A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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August (3 of 5)
The mayor, &c. of Carlisle to the protector.
Vol. xvii. p. 173.
May it please your Highnes,
Upon summons to us given by the high sheriff of this county, for the election of a burgess for this city, to sit in parliament upon the third of September next, we did accordingly proceed, and elected colonel Thomas Fitch, now under your highness's command at Inverness, for this place to serve in parliament. We have since received a letter from him, dated the 29th of July, 1654. wherein he hath intimated, that he hath received your highness's writ for electing a knight for that shire, wherein he is now resident; in which writ these words are mentioned, viz. And we will, that neither you nor any other sheriff shall serve as a member of parliament. This special exception, he conceives, doth prohibit and debar him: and therefore we humbly request your highness would please either to allow him to serve for this city, according to the election made, or otherwise to grant a writ for a speedy and new election, that so the service required may be duly attended.
Your Highness's most humble servants,
Carlisle, Aug. 10. 1654.
Tho. Craister, mayor.
Cuth. Studholme. Th. Sewell.
Ri. Lowry. Wilfrid Lawson.
Peter Norman. Willia. James.
A letter of intelligence.
Vol. v. p. 91.
Though I am come from the Spa weary and toyled, yet I would not omitt to give you this short accoumpt of our adventures there, though the courts are now removed to Aken, under pretence of bathing. The king's trayne is not great, but in very good equipage. The viceroy of Irland is the ornament of the court, though my lord Taffe keepe the greater bussling, except one or two more, and the rest are slaves of as little magnitude as influence. All rather wish then contribute to the doing of their master's businesse, and for ought as I can perceive, are rather content to wander up and downe in a present subsisting posture; for a prince cannot want ordinarie necesseties, then have the K. to hazard any thing: such vile spirits are most predominant about him. I beleeve the next remove wil be to Collen, where 50,000 l. of the German monyes expect his majesty's orders; and then doubtlesse for Scotland, if things goe then but reasonably well. The next weeke you may hear more, though I have had nothing from you nor * this fortnight, notwithstanding I expected to heare from you both, in answer to my last. Pray tell him so; and adieu.
Aug. 21. ten at night, [1654. N. S.]
For Mr. Antonio Rogers, att the post-house, at London.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xvii. p. 207.
The general report, that we hav had this week from Provence, is, that only six galleys and eight ships ar redy, who assoon as the duke of Guis arryves at Tollon, shall depart thence for Civita Vechia, the port-town of Rom, wher they ar to land the said duk of Guis, who has the king of Portugal's comission to be his extraordinary ambassador to the pope, and that the said duke of Guis had received of the king of Portugal's ambassador in Paris two hundred thousand French crownes for his expences in the said expedition. Others say, that the only desyn of the French has bin to stur up and join with the Genowes against Spain; which seing it wil not tak, they now only send som small succor for Rosas in Cattalonia, and think no further of Itally. This year the Spanyard raises very great forces in the kingdom of Naples, especially of hors, whereof 'tis sayd he has about twelv thousand in rediness, a great part being Duch and Albanes, a warlik nation in Dalmatia, ether Slavonians or Greeks. This greate preparation of the Spanyard seems to be too great against any invasion the French could mak on Itally by sea; insomuch that many ar of opinion, Spanyard rather intends to invad the pope; for he drawes al his eies towards his borders. There want not some here besydes your servant, that believ, the protector and Spanyard ar agreed, and the greate fleete in Ingland is preparing for that purpos. The Roman intelligencer shewes many ominous marks of its downfal, which certainly drawes nere. The fury of the Genowes, which was so great in the beginning, is now much abated. They make not the lest shew of war, but rather expect som good issue of theyr ambassage sent for Spayn. The French here report, they have taken Stenay and Arras; how true, we know not. I should be hartilly glad to hear, that Middleton and the rest of the Hyhlanders in Scotland were queld; which I hope wil sudenly be brauht to pas. So prayeth,
Leghorn, 21. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Your most humble servant,
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Vol. xvii. p. 181.
Here is returned hither one of the envoys of Muscovy, having a design to go for France; for which end and effect he hath been some time at Brussels, there to obtain a pass: but instead thereof (as he saith) they have made him to consume his money; and they told him, that his journey into France was suspected, and that he went about to treat with France, to the prejudice of Spain; so that he is come back, and here they will accommodate him with a ship.
The merchants have new complaints in Muscovy; that is the reason, why they send one to Muscovy with letters of credence from this state.
They are now finishing the business about the patents, namely, they have sent towards the frontiers the companies which during the war have been quartered in the country. However; Holland is contented, and ten companies are always to be quartered within Enchuysen; but they could not prevent the sending of three troops of horse to Overyssel, which without doubt will be imployed for the bringing in of the lord Haersolte via facti into the office and charge of Drossart of Twent, which if the nobility (as it is feared) should oppose, it may cause the effusion of blood.
The duke of Courland hath made a complaint by an express envoy, how that at Amsterdam they have detained and confiscated one of his ships, called Invidia.
Those of Holland have signified to the states general, that having received formerly a letter from the protector of England, dated the 16/26. June, they had now returned an answer, bearing date the seventh August; which Orange party do not take very well; by reason that answer doth flatter too much; and secondly, because they were not to answer separately, but ought to have signified it to the states general, and then the states general would have answered it.
The princess dowager doth begin to capitulate with those of Holland, concerning her dowry of twenty thousand guilders per annum, which they have formerly scrupled; now they shew some inclination. Orange party do tax and blame her for covetousness, that she ought to have scorn'd such small profit, and not make herself obliged to those, who have secluded her grandchild. Orange party do also repeat her covetousness for having caused to be given her by the king of Spain Sevenbergen and Thurnhout, by reason whereof she disposed the prince to favour the peace.
They continue at the Hague to watch every day with a troop of the guard; a business, which doth highly displease and distaste as well Orange party, as the common sort of people; and a great number of soldiers (as in effect the most part of the company were Orange party) do demand leave to be gone; a thing which doth not displease the good Hollanders nor the pro. of Holl. And they will endeavour to purge and purify those guards, and to make them all good Hollanders; and so by little and little they will endeavour to remove the prince of Orange.
The princess dowager is going towards Berlin, where she will stay all winter. If the princess royal will also pass the winter at Breda, it will be in her own choice.
You will have seen, how that they have already resolved and agreed upon the list of the patents, namely, the sending back of the companies to the frontiers; and that amongst the rest against the protestation of Holland, who do favour the quarter of Twent, and the city of Deventer. They have resolved to send four troops of horse towards Overyssel, which by order of the plurality of the states of that province are to be lodged amongst the peasants of Twent, to oblige and force them to accept of the lord Haersolt.
But here is come since the lord Raesvelt, one of the council of state, and one of the nobles of Twent, who doth desire and require, that they would be pleased to alter that design of sending those four companies of horse; that otherwise there will be blood spilt, the nobles of Twent being resolved to oppose it: that those nobles are well thirty in number; that they will raise 150 horse; that there are at least a thousand peasants well armed in the country of Twent, and that they will in no wise yield and give way to these four companies: that hitherto they have only alleged some formality against the said lord Haersolt; but if he will not desist and be quiet, they will allege some material thing against him, which will be very vexatious unto him; and as I hear, it will be a contradiction of his nobility.
The Muscovite envoy, who is come back from Brussels, hath demanded of the states 400 rixdollars; but they have denied to give him them.
The prince of Tarante hath signified, that the queen of Sweden did desire to come to see Breda, hoping that the state would not take it ill: however she did not desire, that they should send to receive or compliment her.
The admiralty of Zealand hath licensed some ships of war, which is against the order of the generality; and therefore Holland hath complained of it; as also by reason that Zealand hath writ to the protector, bearing date the seventh of August, and did not comnicate the same here till the eighteenth of August.
On the nineteenth they began again to debate the business of the patents; and those of Holland, in favour of those of Twent, have labour'd hard to prevent the sending of the four companies of horse designed for those parts, but could not prevail.
They are very ill satisfied here, that there hath been so little effected in Denmark concerning the restitution of the proceeds of the twenty-two English ships, especially by reason the king hath put 300,000 guilders thereof into his own purse. Whereupon they have caused the resident Charisius to be spoken unto about it by two commissioners.
This 21st of Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Letters of intelligence.
Brussels, 22. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xvii. p. 213.
Yours by the last I received, and convey'd yours to the Spa and the imperial court. From the last you have now a letter, but not from the first: I wish your correspondent there be well. If you do not hear of him or from him by the next post, there is something in it more than I know; which is all I can now say of that.
The queen of Sweden arrived here last week, more man-like than woman. Her train here yet consists of two earls, two men servants, and one woman: how long they will stay here, or what further she shall do, I know not, her ways being inscrutable.
The news of our camp before Arras come late hither, and not so frequent, because the French have shut up all the ways: but I have seen a letter from our camp of the 20th instant, being the last that came hither, setting on foot, that ours were mistaken in thinking to get that city so soon surrender'd: for after we took the strong horn de Guiche, they had a demi-lune within that, with a strong work adjoining to the walls, which we knew not of; and that work was assaulted the nineteenth instant, and ours lost about two hundred men, but could not gain above one half of the work; and the rest we intend to attack, and by the latter end of this month we hope to be masters of the town, and not before. It is feared ours want powder and ball, and our foot are much wearied in the service. We have many sick and wounded of the regiment of Norinberg, who were defeated at the last assault. The prince of Condé has gained all the outworks in his quarters, to the very walls; and eight pieces of artillery are to mount to play against the town, whilst the rest do as he did, that so all together may attack the walls. We fear the French will attack our lines: they play from their camp abroad, and the town very hot at ours: the game is uncertain, tho' ours hope to gain the place very soon; which is all now of the siege.
You have herewith in print the articles of Stenay, where ours lost four hundred men, besides them wounded; and the French 2500, by the best relation I can find here. Were it not for want of able chirurgeons, the commanders being wounded, that place might have held out longer.
Here is no more at this time of news from, Sir, yours.
Hague, 21. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Since my former to you, I have only gathered what ensues:
The differences continue in these provinces; but the phlegmatic constitution of this climate will at least defer that, which seems much to incline to a rupture at present; for I see not as yet any appearance of any reconciliation, the regency in being of the province of Holland, being obliged to be adversaries to the house of Orange, and the rest of the provinces by no means will desert that house, and the protection of it, in all that yet appears. In pursuance whereof, the said provinces are now forming an answer to the manifesto of the province of Holland, which also will be printed, and so much the worse; for the manifesto being rude, the answer will be so too, and coming to the view of the tumultuous people, who continue still their affections to the house of Orange, so far that they already threaten to cut off counsellor pensionary of Holland de Witt, for being author of that manifesto; and this notwithstanding the new garisons and guards established in this court, as you had in my former intimations.
The head of this faction of the house of Orange is count William of Nassau, who is lately commanded to go to the province of Groningen, to compose some differences there; and he is to return hither very shortly, to accompany the old princess of Orange, to visit her daughter the electress of Brandenbourg, being with child. About the latter end of this week they begin their journey.
The states of Zealand, upon monday last, communicated to the states general the answer of the letter, which they sent to your lord protector; upon which did arise very great dispute in the assembly; the rest of the provinces alleging, that such answer should not be sent without first the participation thereof to the rest of the provinces; and to participate the same after being sent, signified nothing; but that thereby it appeared, the province of Zealand, in imitation of the province of Holland, kept secret correspondence with the protector: so it rests, and Holland laughs at it.
By the plurality of votes in the assembly, three troops of horse are sent to Overyssel at the instance of the Orange party, that province being divided, and ready to come to arms, as you heard before; and the party of the prince of Orange is conceived there to be strongest; and these troops will undoubtedly assist them to the ruin of the other party, which the province of Holland did well foresee, and therefore gave all opposition to the sending of the said troops, and protested against it: but all would not do; they were outwitted.
If England has any design to trade in the river Scheld, it will be seasonable to begin; for they may have it; but if it be once shut up, no speaking of it after.
Our embassadors here write, how much they are instruments for a peace with France, which they hope to bring to good pass. What else they write, is known best there.
This is this week's collection by, Sir,
The prince of Tarante to Stouppe.
Vol. xvii. p. 156.
I found at my arrival here your letter of the eighth of this month, two days after that of the fourteenth, which was delivered to me with your cypher. Both of them do give me tokens of your love, whereof I desire the continuation. What hath been told you of my accommodation, is very true; yet however, that shall not make me to change my resolutions, which I have taken, not to leave this country. The letters, which my lord protector hath writ to some of these provinces, have been well received, and done much good in Zealand, where a few days since I heard of the defeat of the Scots, which is variously spoken of, according to each man's fancy. I pray write particularly concerning the parliament, which is to meet very suddenly. I am told, that a great many Anabaptists are crept in amongst the rest. I can hardly believe it.
Hague, 21. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xvii. p.162.
I will tell you, in answer to your paper in cypher, that I will have, as long as I live, the same inclinations, which I ought to have, for the interest of those of the religion; and that I will always make it my work and interest before any thing else: but to engage slightly in a business of that nature, without having first the advice and counsel of several persons, is not to be thought on.
The next parliament will make us wise; and what their opinions will be as to our business, and whether they will close with France. I do not intend to stir from hence in a good while. In the mean time I will send one into Berne to know, what news and counsel there is on foot. I hope you keep what I write to you in the greatest secrecy. In short you have done well to speak to the protector, and to let him know my inclinations. By the next more at large.
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Hague, 21. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xvii. p. 179.
You must be very well used to the frequent retrogradations of your treaty, as I must confess it must needs be trouble some unto you; for I, who do not see half of those particulars, which may displease you, am troubled to think, what you undergo by those unreasonable offers, that are made unto you, which are to be endured. There is no news in those provinces; all mens eyes are turned towards Arras, and we do believe, that the assaulting of the Spanish trenches hath been attempted, which is one of the most desperate actions, that could be thought on. All my hopes are, that in case we do not succeed in our enterprize, we shall be able to retreat without the loss of our army.
They write me from Antwerp, that the Spanish fleet is not so rich as was published. The money registered for the king is two millions eighty thousand ecus; for particular men one million four hundred thousand ecus.
Here is a report, that the English have stopped two great ships coming from Seville, one of Amsterdam, and another of Hamburgh; and that the English ships have order to visit all the ships, that bring any silver from Spain, and to seize upon that, which is not registered.
The treaty of marriage of the king of Sweden with the princess of Holstein is concluded. She hath received the presents, which he sent her, and she is shortly to go for Sweden. All the princes of Low-Saxony are met to accommodate the difference of Bremen. Coningsmark is making great preparations to retake those places, that those of Bremen have taken from him. If he can get them again, I believe the Swedes will be sooner brought to an accommodation.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
Vol. xvii. p. 199.
By the list of the names of these, that are chosen to fit in the next parliament, which is now in print, as also by what we are informed, we do think, that we may assure your lordships, that the same will be so constituted, that two thirds of them will be presbyterians, or at least such as do hold for a firm ministry, with goods and orders in the churches; and without doubt his highness himself hath given great direction in that business, both in the chusing and approving of them, whereby there is easily to be judged, what his intention and opinion are concerning the affairs of the church: so that there will be sufficient care and provision taken and made for the exercise of religion. We cannot omit to let your lordships know, that the fifth of September next is the last day, that the final sentence of the arbitrators is to be given, concerning which the cautionary merchants have spoken to us about, and earnestly desire to mind your lordships of it.
Westminster, 11/21. Aug. 1654.
H. and M. Lords,
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to the French embassador at Stockholm.
Vol. xvii. p. 195.
I have received the letter, which you were pleased to write to me the fifteenth of the last month. It doth give me to understand such a good disposition in your parts for our affairs, that what bad success soever my negotiation will have here, there will be matter wherewith to comfort ourselves, provided we do not want enemies. Here is variously spoken of the war of Bremen. The English do not think of giving them any assistance; but I do see other states, who do take themselves to be interested in the defence and preservation of the place. It is to be feared, that it is the leaven of a war, which is spreading in Germany; and that the fire will break up there as violent as ever.
My negotiation is upon the point of concluding one way or other. There is a great deal of likelihood, that my lord protector will take the most advantageous party for his establishment, and that his interest will be to live in peace with all his neighbours; whereof you will have very suddenly very certain intelligence.
The expectation of the success of our affairs in Flanders doth seem to have suspended some days the expedition, which I did long since hope to have received, and whereof the king had resolved to attack the lines of the enemy. Before that it be known what success that will take, there will be nothing determined.
The fleet-of England of about forty-two ships equipped and victualled for a long voyage, and also for a land design, is still ready to set sail. He that is to command the troops, that are embarked, was this day to go to join them; few know certainly, what course they will steer. There is nothing new from Scotland since the defeat of a few horse of the royal party, and the affairs of England are suspended till the sitting of the parliament.
21. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Monsieur Petit to Monsieur Augiet.
Paris, 22/12. Aug. 1654.
Vol. xvii. p. 17.
The deputies of the religion have not yet obtained the last council promised them for the categorical answer to their remonstrances or petition; but upon the great complaints they have made to the chancellor, (namely that of the Aiguieres) he had ordered Mons. d'Estampes to report it; so that that deputy told me, he hoped for some answer thereof, which will content him, if so be he were only sent to the chamber of the edict of Grenoble. The said deputies have let Mons. de Ruvigni go to court all alone.
Mons. de Vestric hath all his expeditions in readiness, except one touching the collection made of some moneys, which he doth shortly hope for. None are well considered here, but such as have the strength in hand. We shall see, what will have been done in the assembly convocated at Alez on the 25/15. of this instant. I believe it will prove vigorous.
Those of la Rochechouart are to be pitied. Soon or late, God will avenge them. The said Mons. Ruvigny said, he would speak soundly of it at court.
To Monsieur Paulus, resident of Venice.
Amiens, the 22. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. v. p. 122.
We are here in expectation of the siege of Arras, and of the success thereof. The king is still at Peronne; but the common opinion is, that he will not stay there long. The marshal d'Hocquincourt having received the command of the royal armies, that lay before Stenay, marched therewith towards St. Pol, which passage he hath reduced, and fortified for the preventing of any further supplies from getting into the Spanish camp, that being the design of the French at present, and not to fight the Spaniards in their trenches, as was at first resolved on. The governor of the place hath sent word, he is able to hold out a fortnight longer. The marshal of Turenne was the only man, that insisted for their not fighting of the Spaniards in their trenches. Some do think, he did it out of respect to the prince, that he might not be utterly undone at once.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Aug. 22. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xvii. p. 219.
Yours of the seventeenth instant came to my hands this morning, by which I see, God be thanked, you are all quiet there, and hopes to be better by the time, which I pray God send. The wit of your protector is much esteemed by all men, though some would not wish it, if it were in their power to hinder it; but God is over all.
I thought by this post to acquaint you of a fight at Arras, but that failed as yet; for ours altered their designs. They dare not venture to force the enemies out of their houses, seeing it to be impossible. We are informed by four letters, that a party of our horse met Condé with 7000 horse, and that ours were all routed, and lost 4000 men with five considerable persons; but before you believe it, you are to expect the confirmation thereof.
Yesternight I saw a courier from court to the surintendant, who says, the enemies at Arras were beaten out of all the half-moons and breaches they got there, by the townsmen, and says, the governor writ to the king, he will hold yet fifteen days; but others say, the town is upon capitulation. We must expect the truth; for the ordinary from Arras yesterday brought no letters. This night we expect another courier.
From Toulon of the eleventh we have, that four men of war parted thence for Catalonia with provision. It is thought they will land at Cape de Guiers, near Roses, and afterwards will return to Toulon to join with the army naval of duke de Guise.
It happened near Arras, that count de Bouteville met in a party Mons. count de Maure, and Mons. chevalier de Grandmont, which prince Condé invited to visit their camp by the king's permission, which they did, and were gallantly feasted by the said prince, to let ours know they wanted for nothing in their camp; after which they were conveyed to our quarters without any harm done to them.
His majesty yesterday sent orders to the parliament here, that they should not make any assembly here concerning the officers of the town-house, till they had further orders, it being prejudicial to the state.
Last thursday the chapter of Notredame having received a renovation of the demission of the archbishop, with a letter desiring to inregister it in the Greff from the cardinal de Retz, upon which they assembled and concluded, as he desired, being only six voices against the rest; but immediately the great vicar of that church, as also Mons. Bret, Grange, and Joley, canons, received orders from the king to come to him, and give him an account of what they have done in Paris, since cardinal de Retz is at liberty. It is not yet resolved, what they shall do.
Mons. de Meilleraye demands an order from the court to gather the world of men to retake the said cardinal, which was granted, and orders besides to put a garison in all towns and places, that belong to cardinal de Retz, duke de Retz's brother, and Mons. de Brisac. We shall see by the time, what all that will produce. Some say, the king will return soon to Paris, of which more by the time, from, Sir,
Your faithful servant.
Paris, 22. Aug. 1654. N. S.
It is strange, what diversity of news we have here from Arras; sometimes it is taken, sometimes succoured, now Turenne is imprisoned, and the succour abandoned, and a siege intended for Cambray. The next post will, as I believe, let you know something more of it; and in the opinion of most, Arras is lost; and some write, the besieged yet twice treated, as I have seen from the camp. It is said, the king will come thither shortly for sear of new tumults here, to which a great many in this city are inclined, especially since the cardinal de Retz's escape.
It is now more than formerly believed, the duke of Guise goes to Naples with 6000 men to gain that kingdom, with the assistance of some factions there: some Neapolitan noblemen, banished by the late viceroy count Ognat, are gone with him; the lord Inchiquin also was to go with him, if he be as good as his word.
Of Mons. de Baas, or our treaty with the protector, I can say no more than before. You shall have compliments enough for the first, and for the last promises at large, it may be in what you demand for the Protestants of France, if you insist upon it; but it shall be never performed; and our treaty will not come to an end with yours, before your parliament comes; for whatever you write to the contrary, the French court does not believe but you will have real dissentions shortly in England, and they hope in Holland; but sure of England, as their intelligence gives them.
Your late defeat of Middleton troubles much the Carolists, and also the French. It may retard at least the designs of R. C. as to Scotland. He is still at the Spa receiving his contributions. Of pax general here is nothing at present, nor else I know of, but what you have annexed in occurrents from, Sir,
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
Paris, 22. Aug. 1654. N. S.
Vol. xvii. p. 223.
I have received complaints of merchants of the Netherland nation at Nantz, how that there happened a tumult on the thirteenth of this month for a small cause, namely, that a Frenchman in the night, stumbling at a pig of lead, that lay in the street before the door of Jacob Roch a Dutch merchant, that lead belonging to others that live in the city; whereupon this Frenchman, cursing the whole Dutch nation, raised the whole town in a combustion; and a great company being got together, they cried, they ought to revenge him, and kill the first Dutchman they should meet; which caused the Netherlanders, that were thereabouts, to shift for themselves; but in their own defence they drew their swords against those, that made the tumult, who pursued them with their swords, cutting and slashing all they met withal, that made any resistance. In this scuffle the Frenchman, who hurt his foot against the lead, was the first man that was killed. He was always looked upon for such a fellow, that took delight in tumults. This incensed these disturbers the more, and made them to beset the house of the said Jacob Roch on all sides. The townsmen rise in a tumult, crying, It is an Hollander, that hath killed a native of this city; let us hang him up presently. The judge cometh also among them, causeth the dead body to be removed, and the said Dutchman's house to be broken open, where they took him and two servants, with another Dutch merchant, prisoners, who were all bound, and carried to prison, crying as they went, Kill them, kill them; but the officers and soldiers prevented the same; and the said four Hollanders sit with irons at their feet. I am endeavouring all I can to get the business to be brought before such judges, as may do our whole nation justice herein; for it doth concern us all, that we may live in safety in this nation.
The governor of Calais to Bordeaux the French embassador at London.
Vol. xvil. p. 229.
The lines and the forts made by Mons. . . . . . . . . . . . . before Arras, being . . . . . . Mons. de Turenne was not of the advice for the attacking of them, although that it was the opinion of Mess. de la Ferté, and . . . . and by reason, that Mons. de Mondejeux hath certified to hold out at least to the . . . of this month, yet it is resolved to retake all the advanced and considerable posts, which may in any wise serve to furnish the enemy with provision and refreshments; and Mess. d'Hocquincourt, and the earl of Grandpré, have already taken the port of St. Pol, and four hundred prisoners. The horse, of which were about two thousand, retreated to St. Omer. It is imagined, that the enemy doth . . . . . . . . . . . . when in their . . . . . . . and the opinion of Mons. de Turenne is not to attack the enemy in their trenches to the very last . . . . . . . . that the place is brought unto . . . . you have . . . . . half-moon hath been taken and retaken a second time, and that the want of powder doth cause the assault to be made without any vigour. They write me word from Peronne, that the cardinal is departed thence, for . . . . . . . but the king is to be there likewise to conclude what was to be done at . . . . . . . .
Calais, 22. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
An intercepted letter.
Peronne, 23. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xvii. p. 233.
At this instant cardinal commands me to go with orders to the army, so that I cannot prolong my lines. The last I wrote to you, was from this place, in the packet of M. de Bordeaux.
Now at this instant news is come, that the peace will be betwixt England and France, which is a happy day, you may be assured. Pray visit Mons. Bordeaux, and let him know, how much I am his father's servant; for I protest to you, I never met with an honester or better friend to me. He hath this day in a most high manner obliged me. Pray requite his son there with all respects and thanks. I am glad for his sake, that his negotiation takes effect. Without doubt, we are resolved to force the enemies lines; for the cardinal is resolved to do it, though he give out the contrary.
This letter I overtook at Amiens the twenty-eighth of this instant. Our three generals Turenne, la Ferté, and Hocquincourt assaulted the lines of the enemy, which were the best that ever were seen, three quarters of an hour before day. Their resolution was admirable, and without any opposition. The prince made head, but to little effect. Turenne was the first, that entered the line, la Ferté being beaten off twice, and Hocquincourt forced the Lorrain's quarters, where he received no great resistance; all run away, leaving all their baggage and artillery, some two thousand prisoners, and not a hundred and twenty killed. It was such another as that of Dublin. I charged with Turenne, who gave a very good relation to the cardinal of me. The king and cardinal with the queen went yesterday to Arras. Now I hear the protector demandeth three millions for the peace.
This success maketh us to look big, and little value the protector.
A Monsieur Dovitte, at Mr. Constable's house,
Stockholm, 12. Aug. 1654. O. S.
Vol. xviii. p. 151.
From hence little news for the present, only that there are great preparations making for the embassy of grave Erick Oxenstiern to Holstein, to bring thence to his majesty the royal bride. The marriage was at first appointed to have been at Calmar, near unto Oeland, where his majesty's former residence was; but is now resolved for fear of the plague, which at present is crept in thereabouts, to be celebrated here in Stockholm, all things thereunto requisite being here better to be had.
We cannot yet understand of our late queen Christina's present abode, nor whither she intends this winter.
Mons. d'Avaugour is now daily expected here; what his embassage may be, time will discover. It is supposed to be chiefly intended for the congratulation of his majesty in his new government.
Mr. Andrew Riccard, &c. to the protector.
Vol. xvii. p. 241.
May it please your Highness,
We have considered the nature and quantity of victuals to be put on board the fleet to be commanded by general Penn, for the supply of the respective numbers of men to be transported, and to be borne aboard the said ships; and humbly present to your highness's serious consideration the several proportions following:
Bisket for eight months.
Beer three months; and in lieu of five months beer, more to be put on board of arrack or brandy for six weeks; and beverage, wine, vinegar, and cyder for fourteen weeks.
Beef four months of the old store, two months to be new provided.
Pork six months of what is already made.
Pease for eight months.
Fish six weeks haberdine, ten weeks stock-fish, and in lieu of sixteen weeks fish more, the value thereof to be put on board in oatmeal, rice and pease, butter three months in kind, and five months oil in lieu of butter.
Cheese three months of Suffolk, and three months Cheshire, the other two months to be supplied in oil.
The flour, raisins, and necessaries, as already ordered; and for the use of the forces at least 100 tons of bay salt.
Your highness's speedy order herein is very needful, as is conceived by,
14. Aug. 1654.
Mr. Andrew Riccard, &c. to the protector.
Vol. xvii. p. 247.
May it please your Highness,
In pursuance of your highness's instructions, we have considered of fit persons to be commissionated with those upon the Barbadoes and the other islands; and do humbly present their names as followeth:
Edmund Winslow esquire,
Richard Holdip esquire,
Captain Edward Blagg, to be sent from hence.
Commissioners for the Barbadoes:
Col. Searle governor,
— Hawkins esquire,
Thomas Noel esquire,
Edward Thomson esquire,
John Roberts esquire.
Luke Stokes governor, and his council.
Clement Everard governor, and his council.
Roger Osborne governor, and his council.
— Rennell governor, and his council.
Also we do herewith humbly present such instructions, as we conceive meet to be put in execution by the commissioners jointly upon the Barbadoes and the other islands; all which we humbly leave to your highness's consideration, being, My Lord,
Most humble servants,
An intercepted letter.
Boulogne, Aug. 14/24. 1654.
Vol. v. p. 196.
I should be glad to hear, that the lord protector intends to assist the Hollanders, who deserve that favour done them; for they have been very firm to his interest the which the other provinces have continually opposed; but I fear, if the Scots victory proveth no greater than we are made to believe, that his highness will not be able to spare the Hollanders men; which I believe, if it should come to blows, they would want. I wish you were able to settle our affairs with our father in those parts, before any trouble arrive; for if there should a war break out in those parts, you know what damage we may suffer in time, if we do not settle and dispose our business beforehand to our best advantage. But I will say no more of that, because I am certain you will hasten all them to go as fast as you can. Arras still holds out, and the French are consident to relieve it, having drawn all their forces together for that purpose. Some report, that the marshal of Turenne is in disgrace, and suspected to comply with the prince of Condé, and that the cardinal will command the army himself.
To Mr. John Browne at Mrs. Wade's house, near St. George's church, Southwark.
A letter of intelligence.
Vol. xvii. p. 251.
I perceave the greatest part of the money, which is to be receaved from the empier, shall be imployed in the businesse of Scotland, and C. Stewart shall live on his allowance of France. It costs him nothinge at present but board-wages for his servants, which are many. His sister keeps a table for him, and pays for his lodgings. She is here at a vast charge, noe reasonable lodging to be had under halfe a crowne a night; at first comming would have a crowne. The magistrates have bin to salute C. St. and his sister, and sent them a present of wyne. They have some hopes, they saye, of his conversion, because they see many of his followers come to mass. These have news, that there are great dissentions in the choice of parlement-men, which they hope will bread a mutiny; whereupon the protector hath put of the parlement, which discontents the commonalitie. I desire you to remit me some money; make it payable to Mr. Lawrence Coghen, whoe will convey it to mee. This is all I can write at present, I desiring much to heare from you, how affaires are there. I remayne
Aken, 25. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Monsieur Petit to Monsieur Augier.
Vol. xvii. p. 217.
I shall, with God's help, entertain you by my next touching the affairs of those of the religion. Mons. du Vestric withdrew on last saturday his expeditions from the seat, after great contestation for the taxes thereof, which he would never pay, and the which they were forced to leave him, upon condition, that those of the hospital of Nismes should pray for the king's prosperity.
I have, at the instance of our merchants at Morlaix, complained to Mons. Servien of the pirates of Brest. He told me, he knew not of them, and that I ought to address myself to Mons. d'Aligré, as I intend.
A letter of intelligence.
Paris, 26. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xvii. p. 270.
Here is post on post arrived this day morning, that we have forced the trenches of Arras, succoured the town, defeated all the army, having taken artillery, bag and baggage. Consider then in what a condition are the Spaniards. I cannot commit to paper the inconveniencies, which may befal the prince; for this accident, if true in the nature, as it is related, this victory will discourage all the frondeurs, who were increasing here to a most numerous quantity.
A letter of intelligence from Monsieur Augier's secretary.
Paris, 26/16. Aug. 1654.
Vol. xvii. p. 277.
The affairs have changed face since my last of the 22/12. of this instant, and the lot hath shewn by the relief of Arras, that the wisdom of this world is but folly before God, the wiser sort having been so deceived in it, that great wagers were laid again yesterday morning, that the place would in few days be taken; and that if so be they did assault the Spaniards, it would only be after the execution thereof, and as they should retreat themselves out of their lines. And indeed we received news yesterday morning from all parts about the said place, which did only presage its loss, and the good condition of that siege could be judged until the 24/14. by the letter written at that time from Peronne, from a very good hand, in these terms: That the foregoing day they had received the sad news, that there were entered 1500 horse with ammunition behind their backs into the enemy's camp: that the same day 23/13. the duke of Joyeuse was arrived at Peronne with a musket-shot in his arm, which nevertheless hurt not the bone, received at a skirmish of the said enemies, who were come upon the forragers, whom he went to relieve; and that however they affirmed, that Arras would hold out long enough to be relieved: but yesterday night brought us the news of the same relief, first by a post dispatched in all diligence unto Mons. Fouquet, adjunct to the surintendant of the treasury, who said verbally, that the attempt was done upon three o' clock in the morning; and that the success thereof had been very happy; and afterwards by some other letters, which confirm the attempt thereof to have been so easy, that there were not above a hundred men slain; adding, that it had only been made in one place, where all the French army had appeared, thereby to give more terror: that it was the marshal of Hocquincourt, that entered the place, and that the engagement having continued, the Spaniards had been exceedingly routed with the loss of most part of their foot, and of all their cannon and baggage, which the horse had forsaken to escape itself; whereof more particularities would at another occasion be told. No body doubts of the said news; and I hear bonfires are this evening to be made thereupon, which will sooner be sad fires, in the fear I see people have generally, that success will not be received with discretion.
The church-members sent for to court, as you will have heard of, are parted to go thither. The cardinal of Retz is at Belle-isle. The notice from Bretagne bear, that the marshal of Meilleraye having shewn his discontents thereof unto the Duke of Retz, with threatenings to go and besiege him at Machecou, the said duke had answered him, that he would send the keys of his house, when he should come, without that it were needful for him to come with force; and that as for his brother, he was not bound to answer for him.
I know, that, notwithstanding, the said duke labours underhand in the said cardinal's behalf; but it is credible the raising of the siege of Arras will much amaze them, and that they will be but little upholded by the duke of Orleans.
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xvii. p. 271.
I have too many conflicts to deale withall, to think a piece of paper can give me ease; and amongst other things I formerly writt about your disposal and improvement of lands in Ireland, but can get no return. I wish ther might be some resolution therin, or at least you will forbeare disposall of any lands, till those you send hither can informe you of the state of affayres heare. I understand coll. Hammond, coll. Tomlinson, and Mr. Goodwin, are intended hither, for which I am very glaud; only I am informed, as if you intended your nomination of persons as your council to be by your parliament. I should most humbly beseach my lord protector would doe it himself, and not leave it to that decision. I very well understande the interest of Ireland and your variety heare. I am sure it is for my lord's and the publick interest, to determine that himselfe, rather then to leave it to such an uncerteinty. I dare but hint of things, and can only adde, what I am,
Your humble servant,
Aug. 16. [1654.]
The Spanish embassador to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xvii. p. 267.
En la ultima audiencia que tuve de milord protector entregue a S. A. una carta de su excelenza el senor Don Luis Mendez, de Haro, Condé y duque Olivares primer ministro de su magesdad, y deseando remitirle la repuesta de S. A. suplico a V. S. me haga favor de procurarmela, para poder dar buena quenta de haverla entregado a S. alteza.
Tanbien suplico a V. S. se acuerde del despacho del pasaporte para plata, en conformidad de la memoria que embiè a V. S. a quien guarde Dios muchos anos como desseo.
Muy gran servidor de V. S.
Londres, 26/16. de Agosto, 1654.
Don Alonso de Cardenas.
The Spanish embassador to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xvii. p. 268.
Haviendoseme dado noticia de Espana de que un navio Olandes havia apresado y llevado a Cadiz, otro de subditos de esta republica, y pretendido se declarase por de buena presa la carga de aceytes que llevaba, y le fuese permitido venderla en aquel puerto, diò orden el senor duque de Medina Celi capitan general del mar occeano, y costa de la Andalusia a instancia de Don Diego Guilson, consul de la nasion Inglesa en aquella ciudad, que se opuso a ello pidiendo a su excelenza se restituyese al capitan Ingles el navio, y su carga, lo qual se executò luego como V. S. lo verà por la carta de dicho consul, que escriviò al senor duque dandole las gracias por este fabor, y aunque no dudo que el dicho Guilson, havrà dado quenta dello a milord protector como offreze hazerlo, me ha paresido avisado a V. S. y suplicarle se sirva, de representarlo a su altezza, para que vea, con quanta puntualidad y gusto se continua en Espana el procurar dar toda suerte de satisfaction a los ordenes que para ello ay de su magesdad. Dios guarde a V. S. muchos años como deseo.
Muy gran servidor de V. S.
Londres, 26/16. Agosto, 1654.
Don Alonso de Cardenas.
A letter of intelligence.
Vol. xvii. p. 283.
We came hither last frydaye, where, 'tis said, we shall stay a month. Hide, Wilmot, and secret. Nicolls are come hither, and they will begin to sitt in councill, when to send armes to Scotland, whether they shall take in all, that will come to their partye, about which will be great debates; and when their master shall goe himself, and where to remayne untill he goe. I am informed from good hands, he will not goe for Scotland before winter, when they suppose it safest. Many are against his going, untill Middleton hath given your forces a defeat. Their intelligence from Ingland writes them, that 'tis false, that you beat Middleton; which gives them a belief you had the worst of the day. Here are expresses preparing to goe to Scotland. In my next, I suppose, I shall be able to tell you their chief intelligencer at London; they have many; and correspondence is held with Hide and Nicolls; their letters are written in character, and most come under cover to Antwerp and Brussels. The lady Leigh, who married Wilmot, and her son Sir Harry, who was at Spa with the king, are returned for Ingland. Most of their designs are executed by women, whose husbands are with C. Stewart. Sir John Morley of Newcastle is here likewise a busye man. The partye is divided into saction; but some labour to reconcile all differences. They are ordering the church government already. Please to peruse the cover of this.
Aken, [27. Aug. 1654. N. S.]
A letter of intelligence.
Bologne, 28/18. Aug. 1654.
Vol. xvii. p. 293.
As for news, the French have forced the Spaniard to raise his siege from before Arras, where, they say, he hath most dishonourably lost his cannon, and is retired, not only with disgrace, but great loss. They say the pretended duke of York behaved himself very gallantly in the French army, and hath done them very great service. It is here confidently reported, that your lord protector intends to make a peace with the French, and that he will conclude and sign it before the parliament sits, because he will have the honour and thanks of it himself; and if he intends to set upon Hispaniola, the Spaniard have an ill time of it, being beaten here by the French, and in danger to be there so by the English. We hear strange stories of the Swedish queen with her Amazonian behaviour, it being believed, that nature was mistaken in her, and that she was intended for a man; for in her discourse, they say, she talks loud, and sweareth notably. The king of Scots and she, I believe, will hardly meet; for he is going to Aken, and from thence, they say, to Cullen.
An intercepted letter of Sir Walter Vane's to Sir H. Vane the father.
Hague, 28. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xvii. p. 334.
I thank you for your relation of the elections. I never did believe the sectaries considerable in our country; yet wonder, that none of them could be chosen. I do not hear my brother is chosen any-where: much people wonder at it here, and seemed much pleased at the report of his being chosen at the first. I am glad to hear he will be at London this September, and hope God will so direct him, that you may find comfort and satisfaction by it.
The assembly of Holland is not to meet these three weeks. The provinces do still dislike the proceedings of them; but hitherto have kept themselves in a moderate way. The party of the house of Orange is like to decay every day more and more; and Holland at last will take upon them a greater share of the government than they have done. Last night here came news, that the Swedes were sending an army of 10,000 men to join the rest of their army, that was before Bremen. They were already imbarked. This may bring the war again into Germany; for it is not likely princes will let that town be lost so. The dowager goeth this day out of town for Germany. The princess royal and her brother are gone to Aken, the small-pox having diverted them from the Spa.
The plague is here in town. We have had a great deal of rain here; it will much spoil their harvest.
The siege of Arras is raised by the French, who have relieved the place, and beaten the Spaniards. They attacked them an hour before day. The Spanish foot made a great resistance, and stood it till two of the clock. The prince of Condé hath saved himself at Cambray, and the archduke at Doway. This is one of the considerablest actions, that hath been done this many a year.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Vol. xvii. p. 305.
The lord Raesvelt hath done all that he can to cause to be delayed for some days the patents for the four companies designed for Overyssel, saying, that in the mean time he hoped, that they would agree; but that would not serve the turn: the patents are at last dispatched. We shall see now what Twent and Deventer will do against it.
The Orange party do make good use of these broils about the patents, to shew and prove, that they must have a head, who might govern this business without any noise, dispute, or contradiction. But Holland will set themselves so the more against it.
Those of Guelderland have also at last formed the advice, to which I refer myself. It is clearly seen, that not one dare approve of the seclusion; for although Nimmegen, Tiel, Bommel, Arnheim, be of the faction of Holland, and do make a party by themselves; yet they dare not patronize Holland in any thing, when there is any question concerning the seclusion; and although, that as well in the country of Guelder as in the quarter of Nimmegen, and in the quarter of Tatphen, there be many of opinion and faction of Holland, yet not one doth declare themselves; but seem to be afraid, that one time or other, the prince coming to the government, he will remember those who have acted against them, and punish such noblemen for it.
Holland itself, though at present having secured the Hague with four companies of the guard, yet they have not the confidence of causing the young prince and the princess royal to remove out of the court, although she is at the Spa with the king her brother, where it is to be presumed she doth not speak or treat of any thing, that can be to the good liking of the lord protector, whom Holland doth seem to make prosession to please. Yea, it is strongly reported, that Holland by a secret act will assure those of the prince's party, that when he is of age, they will break the act of seclusion.
Those of Groningen and Omlande have now also exhibited a new prohibitive advice against the seclusion; so that formerly they only exhibited an act on the behalf of the commissioners.
Those of Utrecht alone have not yet exhibited the provincial advice; for the city will in no wise declare so largely as the other two members; and yet however the city dare not approve of the seclusion.
The mayor of Breda hath signified now, that the queen of Sweden doth desire to come to Breda; and if she will be known, the state will not fail to treat her, and to do her the honour due unto her.
The commissioner of Bremen doth threaten his departure. The last week he delivered in a memorandum for a categorical resolution to be given him. The provinces of Groningen and Omlande have formed a very favourable advice of sending a relief of 2000 men. Friesland will likewise do the same, item Overyssel; and the more because they see Holland will not do any thing for the city of Bremen, because that province doth perceive, that count William and the . . . . . . . . . . are inclined to assist that city; and by that means the said commissioner, seeing nothing will be done, desireth to be gone, having most hope of Westphalia and Lower-Saxony.
The states of Cleve and Marque have writ to the states general, and require intercession to the elector of Brandenburgh for the relaxation of the baron of Wylich, whom the landrost Spaen hath taken by the means of some horsemen of this state, under the walls of Burich; but this state doth still scruple it.
It is said, that at Dort there hath been some new tumult amongst the mariners; but it will be no great matter.
Those of Amsterdam do increase their companies, and repair their fortifications, there being a report, that count William, returning from Groningen, was to bring several thousand men with him towards these parts; but he is come back all alone. However it is true, that the states of Holland, where they increased the guard, did conceive, that the . . . . . . . . . might cause some troops to come hither. There are on either side some people, who do blow the coals.
The lord Jongestal by a letter express doth shew and declare to the states general the desire, which he hath of returning home, as in effect he can in no wise be agreeable in the eyes of the protector, being an adherent to the party of the prince, whom they have secluded. Whereupon being debated in the states general, there is yet nothing resolved upon. In the mean time the provincial advices concerning the seclusion run high. Those of Groningen do call it abominable; and it is clearly seen, that those provinces, which do disapprove of it, will go further; hoc est nihil. Groningen hath given their advice for an assistance of 2000 men. Friesland will do the like; yet all this is nothing without Holland.
Those of Orange party begin to grow jealous; first that the protector doth keep and reinforce still his fleet in the Downs. Secondly, by reason that at Amsterdam they raise more than need to reinforce their companies. Thirdly, it is said, that at Rotterdam there is great store of arms in readiness together. Fourthly, those of Dort have caused to march out of their town one company, which hath lain there in garison for above these fifty years, by reason it is of the regiment of count William.
The provincial advices of Guelderland and Groningen are sharp enough. In that of Groningen is also the word abominable applied to the seclusion. The city of Utrecht alone doth still with-hold the other two members; otherwise the plurality had already advised against the seclusion as the rest.
At Nantz and Marseilles there have been tumults and insolences committed against the Holland nation, as the embassador Boreel writeth; which letter being read, those of Holland have highly reiterated their complaints agaist France, insisting and desiring, that a strong fleet may be sent to the Mediterranean, and upon the coasts of France, that so the reputation of the state may be preserved. But the other provinces, or rather Orange party, take that, as if Holland would wage war against France; a thing, which they think would make too much for the good of Spain and of England. Orange party do all that they can to hinder the sending and employing of a fleet towards or against France.
The king of Spain, having released a Holland ship, hath writ a very civil letter, that he was glad, that he had an occasion to do something, that might be agreeable to this state. They are about to answer him with great civility.
The queen of Sweden will come to Breda tuesday or wednesday the twenty-sixth, and will be there met by the embassador of France; from thence she will come (incognito) to see the Hague and other places of Holland.
The lord Jongestal hath reiterated his desire of returning home. There is a great deal of likelihood they will give him leave; the more because there is no great likelihood of finishing the treaty of navigation.
The princess dowager will depart this week for Berlin with her young princesses, and count William with his do intend to bear her company to Weesel.
Holland as well as good Hollanders are very well satisfied with the letter, which Zealand hath writ to the protector. Orange party do think it is writ too moderately and mild; but Holland is displeased, that Zealand first do shew themselves such hypocrites, as if they knew nothing of what past concerning the seclusion; and as if Zealand had not also made a deduction sharp enough against the seclusion. Secondly, that Zealand in their letter should set down offensive clauses, as that wherein they tax the protector, as if he took thought, and was concerned in what was done in this country here. Thirdly, that the letter was sent de valida publica auctoritate; as if it were not known, that the rabble had domineered there so much. Fourthly, in the clause nec convenire ad amussim, &c.
By the resolution and annotation here inclosed of those of Zealand and Holland, you will see, that Holland is very ill satisfied with the rescription of Zealand, and also the clause, that taxeth, that the Zealanders have not done any thing separately, whereby Holland doth think themselves to be touched, saying to the contrary, that it is Zealand, that doeth and goeth separately to work, not having communicated the letter or rescription, after that the same was already sent. Item, Holland saith, that the said rescription is offensive; certainly at least it is offensive, although it were but in those words, valida apud nos publica auctoritate, it being manifest, that in no province the rabble hath more authority than in Zealand. Yea there might be letters produced, wherein they complain, that the capers or private men of war do break and dispense with all orders, and that it is not in their power to do justice upon them.
I do wholly perceive, that good Hollanders would but laugh, if the protector with his fleet would make some sudden incursions and booty upon Zealand and seriously without that good Hollanders will suffer.
How the king of Spain flattereth this state, is to be seen by this copy. I fear however, that having once taken Arras, and the United Provinces falling into broils amongst themselves, he will hardly do it any more.
The professor Thysius is translating the deduction of Holland into Latin, to the end also that other foreign nations may know and see the infirmities.
The lord president of the states general was required to bid farewel to the princess dowager.
That those of Holland should have agreed with the princess dowager's share for the annual pension of twenty thousand guilders, is not true; on the contrary they say, it would be a case of conscience to give to a rich body that which is not due, and not to pay so many poor men, as Holland is owing unto. Vlack the printer doth now finish his impression of Milton with his own apology. Morus is still gathering together of attestations to make his; but Vlack will stay no longer. I am
28. Aug. 1654. [N. S.]
Your humble servant.