A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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February (1 of 3)
Beverning, the Dutch ambassador at London, to the states general.
High and mighty Lords,
After that I was gone from the Hague on Friday last in the morning, I arrived that night at Helvoetsluys, with an intention to have set sail immediately with the English frigat, in case the wind and tide would have permitted; but the last being spent, we got over the sands with the next flood, and in the morning got out to sea, and with calm weather we lay and drove all that day; yet with a good wind, which without any hindrance would have carried us over in a short time; but the night meeting with a strong North-west wind, we were driven quite off towards the North coast of England, between Solebay and Yarmouth; and there we were stayed with a calm again, that we could advance neither one way nor other: yet we were come so near the coast, that we could easily discern the land. Then I caused to steer our course towards Harwich, as near as they could, and there chose to go ashore. The same night, being the third of this month, I got to Ipswich, and from thence to Colchester, and from thence I rid post for London, where I safely arrived at night. I first gave notice of my arrival to the master of the ceremonies; but by some farther information of a new order, agreed on here since our departure, I addressed myself to Mr. Thurloe, secretary of state, whom I entertained this morning at large concerning the subject and condition of our negotiation; and having received an assurance from him, that he would presently make his highness acquainted therewith, I have been since informed, that his highness the lord protector, and the lords of the council, were assembled, to resolve after what fashion and manner they should come to confer with me, for the drawing up of the articles agreed on, whereof we must expect the issue; and shall either upon the first occasion, or by an express, give advice thereof to your high and mighty lordships. All that I can say or add at present is, to let your lordships know, that I am assured, that their good intentions are noways altered here; and that I may hope my coming over may not be in vain nor unserviceable: however, I do assure your high and mighty lordships, that upon all occasions I shall shew myself to be,
P. Charisius, the agent of the king of Denmark, to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
Having with this last post out of Denmark received special order From his majesty, to propound to your high and mighty lordships, that according to their resolution of the 7th of November last, in pursuance of the treaty lately agreed on with his majesty, the first term of the subsidy to be paid upon the first of April, as is express'd in the said treaty, should be anticipated and paid upon the first of march this year: therefore your H. and M. lordships are humbly desired, according to the said treaty and resolution respectively, to give such speedy order in time, that the said payment of the money may be made at Copenhagen without fail; whereby his majesty will be also the sooner ready, and in a warlike posture for the defence of the passage for your H. and M. lordships subjects through the Sound, and trading upon the East sea; as also for the maintaining of their further high interests. Expecting a speedy and favourable resolution herein,
P. Charisius, the Danish agent, to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
The resident of Denmark having a certain letter from your H. and M. L. did recommend the same to the lord president of your assembly, and doth now insist for your speedy resolution upon the said letter; wherein is desired, that your lordships would give leave to Mr. Gabriel Marcelius, his majesty's commissary at Amsterdam, to send away four ships, notwithstanding the general prohibition for any ships to go out, to fetch wheat and barley from his majesty's storehouses.
The said commissary, in his letter to me yesterday, doth declare, that he hath already freighted three ships for that purpose, and was busy about the fourth, promising them, that they shall not be molested in their going out. Therefore we do humbly desire your lordships favourable and speedy consent in answering of his majesty's request herein, by giving of sufficient passes to the said four ships.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Le Sr Beverningh partit d'icy vendredi le 30 Jan. au matin, mais ne sortit que lendemain au matin en mer. Ce lendemain ceux de Zeelande proposerent avoir ouy, comment ceux de Hollande avoient separement renvoyé le dit Sr Beverning vers Angleterre, declarants cela estre contre le stile et le teneur du regime de l'Estat, et ne pouvoir se retenir de protester a l'encontre, puisque les provinces estoient a present en leur consultation et assemblées sur ceste paix, et que pendant ces deliberations une province seule ne pouvoit faire telle chose particuliere, principalement point traiter plus outre pour une cessation de hostilité; moins pour ratification, ou congratulation; lesquels 3 points on dit que le dit Beverning auroit en charge, en particulier, nonobstant que ceux de Hollande avoient fait proposer cela dans les estats generaux le 29 Jan. comme chose, qu'ils desiroient estre faite de la part des estats generaux. A cette protestation se joignirent aussy ceux de Frise et de Groningue; mais ceux de Hollande, pour le sauver, declarerent comme par serment, que le Sieur Beverning alloit fans aucune commission de Hollande, ains seulement en continuation de la deputation, en laquelle qualité il avoit jusqu' a present esté en Angleterre; consequement qu'il n' estoit allé en nul envoy particulier.
Cependant il n'a prins nulle congé de la generalité; et s'il n'a nulle commission par rescrit de Hollande, neantmoins fans doubte il est allé par leur ordre expres de bouche, et pour le 3 fins cydessus mentionés. L'on remarque, quoy qu'on dife, dans ces 29 articles des choses, qui chocquent, comme en l'article 11 ce mot vyanden (ennemis) n'est pas dans le traité 1595, au 1 cap. 4. n'est dit que de rebellibus aut prosugis, point hostibus.
2. Dans le 39 articles, notoriis hostibus, le mot notoriis est mal translaté verclaren, car les Anglois pourroient declarer pour leurs ennemis tant le prince d'Orange, que tous ceux, qui en dependent, et meme toute la maison de Nassau. Ceci insinue et s'instille ça et la, meme dans les provinces, et cela causera encore de bruit; mais jusques a present une provincial advis n'est venu.
La susdite protestation ayant esté proposée samedi fust repetée hier; mais ceux de Hollande declarerent saintement, qu'ils n'avoient donné ny fait ny conseil (raet noet daet); qu'ils n'avoient donnée nulle nouvelle ou separée commission de bouche ny par escrit au sieur Beverning, ains que seulement de coste il avoient oui de son parlament vers Angleterre. Sur cela la Zeelande a retirée sa protestation; item la Groningue; et la Frise seule a encore protestée contre ce voyage de Beverning.
Le envoyé du conte d'Oldenborgh a requis l'inclusion de son maistre, mais l'on n'est pas sort prompt a ceste inclusion, d'autant que l'ambassadeur de France a l'example de cela protendroit semblable inclusion.
N'a guere les estats generaux avoient resusé libre (de licentes) transport de chevaux a la princesse royale pour le prince d' Orange; elle envoya ces chevaux en Zeelande, ou l'admiraltée les a fait passer libres de licentes.
Le Sieur Beverning præsidoit dans les estats generaux depuis lundy (car c'estoit le tour de la Hollande) et jeudy encore une partie de l'assemblée puis sortit, et on ne sait pas autrement, si non qu'il alla dans l'assemblée de Hollande. Il n'a ny dit adieu ny prins congé dans l'assemblée des estats generaux; et ceux de Hollande jurent, qu'il n'a pas fait d'ad vantage dans leur assemblée, et que d'eux et il n'a ny lettre ny aucune charge ou ordre nouveau, et qu'ils ne savent rien de son voyage, si non que de coste ils l'ont oui, et par ce moyen ils ont contenté les provinces, dont la Zeelande, Frise, Groningue, vouloient protester de nullité; mais les 2 se sont contentées. La Frise seule a fait annoter (point protester) que ce voyage sera point præjudiciable a leurs principaux.
It semble bien, que ce voyage soit premedité desja en Angleterre, et que pour cela ils n'ont pas prins congé au lord protecteur, a sin de pouvoir y retourner sans nouvelles lettres, car s'ils avoient prins congé, ils auroient le soin de nouvelles lettres de creance, nouveau passeport, &c. sans quoy il seroit de bonne prinse et sans qualification. Cependant il est asses probable, que sous main quelcun a dit au Sieur de Beverning, qu'il seroit bien d'aller, ou s'en retourner en Angleterre, en continuation de sa premiere commission; et tint tout en bon humeur et inclination. Car veritablement la Hollande desire et doit avoir la paix; autrement elle est reuinée par dedans et par dehors.
De cette justication verres asses, que l'on n'a rien trouvé a redire dans ces 29 articles, ou bien qu'on les a trouves conformes les instructions et resolutions, toutesois cela n'est pas ratification, et faut qu'elle vienne des provinces, et les deputes ont esté remercies proprement pour la premiere, qu'ils avoient prise, qui n'est pas une ratification. Les provinces, qui sont Orange party, parleront fort pour y enclorre la France, et la proposition de l'ambassadeurs (qu'aures veu) va a cela; mais dans la ratification de Hollande voyes asses, qu'on ne fera pour la France, que de voir possible: ibunt quo poterunt.
Quant aux 29 articles, le nombre est de 29; mais il n'y en que 4 ou 5 de importance; et il a bien fallu les reduire en un volume ou ordre, a fin de les faire icy aggreer; et a cela faut præceder une persaite connoissance. Une chose sera cause, que les Orange party memes l'aggreeront: en sin c'est la lassitude de tant contribuer; car c'est une guerre fort sumptueuse, mais les ratifications seront bien clauselées. Autres croyent que non, et que les peuples de toutes les provinces, las de tant de maux et de si grandes contributions, embrasseront les articles, comme ils sont couchés.
Les ministres de France icy ont donné connoistre l'aversion de my lord protecteur de
traiter aveq la France, donnant tacitement la faute de cela aux deputes de cest estat; mais
ils donnent a connoistre, qu'ils ne s'en soucient guere; et que le Sieur de Bordeaux retournera
bientost en France. Je reste
Ce 6 Feb. 9. [1654. N. S.]
Le Sieur Beverning aura dit icy, que le Sieur Bordeaux auroit declaré qu'il estoit libre aux deputesde cest estat, comme aussy a luy, d'avancer & concluire le traité le plustost que chacun pourroit; que pourtant il s'estonnoit comment et pourquoy l'ambassadeur Chanut icy sembloit taxer les deputes d'avoir achevé la traitè sans et devant luy. Les ministres de France icy sont mal satisfaits de cela, et disont que le Sieur de Bordeaux n'a pas dit cela.
Monsieur Petit to secretary Thurloe.
Tant de personnes font interessees dans les momens de vostre temps, que quand je n'aurois pas moins de merite, que j'ay de respect pour vostre personne, la discretion ne me permetroit pas de vous surcharger de cette lecture, si je m'en pouvois dispenser. Mais m'estant rencontré hyer chez Monsieur le resident de Parme, Grec de nation, en la compagnie de Mons. le vice-chancelier de Pologne, ce dernier me fit des instances si particulieres d'assurer son altesse de la suite de ces services avec tant d'expressions de gratitude & d'amitie envers la nation Angloise en general, de la quelle il avoit, dit il, receu un comble de civilitez & de courtoisies, qui l'obligeoient a luy souhaiter tout honneur & prosperité, & a prendre part dans cette occasion aux heureuses nouvelles, qu'il avoit apprises de la paix avec la Hollande, que je croirois manquer a mon devoir de n'en point rendre compte a son altesse & a vous, Monseigneur, dont je se seray fidelement toute ma vie,
Paris, ce 7 Fevrier/28 Janvier 1653/4.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Other deputies from the reformed church of Rochefoucault are newly arrived here, who complain, that a man having been found twice breaking the pulpit of their church in the said city, that lady would make them no amends for the same, but had prohibited them to give any notice thereof. The said deputies do moreover complain, that some seditious priests have attrooped a company of rogues to demolish a church hard by Poictiers; and forasmuch as the protestant gentry of those parts have met, and eluded the effect of their insults, an officer of justice of Poictiers, of the said priests stamp, spoke of nothing but ropes and gibbers, exaggerating the merits of those, who had thus exposed themselves unto their insolencies.
Notice came yesterday from Lyons, that Mons. d'Aligre, the director of the finances brother, thinking to establish there a new monopoly, the people had murmured at it, and were ready to take up arms to suppress it, had not the mayor of that city prevented those inconveniencies.
Almost the like business happened at Melun, which hath caused the inhabitants to send deputies to this parliament to complain thereof; whereupon the said parliament hath nominated Mons. Baron to go there for information of the same.
Mons. Villayer, counsellor of the chamber of inquests, hath been banished to St. Flour in Auvergne, for having said, he should have had part in the king's last declaration, as well as the other chambers. The duchess, widow to the late duke of Bouillon, is extreme sick.
The prince of Condé is always towards Namur. The Liegois, apprehending to fall from a bad disease into a worse, if they brought French troops into their country, have agreed with the Spaniard, which have forsaken that country, after they had exacted a good sum of money from the same, it being not needful for Mr. Faber to remove from Sedan.
All honest men here rejoice at the peace between the two commonwealths; whereof, we are informed, the ratification has already been performed by the province of Holland. That happiness doth yet delay the baron of Avangour's expedition for Sweden, in quality of ambassador; and I am informed, the king has offered 5000 pistoles to Charles Stuart, to oblige him to withdraw suddenly by Cologne to Heidelberg; after which it is thought, he will nominate the marshal of Paluau ambassador for England. In the interim, the said Charles Stuart is in great want; his pretended chancellor hath had new assaults by my lord Gerard; but the said Stuart upholds him in spite of his mother and Jermyn, which do openly employ the said Gerard.
An extract out of the notes of the lords states of Zealand.
Being entered upon the debate of the affairs concerning the treaty of this state with the commonwealth of England, after several discourses and observations of the respective members had past upon them, having fully considered what was necessary to be done; it was thought fit and resolved, to improve and embrace, as is done by these presents, the 29 articles conferred and agreed upon between both the commonwealths, provided that before the concluding of the projected treaty, all possible endeavours and instances shall be made to comprehend the crown of France therein; and that if it cannot be done, then all imaginable means are to be used, to contrive and beget a good understanding between the said crown and the commonwealth of England; and that all acts of hostility may be prevented between them. Moreover, that it be once more endeavoured to include therein the deficient article of the 36 articles, formerly propounded to the lords ambassadors of England.
That the clause in the 12th article, formerly set down by the commonwealth of England concerning the lord prince of Orange, and afterwards brought in apart in a private article, be wholly omitted and annulled; and in case that cannot be obtained, then to allow of it with the said propounded proviso; namely, that all those, who shall be ever chosen by their H. and M. L. for captain general, or admiral of their militia, by land or sea, or by the states of the respective provinces for stadtholder or governor thereof, shall be found to swear by the said 29 articles, and consequently to promise upon oath, that they will keep, and maintain, and execute the same, forasmuch as lieth in them.
That in the 19th article there must be a further declaration and limitation made concerning it, as that but such goods only are to pay the customs and duties of the country, where they are vended or sold, and not the whole ship's lading, notwithstanding their breaking of bulk.
Moreover, that the proviso concerning the prince of Orange, formerly mentioned, shall remain firm and unalterable; and at the concluding of the treaty be thereunto annexed, unless the same can be wholly omitted and annulled.
And for the promoting and advancing thereof, the said commissioners, or some of them, shall be sent into England with all speed, during the deliberation of the provinces, to endeavour the effectuating of a cessation of arms.
And also, in the mean time, word be wrote to all publick ministers and consuls of this state, to the end that all merchants and skippers may be admonished, not to go to sea yet a while, but to expect the issue of this negotiation, to prevent all apparent danger.
It is also thought fit, that the lords commissioners of their H. and M. L. that were employed in this negotiation, have thanks given them; and that it be specially declared unto them, that the trouble and endeavours used by them therein, are done to these lords states of Zealand, and shall be accordingly acknowledged by them.
As also those, who are to be appointed to go for England, (this province intending to nominate one in the place of the lord Vander Perre deceased) shall have the character and title of ambassadors, who being arrived here, shall congratulate his highness the lord Cromwel, on his illustrious charge, as protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, conferred upon him, but in such terms and words, as they, according to opportunity, shall find in their own wisdom and discretion to be most proper and convenient.
And it is also thought fit, that this provincial advice be sent with all speed to the lords their ordinary commissioners at the generality, and to be signified by them to the assembly of their H. and M. lordships.
The Spanish ambassador to secretary Thurloe.
Haviendome venido de Flandes un cabinete con cinco pieças de lienço, y unos payses para el uso de mi casa he embiado a mi agente a los comisarios de la aduana, para que en conformidad del orden del parlamento, que se les mostrò cuya copia va aqui inclusa se despachase libre de derechos, como siempre se ha hecho; respondieron que no se podia despachar sin orden del señor protector, y siendo su respuesta contraria al orden incluso, y a los privilegios de embaxadores que en todas partes, y tiempos son libres de pagar derechos, y al estilo que conmigo aqui se ha tenido siempre en 17. años que ha que assisto en Inglaterra me ha parecido suplicar a V. S. me haga merçed de representar a S. A. esta novedad y suplicarle se sirva de mandan se me dè nueva orden conforme a la del parlamento con tal exprecion que de aqui adelante los comisarios de la Aduana, o sisa despachen libres de derechos lo que viniere para el uso de mi casa sin que me obliguen, a que para cada cosa, por menuda que sea que se me trujere, ô yo embiare haya de molestar a su alteça, para nuevos ordenes. Y guarde Dios a V. S. muchos años como desseo. Londres a 9 de Febrero/30 de Enero 1654/3.
Intelligence from Holland.
On Sunday I received advice from the Hague, by a letter written by one of the counselours of state to a person here, who is my good acquaintance, that a fisherman from Schevelingen had made report in their assembly, that he had heard from the mouth of a privateer, whom he met with at night, that they the privateers all together had taken a fleet of above 80 coal-ships. But whereas the said report has not been confirmed, at least not of such a large number, I think that the said fisherman is either wrong informed, or that he is a liar.
On Monday I received a letter from Vlissing in Zealand, of the 6th instant, wherein they tell me, that on the 2d of this month a Flemming, who is settled in England, was brought in there, laden with piece-goods; and that on the 5th there were arrived two privateers, which had taken out of an English fleet coming from Newcastle four coal-ships, whereof two were lost by a storm, and the two others taken again from them. That the English, which they brought over before into their ships, did declare, that the Scots had had a sharp engagement with the English by land, but that the Scots had gott the victory, and had pursued the English till to the next place to Newcastle. Further, that on the same day there were brought in by a privateer two French ships of Dieppe, laden with flax, hemp, piece-goods, &c. and that the privateer did pretend them to be lawful prizes, their bills of lading being for England.
Upon the arrival of the French (which they say are advanced within five or six miles of Namur with 8000 men) our troops have received orders, in all parts, to march all of them towards the country of Namur: the troops of Lorain and Condé are still in the territory of Liege, about Tongeren and St. Truyen, and live there cruelly and barbarously. The prince of Liege has called these French troops for his assistance. Behold there the theatre of war in the country of Liege, which makes us here very uneasy; for the French will greatly encrease by the ruined country people of Liege, and ours on the contrary will decrease; so that it is to be feared, that we may see perhaps very shortly, in spite of our opposition, our enemy hereabouts with fire and sword, in the same manner as we have treated them in France. The commissaries set out this day for Antwerp, to examine the count de Bassignie, and the abbot de Merci. I shall soon hear what they lay to their charge. The count de la Motterie, governor of Ipres, and master of the houshold of his highness, is condemned by the superintendent of the forces, for his ill menagement in the open country of his government, to pay down immediately 5000 crowns; as likewise to make good to the four members of Flanders the damage, which they pretend that he has done them; and further, during the space of ten years, to be disqualified for any employment. The governor of Ostend (being a Spaniard) is likewise condemned for the like actions in a fine of 5000 crowns, and disqualified for any employment for ever: this was sentenced a few days ago. Mons. Dallemme, governor of Cortray, is also fined 2000 crowns, and disqualified during six years for any employment. Within a few days three such other fellows will meet with the same fate. The Flemings have been very ill used by such disorders, and have been imposed upon; so that, unless any alteration is made, they will be obliged to do themselves justice. Here are deputies from all parts, to petition his highness to give his orders; and the complaints run so high, that a greater disturbance is to be feared. These matters are gone to that height, that it must break out one way or other. The four members for Flanders are at Ghent, to hear the king's propositions; and the states of Brabant have been assembled yesterday and to-day, to hear the king's demands, &c.
This morning our pensionary received a letter, written to him yesterday from the Hague by the counsellour pensionary de Witt, setting forth, that the members of the province of Zealand were arrived there, with the ratification of their province, concerning the articles agreed upon with the English, and especially also concerning the resolution made between both, containing (as I am assured by a good hand) that no captain general or governor general shall be chosen here, but who shall swear to the alliance and articles concluded with the English, which on their side shall likewise be done. Further the said letter contains, that deputies for Utrecht are also arrived there, sent only by the towns, since those of the nobility had not been present in a sufficient number, nor those of the prelacy, who had promised against tuesday following, which is to-day, to send theirs likewise. The advice of the towns is said to go so far, that the lords commissaries should be sent thither forthwith in their quality, not only to put a finishing stroke to the business, but also to felicitate and to congratulate Cromwell on his protectorship. I shall hear in a little time, how it stands with the other provinces, since they are said to have promised to bring in their advice to-day. The states of Holland are most all of them gone to their assembly.
Sir, I beg of you to shew this to no body but to some particular friends, since we must be very cautious here to write of those matters, (though they are good) because the magistrates themselves, being ashamed of it, declare those things.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
You have already seen the ratification of those of Holland upon the negotiation of the peace with England; and now here is this of Zealand, which in effect doth run higher than that of Holland, if you regard their flattery for a congratulation; item, to recompence the commissioners; item, to give them the character of ambassadors; and above all, in what they desire, a cessation of arms. Is it possible ? At the beginning of the war, to have seen their courage, you would have said they had already devoured a dozen of Englishmen, and that they looked to see what was become of the rest. Truly I had some pity of the English: one would have said, that in a year's time there would not have been one Englishman left to be seen but in picture; for which end there were so many fine inventions set on foot from time to time. And now in this approbation you may see they are more supple than a glove. I must confess, that they are true braggadocians and bravados, no less gracious and pleasant in their loves, than valiant in their fights, although that in those against the English they did behave themselves but moderately, yea prudently, for their two principal captains (in a fright) in their last fight, for fear of dying in the field, withdrew very wisely, although they had never a wound, leaving the rest to shift for themselves as well as they could: istuc est sapere.
There are at last come letters from the lord Beverning, containing his arrival in England; but the most part of the provinces would not have any copies of them, that so they might not seem to allow of his voyage, being undertaken and made wholly without the knowledge and advice or consent of the generality.
The fine towns Ziericksea, Goes, Tolen, Veer, and Flushing, have named thereunto the lord Veth, ordinary deputy of Zealand in the states general, and have sent for him to come into Zealand, to send him in embassy into England. He will excuse himself from it as much as he can, and the city of Middleburgh will do the same; for he seeth very well that they are his enemies, that would sain be rid of him sub specie honoris. The dispute and contention in that province doth last and continue against the Orange party and the well affected in Holland.
And since that the Orange party in Zealand are the strongest, and have accepted of the 29 articles, after the manner as you see, it is a sign that Zealand is very low and heartless; for that party of Orange would have eaten the heart of him, whose hand at present they pretend to kiss; and as well here as elsewhere, the Orange party do very much fear, that in time Cromwell will be master of the school, as well here as elsewhere, or in England.
The elector of Cologne hath again desired the finishing of the alliance, and to join the troops of this state with his; but as yet they have enough to do with the English; and if the Lorrainers will let us alone, we will not meddle with them.
I do very much admire, that Cromwell doth shew himself so cold against Hamburg; for I do assure you, that the states general and the states of Holland are more angry, and do wish more harm to Hamburg than to Spain or Sweden, especially and privately, because England doth hold in Hamburg that commerce; and if the English do not look to it, the states of Holland will shew some scurvy trick to England in Hamburg, under pretence to do it against Hamburg. If England would do well, he ought to caress and draw the Hans towns to himself; for I do assure you, that the states of Holla-d never had more jealousy than against the Hans towns Friesland will be the most difficult to ratify, and will bring many scruples and difficulties.
The good king of Denmark is greedy after his subsidy, and hath already demanded it; but he hath done so little for it the last year, and now they hope to conclude the peace, and then they will not want his ships.
In effect Denmark is poor, and can do no more than according to what is given him; but
having shew'd his good heart against England he is well beloved for it; and for the love of
him, they will make no difficulty for the inclusion of the earl of Oldenburg, being a-kin
to Ch. Stuart, pr. of Orange and grave William but for the Hans towns he will have enough to do; for the states of Hollard doth believe,
that England hath had all from the Hans towns. Upon this memorandum from the good queen of Bohemia
is nothing done. I remain
Your humble servant.
H. Morell to the protector.
May it please your Highnes,
This court is much sadned by our agreement with Holland, though all honest marchantts and the like rejoyce, hoping itt wil be a curb to oppretion throughout Christendom. On Fryday last itt was in debate, whether their superscription to your highnes should be, A Monsieur mon cousin; or, A mon cousin; but the vote passed to be the first. Itt goeth for current, that Mons. Foucquet, who is joint tresorer with Mons. Servian, is speedyly for to com ambassador for England: hee is a lawyer; then a master of requests; and so to this place, reputed to bee a wise man, in French little inferior to a Machavillian, and on in whom the cardenall intirely consids in.
For newes, the prince of Countey coms to mary the cardenall's neece, and hath 25000 l.
per annum, in church lyvings. Itt matters not, ise laymen had all, unles the clergey were
les vitiose and more vertuose in life and doctrin. Cardenall de Res, who is the cardenall's
Mazuryni's grand antigonist, is to be att lybertie, and his neece to marry the cardenall's
nephew, and all to reconcile desperat enemies, that they may renounce the prince of Condy.
I am of the judgement, that the prince of County carries on a deeper desine then is apprehended; a second earell of Salsbury; the oalde little gentleman, stronger brayne than
bodey, another suich. I am afearde to transgres, humbly begg pardon, and remayne
Your Highnes most humble servant,
A letter of intelligence sent to Mr. Hartlib.
Either your letter hath stayed long by the way, or els at Paris; for it being of the 19th of January, I received it but yesterday afternoon. In answeer whereof I wil satisfye you in all the particulars: and first concerning D. Bote his papers of Ireland, I shall diligently look them out, and be carefull to send them to you. As for my lord primat his old testament in the Syriack toungue, it is . . in my house, and so I exspect his or your precise order by whom I may send it, and those other papers you desyre. I am informed, that there is a bookseller to come from thence in a few days, who uses often to cum heere, and therfore you had best give him order for that purpose. I shal send you his name by the next post; for I wil not give that Siriack bible but to such as my lord primate derects; and hereafter will only wryte to you by the satterday post; and by that means you will learn what passes heere all the weeke. The busines of the count de Harcourt depends altogether on the seige of Belfort, whiche beyond exspectation is vigorously defended by the count de la Suze; and if that place be taken, as it wil be, the count de Harcourt will have no other conditions, but what the king pleases out of his grace. The troopes commanded by Mr. Faber, governour of Sedan, (who were apoynted to remove the Lorrainers out of the contrie of Liege) are stil about Rheims in Champagne, and are not advanced yet for the execution of that designe. In the meane tyme all the discours of this court is of many mariages; chiefly they say, on monday next the prince de Conty is to marrie Martinozzi the cardinal's neice. The said prince is to be heere on setterday for that effect; whereat the duke de Candale is evil pleased, becaus Martinozzi was formerly ordeened for him. The due of Longueville is at last com heere, and his daughter is to be maried to the duc de Nemours, who is to quyt his archbishoprick of Rheims for a wyfe; and they say the cardinal de Retz is to have that archbishoprick of the duc de Nemours, and the abbacy of St. Denis from the prince de Conty, who must also leave all his church benesices, if he marry; and the said cardinal is to have these benefices in recompence of his coadjutory of Paris, and so he is to be at liberty; which pleases him, but not to goe ambassadeur to Rome, as it is thought is intended. Also they say, that the duc de Retz's daughter, neece to the said cardinal, is to be maried to Manchni, the cardinal Mazarin his nephew; and that the due de Guyse is to marry the cardinal Mazarin his sister: so you have a world of mariages. But they say, the greate match is not to be donne till after Easter, to keep the king at Paris till that tyme, who els would be gone the first fair wether; but those who govern all, are not so much given to sport. I rest,
Another letter, from the same hand.
This dayes post there hath much beene spokine about sending an ambassadeur to England. In the palais royal they say, that the duc de Guise hath refused to goe, and so hath the mareschal de Grammont and d'Estampes. I am informed, that the mareschal de Clarembault is to accept that charge, and some saye M. de Bellieure his brother. They say also, that the king of France is to call the lord protector cousin in his letter; others saye, that it wil not be wel takin there; for the king calls now in his letter the electeurs and the duc of Lorraine and Mantua, by the title of brother. There is in the palais royal the husband of the litle princesse, accused for having intelligence with some in London; and he is therefore commanded to come no more there: one Hedges a tailyour accuses him. The preachers have all order to pray for the prosperitie of the king's subjects in Scotland, now in armes. The French ambassadeur at the Hague gives hopes, that they wil be included in the peace with England; and soe much the rather, that they have no warre with England; and the king of Denmark hath had, and yet included.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augier's, secretary.
Here have been divers consultations concerning the affairs of England, this court having been informed from all parts of the confirmation of the peace between the two commonwealths; and I am informed, that they have at last resolved to send the mareschal of Estampes as ambassador from the king to his highness the lord protector, with a convenient shew of splendor, as also with letters from his majesty, thus directed, To our dear cousin, &c. The cardinal Mazarin hath thereupon had divers speeches with the vicechancellor of Poland, whom his eminency sent for again on sunday last to discourse (as I am well informed) his opinions and judgment upon the inclinations he hath found in England, under pretence of civilities and offers to employ him in the French army; which he hath not yet accepted, having demonstrated by answers no less generous than reasonable, that he esteemed the English nation to be both courteous and martial, &c. I am informed, that the chief reason of the duke of Longueville's journey to this court is the marriage of his daughter to the duke d'Aumale, as also that of the prince of Conti: and we see, that since his arrival, the articles of the last have been concluded and signed; the conditions whereof are such, as I had the honour to inform you of a while since, namely, that the said prince, marrying one of the said cardinal's neices, shall take possession of his brother's means, and forsake his ecclesiastical revenues, whereof it is thought his eminency will make use; for the accomplishing of which the prince of Conti is expected here in the latter end of this week. Some say, the said duke is also come to make the prince of Conde's agreement; but the wiser sort see no more likelihood than possibility in that business, although many have glossed to the dishonour of the said prince, upon the discovery of the plott made at St. Omer, as though he had had a hand therein, saying that he had been taken with the other complices. 'Tis true, that if that business should raise any suspition against him, he might have cause to run away, and come and submit to this king's mercy: but the little security he would find here, ought to make him keep his present condition, lest he should meet with a worse. And moreover, it is probable, this court, knowing him to be very avengeful and adventurous, will willingly preferr his banishment to all other casualties; and chiefly, if it sees any likelihood of its agreement with England; the which (say they) is the only thing that can make him feare; all those that come from Sedan and other parts of the frontiers, bragging that it would be easy for them to repulse the enemy the next campaign, in case the English remain neuters, and deceive the expectations the said prince hath, say they, of their assistance. The last news from Sedan say, he was then at Rocroy; and that he had withdrawn most part of his troops from Liege.
The chamber of inquests of this parliament having apparently much murmured against M. de Bellievre, telling him, that he shewed himself a greater enemy of their privileges than the president Mole his predecessor, are now satisfied with the promises he made them, to invite them unto all the verifications and solemnities, which shall be made in the assembly. One of the king's last verified edicts doth tax, besides what you have been informed, four livres upon each mark of silver work, and 36 livres upon each mark of gold, which shall be sold either in plate, candlesticks, clocks, or otherwise.
Some insurrection is really happened at Bourdeaux, as two Ormistes returned from the country, who having praised God for their arrival in their own country, in the presence of several cittizens who were then upon the port, some extravagants nicknamed them, imputing to them the cause of all their late troubles: whereupon two parties were framed, each one of 12 or 15 men, which came to blows, all the city taking party therein, the post come from thence, saying to have seen it. M. de l'Estrade is expected here in a few days, so that it is thought that difference will not last, although there be divers discontented in the said city.
This court hath sent away part of the Swisses, which were in the king's service, especially those of the Reformed church, whereof their agent hath made divers complaints to M. de Servien, demanding of him the payment of the arrears his majesty owes them.
The said Mons. de Servien, and the ambassador Borel, have also had sharp words, by reason the United Provinces had so suddenly made their peace with England, to the prejudice of many pretended hopes and assurances, that France should be comprehended thetein.
At present we are much desirous here to know the issue of the treaty between the English and the Dutch, by reason of the various reports about it, they giving out, that by their money they have made England wholly theirs; whereby they have gained such conditions, that they desired no better, the Dane, as they say, being included therein, and that without any satisfaction to the English merchants for their losses; which is bad news, but I hope better things. The Polish parliament beginneth this very day. If they keep the same resolutions, which they expressed before their meeting, it will produce great alterations in these parts.
The protector's letter to the commissioners of Ireland, for raising a regiment of Irish forces.
There hath been an address made unto us, on behalf of the bearer hereof, . . . who hath a regiment of Irish foot in Flanders, desiring that he may have liberty to raise some men in Ireland, and transport them into the service of foreign princes, not enemies to this commonwealth: which request we have thought fit to grant; and do therefore recommend it unto you, to give to him, and to such as shall be employed under him for levying the said men, and also to those that shall undertake the transportation of them, such assistance as shall be requisite for the effecting thereof. For your fuller direction wherein, (as well in relation to the qualifications of the persons to be raised and transported, as to the terms and conditions) you are to have recourse to and observe what hath been heretofore usually granted in like cases; leaving it unto you notwithstanding to alter them, if you find it necessary, and to give such orders and directions as to the manner of raising, marching and transporting of them, as you shall judge most convenient and suitable to the state of affairs there.
Don Hannibal Gonzaga is some days agone arrived here from Vienna with a great train, being chosen chief stallmeester of the empire; and having had audience of his imperial majesty, hath on the 5th instant taken the usual oath of sidelity for his said office, and thereupon took the parties committed unto him in his protection. The assembly is very much taken up with the affairs of the empire, so that it is thought they will within a short time make an end of this rixday, which his imperial majesty much longs for.
An intercepted letter.
Most worthy sir,
I hope all endeavours of diverting the wool will saile, since by that meanes heere van Lorne may be necessitated to remaine in Holland: soe consequently his fellow factors Mr. Manly and yourself turn bankrupts; which to my understanding would be very satall to our trade, having noe faith in our other complices. Our buff freind is now come to towne, and doubts not but, upon his return to you, Mr. Potts will doe somewhat, which he intends to putt him to very suddainly. I finde my letters come att last to you, which I am glad of. If you observe the figure, you may know when any miscarry. After ten I beginn with one again. Tom Fry is come to towne, and hath his letter; but I have not seene him as yett. The (fn. 1) sealed knott still meete, with an intention to designe somewhat for Mr. Crosse [Charles Stuart] his servise; which when it comes to any maturity, a discreete chapman shall be sent over, as you apoint. We ar here very doubtful of the peace; and sanguine cavaliers will still have itt, itt will not be; which they have noe ground for. Your opinion concerning Mr. Crossby agrees with ours, but somewhat to be designed in pursueance after it, or we are but where we were. The anabaptists are somewhat troublesome to our new government; Vavesor Powele being (as they say) up in Wales, with a troope of horse, which is not valued att all. Our lord protector is to be feasted in the citty next weeke (fn. 2). Our judges and great lawyers many of them having declared this protectorship not to be consistent with the law doeth make our councell now think of the necessity of crowning him; which I beleeve will certainly be done next parliament, if not afore. St. Johns, they say, hath accepted of his commission, but not recovered enough, soe as to come and sitt yett. If you keepe not still at this distance from having any thing to doe with the Scotch court, I shall not (by reason of this new proclamation) have any more to correspond with you; who am, Sir,
Most faithfully yours, Westbury. 10.
Letter of intelligence.
In my two former letters, immediately before this, I am sure, I gave you punctually the true state of affairs, in relation to the lord protector, and his government; and what further since concerneth you, is now very accurately and faithfully sent with these.
The French and prince of Orange's party are now visibly dejected, and chiefly since they understood the approbation of Zealand, which province now hath named an embassador to be sent for England, called Mons. Veth.
For the rest I refer you to the ensuing extracts, which will satisfy you, and let you see what the embassadors from the provinces may insist upon more or less; of which, I hope, your lord protector and his council will make good use, having the greatest advantage of knowing as much of the embassadors negotiations as they themselves or their masters.
I have seen even now a letter, that the province of Utrecht has also ratified the articles concluded upon in England: what of Friesland, you may see by the extracts of their states provincial. I am consident, all will soon come after to conclude that peace, as a short time will let you see; for the resident of Denmark sent in, last week, a memorial, calling for money to make ready his master's fleet, whereas we have not near enough for our own. The extract of that memorial I have seen.
The states general sent to all ports, wherein they suspected any ships, belonging to the United Provinces, to be, not to stir till they had publick notice given of the success of the treaty with England.
This is all you have now from hence, which you may make use of, but with that secrecy,
that the ministers of these states, or any having relation to them, may not perceive it,
as before desired by, Sir,
Resolution of the states of Friesland.
The states of Friesland, having received and read the letter of the lords Aylva and Andrée, the deputies of this province, in the assembly of their high mightinesses, dated the 10/20 February, from the Hague, and this day delivered unto us, with several resolutions, pieces and minutes added thereunto, have thought it necessary, adviseable, and of service, to declare, what we now do declare hereby; viz. That as yet we do not see, but the reasons and arguments, alledged by us in our provincial advice and resolution, in relation to the negotiation between the republick of England and this state, dated Feb. 4. 1654. are of that moment and consequence, that the same ought to move not only us, but also the whole state, not to come to any ratification of the projected articles, unless the crown of France be expresly included; whereby not only this estate, but even the republick of England itself, will be secured against all their enemies, and the negotiations of the one and the other republick be put upon an entirely secure, flourishing, and advantageous footing: desiring as yet, that their high mightinesses, for the said purpose, would employ all possible care and wisdom. However, to shew our compliance, and great inclination for the peace, which can be to no province more dear and welcome than to us, we authorize the lord Allert Peter Jongestall, counsellor in ordinary of this provincial court, to set out with the greatest expedition, even this very night, for the Hague, to receive there the orders of their high mightinesses, and to obey the same; as likewise with the other lords ambassadors of this state, to congratulate his highness the lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, upon this illustrious dignity, with such compliments, terms and words, as the said lords ambassadors, by common consent, shall think fittest, best, and most reputable for this state. As likewise to have power jointly with the other lords ambassadors to adjust, sign, and conclude the projected articles of the treaty between the commonwealth of England and this state, together and with the lords commissioners of his highness the lord protector, and to submit the same in due form to the ratification of their high mightinesses, pursuant to the secret resolution of their high mightinesses, dated the 19th of February 1654. However so, that we will be excused for the future, against the other dissenting provinces, from the dangers to trade, the disaffection of the crown of France, and other inconveniencies, that may any ways result to the whole state from this precipitation, (there being still one of the provincial advices wanting) and neglect to include the above-mentioned crown; which, however, we pray to Almighty God, that he may graciously avert from this state.
And we give thanks to the lords Aylva and Andrée, our deputies in the assembly of their high mightinesses, for their zeal and pains which they have taken herein, for the service of the whole state, and for maintaining the rights, pre-eminences, and reputation of this province.
Nevertheless we desire, that our resolution of the 4th of February 1654. speaking of the known regulation concerning the lord prince of Orange, recorded in the said resolution of their high mightinesses, bearing date February 19. 1654. may be inserted in the articles of the treaty.
Thus done and resolved at the landhouse, February 13. 1654. signed, for Oostergoe, - - - - - for Westergoe, D. Van Gottinga, Frans Peters; for the Seven-woods, Egbert Baert, T. Heydema; for the towns, A. Van Busum Regnerus Brunsma.
A letter of intelligence from Amsterdam.
Att your earnest request, I shall endeavour to give you, as neare as I can, a reall accompt of our affaires. Our chief designe and hopes is, to court you into a cessation of armes, our ends being duble, not only to save tyme to gett out our fleet, which will not be till a good while in march, but alsoe to have our fleetes go out and come in, that be abroad; hopeing, by such a dilatory way, to drawe you on into many inconveniencies, and make us have our ends. We know you have a greate fleet at sea, and more makeing ready; the cruell charge of which will endanger your protector's new purchase and setlement. Besides in a short tyme we beleive, that high differences will arise amongst you, and with a little helpe Scotland will cleare itself; which letters, last night, was produced by one, that receaved them from thence, of credit, what a considerable army the Scotts have, and what places of strength they had reduced; and in short, what army they would have in England; what gentlemen of quallity still repair to the Scotts, with high promises of assistance; and to furnish which, ther is now two vessells that lye at Amsterdam, the one the Peiler, and the other the Prince, that have in them at least 10000 armes of all sorts, pretending for other places; but I am sure they be for Scotland, with all habillements of warr, and divers officers doe goe in them. Ther is another lyes at Medenblich, and another at Rotterdam, which will out notwithstanding our imbargo. Nay, I was told last night by a great don of this towne, that Cromwell would have worke cut out for him at home, and be glad to sue to them for favour.
Indeed there is a party in Holland, that are strongly for the peace, and doe as much as can be to hasten the ratification, that you would think by their words and carriages, they would go together by the eares; and it is judged by wise men, that is the greatest danger the country is in; but that party is oposed by all interests, and could they but put you into troble at home, you should quickly see what game they would play. Indeed nothing but necessity will force these to comply, and if you should be drawne by them into a cessation, that would but arme your enemies against yourselves. We spare not sunday, but work one our fleet. There is a fleet of merchant men going out, which if you could meet withall, would bring downe thes lower. Sir, generally, God hath left these people off to beleive lyes and fancies; and I doe thinke they must, in short tyme, down, their ambition and basseness is soe much. Last night, one they call lowie Craford was sested at the heir-lodgement, that is a great agent lately come from the king, and is goeing for Scotland; who relates strange stories of assistance from abroad for his master; but the most helpe I see he hath, is from private assistance heare. The most that we shall want in our fleet will be men. Trust them not, and loase no opertunity of advantage; for that it is, as will make them comply, our treasures being cruel lowe, and the charge very greate. Here is a report by letters from Stockholme, that you have small hopes of accomplishing your ends there.
Zealand is the next that do declare on course for a peace, and soe after a weke or two, another will doe the like, to spin out tyme. I trust, you will looke about you. Close murmerings heare is, that there will be some notable game plaid speedily in Ierland at the remove of the Irish into Connaugh. In general they doe beleive to see some notable revolutions in your government, they themselves being noe small instruments in the buisnes.
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
By reason of contrary wynde and still weather, I could not reach Zealand to write you thence the last week. I am but this daye returned home, having made all speed I possibly could, having taken a perticuler view of all the men of warr belonginge to these countryes, that are now at home, and preparinge with all speed; whereof I send you a perfect list, which, I hope, will give you full sattisfaction. There are at Sardame two howers from Amsterdam, two men of warr lye ready to be sould of 44 gunns, and five more on the stocks of above 40 gunns to be sould; but cannot be ready in three or four months. Indeed I cannot learn just how many men shall goe in each ship; but they ordinarily reckon four men to a gunn; so you may neare make the calculation. I doe not heare any part of the fleet is to goe out, before the whole body be ready, except they will send 12 ships for the streights, as was intended, and yong Tromp to command them. There are likewise nine or ten to goe for the West-Indyes; all which must goe out of the 120 sayle. Some eight or ten of the smaller are yet abroade, which will compleat 120 ships, and that is the most they have. Besides the East-India shipps now designed for the Indyes, three are to goe within a month, and six or eight more in may. Indeed most of their ships are slightly built, and overcharged with ordinance. A stricter account I cannot give you of them. Your fleet being at sea causes these to suspect you intend not to stand to the artikles; yet the grandees are very confident you will. Holland labors what they can to bring things to a conclusion. Here is great longing for the issue of it. The preachers are forbid to praye or preach against his highnes. I should be glad to understand the certayntye of affayres from you. Wherein I can serve you, be assured I am
Bisdommer to Beverning.
On wednesday last, your lordship's packet was delivered to me well and whole; the inclosed I delivered immediately. Here was a report, and news likewise was brought to the lords of it, that some capers of Zealand had taken 80 colliers; but it doth not prove true.
Last tuesday, lieutenant general Middleton, having with him 300 men, whereof 30 are colonels, and the rest all officers of a lower degree, set sail from one of our ports for Scotland, having also two pages and four lacquies attending upon his person.
The lords states of Zealand, on sunday last, delivered to the assembly of their high and mighty lordships, by the hands of the lords their ordinary deputies residing here, the provincial advice, concerning the ratification of the articles agreed on between this state and that of England. On the monday following, the lord De Vett took his leave of the said assembly of their high and mighty lordships, to go for Zealand, signisying that the lords his principals had sent for him, and that they had propounded to make use of him in the embassy into England. I am informed, that the lords states of Utrecht have also delivered in their provincial advice concerning the said ratification, and do concurr with the lords of Holland.
Beverning to the states general.
I am informed by a very good hand, that the lord protector doth take a great deal of pains, and hath already spent much time about the affairs of the churches of England, to bring the same by some tolleration and connivance into a considerable and peaceable condition, to the content of all differing parties; and that the business is already so far advanced, that a meeting is upon certain conditions agreed on, not under the name of a synod, but of a loving and christian-like reception, where every one may propound for a mutual tolleration. It is also firmly agreed on, that to that end, the bishops and the anabaptists shall be admitted into it, as well as the independents and presbyterians; but yet with this proviso, that they shall not dispute one another's principia, but labour to agree in union; and it is believed, that the effects thereof will be to be seen in a short time. His highness has caused Feake and Simson to be apprehended and imprisoned; two of the chiefest captains of the anabaptists, who did preach most scornfully against the present government. The highlanders have made several excursions of late; but have been met withall not much to their advantage. They are sending two more regiments from hence to Scotland, and general Monk is designed to go commander in chief thither; but the time of his departure is not yet resolved on. Certain it is, that they are sending 25 srigats towards the north, to hinder all assistance from being sent to the Scots; and the fleet is to be reinforced with thirty good ships more, that were prest this week in the river, to be ready in eight days time. Whether that be the reason, or any other concealed, which I am ignorant of, I cannot positively advise; but this is certain, that besides the 70 or 80 ships, that lye about Portsmouth, these 30 marchant men more were this week contracted for, and are providing with men in all haste, to go and join with the fleet. Some think that they have advice here of the great equipage of your high and mighty lordships, and of a precise order to have your fleet ready against the first of March; and that therefore the lords of the government here are resolved to have first a great and powerful fleet at sea; but I hope, that God will soon dispel all jealousies with a gracious blessing upon our treaty. I remain,
Westminster, 3/13 Feb. 1653.
Beverning to the greffier Ruysch.
I hope that mine of the 8th of this month sent expresly by my clerk Payne, is come safe to hand; and that their high and mighty lordships, according to their commendable care and diligence, will perfect the work, that is thus far advanced, with all speed; for which there seemeth to be nothing wanting, but a sufficient authorisation to adjust the articles and sign them, and to acknowledge the lord protector in this new dignity, which I do passionately wait for and expect, because my lying idle here doth not only become tedious to me, but is subject, by the disaffected, to be ill interpreted. I do think, that I can assure their H. and M. lordships, that my arrival here is not altogether fruitless to them, because I have found an opportunity by a third hand to frustrate all ill attempts. The lord Neusville doth follow his business very close; and I do believe, they are in no bad terms; but it seemeth they are somewhat offended at the outward formality, which, I believe, he will be able to redress in a few days, having sent an express to court, who in all likelihood will be back again the next week; so that I hope the consideration of inclusion will come to cease by the means of a good agreement, which, I fear, will otherwise be hardly effected.
Beverning to Nieuport.
The lord De Witt hath without doubt communicated my letters of the 6th and 8th unto you. I have nothing to add more at present, since I have not been admitted to any audience or conference; and I am also advised not to press for it, without sufficient qualification, that so I may not spoil all. Our confrater, besides the common disservice done to the state and us, hath lest but a sorrowful name behind him, the lord protector being not only too well informed of his dissaffection herein, but of divers discourses, which fell from him imprudently at several times, whereof pertinent and full information was taken. Amongst the rest, I was told of a man, who was asked about it, and was sain to consess, that he did hear him say, that in case of no success of our treaty, the state was resolved to declare war against the protector's own person, and to offer amity to the nation; and such-like, which might have very much disgusted the protector; for which I was heartily sorry, since the state did never intend any such thing, it being a particular invention of his own. I desire the honour of your correspondence.
A letter of intelligence.
I am informed, the king hath sent an express to his ambassador in Swisserland, to try to hinder the cantons of the reformed churches from making any alliance with the commonwealth of England, to acknowledge the French king for their first confederate, and to make the like diligences towards the republic of Geneva; or at least, if he cannot obtain that from them, press them to do nothing without comprehending his majesty therein.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augiers's secretary.
My last was of the 11/1th of this instant, two days before the popish clergy of this city sent deputies to the king, to try to elude the justice those of the reformed churches do still instantly demand; but the cardinal Mazarin (who seems to be become their advocate, since the news of the conclusion of the peace between the two commonwealths) answered, that his majesty could not refuse it unto them, being they only demanded the execution of the edicts agreed them by the king's predecessors; and that having still remained in the respect and sidelity they owe unto him, he had no more reason than mind to make war against them, especially in times, wherein the English do so powerfully arm, without any other enemyes than those they seem to make; yet notwithstanding the choir of these protestants doth daily increase in new complaints, they yet receiving no manner of reall satisfaction.
The same day with my last, news came from Nismes, that the states of Languedoc having imposed a tax upon that city, and upon the commons of those parts, for the payment of the debts heretofore contracted by the papists, to make war against the reformed church; and the said papists having caused a decree of confirmation to be consequently given by the court of aides, bearing that one of the protestant consuls of Nismes should be bound both in his proper and private name for the payment of the portion; the said states would have those of the reformed churches to pay equally with them in the said tax; two of the king's guards, and some other officers, thought to make the said consul prisoner; but our part of the city being suddainly upraised, the said guards were forced to run away speedily.
The next day, the duke of Longueville parted hence for his government, after many exhortations made him to facilitate in it the establishing of the Maltotes. Some say he was chiefly come to receive instructions for the security of Normandy, as if this court did yet fear some soraign enterprizes therein; but there is great likelyhood, that those mistrusts are exaggerated for the better oppressing the people.
Mr. Berry, who assists for the king in the holding of the states of Languedoc, and demands of them a present of two millions 500000l. hath given notice to his majesty by a post arrived here yesterday, that they will give but one million, and pay but one half at this present, and the remainder in the beginning of next campaign, wherewith it is thought this court will not be much satisfyed; which prepares against Mons. le prince's arms, and hopes, notwithstanding no other discourse hath been held but that of weddings. The prince of Conti's with my lady Martinozzi is to be ended this Lent; to which purpose many sumptuosityes are preparing, namely, masks and comedies; but it's said, the duke of Candale, and the great artillery master, which are to have his eminency's two other neices, are not well contented to see that a crumpt-shouldered should have the handsomest. I am informed, that having sent to inform his brother of his wedding, he had slung the letters in the fire without reading them; and caused the chamberman, which had brought them unto him, to be whipt.
The cardinal of Retz hath more than ordinary liberty, walking now in the Bois de Vincennes with his guards; and it's presumed, that the instances the great number of ecclesiastics have made to the king, will cause him to be set wholly at liberty, or otherwise the expedient propounded for the marrying of cardinal Mazarin's nephew to the duke of Retz's daughter, neice to the said prisoner; but many doubt that will not be so soon, this court always pressing the said prisoner to sorsake the archbishoprick of Paris; which he doth refuse more absolutely than ever.
Charles Stuart thinks to return into Scotland next summer, if he could tell how, and that he saw the Highlanders could prevail in his designs, after he shall have been at Heidelberg, and other parts of Germanie.
Yours of the last I received, and sent the letters to Ratisbon, as accustomed, and the letters from thence now to you; which seem to import something. Here is nothing of any newes concerning England's government since my last; but that this court is well satisfied at the promotion of your lord protector, whom all men acknowledge to be worthy of more than can be given to him. To demonstrate which, his highness the arch-duke, with the advice of the king's counsel, resolves to send a gentleman of quality, in his highness name, to congratulate your lord protector. The gentleman is called Don Francisco Romero, a Spaniard, and captain of the guard to the arch-duke: he is now preparing for his journy, and we shall long to hear of the manner of his reception and behavior in England.
The business of count Bassignie goes still on, and his process formed, as also the abbot's of Mercy. The said count his secretary, as I am informed, upon his examination, denyes the guilt charged against his master; and to constrain him to say more, he shall be brought to the rack severely.
Stenay, the prince of Conde's cheif garrison, was to be betrayed by some of the soldiers and inserior officers in the garrison, to the king of France, (or Mazarin rather, as they say here) and the governor, with the superior officers, were to be cut off; but the day before the design was to be executed, the plot was by one of the conspirators discovered, and divers of them executed, and the rest seized upon to receive yet further tryall.
The plott you heard of giving up Armentiers to the French, by some Irish that garrisoned there, is founde to be false; and so the captains committed, released with honour;
and they have formed a process against their accuser, one colonel Murphy. Daily levies
are making in all these countries for the next season, and more in Germany for the
service of his majesty: in these provinces some forces are also marching from hence to that
distracted and distressed country of Liege, to oppose the French army, invited thither by the
prince of Liege; which French army is now there pillaging, plundering, ravishing,
and using all manner of cruelties, which is the relief they give to the poor country.
That prince is forced, for fear, to betake himself into his cittadel, least the people
should kill him for calling in the Frenche. There are no more news now from, Sir,
The difference between this king and parliament is risen to that height, that the king having sent a fryar to the parliament to demand 120 subsidies, for the payment of his army, they returned him for answer, that in case they had not borne respect unto his habit and qualification, they would have cut him to pieces; enjoining him withal, to acquaint the king, that they expect a full and perfect account of those 50 subsidies that were given already; before the obtention whereof, they would not yield to any more. Out of all which it appears how the case stands between them. It is said, that the peace with the Tartars will not continue long, the parliament disapproving of the conditions made with them.
My last gave you notice of Mons. Williamson's departure hence for England, who, no doubt, ere this, is arrived at Hamburgh. It is now said, that in case the treaty with the Dutch should not succeed by their neglect, then this king himself will apply to the protector of England. There is nothing new in this place, but that the king hath personally been present at some disputations of philosophy and divinity, where a certain fryar, belonging to the Spanish embassador, carried himself very notably with much honour and applause.
An intercepted letter.
I am loth to miss one post; but really hereafter I must desire you to expect to hear from me not above once a week, there being indeed so much hazard. Our lord ambassador Whitelocke was received very nobly; but then they knew nothing of the government's alteration, which truly settles every day more and more. Many are of opinion it must change once more to the crowning of this man, and then we shall undoubtedly be a happy people. Mr. Radfield being one of the sealed knott, I am sorry his token is not come. My heart was so full last thursday with the expressions of my own duties, as that I forgot to lett Mr. Crosse know, Peter Wilson had sent him two kersies, which are directed to the gentleman that liveth with Mr. Dale; which perhaps he hath heard of afore now. I now also hear somewhat of a piece of eight for Mr. Manley, which shall no sooner come into my hands, but I will take the best care I can, having indeed great inclinations to serve him. Wednesday next, being Ashwednesday, our lord protector is feasted in the citty. Mr. Salvage purchases apace, the spice (as his friends here report) being arrived. We expect hourly to hear of somewhat done in Scotland, there being a party gone out of Edenburgh to encounter them, which we doubt not but will give a good account. One who goes from hence next post, will let Mr. Crosse know, what some of his friends are here designing for him; but if he doth not withdraw from wher he is, I fear wee shall not be able. I am also desired to assure you, that if Mr. Ramsey should break, it is but what the mother desireth, and what she is confident her daughter will overcome; soe manage it accordingly.
Extract out of the resolutions of the states of Overyssel.
Read the 17th of Febr. 1654. [N. S.]
The lord Boldewin Jacob Mulart has reported to the assembly, that the lords Beverning, Nieuport and Jongestall, their high mightinesses late deputies in England, did make, the day after their arrival in the assembly of their high mightinesses, a circumstantial overture, with communication of sundry propositions, answers, and other pieces belonging to and concerning the subject and matters, that have been transacted concerning this state, since the coming over of the said lords Nieuport and Jongestall, in August of the last year 1653, with the council of state in England; and which consequently, after the settling of the present government of the republick of England, Scotland, and Ireland, with the commissaries of the lord protector of the said republick, have happened and been negotiated; and that after several consequences, debates and contra-debates, they had proceeded so far, that a scheme of a treaty, consisting in 29 articles of union, peace and consederacy between the republick of England, and the states general of the United Netherlandish provinces, was brought in writing; which their high mightinesses thought necessary and fit to be communicated to the respective provinces: which scheme, with the sundry resolutions, acts, and proceedings, whereby the same was to be explained and made good, being delivered by the said lord Mulart in the assembly, his honour received thanks for the troubles he had taken therein. Whereupon, after mature deliberation and examination, the said 29 articles, so as they are projected, have been approved, ratified, and consented to by the lords the states of Overyssel, so as their noble mightinesses do hereby approve, ratify and consent to the same; however with these restrictions, and in such a manner, that out of the 5th, 10th, 11th and 12th articles of the said 29 articles, be omitted the word enemies; and that the same be expressed after the tenor of the 3d, 4th and 5th articles of that treaty concluded in the affairs of Henry the VIIth king of England, and Philip arch-duke of Burgundy, at London, the 24th of Febr. 1495. And in case the same could not be thus accepted, that then may be mentioned notorious and already declared enemies, rebels and outlaws of any nation whatsoever, omitting the confiscation of goods, as being contrary to the privileges of these provinces; the commissaries in the assembly of their high mightinesses being charged hereby, in case they should be opposed or outvoted, to make their protest, and to cause the same to be entered in the register of their high mightinesses; and this in the name of this province.
As to the 7th article, the said commissioners shall take care, that the king of Denmark may be comprehended in the said treaty, with the fullest security against any future pretensions, and in concert with the other provinces, that are of the same opinion, to the end that the same may be done in the most convenable manner. And that the affair of the late seized and confiscated English hemp-ships may be settled in the most amicable manner, by paying a certain taxation for the same.
As likewise their noble mightinesses are of opinion, that in the 16th article must be added the word kings; and that the said deputies shall use their most efficacious endeavours, that among others especially the king of France, as an old, faithful and strict ally of this state, may be comprehended in the consequences of this article. Further, the said deputies, together with the other provinces, that are of the same sentiment, shall contribute also their utmost endeavours, that the treaty which is begun with France, may be brought to a happy and wish'd for conclusion.
Further, that instead of the words in the 28th article, In the murder of the English at Amboina, be put, The disorders that happened; or, were committed; or, the perpetrated facts at Amboina, or any the like and least offensive expressions. Concerning the submissions, touching the differences, on account of the pretended injuries of the people settled from both sides in the East Indies, Greenland, Muscovy, Brasil, and other places, that are treated of in the 29th, or last article, the said deputies shall conform themselves to the advices of the presiding province in that respect.
As to the regulation, mentioned instead of part of the 12th article proposed by England, speaking of the house of Orange, it has been resolved, that the deputies shall endeavour, that the same may be intirely omitted and set aside: but if this cannot be brought about, that then the tenor of the form made on that account shall be complied with, provided that the oath, which is mentioned therein, if possible, be taken reciprocally by the generals of both nations.
And in relation to the congratulation of the protector, and the character of ambassadors for the deputies of this state, the commissaries of this province are at liberty to conform themselves to the opinion of the other provinces.