security here upon all occasions: whereupon being debated, their said great and noble lordships gave the said lords commissioners of the council thanks for their care and pains taken about it; and furthermore with a general advice of all the members, according to the project of the said lords commissioners, thought fit and understood, that the present company of the guard of their noble great lordships, consisting of 400 men, shall be divided into four distinct bodies, each of an hundred men; and that to each of the said four divisions shall be added an ordinary Netherland company of, 65 men, and at present be commanded and conducted by good and experienced officers of known worth, who shall then respectively command the 165 men; for which purpose are already propounded the following companies: that of M. de Sterrenborch, of quarter-master Perceval, of the commander Beaumont, and of captain Pauw; to which end they shall have sufficient commission given them in order thereunto: and the said lords commissioners of the council are hereby also desired to see this their great lordships resolution forthwith put into execution.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the greffier of the states general.
Next tuesday is the last day, which the arbitrators of the Danish differences have assigned them for their final decision of the questions in dispute; and upon which they are to be lock'd up without any victuals or light, till they have finally agreed upon them. So their H. and M. lordships may imagine, with what impatience we and the cautionary merchants, who do daily admonish us, expect their orders for the finishing of that decision, there being afterwards but 25 days remaining for the execution; which, as hath been formerly often advised, is presented and accomplished here with all rigour and preciseness. Whereunto we must also add, that we do apprehend a very bad issue of the said decision, there being in the place of 22 ships but 18; and for all the merchandizes but only one ship hired, and that sent back with a lading to the value of 4000 rixdollars; there being to our knowledge not one penny paid in Denmark of the 300,000 guilders, which were the proceeds of the goods sold there; nor of the ships, which were disposed of by order of the king, upon condition of restitution or satisfaction; which we shall leave and recommend to their H. and M. lordships wisdoms. But we cannot but complain, that all this while we have not received one word of advice, neither from the resident de Vries, nor from those persons sent only by us, which might have stood us in some stead in the debating of the said affair; only about eight days ago we had some papers sent over, no wise authorized or signed, without any inventory or deduction; so that we could not project any thing for the answering and annulling of the English pretences, than what we could naturally devise in our own judgments, with the advice of some merchants, who were willing to accommodate us therein with reasons. On the other side, the English came provided with all things necessary for the making good their pretences; whereof we shall advise their lordships by the next. Furthermore, we find ourselves obliged to leave it to the consideration of their lordships, whether it would not be for the service and reputation of the state, to present the said merchants, who without any great profit, and with hazard of their credit, have served their lordships, together with the arbitrators appointed on our side, and those who have served us constantly with their advice and direction, being in all sixteen in number, with some medal or regalio. But as we have not propounded or given any hopes thereof to any, that they should expect it; so we shall leave it absolutely to their lordships discretion and disposition.
Stouppe to the prince of Tarante.
The accident, which happened to me at Dunkirk, where I was kept prisoner many days, and the fit of sickness, which happened to me presently after my arrival in this city, have hinder'd me from giving any sooner an account to your highness of the commission, wherewith you have been pleased to honour me. Now that I have had an answer of all, I do send you, my lord, a cypher, and by the next I will send you word at large of all, that hath been told me. I cannot write any thing other at present to your highness, but that the things remain in the same condition they were in, when I left them; and if the business be pursued, I make no doubt but in a little time it will succeed very happily. We are told here, my lord, that you have made your peace with the king, and taken the amnesty: whereas I am expresly charged to ask your highness that, I do most humbly beg you to let me know, what there is of it. Men do expect here with impatience the success of the parliament, which is to meet within five weeks. In the mean time all things are in suspense, and nothing will be resolved on till then. There is no doubt made, but the lord protector will receive the confirmation of the authority he hath either under the name he hath at present, or under some other.
The treaty with France doth continue still. I do hear from a very good hand, that there are such great difficulties, that it will be long first, before they come to a conclusion. Here is a very great fleet ready for some very grand exploit: most men will have them designed for the Indies, to take from the king of Spain what he hath there.
A letter of secretary Oste.
Since my last, with all reverence, I have received their H. and M. lordships orders of the 11th of the last month, according to which, with all due care and diligence, I have informed myself what passed between this crown and the lord Whitelocke; but can find no more, than what is comprehended in the fifteen inclosed articles, whereof, by reason of the great secrecy here in such affairs, there was a copy desired out of England, which came here by the last post. Here are some projects in the council, to desire by an extraordinary embassy the said com. of England to enter into a further alliance; but is yet deferred, either through defect of money, or other accidents.
This week the king received a letter from Bremen, wherein they complain of the hostilities done them by Coningsmark, and desire to live in amity with the crown. The king is said not to be willing to return any answer, or to come to any treaty with the said city, before they have restored the burgh. As yet there is no order given to send any ships to the Weser.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours are received by this post, and we sent to Vienna and the Spa such letters as you desired to be sent thitherwards; as from both now you have some letters annexed. You know the court is not now here, and you must expect the less of news, only of the sieges of Arras and Stenay. The first we are sure to have, and the last, in my opinion, as sure to lose: yet some will not believe, but we shall relieve Stenay, after Arras is surrender'd, of which we doubt not within three days. True it is, the king of France's army has been four times repulsed (notwithstanding his royal presence) by that petty garison of Stenay. In this city they will lay twenty and odds to one, Arras shall be sur render'd within a week. The next will let you hear of what it shall be. About that Arras divers Irish officers and soldiers are slain under the conduct of the prince of Condé, among which colonel Philip O Duire, not very long since with you in London.
The queen of Sweden incognito arrived in Antwerp, the 5 instant, in habitu virili; and it is conceived her quondam majesty will come from thence hither, and from thence to the Spa: of all which you shall know more by the very next post. Here is a report, that the emperor, with grief and sorrow for the death of his son, is dead, or near it; but the letters you have now from Vienna, will inform you of the truth of that particular.
A letter of intelligence.
The queen of Sweden came this week to this town in man's apparel, disguised as a page to one of her own servants, not so much as a maid besides in her company. What her intentions are, is not yet known; but this is looked upon as a fantastic trick. The king of Scots is still at the Spa.
An intercepted letter.
The enemy is now pressing very hard of Arras; but I am confident it will hardly be theirs this bout; for we have a strong and powerful army; and now the king is expected daily with his army, which consists of 8000 men, and we are at present twentyone thousand men effective, and as good men as ever I saw: of them there are thirteen thousand horse; and when Arras is press'd very near, they are resolved to force the lines, to which purpose they have already a great number of fascines, and now drawing nearer to their lines. The prince is the most laborious man in the world, first in arms, and first in the trenches: his army each day diminisheth, and ours increaseth; yet some Germans, and a few French, to the number of fifty, are gone to him with their horse. The prince, finding resistance in his first attempt against the town, hath changed his approaches, and is now ready to spring a mine in the first half-moon, which will cost him the life of many to get thither; and afterwards he hath a counterscarp, a great ditch, to pass. There were all this summer ten thousand men in Guienne waiting on the designs of the protector, which men are now coming up. This will be a hot summer. I doubt not but the attempting of Arras will be the undoing of Spain; but if taken, and Stenay maintained, the cardinal is absolutely undone; for all the world are incensed against him. This day Stenay is reported to be delivered to the king, but the governor to stay and command therein, and takes his oath to be faithful. He is a most gallant commander, acknowledged by all 'men; and we have no less hopes of the governor of Arras, but that he will give a very good account of it.
He that writ this letter is an English knight, and one that went from Paris with M. de Bordeaux, on purpose to intice away the Irish from the Spanish army: but Bordeaux writes, he hath hitherto effected but very little. The cardinal and Tellier ordered him to go along with Mons. de Bordeaux. They both make use of him; but Bordeaux writes to his son, that he finds him to be a mere mountebank.]
A letter of intelligence.
The marquis of Mountpouillan, the marquis of Coignac's brother, hath so much lessened the English sorces, saying his highness had but about 12 or 15,000 men in Ireland, 10,000 in Scotland, 4 or 5000 in England, and not 3000 in the fleet, insomuch that there were not too many for the conversation of the country, and that nothing was to be seared on that side for France, that the deputies of religion (who knew nothing done here for them by force) have thought that hath contributed unto the disdain their commissioners and this chancellor in particular make always of them; but that diminisheth not the hopes they have in the protection and intercession of his said highness, who, after God, (say they) is their only refuge, unto whom they do daily pray for his constant prosperity; and I have so encouraged them, that they demand justice with the real protestation and resolution, to not always endure to be molested as they are; but to cause the king's edicts and wills to be executed, wheresoever they shall be the strongest, in case they obtain not the satisfaction they demand, with respect to his majesty's ministers. They complained yesterday unto Mons. d'Aligre, one of the commissioners, of the little fruit of the last council, who met monday last partly for their business; but he answered, that what had been done was well enough; and soon after Mons. de Ruvigny having also complained to the said chancellor, that he might grant them another council, and more favourable, he answered him alike, without promising them a council: so that the said Mons. de Ruvigny going thereupon to court, the other deputies have resolved to follow him, to make all together their complaints unto the king himself, of the disdain of his majesty's good will towards them.
A letter of intelligence from M. Augier's secretary.
These will inform you of the surrendering of Stenay unto his majesty, arrived the 5 present/26 past. The next day the king entered therein, and the besieged went at the same time out of it with arms and baggage, but without cannon; the French having leave to withdraw to their homes, or to remain in the prince of Condé's service, unless they had rather be in his majesty's, which is the truest news known here at present. The letters, which did yesterday acquaint us therewith, add, that after this success his said majesty would come to la Fere, and from thence to Peronne, to hinder, if possible, the taking of Arras, which would be very uneasy, being, I am told, the Spaniards receive daily refreshings notwithstanding marshal Turenne's endeavours to hinder it, and that by the last letters come from thence the besieged were so pressed, that the marquis of Mondejeu, their commander, had written to the said marshal of Turenne by a letter, intercepted in a loaf carried by a countryman, that he was not able to hold out many days, unless he were relieved. The same letters bear, that Mons. le prince had not gotten the best in the assaults mentioned by the gazette of Paris, saying that the dearth of livelihood was great in the Spaniards camp; but we shall hear next week more interested particularities; and notwithstanding all that is said, the wiser sort esteem the place to be lost, being not credible, the said marshal will or can undertake with good success the forcing of the lines, it being impossible for his army (in its division) to be strong enough to hinder on all sides some convoy from entering therein: besides, many think the besiegers have not been so little foreseeing as it is reputed. I hear the said prince has lost the marquis of Persan in the said assaults.
The parliament of Paris intends to meet about policy; and the six bodies of merchants do what they can to hinder the ruinous party of Liards, having already had thereupon great words with the chancellor.
News came two days since from St. Malo, which assure us of the arrival of the Spanish East-India fleet, very rich, to Cadiz; and it is written from Flanders, that the king of Spain intended to make furious attempts with that supply towards Catalonia, where the rumour runneth a fight hath already been given, wherein by the last letters the French were very resolute. The duke of Guise is still here.
Mons. Bordeaux to his son, the French embassador in England.
I do hear that Mons. Tellier said, that the treaty with Spain is not made with the English, because the protector doth demand Dunkirk for his security, and in the mean time that Calais be taken or some other place; and that is the same proposition, which was made to you; and likewise that this extraordinary embassador, which you say is a coming, is no true embassador, but only an envoy from the archduke; and that the Spaniards do affect his name, to please the protector; and we do verily believe, that they will do all what they can to close with the protector.
If the English do expect the event of the siege of Arras, to regulate their resolution, their parliament may be by that time assembled, where I hope our affairs may meet with better success than in the last. And if we must have a war, we shall have gained so much the more time to prepare ourselves, and then we shall not much fear their strength. Send all your letters to me; for it is certain the court will be here very suddenly.
Colonel Algernon Sidney to Mynheer Beverning.
I will not undertake to write any news to you, knowing that you are informed from a better hand; but I will take the boldness to advise you this, and upon good considerations, that in case your friends here do not secure themselves better than they do, they will run the hazard to repent themselves ere long. This by the bye: I have spoken with my lord de Witt, but very little yet in particular. My lord of Opdam hath done me the honour to come to see me at my lodging.
Mr. Robert Breton to John Pateshall esquire, at Hereford.
In order to my promise these are to remind you, 1. That major Audray, takinge his leave of our governour Rogers on saturday was sevennight, closed his civilities in these words, or some such, Sir, you see those that hate us begin to rule over us; and therefore wee must resolve to fight it out in the field, or sufferr.
3. That there is a remonstrance sent downe into these parts, and up into Wales, to be subscribed by the godly party throughout the nation, wherein they complaine of all the chosen members of parliament, as cavaliers, or neutralists at the best, and doe highly inveigh against them.
Sir, since I had the favour of your company, I have found out a way to communicate my intelligences to you alone; soe that I know not what further to advise concerninge them, but humbly renew my request, that they may not be made to common, whereby wee may be endangered to loose all future intelligence. The father of lights furnish you and the rest of your brethren with wisdome and courage, that yee may foresee and prevent the intended evill, and may not stick to venture all for his glory, and the good of your country and nation. To his grace and providence I humbly commend you, who in all fidelity remayne
News from Zurich to Mr. Stouppe.
The deputies of the cantons, and their allies, have framed an answer to Mons. Pell and Mons. Dury, which was delivered them on thursday by the burgomasters and other chief men of the town, by word of mouth and in writing; and were conducted to Ruden the gentlemens house, to a dinner prepared for them with music. They should have gone upon the lake, had the weather been fit. The ministers and professors were in the company. Letters of congratulation and thanks are writ to his highness and states. Mons. Stokard is not yet returned from Berne; we expect him. Mons. Dury goes to visit the churches of Berne and Basil, and at his return will go to Geneva and Saingal; he gathers good evidences out of charters and records. Mons. Pell is very discreet, and takes exact informations of all things; the chief is, that care be taken of the churches, and that they be establish'd on a sure foundation to preserve in the greatest tempests. Popish cantons admire this new settlement, and agree well enough with us, being amazed at the death of the Roman king, and at the emperor's disease. The electors have cause to be watchful. The archduke is called out of Flanders. The French embassador finds not things answerable to his expectation. The Switzers will have satisfaction. Friburgh is joined in this affair unto the Protestant cantons. The Grisons must be well regarded for many weighty considerations. Naples has sent some money to Milan, from which she hath received some German soldiers. Sardinia and Otranto fear the French fleet. The pope fortifies the castle of St. Angelo; he will not have the Protestants for enemies, but would have permitted his highness of Anhalt the free exercise of his religion in Rome for money. Florence and Geneva arm. Milan acts not. Money passes from France into Piedmont. It is thought Genoa's agreement shall be made. Alsatia is in peace.
You understand, that the news here are only from the siege of Arras, and that last night marquis de Lede, governor of this town, received letters by an express from the army, dispatched from count Fuenseldagna, that Arras is to be surrendered to the arms of his Catholick majesty this very day, being St. Laurence's day; being remarkable, that the same day the French made their entry into Arras, when they took it, the same the Spaniard shall enter. The next week you may have the articles of surrender.
A letter of intelligence.
I came hither four dayes since, and finde access and respect enough at court, where they often saye, they knowe somebody will be sent from you to spye; whoever it shall be, they threaten extreamly. I have so already insinuated myselfe into some of the counsell and bed-chamber, that I doe not doubt to learne all their designs. Secretary Nicolls and Hyde are not yet come; so the counsell is not yet conveened; but 'tis said, there will be some consultations to-morrowe, and the first thinge to be spoken of, how to send armes for Scotland the speediest way, which are to be bought at Luyck, with part of the money Willmot gott in Germane, and I suppose are to be shipt from Hamborough, by reason one Waytes, whom resident Bradshaw imprisoned there, is now here very bussye and respected by them. I eat often with some of the cheife, of whom I hope to learn their desingnes. I spare not for any thing, that may render me acceptable among them. My ladie Stanhope is fallen sick of the small pox, which will . . . . . . . . . and his sister here this fourteen dayes or three weeks . . . . 'tis intended for the baths of Aken, and commonly said, afterward for Ceullen. Boswell, who was designed for Scotland, is yet here; but sayes, he shall have his dispach to-morrow. They expect howerly an express from Middleton, whoe is under waye. They speake him very considerable, 16,000 men, and doubt not but he will beat Monck. You may be assured C. Stewart stands absolutely for Scotland. Some about him, tell him it wear better hasten thither, then staie here and danse, which is his daily and nightly practice. His party come into him faster then is pleasing to him, every one pleading povertye to get some money. The 200 thousand rixdollars of the empire will be most spent, if he continues in these parts, and every thing being so chargeable. Culpepper is come hither in great creddit again. All their hopes is on the Scoch, that if you could give them a remarkable blowe, their couradge would be daunted. They have news, that Middleton defeated some forces of yours coming from Ireland; this makes them talk high. Unlock the cover of this.
Mr. Thomas Garrett to the protector.
Accordinge to your highnes command, when I was last with you, I thought it my duety to present a line or two at this time. The last thursday night, messengers from the council came to this citty of Norwich, and sent to theire inne to speake with me, where they shewed me your highnes warrant for the apprehending of one Palmer, alias Tewdor (fn. 1) : whereupon I gott nigh twenty honest men together; and about eleven or twelve a clock sett the howse called the White-horse; and, questioning with the hostler and chamberlain, wee found such a man had beene there, but was gone the day before. By further enquiry of the master of the howse; wee found, that the said Tewdor and one Spurgen lodged at one Mr. Herne's, a private howse, one of the common-councell of this citty, who was put in, when myself and nine or ten more were cast out of the said councell, who told us, that Tewdor was gone with Spurgen to his father's at Shympling-hall, neere Swale. I advised the said messengers to take the said Herne along with them, till they found Tewdor; which they did that morneing, and I sent my man along with them, who was well acquainted with that part of the country, where they found Spurgen, not Tewdor, and tooke Spurgen along with them, till they found Tewdor, who carried them to . . . . . . Paine's howse of Brissingham in Norf. where he had made . . . . . . . . . neere six weeks, as they said, in which towne they tooke the said Tewdor; and the messengers, I suppose, before this time have brought him to your highnes. This Spurgen was a ringleader here in the mutiny in 1648. when the howse was blowne up with gunpowder, a narrative whereof I have made bold to inclose, whereby you may please to see as great a deliverance of the people of this place as in any place in this nation, in these times of . . . . and he then fled from hence beyond seas, and came home again, as I am informed; and without doubt he and one Bransby, who had a hand in the said mutiny, and others, who have beene here about the last weeke, are very suspitious persons to have a hand in the last plott. And if your highnes were pleased to impower some to apprehend these, and such suspitious persons, it would be a great meanes to keep us quiet, as I humbly conceive. And also I am informed, that the said Tewdor was at diverse mens howses, ministers, and others in this citty, who gave him money; and alsoe a gentleman's howse neare the citty, who is returned by the sheriffe to sitt in the next parliament; of all which I shall further informe myselfe, and give your highnes a further accompt of it, if occasion be. My lord, I humble present to your highnes the dissatisfaction of the well-affected in this county aboute the late election of knights. There be very few of the tenne we can confide in; and if the choise be in other countyes, wee are like to be in a sad condition. I am loath to be to bold or tedious to your highnes; onely this I cannot omitt, that when others with myselfe have acquainted your highnes with the condition of our country, and alsoe of the men therein, it hath beene made knowne to the partyes here, before I have gott home; which makes us obnoxious to the malice of our enemyes. Bee pleased to beleive, that however the royall party carry it, they are perfect enemyes to your highnes as well as to us; and now they do lift up the head, and thinke all is theire owne, because they have gott such men elected in this country as they did desire. But I beseech your highnes to excuse my boldness; for it is out of regreet of spirit, that I am so bold with your highnes at this time, which is all from
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of their high mightinesses the lords states general of the United Netherlands.
Was heard the report of the lord Huygens and others, their high mightinesses commissaries for sea-affairs, pursuant to their resolution of the eighth instant; and having, among other matters, perused and examined the advice of the lords commissioners of the respective colleges of the admiralty, formed here at the Hague on the fourth of July last past, on account of a letter from the college of the admiralty of Zealand, bearing date, Middleburg, June 22. of this present year, and the declaration of captain Andrew Pieters de Boer, and his subaltern officers, who came with some homeward-bound merchant-ships of this country from St. Malo under his convoy, and which an English man of war pretended to search about the Downs; this affair coming under consideration, it was found, that the said letter and . . . . . . contained two articles: first, that it was attempted to search the said man of war, which in a manner was done accordingly; and, secondly, that the said English man of war sent her boat to the said merchant-ships, and fetched out of them all the passengers that were on board of them, which however were sent back; that they also in a certain galliot had opened the hatches, and examined the said ship. In relation to the first article, in conformity with their high mightinesses resolutions, taken in respect to the searching of ships of war, and especially those of September 15. 1627. November 20. 1648. and December 17. 1649. it was thought good and resolved, that all captains and other sea-officers, that are in the service of this state, or cruizing upon commission, shall be anew strictly commanded, told, and charged, that they shall not condescend to no commands of any foreigner at sea, much less obey the same; neither shall they any ways permit, that they be searched, nor deliver or suffer to be taken out of their ships any people or other things; and that those, that shall respectively do or suffer the same, shall be punished for the same as transgressors, according to the circumstances of the fact, without any connivance or composition; and as to such a stranger, that shall attempt to force or oblige the said captains, officers, or cruizers, to the whole of the premises, or to part thereof, the said captains, officers, or cruizers of this state, after having previously by all civil means endeavoured to dissuade him from it, may and shall defend themselves courageously and vigorously with those means and forces as are in their power. To be understood however, that in case such captains, officers, and cruizers, shall happen to meet any men of war of the English government, they shall first salute them by striking the flag of the top-mast, and lowering their top-sail, according to the thirteenth article of the treaty of peace concluded with England; and do and regulate themselves further in that respect, to what is customary in relation of other kings and potentates.
And as to the second article of the said letter and . . . . . . . touching the visiting and searching of merchant-ships of this country, their high mightinesses do conform to what by this state, in regulation to merchant-ships of other nations, has here before been regulated and practised, even against English merchant-ships, that were under a convoy; and though they are persuaded, that such a visitation and search tends to an inconveniency of trade, yet one can make no reasonable complaints on that account, nor demand that they would desist from it as illegal. However, instead of this, it is thought good and resolved, that a letter shall be written to their high mightinesses embassadors extraordinary in England, that they without any loss of time, shall debate upon this article, which is left open in the treaty of peace, with that government there, and by a salutary clause and stipulation concerning such a search or visitation, to make such a regulation and order therein, as may be done with the least hindrance and inconveniency of trade on both sides, according to the example of the like particular treaties or regulations made with the kings of France and Spain. The lords deputies of the province of Friesland, and of the city, and Ommelanden, hereupon did persist upon their at sundry times reiterated declarations, against any further employing of the said lords extraordinary embassadors, and caused the same to be registered.
Monsieur de Bordeaux to his son the French embassador at London.
Your last letters of the sixteenth and twentieth of this month were sent to me to this city. Here I am come from Amiens, being sent by Mons. le Tellier, secretary of state, to give order for money and provisions for the king's army, which is encamped within a quarter of a mile of the lines of circumvallation made by the enemy for the siege of Arras, which the governor doth defend very stoutly. We hoped we should have been able to have debarred all provisions from getting to the enemies camp, and by that means to have forced them through hunger, and want of ammunition, to have raised the siege; but now they begin to have provisions and other refreshments to pass safely to them, either by force or treachery; so that I do verily believe we shall engage the enemies lines, if we perceive the place in danger, as it is very much feared. However this will not be attempted till the very last; for we do conceive the governor hath wherewithal to hold out a month longer; so that in the mean time the enemies army will diminish, and ours increase; and in case Stenay is taken within eight or ten days, as we hope it will, then will the king come hither in person to favour with his presence, and the troops relief of Arras.
A letter from secretary Oste.
The king eight days ago, after the receipt of a letter from the queen, went away presently to Stockholm to meet the queen, where he arrived in the night. This visit continued till monday night, at which time her majesty was conducted out of the city by the king, who took his leave of her, and is since returned to Upsall. The same day the queen saluted my lady her mother with some few words, which did discontent the old lady; and then pursued her journey by land to Calmer. Here are twelve men of war sent from hence to Oclandt, under the command of the lord vice-admiral Wrangel, admiral Fleming, and admiral Martin Tyssen Anckerholm, to transport the queen from thence to Pomeren.
The rix-states are to be dismissed to-morrow after a banquet. The king has caused some pieces to be coined to be distributed to whom he pleaseth: his majesty's picture is on the out-side with this inscription; Carolus Gustavus, rex; and on the other side the queen with this motto; A Deo & Christina.
News from Zurich to Mr. Stouppe.
Florence doth arm for fear of the English and Dutch. Genoa makes also mighty preparations against Spain. France and Savoy offer them any assistance, and Venice sends her excuses. The pope is well in health, but ill with the Spaniards, whose embassador hath presented unto the lady Olympia some medicinal stones, set up with diamonds in boxes of pure gold. Milan's forces are not yet in the field, but expect orders and money from Spain. Some French and Bavarians march through Tonon, towards the lake of Geneva. The horse, which did quarter in the territory of Ges, are gone, having intirely ruined that poor people, being almost all Protestants. The prior of St. John doth anew trouble Geneva, concerning the goods of the church, which that state doth possess notwithstanding all the king's decrees. Letters have been sent to the cantons, and to the embassador of France in Switzerland: some great persons are concerned therein, who, not daring to act openly, set other men to work. God divert those designs, which tend to the ruin of that poor town ! The assembly of Baden doth still hold. Mons. Stokard, our deputy in England and Holland, made relation of all, the last Lord's day, before the states of the reformed cantons, in a speech of four hours, and purposes to do the like before the senate of Zurich in presenting public letters. They are well satisfied with his negotiation; but perplex'd at the difference, which arises on the subject of the house of Orange, in which the elector of Brandenbourg, and some other princes, declare themselves wholly concerned. It were well done to find in that contestation some prudent means of qualification. The French embassador makes but a small progress in the alliance, which he presses much, yet without any probable success, since the cantons demand their pay, which cannot be given them. Berne hath not received satisfaction at Paris in the matter, for which they had sent an agent. The affair of the queen's jewels, which the captains of Switzerland had carried away from Paris, is now upon debate, wherein an agreement shall likewise be very necessary. They will reform the policy or government of the bailiffs, but not without opposition. Mons. Dury labours very hard in his design, and with a great foresight. Mons. Pell expects the answer of the cantons, and will govern himself according to the intentions of his highness the lord protector. The Protestant Grisons, who are for the good cause, wish earnestly, that they be remembered in the best commendations, which indeed must be done for the importance of their country. Spain insinuates itself with the cantons. The French churches are still ill used here, and threatened with prosecution or utter ruin. The Venetians have obtained some victory in the Dardanels. If their whole fleet had fought, they might have done wonders. The Nicodemites, who are in Venice, could passionately wish, that his highness the lord protector would send some public minister to that city, that by his means they might find some support or liberty in their exercise of their religion. Remember the churches of Piedmont, who writ unto you, and who intend to write to his highness the lord protector.
Instructions given by his highness the lord protector, by the advice of his council, to his highness's deputy in the dominion of Ireland, and to such other persons, as hereby his said highness is pleased to authorize to be of his council with the said deputy, for the government of the said dominion.
It being necessary for the good government of the said dominion of Ireland in all affairs thereto belonging, that a body of a council be established to assist his highness's deputy there in that government; his highness doth for that purpose nominate, assign, and appoint A. B. C. D. &c. to be of his council with the said deputy, in whose fidelity, wisdom, and advice, his highness reposeth great trust and considence; and therefore willeth, that the said deputy shall use their assistance, advice, and council in all affairs concerning the said government.
1. The principal and first care, that his highness committeth unto the said deputy and council is, that as well by their own example, as by such other means as they, or the greatest number of them, shall judge best, endeavour the promulging the gospel, and the power of true religion and holiness, and the suppression of idolatry, popery, superstition, and profaneness in that land.
2. The said deputy, with the advice aforesaid, shall cause a competent maintenance to be settled and duly paid out of the public revenues, to such ministers and persons of pious life and conversation, as are fully qualified with gists for preaching the gospel, and instructing the people there in godliness and honesty; taking care, that all due encouragement and countenance be given thereunto by all in authority; and shall have power to put in execution all acts, ordinances, and orders of parliament now in force against malignant and scandalous ministers.
3. The said deputy, by the advice aforesaid, shall consider of all due ways and means for the advancement of learning, and training up of youth in piety and literature, and to promote the same by settling of maintenance upon fit persons to be employed therein.
4. Our said deputy, with the advice aforesaid, shall endeavour, by the best ways and means he can, to settle and preserve the peace of that nation; and shall have power to commit to prison, or otherwise restrain, all those in Ireland, whom he shall judge dangerous to the peace thereof, and to release and discharge them again out of prison, when he shall see cause to do the same; and also to remove from their place of residence or habitation, and to send into England, or into such other place, as you our said deputy, by the advice aforesaid, shall think fit, any person, whose residence in those parts, from whence they are to be removed, you shall judge dangerous to the state, or prejudicial to the authority thereof, or the peace of that nation; and give licence to any persons so removed, to return again to their places of residence or habitation at any time, when you shall see cause for the advantage of the public service there.
5. You our said deputy and council shall take care, that administration of law and justice be duly and uprightly executed in that land, without respect of persons; and to that end you are to see, that as near as the present affairs will permit, the laws of England, as to matters of government, and administration of justice, be put in execution in Ireland; and that you endeavour, as soon as may be, to settle and establish the courts of law and equity there, which in the time of the late war have been discontinued, or such of them, as you our said deputy, with the advice aforesaid, shall find necessary for the purposes aforesaid; and in the mean time have power hereby to direct, alter, or continue any court or courts of justice, or judicatories, in any place or places in Ireland, with all rights, powers, jurisdiction, incidents, and necessaries requisite for the same; and also to appoint and place in every of them such judges, justices, officers, and ministers, and to appoint for them respectively such salaries and allowances, and to issue forth such commissions and deputations for the execution thereof, as you shall judge needful, and most conducing to the peace and good of that people, and the settling of them in obedience to the present government, until the aforesaid way of administration of justice be restcred and settled, or until further resolutions shall be taken by his highness, with the advice of the council here; and you shall cause such statutes to be made and used in the courts of justice for passing grants, or transacting proceedings, as are already appointed by parliament, or shall be for the future directed by his highness on that behalf.
6. Our said deputy, by the advice aforesaid, is hereby impowered to remove out of any office or place of civil government in Ireland any magistrates, governors, officers, or others, whom you shall find superfluous, or unfit for the trust reposed in them, or to be dangerous to the state, and shall place other fit persons in their room for the present supply of those trusts, signifying the proceedings in this case to his highness and the council, that such further directions may be given thereupon as shall be necessary, and for the service of the state.
7. Our said deputy and council shall take care, that no papist or delinquent, or disaffected person, be entrusted with, or any way employed in the administration of the laws, or execution of justice, or of any office or place of trust in Ireland.
1. That he be certified, what the revenue of that nation was in all manner of kinds in the year 1640. or at any other time within five years before, and what it is at this present, in the same kinds of forfeited estates; and also what other revenue, payments, or duties have been added, or come to the public use, since or by occasion of the war, either by forfeitures, escheats, excise, assessments, or any other way whatsoever; of all which, as soon as may be, a just and particular estimate and account shall be transmitted unto his highness and council, and afterwards once every year at least, that his highness may from time to time understand either the decrease or increase of that revenue, and the cause thereof.
2. That the said deputy, by advice aforesaid, do use such means, as they in their judgment shall judge best, for recovery of such part of the revenue, as hath been unduly or through negligence withdrawn, with the arrearages thereof, and also to improve the whole revenue to the best profit and advantage of the state.
3. For the better improvement of the revenue aforesaid, the said deputy, with the advice aforesaid, shall take an account of what hath been done upon the instructions given to the commissioners of Ireland, dated the second of June, 1653. for surveying the honours, castles, manors, lands, tenements, and hereditaments belonging to the crown, or to any archbishop, bishop, deanery, dean and chapter, or other officer belonging to the hierarchy in Ireland; and in case a survey is not made according to those instructions, effectual care is to be taken, that it be forthwith done, and likewise that surveys be made of all other forfeited lands in Ireland, which yet remain undisposed of by act or order of parliament or council of state, in such manner as the aforesaid lands, late belonging to the crown and bishops, are to be surveyed.
4. The said deputy, by the advice aforesaid, shall cause all acts, ordinances, and orders of parliament now in force in this commonwealth, for sequestring delinquents and papists estates, and of the estates of archbishops and bishops, deans and chapters, to be put in execution in Ireland, and also to put in execution all acts and ordinances of parliament, or of his highness by consent of his council, for levying and renewing of the duties of custom and excise, at the same rate and proportions expressed in the said acts and ordinances for levying the same in England.
5. The said deputy, by the advice aforesaid, is hereby impowered by himself, or such others as shall by the said advice be appointed, to set and let all such lands, houses, and other hereditaments whatsoever in Ireland, as are or shall be in the disposal of his highness and the state; and also the rents, issues, and profits of all ecclesiastical benefices of such ministers, as are or shall be ejected, and of all such other ecclesiastical benefices and promotions, as are or shall be now vacant, and not otherwise disposed by act or order of parliament, for such time or term of years not exceeding two years, and at and under such rents and other conditions, as shall be judged most for the public advantage; provided that the said deputy as aforesaid shall have power to let and set the premises for any longer term, reserving thereupon such yearly rent as the same were letten for, or worth to be let in the year 1640. or at any time before.
6. The said deputy, by the advice aforesaid, is hereby authorized from time to time, as there shall be cause, to lay taxes and assessments upon the lands and goods of the people of Ireland, not exceeding per month, towards the payment and maintenance of the army and garisons there, and for the defraying of the public charge, and carrying on the affairs of this commonwealth in Ireland, in order to the execution of these instructions, and as much as may be for the ease of the charge of this commonwealth.
7. The said deputy, by the advice aforesaid, or the greater part of the council, shall inform themselves, in what manner the treasury of that dominion hath been hitherto managed, and shall by themselves, or such as they shall appoint, take an account of all their receipts and issues, and of the persons entrusted concerning the same. They shall also consider, how for the future there may be established a grand treasury in Ireland, and in what manner and by what persons the same will be best managed; and in the mean time shall take care, that the same be managed for the best advantage of the state, and give such directions or instructions concerning the customs, fishery, assignation, or any other officers there relating to the public revenue; and shall have power to appoint receivers, officers, and ministers needful for the raising and collecting the receipts, and managing and issuing of the said public revenue, and to allow them, and every of them, fitting salaries for their service therein.
10. The said deputy and council shall consider of all due ways and means for lessening the public charge of the commonwealth there, either by reducing the forces into fewer regiments, disbanding supernumeraries, demolishing of castles or garisons, or by moderating and regulating the present establishment of the pay for the said forces, or by taking away any superfluous charge of what kind soever, wherewith the public revenue is charged, and to put the same into practice and execution, with such convenient speed, as the condition of affairs will admit, and may stand with public safety and advantage.
11. The said deputy is hereby authorized from time to time, by his own warrant, to charge the treasury and public revenue in Ireland for payment of the army and garisons, either in money or provisions, as also for all incident charges necessary for the army, and all other payments to be made for the carrying on and effecting of any of these instructions, as in pursuance thereof shall be made by most of the said deputy and council, or of the said deputy and any three of the council, who shall likewise issue all warrants for ammunition to be delivered out of the magazine; and such respective warrant as aforesaid shall be a sufficient discharge to the respective officers concerned therein.
The said deputy, by advice as aforesaid, shall cause to be put in execution effectually all laws now in force against the counterfeiting, clipping, wasting, or debasing of coin; and are impowered to put forth proclamations, as shall be thought fit, of the suppressing thereof.
The said deputy, by the said advice, shall take effectual care for the preservation of the timber in Ireland, and shall use all such ways and means for preventing the mischiess and inconveniencies by selling the timber there, as shall be necessary, and shall search where most plenty of timber is near the good havens, for making of ships, and thereof certify his highness and the council.
The said deputy, with the advice aforesaid, is hereby authorized to put in execution all the powers, instructions, and authorities given unto the commander in chief, or the commissioners for ordering and settling the affairs of Ireland by one act of parliament, intituled, An act for settling of Ireland; by another act, intituled, An act for the speedy and effectual satisfaction of the adventurers for lands in Ireland, and of the arrears due to the soldiers there, and other public debts, and for the encouragement of Protestants to plant and inhabit Ireland; and also by one commission under the great seal of England, dated the second day of June, 1653. by the instructions thereunto annexed, and by the further instructions from the late council of state, bearing date the second of July, 1653. not altered by or repugnant to these instructions, as fully and effectually as the said commander in chief of the forces of Ireland, and the said commissioners for ordering and settling the affairs of Ireland, or any of them, are enabled to do by the said several acts, commission, and instructions, or any of them: provided always, that the said deputy, with advice aforesaid, may so far as they shall judge fit, and to be for the public service, dispense with the orders and instructions made and given by the late parliament or council of state, for the transportation of the irish natives into the province of Connaught, or county of Clare, or one of them; and likewise with the penalties and forfeitures set and imposed by the authorities aforesaid upon such persons, as shall not transplant themselves accordingly; and may also by proclamation or otherwise, as he shall think fit, declare and publish the same.
The said deputy, with the advice aforesaid, is authorized to give fitting salaries and allowances to all judges, justices, commissioners, ministers, and such other persons as shall be employed for putting in execution all and every of these instructions, with regard and to the ease of the charge of the state; and as well the said deputy, as the council, are hereby authorized by themselves, or by such as they shall appoint for that purpose, to administer oath or oaths to any person or persons whatsoever, in pursuance of these instructions, or in order to the execution thereof.
The said deputy shall have the gift and disposition of all temporal offices, as they shall become void, except the offices of the chancellor, treasurer, vice-treasurer, receiver, master of the ordnance, chief justice, and justices of the Bench, chief justice and justices of the common-pleas, chief baron and barons of the Exchequer, master of the rolls, serjeant at law, attorney and solicitor, all which his highness reserveth to his own disposition, either upon such persons as his said deputy and council shall recommend, or upon others, whom his highness shall find worthy of such trusts.
The said deputy and council shall give frequent and timely notice to his highness or his council of their proceedings in execution of these instructions, and shall execute such farther instructions as they shall from time to time receive from his highness, from his highness by the advice and consent of his council.
Further instructions to our deputy of Ireland, and the council there.
You are hereby impowered and authorized, to take order for the satisfying the arrears of officers and soldiers in Ireland for their services, preceding the fifth of June, 1649. either by the valuation of the lands thereunto designed by so many years purchase, as is now already provided by act of parliament for that purpose, or else by a certain number of acres, according to the rules and proportions allowed to the adventurers and soldiers in Ireland, if you shall find it reasonable, and that the same is desired by the officers therein concerned.
You are by your letters, or such committee, as you shall in that behalf appoint, to give a judgment and determination upon all controversies, that shall arise, and touching which application shall be made to you upon any articles of war since the year 1649.
If you shall find the proportion of land formerly made over, and assigned in the county of Kilkenny, Cavan, &c. for security of the armies and arrears, to be since taken off for satisfaction of the disbanded men, in such proportions, as that thereby the security of the army is weakened, you are in such case to cause the same to be supplied and made up out of such other forfeited lands in Ireland, not already disposed of, as you shall find most convenient.