A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
August (2 of 5)
A letter of intelligence.
Since mine to you the post before this, the manifesto of the province of Holland, which I made mention in divers former letters, is now in print, and too large for a packet, or you should have had it by this post. If you please, I shall send it however. The substance of it extends much to prove, that the said province could justly, and without prejudice or wrong to the rest of the provinces, consent, agree, and conclude, that they had power in the name and behalf of their own province for the exclusion of the prince of Orange, they not forcing nor engaging any of the rest of the provinces thereunto.
The party of the said prince of Orange is somewhat countenanced by the clamours of seven or eight hundred soldiers come from Brasil, set upon by the prince's party to exclaim against the province of Holland, for not being timely supplied, and yet not receiving the pay due to them, which addeth something to the disgust of the people; upon which the states provincial of Holland called hither four companies of the soldiery, which are most at their devotion, and have lodged them yesterday morning, joined with four hundred men more of the guard, most of them being gentlemen, which the states trust little, because they are for the most part young men, and much affected to the prince and his party. Wherefore the said states have licensed all their officers, giving them other employments, and divided the soldiers into squadrons of the new come in four hundred, and gave them new colours, with the arms of the province of Holland above; and four patents were given to four captains, with the title of captains of the guard of the states of the province of Holland.
The party of Orange increaseth in the province of Overyssel, being divided into two parts, the one threatening to reduce the other. The states of Holland writ a letter to them, offering to become mediators and composers of the differences. The states of Overyssel gave answer thereunto from their assembly at Zwol, very sharp, absolutely refusing their mediation; but only the generalities, which they desired might reconcile all the differences.
The said province of Overyssel now acteth in two assemblies and two seals each, in the name of the whole province; of which one party having the old seals, complains in the same letter of it to the states general. The states general have appointed some commissioners to assist the composure of these differences; the cause whereof you had long since.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The assembly of Holland is adjourned: to every city or member of Holland was given a quantity of copies of the deduction or justifying declaration of Holland, and to every province likewise a dozen of copies. Since that, the said provinces have past by in silence, consequently refused to withdraw and suppress their several writings exhibited upon this subject; and by that means this declaration is going to be carried upon the wings of same through the world. Yea men do talk of translating it into Latin, French, and English. Ubi jam est illud? jurgia, discordias, simultates cum bostibus exercebant; cives cum civibus de virtute certabant. The four members of Overyssel have writ this threatening letter against their other co-members, which are Twent and Deventer; and men will see, that Holland will offer their helping hand to these two members. Holland hath offered their mediation to the said province; but the four members, imagining themselves to be masters, and to prevail (according to the custom and order, that the plurality is to be followed) over the other two, will not hearken to any accommodation or mediation; but do threaten to proceed by the fiscal, that is, criminally, against the two members, or the authors. Holland by that means will endeavour to foment, or at least maintain these parties in the other provinces. And this deduction of Holland, thus divulged, is a strong argument, that the said province is resolved to maintain publicly and openly all, that they have said and held forth in it; and since that in all the provinces (as is usual) there is also a submitting party, Holland will assist such; and in the mean time they are likewise stirring, who by their threats, and other subtle devices, do attack the chiefest of Holland, which men do signalize to be the lords of Opdam, raedt pensionary, and Stellingwerf, alias Mr. Pym; but however, this deduction doth bear the title of all Holland.
Of the unlading and relading upon the Scheld, Sas, and Swynd, during this presidentship, nothing hath been spoken; but Zealand without doubt will renew the quarrell, and will endeavour to conclude by plurality.
France doth continue to deal very scurvily with the ships of this state; so that Holland hath seriously propounded, that there ought five or six ships more to be sent towards the Mediterranean, to attack the French pirates; and likewise that the lord protector ought to be spoken to, to join with them; but the other provinces (who are the pr. of Orange party) do seem not to be angry, that to the states of Holland any harm be done.
It is held for certain here, that the queen of Sweden will never return into Sweden, that she is very indifferent in her religion, that she pretends to have great offers made her by the king of Spain, that she may likely go for Spain, that she will change her train in Brabant, and send back all those, who are with her at present. The embassador of France here is very ill satisfied, that she would not be pleased to speak to him, and doth hold her altogether Hispaniolized; but all that is better known at Antwerp, where she is at present.
Since that the assembly of Holland hath been separate, the other province, who are all of Orange party have been very busy about patents; that is to say, since that during the war with England, Holland and Zealand, as situated upon the sea, have been furnished with militia and companies, now the other provinces will have those companies to return to the frontiers. Those of Holland say, that at present (God be thanked!) there being peace abroad, there is no need of any militia upon the frontiers; but that in the inland towns, and especially in Holland, (where the people are turbulent and given to sedition) there is want of the militia; and since that the others do urge and press so much for the patents, (hoc est, that the companies may be removed from Enchuysen, Brill, &c.) that is cause of suspicion to those of Holland, imagining that Orange party have a design to deprive the cities of Holland of their militia, and by that means to expose Holland, or the cities, (which are) to tumults and seditions; and therefore Holland doth highly oppose their design. Yet notwithstanding, the other provinces by plurality have resolved and concluded this change of garisons, which Holland doth very much contradict, not without words of alterations, and will produce a strong protest. Those of Holland said amongst the rest, Seeing that the states general did so conclude against the good liking of Holland, it seemeth that we are only here to take affronts. In effect it is very troublesome. Holland alone payeth more companies than all the other provinces together; and proceeding so by plurality of voices, it doth seem, as if they would not leave them one company to dispose of; and in the mean time whosoever is master of the militia, is master of the state, or at least the power and authority in the state is proportional to the militia, which every province doth pay. Therefore Holland doth look narrowly to it; and the other provinces, knowing that, do likewise look closely to it; and since that Holland by their great deduction doth give sufficiently to understand, that they will maintain themselves in the present state, and in the seclusion, the Orange party do consider, that without some tumult or sedition the business cannot be prevented and redressed; and therefore they are contriving (as I hear) some private attempts and designs. Pasquils and discourse do go about in company. A statesman said, those of Holland by the publication of their deduction have made the people judge; the people being judge, they might likewise be made to execute the same. In short, if those, who govern Holland, do not look to it closely, they are in danger; and as formerly men were wont to call the English, those of the present government; likewise the same may be said upon good ground, those of the present government of Holland.
By a letter, that those of Zealand have writ to the protector, is to be seen, that the Zealanders do very much fear the said protector. This consideration doth favour very much the present government of Holland; otherwise there would soon happen a change.
The general assembly of Guelderland is separated; the plurality is there likewise for the prince; at Utrecht the same. The city, to please the people, hath likewise disapproved of the seclusion; so that all the advisers of all the provinces will be against the seclusion, or for the disowning of it; but for the designing of the young prince for captain-general do only declare Friesland, Groningen, Guelderland, (by plurality) Utrecht by plurality, Overyssel by plurality. Zealand, in their deduction of the twenty-second of June, 1654. doth not speak of the designation; otherwise there is only Holland, Deventer, Nimmeguen, Bommel, Till, and Utrecht, that are against the designation. In Zealand, at Middleburg, Zierrixee, and Tolen, the magistrates are likewise against the designation. In short, I see that it must be the protector, that must by authority, or otherwise, maintain the present government of Holland.
Here is a great number of soldiers come from Brazil, and there are more expected. These men are not paid, nor contented, half wild. Holland hath promised to furnish 40,000 gilders, to give to each two months pay, and to each officer one month; and with that they are to be commanded to depart out of the Hague; for they are men to frighten people, and chiefly at this time, where there is so much inclination to seditions and tumults.
In the business of unlading and relading upon the Scheld, is not yet any thing concluded. Holland and Overyssel are much against it: yet I do believe it will be concluded. The times run strangely. What hath been done concerning the change of the guard, this extract will tell you. I am
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
Thursday the thirteenth of August, in the morning at five of the clock, came from Delft the companies of Perceval, Beaumont, Paw, and Stereenburch; where being met by the lords of Wimmenum, Paets, and Van Cortenhoven, with the raedt pensionary de Witt, and secretary Beaumont, as also the lord of Beverweert as serjeant-major of the battels, the company of the guards was ordered into four corporalships; and there was said to captain lieutenant Doublet, My lord, the states of Holland do thank you for your faithful service, and in requital and acknowledgment thereof have given to you, as they do give hereby, a vacant company. Behold here the commission. Which he thankfully received, and went off from his company. The like speech was also made to the ensign, the son of the lord of Beverweert. He was likewise presented with an act of captain over a vacant company. He said, he stood under subjection of his father there present, to whose pleasure he referred himself.
Of the company of the guards were six serjeants: one is impotent, who doth enjoy his salary. The antientest of the five remaining was likewise called, and had thanks given him with a commission of ensign over a vacant company.
Afterwards captain Perceval was spoken to, and told, that their noble great lordships were resolved to divide the company of the guard, and to strengthen them with the four companies there present, and that they had thought fit to make him major over them, giving him to that end a commission of major over the four companies of the Holland guard. The like commission was given to capt. Beaumont, and capt. Pauw, and captain van Steerenburch. That being done, the lord of Beverweert was desired to command; he commanded Perceval to take the four new colours there present, having a red lion in a yellow field. Then they joined together, and so marched away, and took their quarters in the four quarters of the Hague, and every day one company is to keep the guard.
The states of Overyssel to their deputies.
Noble, honourable, prudent, and discreet good Friends,
We understand, that the lords the states of Holland, having heard, that the disputes carried on among the members of this province did more and more increase, have declared, that they intended by their deputies in the general assembly, to put it into consideration, if not their high mightinesses, by a deputation into this province, ought to interpose, in order to reconcile and make up those differences by way of accommodation; and although we do not doubt, but your noblenesses will know from yourselves how to decline, avert, and prevent such a changeable deputation, yet we have thought fit to let your noblenesses know, that it is our meaning, that you in our name shall thank the lords the states of Holland in very civil terms for their good affection herein, and take a good care, and such measures in the general assembly, that this province in the like manner as the others be preserved, maintained, and continued in her liberty and sovereignty, without infraction, when no means shall be wanting: these domestic broils, whereof it seems that they are not well informed of with you, may be composed, and to come to an accommodation ourselves.
Colonel Algernon Sidney to the earl of Leicester.
The states of Holland have put forth a book in justification of the article concerning the prince of Orange, and in answer to the provinces complaints. 'Tis yet but in Dutch, but will suddenly be in other languages. The states of Holland go on vigorously with their designs; and 'tis thought they will suddenly silence the other grumbling provinces. The states of Holland carried the book to the states general, and read it to them. Many rant here; others disavow what is done; but what more they will doo, I cannot tell.
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
I am very much obliged to you for the communication, which you give me of your negotiation in your last of the seventh of this month; and although you speak of the hope of success with a moderation becoming your mind, I do take the liberty to promise to myself more than you will have us to expect. I know not whether I divine aright, but I do imagine, that the great affairs of the court do hinder, that you cannot have on the sudden all such resolutions as you desire upon many points and interests, which the orders can never so well foresee and provide for, but that there is always need of consulting with the oracle of the master.
I will not have you to lose more time with reading of my conjectures, which I have made upon all that you have communicated unto me. God bless the success, and enlighten you to the end with what he hath enlightened you hitherto.
I have seen to-day the letter, which those of Zealand have writ to the lord protector, in answer to that, which they had received from his highness. It is writ in such vast and general terms, that it doth look more like a declaration than a letter; and it may be, that it is done out of prudence, not to engage themselves to treat particularly of their affairs, wherein they think the lord protector ought not to trouble himself to enter upon. The provinces of Utrecht, Guelderland, and Overyssel have not yet given their advice upon this act, which hath been so much disputed. If those, who have begun to declare their suffrages, do not change their minds, here is a great deal of likelihood, that they will declare and provide at present the young prince with the charge of general and admiralship, and to exercise the same when he shall be of age. In the mean time I see, that the province of Holland doth seriously provide for their own preservation; and that they will not agree to a certain distribution of the quarters of the soldiers, which had been made by the generality by plurality of voices. Holland will have the troops, which they pay, to remain with them and at their disposal; and in this town, because they might not fear any thing, the lords of Holland have cashiered the company of the guard of four hundred men complete, whereof they made four companies of seventy-five men each, and have by this means made four strong companies of 175 men, to whom they have given the name of the guard of Holland.
The apologetic writing of the lords of Holland is published, printed, and divulged. The judgments of men do differ very much about it. I am neither of those that do censure or approve it, because I do not understand Dutch; but I say it were to be wished, that the other provinces had not obliged Holland to this plea in the form of a manifesto; for it is unavoidable but that there will be more answers, and the people are made thereby the judges of their magistrates.
The lords states general have sent commissioners to me upon the complaint, which they make of the stop of some of their merchant-ships in the river of Seudre, occasioned, as they suppose, by some seamen, who have deserted the king's ships. They do not tell me one word of depredation done unto them by any of the king's ships. Their silence in a business, which doth concern them so much, whereof Mons. Boreel hath exclaimed and made so much noise about, doth seem very suspicious to me, hearing withal, that some have propounded to increase the number of ships of war in the Mediterranean, and to give them order to give chase to our vessels of war, and to solicit the lord protector in England to give the same command to his. It is true, that I am told, that this proposition was not followed, and that since the news of the taking of Stenay, they say now they must proceed with more consideration. The business however is of very great consequence and consideration, and I thought it very important to inform you of it, to the end you might discover what those of Holland may negotiate with the protector, and to prevent it. However our court, being advertised of it, may take such orders, as may prevent the least inconveniencies of such a plot. We know, that the queen of Sweden is at Antwerp. She hath done me the honour to write to me; and that I would come to see her in some neuter place, where she might recreate herself through curiosity.
We have been here overjoyed at the taking of Stenay; but if it would please God to accomplish the measure of his blessings upon the arms of the king, whereby to cause the Spaniards to raise the siege of Arras, it would be a marvellous consequence for all our foreign affairs, and likewise for our domestic; for I do find, that in all countries the people do increase or diminish their respect to their masters, according to the measure of happiness, that doth attend them. I am,
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Chanut, the French embassador in Holland.
I am ashamed to write to you so variously of my negotiation. My last was all full of hope of a speedy and happy conclusion. This present will only give you to understand a parcel of delays from time to time; for since my last conference, which is about eight days since, I have not heard one word from my commissioners, although that at our departure they did promise to let me know, two days after, the resolution of my lord protector upon the points, which we had conferred upon. There is no doubt but they here wait to see what success our arms will take before Arras, upon this confidence, that the king will be glad at any time to treat with this government; and in case that fortune be not favourable to us, the lord protector will be able to draw better advantages and terms from us, than he can do at present. And in the mean time I shall do what I can to look after the one and the other. I could wish, whereby to confound his prudence and folly, that the siege might prove as critic as was formerly that of Casal. The disgrace, which hath happened to Middleton in Scotland, doth likewise contribute to this indifferency of proceeding. Some will say, that the protector will expect the deliberations of your province, on purpose to assist those of Holland with his fleets. Thus I am brought into a condition to try all fortunes, before I can come to a conclusion; and although my interest do cause me to desire this order, yet I do not expect to receive it; and I do believe we shall be forced to stay till the parliament, at which time they do expect an extraordinary embassador out of Spain.
Monsieur Petit to Monsieur Augier.
The business of the English at Honfleur will shortly be ended; for our decree was sealed yesterday, and Mons. Tomlin is parted this morning to go and cause it to be executed, being charged to that purpose with my here annexed letter to the marquis of Mons.
I believe, if Arras is taken, the king will again awake here; and Mons. Priolo hath this morning shewed me a letter of his to the duke of Longueville, whereby he added to the great consequences of the cardinal de Retz's escape, that if the abovesaid happeneth, the troubles will in all likelihood begin again. If the lines of Arras are assaulted, it is doubtless a snare against the cardinal Mazarin, who hath neither justice nor love for any body.
A letter of intelligence from Monsieur Augier's secretary.
I had the honour to inform you by my last of the cardinal de Retz's escape out of the castle of Nantz. We have since heard, that he hath for certain withdrawn himself to Belle-isle, after many deliberations, whether he should come strait to Paris. You may see the two following letters he hath on his way written to his diocese. This news hath almost rejoiced all the city, and hath so strengthened the courage of his friends, that they had caused the Te Deum to be sung in the cathedral church, and afterwards kindled a fire before the gate of the same, where barrels of wine have been broached, and many discourses held in praise of that cardinal against cardinal Mazarin, who doth thereby receive a notable affront. In consequence whereof, it is said, the said cardinal of Retz sends his nomination in that diocese for the reception of a great archdeacon, with threatenings against the curates, who shall refuse to obey him.
Copy of the said cardinal of Retz's letter to his clergy of Paris, written near Beaupreau, the 8 Aug./29 July, 1654.
As soon as I have seen myself in a place of security, and that it hath been permitted me to render public the feelings of my heart, concerning the affection you have all shewn for my person, I would not tarry any longer to render you these just sensibilities thereof, by assuring you, that I will inseparately pass the rest of my days with a clergy I shall always esteem as dear, as I have found it generous. My translation hath been the work of your constancy, and my liberty that of your prayers. I render you all the thanks, which I am able; and in the hopes you will always continue me your good offices, I will remain,
Another copy of the said cardinal's second letter to the chapter of his cathedral church, written from the same place and date.
The condition, wherein you are to this present, having obliged me to reserve the true feelings of the obligations I have, I will employ this first moment of my liberty to expound them unto you; and being I have the happiness to be brought up amongst you, and that it hath been the first degree, which hath brought me to the dignity of your archbishop, which you have endeavoured to keep for me with so much generosity, yea in exposing yourselves unto all manner of events for my sake; I will also live and die with you in that same quality, hoping, that as your affections will always increase, my thankfulness and acknowledgment will be immortal. I intreat you to believe it, and to give me the share in your remembrance and prayers desired, Gentlemen, by
Your most affectionate servant,
The cardinal of Retz.
We hear from Arras, that the place is much pressed, and that they had resolved to assault to-morrow 16/6. Lady-day, the Spaniards in their trenches; to which purpose the French had prepared great number of faggots, hurdles, and other necessaries, to close up the lines; but besides that many of Mons. Turenne's army did not approve of that attempt, and that they knew not whether the preparations would be ready in time, I see by the letter of a minister of state, that after it had well been examined, they had therein found great hazards and difficulties; so that the wiser sort believe it will not be executed, and that it can be done with good success, the siege being exceeding well made, and the Spaniards being as strong in number in their trenches as the French, and well provided, as I am informed. The court was the 12th at Ham, and the 13th at Peronne, from whence their majesty was to go to La Bassée.
I hear the duke of Mercæur goeth from hence to court, and that many follow him, as though it were to meet at the above-said assault of the Spanish trenches; which is a business, wherein every body is exceeding attentive.
A letter of intelligence.
My last gave you full account of what my knowledge could lead me to, concerning this siege, being one of the greatest and most famous that has been in a long time. What since, is thus: Last night the king of France came to Peronne: this night we expect the army that was about Stenay, being about five hundred in horse and foot. This same night we expect from Guienne troops, which are these two nights within four leagues of this place; so that to-morrow at night we cast our army shall consist of 35,000; and we have taken resolution (though not so much to the likeing of Turenne) to succour the town by assaulting in many places the enemies lines, which is a matter of great danger and difficulty. The enemy now has taken all the outworks, except a small hornwork within eight paces of the wall. Last night the enemy began to mine it, and within four days they doubt not to have it, and presently after, the town. They made, twelve paces from their line outwards, multitudes of holes, to the height of a man's knee, to ensnare our horse. We have many thousands of hurdles to cover them with, also of faggots to fill the lines, ditches; likewise scaling-ladders to enter. I fear, that before this comes to your hands, we may have the greatest action, that has been in my days in Europe; and whoever shall be worsted, is ruined, either French or Spaniard, the resolution and engagement of both sides being high in all respects. God bless all our friends among them. This is all the relation I can now give since my former. If I live to see the end of this work, you shall have the particulars. So I conclude the town will be taken, if we relieve it not suddenly, which we cannot do but with great hazard; and Turenne is unwilling to the work, being so difficult. No more of it now from, Sir,
A letter of intelligence.
By this post I received yours for the Spa and Vienna, which are sent away to them they are directed to. You have with this their several letters. There is no question you will expect much there from the siege of Arras, but no more from Stenay, that place being surrender'd. All that we have here of the siege of Arras, is by letters from the camp and the adjoining garisons in our possession. Letters from the camp of the ninth and eleventh instant bring, that the most strong horn or fort of Guiche, conceived to be impregnable, (as in truth it was, were it not for the mines) was mined, assaulted, and taken by ours, 370 men being therein, whereof sixty were slain, and all the rest made prisoners, not one man escaping. The plan of this fort, erected by mareschal de Guiche, and explained in the printed French paper, you have herewith; as also a fresher plan of the whole siege, than that which I sent to you by the former post. Upon this fort or horn of Guiche we mounted fifteen pieces of cannon, which now play upon the town, all the outworks being in our possession; for at this time our enemy has not a man within the walls of the city: for a small work, that was begun by the French within the horn of Guiche, before it could come to any perfection, was undermined and blown up by ours; so that they write from the camp, that they hourly expect the rendition of the city, maugre all the power of France, notwithstanding their king is come near the siege, with cardinal Mazarin, and the whole court. Also they write, the arrier-bans of France are coming; yet my opinion is, per next you shall hear of the rendition, of which many wagers are laid; and he that lays least, will two to one the town shall be taken.
In our camp we have yet untouch'd 24,000 sacks of meal, and our own bake-houses erected, and our works so strong, as you may see by the plan, that all the power of France cannot force us out of our works, having now finish'd the second line within our first. Prince Condé is very desperate in this siege: he eats, to encourage his soldiers, upon the counterscarp, which he gained from the enemy.
Four pieces more of artillery are lately sent from hence to the camp, and 18,000 weight of powder, with quantity of bullets and granadoes. From Cambray, Doway, and also other places, they send ammunition, provisions, &c. so that all cannot miss.
The Lorrainers took a small convoy of victuals, that was going to Turenne's camp; and prince Condé took in another way 200 barrels of wine; so that it is in a manner confessed, the French have as much difficulty to receive their provisions, as the Spaniard. The archduke has made a prohibition, that none of the peasants shall bring any relief to the French camp. He also commanded, that all the cattle that side of the river Lis should be driven and convoyed towards Ipres in Flanders.
The sixth instant a great convoy marched from Aire to our camp, with ten thousand weight of powder, and two thousand granadoes, six hundred bullets, and match proportionable; which all arrived at St. Paul's, a passage of ours. The same day parted another convoy from Doway of four hundred horse, loaded with ammunition; but their rear guard being met by the enemy, they took one hundred prisoners, and sixty escaped to Doway: the rest arrived safe in our camp; which is all I can yet give you of that siege.
The queen of Sweden is yet in Antwerp: she has but a small retinue, and lies in a Portuguese merchant's house. She has not one woman with her: every morning, when she makes ready, she calls for one woman or other; one to-day, and another to-morrow. She has bought, since her being at Antwerp, divers pictures, that heretofore belonged to the late king of England, and the duke and duchess of Buckingham. She has laid in bank in Antwerp a considerable sum of money. She visits churches and monasteries. No great mention yet of her going to the Spa. This is all at this time from hence, known to, Sir,
General Monck to the protector.
May it please your Highnesse,
I received your highnesse's letter of the 29th of July yesterday. Our businesse heere is (blessed bee God) in a reasonable good posture, and I doubt nott butt itt will soe continue, if your highnesse please to take care wee may bee supplyed with monie, and that the 23,000 l. in arreare to the 24th of June last may bee paid off. I shall take care to send away col. Morgan's letter with what expedition I may. Middleton is marched into Caithnesse with the remainder of his forces, which are about 200 horse and 600 foote. I have sent col. Morgan command to march after him, to destroy that country; and myself with a party am now destroying the country on this side the hills, where the enemy use to shelter themselves in winter. I have commanded col. Twisleton with col. Pride's regiment of foote, and parte of his owne regiment of horse, to destroy some parte of the country neere Loughlomond. Concerning the securing of the coasts about Invernesse, I have appointed the Assistance frigott and the Sparrow, which are all wee have for the present to spare, to lie thereabouts; and indeed one occasion of the want of shipping uppon these coasts is, their going into England to victuall, which takes uppe much of their time; and for those that lie uppon the Westerne coasts, wee cannot provide for them at Air, but must send to Leverpoole: butt how those, that plye uppon the Northerne coasts about Invernesse, may be victualled at Leith, I cannot resolve your lordshippe, butt shall write to the comissioners att Leith about itt, and give your lordshippe an account of itt as soone as I may: and wee cannot have lesse uppon these coasts to carry on this worke well then twelve shippes. Concerning the papers of Middleton's, that were taken by col. Morgan, they are not yett come, by reason the wayes over the hills is soe dangerous; but soe soone as they come, I shall send them to your highnesse. I humbly desire your highnesse, that the garison of Loughaber may be continued either by these forces or others from Ireland, to releive them, as my lord Fleetwood shall thinke fitt; and that they may bee commanded by a colonell of their owne, which I finde will bee of the best use. For the present the place is fortified, and a store-house built, and provisions sent for the place to make itt a fitt winter-garrison; and will bee of that concernment to us for the reducing of the Highlands, that I doe not know how wee shall bee able to compasse our worke without itt. I hope the continuance of them there till September next come twelve-monthes will (by the blessing of God) effect that businesse, which I humbly offer to your highnesse's consideration, and remayne
Campe at Lenee, 5. Aug. 1654.
Col. Morgan has been very earnest with mee to bee releived; and the truth of itt is, hee hath bin almost these two yeares in continuall actions, having great occasions to goe into England, his owne affaires suffering very much, and himself indisposed in body. I cannot tell well how to deny him, and therefore shall humbly desire your highnesse, you will send some fitt man to command in his place with what expedition may bee, being I have promist him, soe soone as hee returnes from this businesse of Caithnesse, to appoint another to releive him.
A letter of intelligence.
In my former by the last post but this I writ to you, that Arras was to be surrender'd the tenth instant, being St. Laurence-day, to ours, as the same day it was surrender'd to the French. Such news, I assure you, we have had here fresh, and yet continued, that were it not for the surrender of Stenay, and the assaults made by Turenne upon our lines, all which the besieged had notice of, and which gave them such courage, that they fell off from treatinge to surrender, which causes my former to be so mistaken. But I would lay two to one, here or there, the next week you shall hear of the rendition of it, notwithstanding all the power of France to relieve it. This is only, Sir, to excuse what my former imported; for in such cases many alterations are, whereunto all men are subject; so is, Sir,
The governor of Calais to M. de Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
The court is at Peronne, and his eminence in the camp. M. d'Elbeuf did declare to desire the command of the troops of Stenay, with the horse of the king; but that is given to the mareshal of Hocquincourt. This doth cause many to believe, that the first is not absolutely satisfied, and that he will soon leave the province. He went yesterday to court; it is thought, to take his leave.
By the first messenger I doubt not but you will hear of some fight, which I hope in God will be favourable unto us for the relief of the place; for it is impossible for us to stop all convoys from getting to the enemies camp.
A letter of intelligence.
We are still here tipplinge Spa water, dansinge, and raylinge against you. Further resolutions are not yet taken more then to goe from hence on monday to Aken. The moneys of the princes of Germany come slowly in . . . . formerly the other for the Prespiterian of the latter faction. Here is at court the lord Belkerris, a Scochman, whoe they strive to please, being, as they saye, a-popular man in his countrye. Yet as I hear, they have all religions entertayned, that would fight for the king. There are spyes sent into Ingland; one of them is a Jesuite, called Talbot, a well-sett. man, of a middling stature, full-faced, brownish hayre, a faire complection. So neare as I can learne, his brother is the other: him I know not. There are expresses also going for Scotland, whome I doe not yet heare. Hide, who is chanceler and secretary, is not yet come; so the council not compleat. They brag of secret intelligence they get from their friends . . . . . . Therefore you will doe well to visit all letters sent for these parts. There is one colonel Marsh a Kentishman, and Papist, whoe hath bin with Wilmot in Germany, is very active, and holds correspondency with Catholicks there; hath his letters directed to him under the name of . . . he dates his out of Italye: his wife is yet living in Ingland. I am confident, that women, whose husbands are with C. Stewart, doe very much mischief: therefore I suppose it would be good for the commonwealth to send them thence to thes parts. My lady Lee, who is married to Wilmot, keeps at Liege, and comes not hither, is now returninge to Ingland; but her sonn Francis hath bin here with C. Steuart, and is now going back with his mother. He hath a great estate in Buckinghamshiere, and mayntaynes Wilmot. He ought to be called in question, but not before I leave these parts. There is yet noe certaine news from Scotland, where all their hopes are.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the H. and M. lords states general of the United Provinces.
The lords commissioners of the province of Zealand have, by special order of the lords their principals, communicated to their H. and M. lords a certain copy of a letter writ to their noble great lordships by the lord protector of England in Westminster, the . . . of July last, 1654. as also a copy of the rescription of their noble great lordships to the said lord protector, dated the seventh of this month; declaring withal, that the said lords their principals did think fit not to send away the said answer for England. They had at the same time imparted the same to the confederates, thereby to make manifest, that their said noble lordships are resolved to proceed sincerely and with open hearts, and not to act in the least without the knowledge and consent of the government in general. Whereupon being debated, the provinces desired copies of the letter; which was granted.
The lords commissioners of the province of Holland on the other side taking notice of that clause, wherein it is said, that the states of Zealand do not intend to act separately or privately, but sincerely and open-heartedly, they do declare, that the said words were purposely set down to tax the province of Holland, and to provoke them with words. Wherefore if the said lords of Zealand will be pleased to put those words out of their notes, the lords of Holland will then give them thanks for their communication, although the same be given them after that the said letter is sent away, and it may be by this time delivered to the lord protector.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to his father.
I Can add nothing to what I have formerly writ of my domestic affairs and expences: and as for the public, I can say no more, than that I have writ in my last. My negotiation continueth still without concluding: the commissioners stayed with me till eight of the clock this night; yet I cannot positively say what effect their words will take. They will persuade me, that the protector will determine it before the 13th of the next month, which is the day that the parliament is to meet.
To Morus the professor.
At my arrival here I found Milton's book so public, that I perceived it was impossible to suppress it. This man hath been told, that you were not the author of the book, which he refuted; to which he answered, that he was at least assured, that you had caused it to be imprinted; that you had writ the preface, and, he believes, some of the verses, that are in it; and that that is enough to justify him for setting upon you. He doth also add, he is very angry, that he did not know several things, which he hath heard since, being far worse, as he says, than any he put forth in his book; but he doth reserve them for another, if so be you answer this. I am very sorry for this quarrel, which will have a long sequence, as I perceive; for after you have answered this, you may be sure he will reply with a more bloody one: for your adversary hath met with somebody here, who hath told him strange stories of you.
The examination of Jacob Clauson, coper-skipper of the said ship St. John of Amsterdam, burthen 220 tons, or thereabouts, with ten guns, taken before the right worshipful Richard Spurwell, merchant, mayor of the borough of Plymouth, and justice of peace there, upon oath of the said examinate, by the interpretation of Joachim Gevers, his sworn interpreter, the seventh day of August, 1654.
The said examinate, by the said interpreter, saith, that the said ship doth belong to Amsterdam; and that Jacob Sterry, a merchant residing in Amsterdam, is the only and proper owner of the said ship, and knoweth of no other. And saith, that in the month of March last he came on board the said ship at Leghorn, and was taken, and there put on board by Mons. Vander Strata and John Suttem, Dutch merchants, residing in Leghorn, and to be skipper of the said ship; by whom he was laden with currans, galls, wine, stone; and from thence went with the same for Marseilles, and there took in almonds, anchovies, soap, sumack, prunelles, capers, aniseeds, and camels-hair; which said goods he took on board from one Mons. Launson, to whom he gave and signed bills of lading for the same, and is now bound for Amsterdam, there to unlade and deliver the same to Jacob Sterry, to whom the said Launson is factor. And being demanded, for whose account the said goods are, saith, he believeth the same is for the account of the said Jacob Sterry, and knoweth not of any Frenchmen, that have any interest in the said ship or lading, to his knowledge. And saith, that he is not bound for any part of France, but directly for Amsterdam, as aforesaid. And saith, that the writings now shewed him, are his writings for this voyage, and hath not another; neither hath he burnt, hid, thrown over board, or made away, any writings whatsoever for the voyage. And saith, that his bills of lading are real, and not colourable; and that on saturday last, off of the Lizard, he with his ship and lading were taken and seized by the Constant Warwick frigat, and this day brought into Plymouth.
The examination of Jacob Derrickson, steersman of the said ship, taken as aforesaid, by the interpretation aforesaid, upon oath.
That in the month of March last he came on board the said ship at Leghorn, where he was hired by the skipper to be steersman for this voyage; and there took in currans, galls, wine, stone, and other goods, from one John Suttem, for the account of Jacob Sterrey, merchant in Amsterdam, to whom they were to be delivered; and from thence went to Marseilles, where they took in and laded almonds, aniseeds, galls, anchovies, soap, and other goods, which they took in from one Mons. Launson; but for whose account, unless for the said Jacob Sterry's account, he saith he knoweth not. And from thence they came about the last of May, new style, bound directly for Amsterdam, there to deliver up the said ship and lading to the said Jacob Sterry. And saith, he knoweth not, if any of the said ship's lading be for the account of any Frenchmen; but saith, he hath a roll on board the said ship, mentioning the marks and numbers; but for whose account the same are, he saith he knoweth not; neither are they bound for France. And faith, he knoweth of no writings made away, hid, or burnt for this voyage, neither of any colourable bills of lading signed for the said goods. And saith, saturday last, off of the Lizard, the said ship was taken and surprised by the Constant Warwick frigat, and this day brought into Plymouth.
The examination of John Williamson, boatswain of the said ship taken aforesaid, by the interpretation aforesaid, upon oath.
General Fleetwood to the protector.
May it please your Highnes,
I have only a most faithfull heart to your highnes to pleade with your highnes, why I should be so left alone, as a person allmost forgotten since this last change. But wer it myselfe only concerned, I hope I should be contented with any thing; but indeade your affayres heare have and doe very much suffer through want of a settlement; wherby great advantage hath bine given to the humours and discontents of others to worke to a division. I often remember a passage in a former letter from your highnes, wherin you wer pleased to mention, that in your hast you was ready to wish, that you had wings to fly away, &c. I confesse, when I consider it as the Lord's hand, I am silent, and can subscribe; but often, when I meet with my very great tryals, burdens, and difficultyes, I am ready to complain: and if it were not to serve your highnes and this pretious cause, I hope for no reward of man, indured what I have done. My condition is too large to trouble your highnes with. I wish I wer more pittyed, and prayed for. I know your highnes burdens. I showld rather choose to beare more then add to yours; which makes me thus abrupt, who am
General Fleetwood to the protector.
May it please your Highnes,
I have heere inclosed sent a list of our elected members for Ireland; amongst whom there being so many cheife officers, I desire to know your highnes pleasure, whether I should admitt all, or how many of them, to come into England. Your commands heerein, I shal beseech, may be speedily signified unto
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
Thought I have felt the burthen by the delayes in the settlement of Ireland; yet if the publique did not suffer thereby, I should have the less cause of complaint. I am very sorry to hear master recorder Steele is not like to be one in the authoritye here. If petitions may prevaile for his stay, I could easilye trouble you with an addresse of that nature to you from us heere; and indeed he is a person of that emminent worth, reputation, and abilities, that I must make it as my most humble and earnest suite to his highness and the councell, that he may be appointed for the service in this nation: and if the business of Ireland were thoroughly knowne and considered, the interest of England would be so much concerned in the well settlement of this nation, that I doe beleive it would be thought necessary to send a person of his meritt hither; and if his being chosen for this next parliament cannot well admitt his present comeing over, yet never theless I shall humbly desire he may continue his relation to Ireland: and I think I can offer an expedient as to the present answaring of that place, to which I understand he is intended. He is one would give very great satisfacion to all people. If wee must only have such as can well be spared in England, Ireland is like to be but in a sad condition. I shall not soe much press his sudden comeing over, if he may continue his relation to us. He will be of singuler use in the parliament to the affaires of this nation. I must particularly recommend the care of this businesse to you; and remaine
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
I received by this time yours of the thirteenth instant, by which I see you do not receive my letters as accustomed, of which I will take care, if the fault be here, which I do not yet well know. I hope you received all mine before this time. The inclosed letter from your friend in the army here, will let you see the particulars of what is passed, and to pass, where he is; which is sufficient at this time from the armies. Here we are all quiet; only some differences lately happen'd between the chancellor, the council, and the great vicar of this city, as also the curates, which were to have public prayers for cardinal de Retz his liberty in all the parishes, which the council endeavoured to hinder in the king's behalf; but all in vain: they would not obey. The last sunday they had thanks given to God for his eminency's liberty in all places in Paris, at least in the churches; and some made bonne joye to that effect: at which cardinal Mazarin is like to run mad, and the chancellor no less. Here we had a report, M. de la Meilleraye died; but it is not yet true, but he is in danger.
The great vicar of the archbishoprick of this city has set out affixes yesterday, commanding all the curates of this diocese to expose the sacrament, and to have common prayers for his majesty's health, and the prosperity and good success of his armies this year; which was done, and continues as yet.
M. le Tellier, secretary of state, has written in the king's name to the duke of Longueville, desiring the nobility of Normandy to come and help his majesty in this present occasion of importance; but I think they may come too late, if at all. Cardinal de Retz is still at his brother's house, and says in his letters to the clergy and curates of this city, after giving them thanks for the continual affection they bore unto him, that he will live and die with them, and as archbishop of Paris. King Charles is always at the Spa. We don't yet hear of any resolution he does, only that he has a mind for Scotland, if he can. The queen of Sweden is at Antwerp. We expect division in England, and no less in Holland. It is said here, Middleton was the man that defeated general Monck in Scotland, not Monck him, as you say.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augier's secretary.
All the news come from Peronne since my last, have assured us, that the court still persisted in the design to assault the besiegers of Arras in their trenches; and it is yet thought so certain, that exhortations have been made throughout all the churches of Paris for the good success; wherein I see each one sheweth much blindness, as though they could not tell what to wish in this conjuncture. The letters from the city of Peronne of the 15th of this instant informed us two days since, that to that purpose the mareschal of Hocquincourt, who had feasted the king there, had been made much of by his majesty; that they had given him the command of six thousand men, come from Germany, Stenay, and other places, and composed also of divers companies of the king's guards; by reason whereof his assault should be called the royal assault, because several were to be given at once.
Yesterday were received letters of the 16th, bearing only, that the night of the 18th to the 19th the said assaults were to be made, although Mons. le prince had received two thousand men of reinforcement in his lines, out of which the archduke was gone to give order for the other officers of the country; as also to leave all the pains and honour of that burden unto the said prince.
But as the wiser fort have always doubted of that enterprize, and that the cardinal de Retz's escape, happened thereupon, hath exceedingly troubled the court; so I do also hear, this morning, that their majesties, instead of going to the camp and towards la Bassée, to favour the said assaults, had not yet the 17th stirred from Peronne, and that they did sooner intend to come hitherwards, after a great council of war, which had been held, wherein the mareschal of Turenne and divers other officers of the army were of opinion, that they ought not to assault enemies so well intrenched and fortified; whereof we do notwithstanding expect the confirmation. It is also told me, that news are at this instant arrived of the surrendering of Arras unto Mons. le prince. My next will, by God's help, inform you of the truth thereof; as also, whether or no their said majesties will be this week near Paris, as I see written by a secretary of state's man.
The cardinal of Retz's business causeth great jealousies, and cardinal Mazarin (who was exceedingly troubled at the first news thereof) hath so much the more, that he doth mistrust the mareschal de la Meilleraye hath deceived him, and been of intelligence with the prisoner; whereof he doth notwithstanding cleanse himself by divers persons he hath to that purpose sent to court, with the verbal reports of the particulars of that escape.
My last will have informed you of the joy, which had thereof been made at Paris. The next day the curate of St. John, a great Jansenist, did amongst others cause his parishioners to give public thanks thereof, as they sung the Te Deum for Stenay; and the bishop of Dolonne did also express in a sermon he made at St. André des Arts, all the joy he could, in speaking of the kings, and of the little regard they ought to have to their commands, when they insinuate themselves into the spiritual government. But the other parishes would not take part therein, until the great vicar had ordered them; to whom the chancellor has expresly prohibited it in a sharp discourse held amongst them upon that subject, as the said chancellor thought to invite him to cause thanks to be given to God for the surrendering of Stenay. Whereunto he answered, that he could not obey without the archbishop's command, or at least a letter of cachet from the king; understanding that the said archbishop should by that letter be acknowledged, which the said chancellor hath not approved.
The cardinal de Retz is not gone to Belle-isle, as I was informed, but to Machecou in Poictou, under the mouth of the river Loire. He hath sent two gentlemen to the duke of Orleans, and caused the duke of Beauford to be told, that he would always be his servant.
Mr. Petit to Mr. Augier.
I know not what advantage the believed loss of Arras will produce in the behalf of those of the religion; but hitherto no justice done them: for no council met on monday, as had been promised them. Whereupon M. de Vestric told me yesterday, that they were going to assemble themselves.
The business of Rochechouart goes very ill, being the marquis of Pompadour, after new threatnings of violence, in spite of the king's orders, has obtained a decree upon request in the chamber of edict of this parliament, which re-establisheth all things, except the exercise of the religion in the said place, wherein is well seen the chancellor's base intentions, and his inclinations against the cardinal Mazarin.
Heretofore the said mareschal, knowing how much he has disobliged England by his eagerness and piracies, for which he has still seventeen or eighteen vessels of his own at Blauet or Port-Louis in Bretagne, which he has caused to be fortified, and where his principal booty lieth, has feared the said cardinal would forsake him as a prey to the English, in the treaty, which might be made between the two estates; and doubtless if any thing keeps him at present, it will be the fear, that in consequence of such a treaty, his temporalities, which are well worth to him one hundred thousand crowns yearly, and the surplusage, which appears to belong unto him, will be confiscated to satisfy in part to the depredations, whereof the English complain.
I believe some touch of this to M. de Neusville from his highness or his commissioners mouth would much oblige the said cardinal in the streights he is in; for England can never look for any other thing than enmity and bad effects from the said mareschal, the cardinal of Retz, the chancellor, and other supports of superstition, in case the princes and they should gain the upper hand in the government.
I have written to the count of Brienne, that in consequence of the resolution taken by the council of St. Malo, the king may be pleased to cause the English merchants there to enjoy the same main-levée, as I informed you to have been granted to those grieved at Honfleur and other places.
Captain Howard to the protector.
May it please your Highnes,
Since the last defeat given to the enemy in the Highlands, several small parties are come down into the adjacent parts, which do very much disturb us; insomuch as I am enforced to keepe all the horse at hard duty. There be divers of them, that do prosser to come in upon bond to be of good behaviour hereafter. And according to my judgment I thinke (to prevent the mischief, which may ensue by there falling to steleinge, and make a winter business of it) it were fitt to receave them into protection. Therefore I desire to know your highnes pleasure; for by reason of your highnes commands (which I understand by my brother Downeing's letter) I intend to hastenn upp to London; and therefore by reasonn the time is soe short, that I shall not receave your highnes answer, I shall take bonds of some of them; and upon receipt of your highnes pleasure, which I hope to meet with by the way, I shall give further order for deleing with the rest. I humbly take leave, remaineing
Col. Bamfylde to secretary Thurloe.
I have not much time for the present to advertise you of; or if I had, I want tyme to enlarge myselfe, the post being juste upon departure. All the expectation heere is the issue of this great siedge of Arras, which will bee of vast importance, and produce a great change, whether it bee taken by the Spaniards, or kept by the French. Many talke, Turenne's intention is to assaulte theyr trenches; but I have no oppinion, that he will attempt it; and a very great one, that he will be repulsed, if he does. The French king has summoned all the nobillity and gentrye in Normandy and Pickardy, to come to the army; and has raysed all the country of Bullonois, under the mareschall d'Omont; and of Montrill, Amiens and Abville, under the duke d'Elbuese, for to strengthen the armye; The likelyest conjecture is, that they will take it; but the certaynty a little tyme will nowe produce. Touching what you write concerning the king of Scots, that it is generally beleived he had noe hand in the designe of assassinating the lord protector; or that he did not approve of it; and that the belief of it arises from Gerard's declaring of it at his death; I assure you, his master is much obleidged to him for dying with a falshoode in his mouth for his vindication; and not a little to you, for your charity in beleiving it. I assure you, it's matter of great indifference to mee, whether he had been privye to it, or not; but since you desire my oppinion of it; I shall tell you my certayne knowledge, that he was soe farr from not approving it, that longe before either Gerard or Fitz-James came over, he endeavoured to engage another in it, as an essentiall means to give motion to all his other designments; but say ling of a convenient person, he sent for Fitz-James, commanded captain Griffin to write for him, engaged himselfe to give him a some of money to defraye his charges, thowgh he showlde not undertake what he had to propose to him: Gerard and he came together to Paris, spake to the king together upon saturday night at ten of the clock, in my lord Gerard's chamber, both together and aparte; was with them neer tow houres. There were present my lord Gerard, coll. Whitley, capt. Griffin, Fitz-James, and Gerarde. Jack Gerard had orders, not to put the business in execution, till he had directions from the king for the serving of it. Hinshaw the king did not speake with, although he had promised it, by reason he received advertisement he was employed oute of England from his enemyes, to abuse him; and that is still confidently beleived. All this I know as certaynty, as I hope you doe, that I am, Sir,