A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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August (4 of 5)
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
We are still here in the same posture as I told you in my last: there is no talk of joining any men of war to the fleet of the protector; and neither are there any ready, but men are very much troubled to comprehend the design they are to go upon. For my part I hold nothing difficult, since the Spaniards have suffer'd themselves to be beaten in their trenches before. Arras after two months siege. They set first upon the quarter of Don Ferdinando Solis, and presently all was in a confusion, and the horse fled immediately. The archduke, Fuensaldagna, and Garcia saved themselves at Doway; to which place were also retreated three thousand foot. The prince of Condé is said to have retreated to Cambray: you may imagine with what disorder and misery this must have happen'd. I am very much troubled for the prince, and all those, that are engaged with him. I must confess this is altogether extraordinary, that an army of that strength and consideration should be forced in their trenches; and after this action, which doth surpass all those of antiquity, I believe the Spaniards must demand peace in all manner of humility, and see no hopes of ever recruiting but on your side; and yet misfortune may be a means to change their inclinations and affections to the victorious party. This is from above, and therefore to be admired, and not to be murmur'd at.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Chanut, the French embassador in Holland.
I have received no letter from you by this last post, but well the signs of your care in that of your secretary, which are no less obliging. It was just, that you should give to the queen of Sweden the satisfaction, which she desired. Since you have employed all your rhetoric to dissuade her from stripping herself of her crown, you may now furnish her with more to justify her retreat, and likewise to dissipate the vexation, which she may have already conceived for doing as she hath done. You will very much oblige me to send the picture of her humour, that I may have where withal to encounter the opinions of many, who do qualify her present conduct with the title of folly; that is, without doubt, because she is above their reach, and that they are not capable of those extraordinary actions.
I communicated on monday last the news of victory to my lord protector, whereof he did declare some joy; but publica vox, and the condition of my negotiation, will have it to be no true one: and because he did seem to affect the news, and to be pleased with it, I did invite him to conclude the treaty; but I perceive him to be still firm to what he pretendeth, thinking us to be so greedy of a peace, that rather than we will break, we will yield to any thing. I have been to visit all the embassadors, under pretence to communicate to them the state of my negotiation; but in effect to let them know, that they retarded the making of an end thereof, and to engage them, if my defiances were not well grounded, to use some diligence with the lord protector to unabuse him, that the province of Holland by accepting of the mediation would be able to give jealousy to all the rest. After that I had engaged not to accept of it separate, I endeavoured also to persuade them, that the only fear, that would cause jealousy amongst them, which was but too much already in vogue, had made me to form this difficulty; and that if they would warrant me of this inconvenient, I would rest satisfied with the proposition of the lord protector. The two Hollanders gave me very fine words in general, without engaging upon any offices, till they had orders from their superiors; and the Frise declared roundly, that this mediation would increase the jealousy of the rest. They all three of them held to me the same discourse at the time of their congratulation, which I received on monday last; so that I expect nothing from them, that may any wife advance my negotiation: and indeed they have and will have enough to do, to look after their own.
Extract out of the resolutions of the council of state of the United Netherlands.
The lord earl George Fritz of Nassau, commander at Wynberck, doth write in answer to what was writ to him to inform himself about the imprisoning of the lord of Wymendel, and to proceed against the quarter-master and troopers of this garison, that were present; that after information taken he doth find the business to be, as he formerly advised their H. and M. lordships, that the landrost Spaen came to him, saying, that he had some jewels and papers belonging to the duke of Brandenburgh in his coach, and desired, that he would let him have twenty troopers for convoy to secure them, he the said commander not knowing, that the lord of Wymendal was in the coach, neither did the troopers nor quarter-masters know so much; and that the commander of Wesel had informed them by his letter of the twenty-sixth of this month. Both the letters were received by the council for information.
The Dutch embassadors to the protector.
Quid navibus sancti Johannis Amstelodamensis, cujus magister est Jacobus Nicolaus Coper, & Regis Solomonis Schiedamensis, cujus magister est Nicolaus Cornelz Hoeyen, acciderit, non ex annexis solummodo documentis, sed ex ipsissimis judicis examinationibus liquet; quibus simul abunde constat, nec ratione navium, nec onerum, aut mercium, quippe quæ omnia Hollandorum sunt, nec respectu cursus, aut instituti itineris, aut debuisse visitari, aut potuisse detineri; quod utrique accidit. Proinde enixe petunt subsignati dominorum ordinum generalium Uniti Belgii extra ordinem legati, ut quamprimum absque aliqua forma processus, & de plano, prædictæ naves una cum oneribus & mercibus dimittuntur, illata autem damna sumptusque resarciantur, & inposterum præcautum & provisum sit, ne quid simile quis intentet. Factum Westmonasterii, 18/28. Aug. anno 1654.
An intercepted letter.
All the provinces here do unite more and more to oppose the resolution of Holland against the house of Orange; and because those, that were the chief authors of that novelty, did press the altering and new-modelling of the guard, for their safety and security; and some do conceive, that they are soliciting your protector for some assistance to establish them in their power: but if it should once come to that, you would see strange doings in these provinces; for all the commonalty, as well as the militia, and we ministers, do abhor such vile proceedings; and it is certain, that we shall suddenly see some alterations here. Your king and his sister are at present at Aix; from thence they are to go to Collen, and afterwards the king doth seem to be resolved to come and stay some time at Liege; and already many do begin to gloss upon it, and say, that it is to enjoy the conversation and the caresses of the Jesuits of his nation. The queen of Sweden is at present at Breda. She doth travel and live after a strange fashion.
Intelligence from several places.
The imperial court, remaining hitherto at Ebersdorf, the next week will return to this city, to be present at the royal exequies of the Roman king, and then continue here for some weeks, until the Hungarian land-day, which will for certain begin in October next; but by reason of the sickness, it is yet uncertain, whether it will be kept at Presburg, where at first it was appointed. It is said, that before that journey the now eldest son of the emperor prince Leopold will be declared successor in the Roman empire.
Count Erick Oxenstiern is now altogether ready to pass hence for Holstein. His excellency goeth with a most stately retinue. Two of the capital ships, the Sceptre and the Carolus, are gone down to the Dallers, which besides three other gallant ships are ordered to attend his excellency on his voyage.
A parliament or assembly of states is appointed here in January next, before which time, and the full settlement of his majesty after the celebration of the nuptials, no private affairs will come into consideration.
From Bremen little of news for the present, there being nothing at all attempted on either side. General Koningsmark lies near the Life (a water which flows by the burgh) upon a hill, from whence sometimes he plays with his cannon, which he has planted there, into the burgh; which is answered by them in like manner: but their distance is such, they can hardly reach, much less hurt one another.
General Koningsmark is now resolved to approach nearer the Weser as he can, to make a fortification there, hoping by continual playing into the burgh mortar-pieces and all kind of martial fire-works, to force them to surrender the place: but the Bremers are fully resolved to the contrary, although the Swedes have two thousand foot and 500 horse for their assistance, and expect yet a far greater strength. The deputy of this city and the city of Lubeck pass'd hence yesterday towards Zell, to the duke of Luneburgh, from whence they are to go to Brunswick, thence to the city of Bremen, to the government at Strode, but not to Koningsberg at all. What their business may be, is not known, but supposed chiefly to see, if they can take up the quarrel, before it involve the empire in a second war.
Letters of intelligence from M. Augier's Secretary.
I Informed you three days since of the raising of the siege of Arras, where the Spaniards had been forced in their lines. The news hath been wholly confirmed, and the gazetteer hath made it public by the prints I send you. We have not yet all the particularities in the several relations come from there. But although I doubt not but you will already have received them, this is what is written me; as also the collection of what I could hear of surplusage.
Our generals have forced the lines yesterday at two of the clock in the morning; slain and made prisoners almost all the foot-soldiers; pursued the horse, which fled away; taken all the cannon and baggage. The enemies were yet but at the counterscarp of the half-moon; whereunto it is added by other news, that the said besiegers had been forced in this manner by two assaults made at the same time upon the same line: that the one, made by the marshal of Turenne in the archduke's and the prince's quarters, began half a quarter of an hour before the other; whereof the marshal of Hocquincourt was the guide: that marshal of Turenne had well assaulted, and the Spaniards well received him: that the carnage had been great, but much greater, when the assaulters had passed the ditch: that at last the archduke and the count of Fuensaldagna drew backward, and withdrew themselves with 6000 horse over a bridge, which they caused to be guarded; so that the prince of Condé remained but very ill accompanied: that he did nevertheless continue two hours after the great vigour he had shewed in the beginning, having charged above twelve times with sury, which made him seek and wish for his death: that having a little withdrawn, and seeing the French began to plunder, he sent word to Ligneville, that he had to fall upon, and that he should doubtless defeat them; but that the said Ligneville (who had withdrawn himself, and let the French under marshal of Hocquincourt come into his quarters in the second assault) had answered, that being the archduke and Fuensaldagna, who had most interest in that business, had forsaken them, and left them to such a slaughter, he had no mind to put himself in danger: that Mons. le prince had thereupon resolved his retreat, and had been forced there by the danger of three separated bodies, which surrounded him; for then the said marshal of Hocquincourt, who had entered into Arras by one gate, had fallied out by another, and beaten him in flank; so that the said prince retreated step after step, always fighting under the favour of some squadrons he had set in a fit place to uphold him, had at last brought to the archduke the last news of that furious action, whereof he had made prisoners divers captains of the king's guard, besides those that were slain; wherein the said marshal of Turenne had amongst others received two small wounds on his cheek and his side. It is also written, that the Irish, who served the Spaniards there, had fought as basely as the Lorrainers; and that the most part of the one and the other had easily taken party with the king, which doth not agree with the little number of prisoners. I am informed, they have made to the number of 2000, whereof the time will better inform us. M. de Bellefond, a captain, who was present at the said assault, reports most part of these circumstances; and I hear his majesty was yesterday to enter into the city of Arras, whereof the governor hath been made marshal of France, by reason he had so well defended it; in consequence whereof the court intends to return to Paris, and to arrive there about the end of next week. In the interim it hath sent hither the letters and orders mentioned therein, whereof you will find the print here inclosed. Against the cardinal de Retz, and all those that favour him, order hath been given at the same time by another ordinance unto his domestics, to withdraw themselves out of this city within twenty-four hours, by reason they are suspicious unto the state; and unto the bishop of Dolone, to withdraw himself to Clermont in Auvergne, by reason he had spoken of the king, as you have heard, of their little power concerning spiritual matters. A Grison hath been put, by the king's order, in the house the said archbishop hath in his archbishoprick, as also in that he hath at St. Clou; which nevertheless hath not hinder'd many of the curates of his diocese from protecting again of new unto the chancellor, that they were obliged to acknowledge their pastor, and receive his ecclesiastical orders, yea to the last drop of their blood.
Divers rumours run concerning Catalonia, as if Barcelona was ready to revolt, being oppressed by Don John of Austria, for the advancing of some moneys, for want whereof he had laid hold on some churches furnitures: but that is not very credible, and the French are not in a very good condition towards those parts, still wanting foot soldiers, as it is written by one of the prince of Conti's captains, dated the 22d of this instant, which hath obliged the duke of Guise to send their part of his fleet with relief, before he engageth himself in the execution of his other designs.
Monsieur Petit to Monsieur Augier.
The deputies of those of the religion have obtained a council this morning, but no favourable thing hath therein been done for them. I will give you a more particular account thereof by my next. They prepare, for a last source from hence, a complaint unto their majesties, when they shall be arrived. Castres, Montauban, and Milan having deliberated upon the assembly of the 25th at Alez, the plurality of voices have been to not send for such a little matter as that of Florensac. I shall with God's help explain the whole affair by my next.
An intercepted letter to Mons. d'Ouitte, at Mr. Brachio in Covent-garden.
In my last I promis'd to give you the confirmation of the relief of Arras, all the infantry taken or slain, cannons, bag, and baggage. As yet we have not received all the particulars, which are expected this day, with the names of the persons and slain. Many ascribe the defeat unto the Lorrainers treachery, to be reveng'd on the Spaniard for the base usage done to their master. Others say other stories; but it is a sad story for the Don Diego, who will not make up in haste such another infantry; and you must think our army will be stronger, by all the Irish taken.
All the world is surprised at this succouring of Arras, wherein they say the prince solely carried himself like a soldier. Since this news, placarts and thunderbolts are fixed on the walls against cardinal de Retz and all his adherents, banished upon pain of death with their families twenty leagues from Paris, within twenty-four hours time. This cardinal may well curse the relief of Arras. This is a great cooling card for the prince and his party. I believe your protector will now afford us better looks and language: what not? Præstat motos componere fluctus.
An intercepted letter.
Il y ait long-temps, que je n'ay pas apprins de vos nouvelles, & j'ay differé à vous escrire, n'ayant rien d'importance jusques à present. Je ne doubt pas, que vous n'aurez divers relations de ce qui se passe mardi dernier, le jour de St. Louis, proche d'Arras, ou l'armée de France ayant forcé la ligne du quartier de Don Ferdinando Solis, Espagnol, & general de l'artillerie, les trouppes de Mons. l'archiduc prirent la suite fans faire presque aucune resistance. Cependant Mons. le prince de Condé ayant mis son quartier en bataille avec les troups du duc de Virtemberg, voyant le reste d'armée en fuitte, & les Lorayns ayant refusés de se joindre avec luy, il prirent le route de Cambray avec 40 gros de cavallerie, & 4000 fantasins, & entre bonne ordre sit sa retraite au dit Cambray. Toute l'infanterie Espagnolle perduée avec toutes bagages; & pour le bon duc François de Loraine avec tout fa Lorenneriée est autant blamé, comme Mons. le prince de Condé magnifié de tout le monde en pais ici. Voilà la sin de noftre siege d'Arras.
Mons. le prince est à present à Valenciennes avec madame la princesse. Vos gazettes d'Angleterre parlent, que leur forces du Escoffe ont batu 800 chevaux de Midleton; & moy je vous asseure, qu'ils ont seulement attrapé une partie du baggage de Midleton, & que quelque peu de cancellerie Escossois à la garde du baggage prins la fuit, de forte qu'il n'ont pas attrapé 20 cavalliers, mais bien quelque chevaux de bagage. Voilà la grande victoire, de quoy vos messieurs Cromwellens se vantent d'avoir obtenu contre general Midleton. J'avois oublié à vous dire, que les gardes du roy avec les Suisses ayant pressé la rierguarde de Mons. le prince en sa retraite, Mons. le prince commanda de tourner tete, & estrilliat les plus avances d'importance. Mons. l'archiduc duc François, count Fuensaldagna, & count Garci, arrivoit à Doway sain & sauve, mais un peu trop hasté. J'efpere que ce malheur les obligera de donner le commandement de l'armée à Mons. le prince; au moins tout le monde ici semble le souhaiter passionnement. Je vous prie de mes baisemens à M. de Meraude, ma vielle cognoissance, & oblige moy de mander quelque nouvelles de Londre. Cependant je suis,
The governor of Calais to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Never was victory so glorious for the arms of the king, and obtained with less blood, than that of Arras, where the enemy fled after a strange manner out of their lines, and leaving all their bag and baggage to our mercy, above 6000 waggons, sixty pieces of ordnance, great store of plate and money, and abundance of coaches, which booty hath enrich'd our army. The retreat of the prince was no less considerable, having saved all his horse, and a good part of his foot, at Arleva, where he is encamped at present. The king is gone to Arras; from thence he returns back to Peronne, and presently after he goeth from thence to Compeigne, and so to Paris.
This business is of great importance to the states, &c. I believe it will make our negotiation more advantageous, and less difficult. I wish you all manner of content and satisfaction in your undertakings.
Ch. Raynell to the protector.
May it please your Highnes,
Upon the reducement of these parts in that expedition of Sir George Ascue's imploy, I was by him and the other commissioners then impowered, commissionated to be governor and commander in chief of this island Antigua, in relation and obedience to the commonwealth of England, which to the best of my endeavours I hope in my instrument I have faithfully performed; in the progress of which my imploy, being I have received by several advice, that it was and is thought meete, and so established by the greate councell and istate of Ingland, with your highness consent and acceptation, that the government of our nation and dominions remayne in yourselfe as lord protector; a thinge most acceptable to mee, whoe doe most faythfully wish your highnes and the commonwealth wellfare and hapines; and in manifestation thereof have cherfully acknowleged and submitted to all such mandates or expresses, which hath hetherto come in the name of the lord protector. But in our private consultation consideringe of many sperites amongst us, douptinge theyre disafections have not altered the titles of our . . . . . or . . . . accordinge to our desires and intentions, left an ill-effected partie should presume to take an advantage thereby, in pretendinge, as some have allredy given out, that there were noe powre of government; but all as libitine, untell a new commission com from your highness, which by that meanes might indanger the place to a confusion and ruien; foe render us uncapable of that service we desire to performe to your highness and the commonwealth; the place of itselfe (if incoragement and small helpe weere afforded) beeinge of consiquence by reson of the fertellity of the soyle, and exceedinge all other settled in these partes in convenniente and safe harbours, I in relation to the premisses, and my loyalty to your highness and the commonwealth, doe prostrate my humble desire at the feete of your highness care and justice, soe far to take up the people and place into your consideration, as to give such order and directions, as may put us not only in a condition of walking inoffensively, but allsoe as wee may be servisable to your highness and the commonwealth; which is the harty desire of
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Heartily thanke you for yours of the fifth of August, and conceive itt probable enough, that if any supplies bee sent from abroad, they will land them either in Skyrassin or Stranraver. I had before the receipt of yours appointed two men of warre to ply uppon the coasts betweene Pinthland head and Invernesse, Middleton having some small men of warre, which tooke some of our merchants uppon the coasts of Cathnesse; and captain Bunn, who is appointed to lie about Orknay three weekes since, with some assistance of land-souldiers, thence drove a small pickeroone of Middleton's of five guns uppon ground, under one Sir James Sincler's house neere Thuesoe, Sir James having the command of all the countrymen in Caithnesse. They began to fire at our men, having planted two guns uppon the shore, and one in the house. Our men, having forc't them from the vessell to the house, mann'd out boates, and followed them: wheruppon they alsoe left the house, which our men possessed that night, and the next day brought away the vessell and guns. I neede nott acquaint you with the worke of these forces with mee since the last march from Sterling, which hath bin to destroy those parts of the country, where the enemy were usuallie harboured in the winter, being about the passe of Aberfoyle, which they esteemed unpassable: but by this meanes, and the sending some of them to the Barbadoes, their spiritts doe now begin to faile them. The earle of Montrose, and others of them, have sent to come in. Col. Blackiter, col. Kellum, Macgrigger, and Macfarland, are come in to col. Twistleton. The former desires liberty to goe beyond sea, and the other two to live peaceably att home. I conceive, if liberty were given to some persons, whom his highnesse might trust, to transport men for the service of some forraine prince or state in amitie, itt would rid us of many of this crew. Middleton's comission, instructions, and other papers betweene him and Charles Stuart, are not come to my hand, and I shall send them uppe speedily to his highnesse. I remayne
News from France to Mr. Stouppe.
The 25th of August the abbot Fouquet went to the temple, by order from the king, accompanied by the provost of the isle, a part of his archers, and 100 musketiers, where they did apprehend the marquis du Tartre, who was there for refuge, as being a place of safety, as all royal and princely houses are. They carried him to the bastille, being accused to have spoken ill of the king and of his ministers, and also to have robbed the baggage of the marquis du Plessis Bellieure, who was robbed some months ago. The 28th the chancellor of France sent a command to all curates of the city and suburbs of Paris, to continue their forty hours prayers, because there are no news of the marshal Hocquincourt, since he went to pursue the prince of Condé; and they fear, that this prince rallied and faced about, and fought that marshal, and so this be worsted.
The same day, by the king's command, a garison was set in the house of the archbishop of Paris the cardinal of Retz, called the archbishop's palace, and likewise in his house at St. Clou, within two leagues of Paris.
The same day the chevalier Grammont came to this town from the king's army, which was in Arras during the siege. He has brought news, that his majesty was expected there; that Turenne was in Arras with a good part of his army, and that Hocquincourt was pursuing the prince; which prince had killed with his own hand eleven officers of the Lorrain army, and of the six thousand Irish he had brought from England, because during the fight, or a little before, they would not obey his orders. Among those he killed, one was a field marshal, who would not change his post. The Irish took the king's part by means of the duke of York; and the Lorrain cried all, Let the king of France live! when Hocquincourt assailed their quarter, and did as the Irish; and so were dispersed by twelve, fifteen, and sixteen, in all the companies of his majesty's armies. He has also related, that the prince of Condé had six captains of the regiments of the guards prisoners; that he had rallied the greatest part of his army, as well horse as foot, and had got all his baggage, and that of many other lords, with their horses. The lady Turenne received letters the same day from the marshal her husband, by which he signified he was in Arras, and that he was well of his wound, notwithstanding the hard labour undertaken against the prince, who has done all which a man in despair could do, having rallied seven times, and renewed the fight; and seeing himself round beset, cried aloud, We are sold; it is better to retreat than to carry my head on a scaffold: and so he did retreat. The news from Peronne say, that the king hath made Hocquincourt duke and peer of France, Montdejeu marshal of France; and that his majesty was going to Arras.
The 31st of August the prevost of the merchants, and the sheriffs of Paris went out of the city, to attend the king, wheresoever he be, as well concerning the rentiers of the town-house, as to know the day his majesty shall please to appoint for his return to this city; when they intend him a public reception, both by reason of his coronation, and of the fortunate success of his army against his enemies. 'Tis said the king will be here in person at the singing of Te Deum, for a thanksgiving to the divine majesty for his blessing upon the armies of our monarch; which hymn is to be sung in the church of St. Germain d'Auxerrois, or of the great Austins, being not the king's will, that it be sung at our Lady's, after the old custom.
The cardinal of Retz is gone from Belle-isle, and being embarked for Flanders, was set upon by two pirates of Ostend, who knew him not, yet who did nothing upon his ships. From Flanders he intends for Mont-Olympe, thence into Germany, and then to Florence. The marshal de la Meilleraye is in the field in that province with two thousand men, committing grievous disorders in the houses of those, who have contributed inventions or help in the escape of that cardinal. News from Seville speak of the arrival of the duke of Lorrain, the fifteenth of the last month, with three hundred, who guard and keep him very close; yet he had the pleasure of the bull-pastime, usual on that day: they are sending him to the castle Granada, a strong place of that kingdom of the same name.
News from the king's quarters of the 27th of August inform us, that his majesty has been at Arras, since the rout given the Spaniards; and that he caused money to be thrown among the soldiers, which were in two ranks or hedges in all the streets, through which he went; then gave them five vessels of wine, to drink his health.
The news of this week from Catalonia tell us, Don John of Austria hath quitted Barcelona, being gone out with all his troops, after he had plundered all the churches of the city, and endeavoured to do the like in the citizens houses; but they resisted him, and forced him to save himself as well as he could, with those few troops which remained, his horsemen being all dismounted: that the inhabitants sent word of it to the prince of Conti, who sent two thousand thither, and intends to be there speedily.
A letter of intelligence.
Now the expected counsellers are come hither; viz. Hyde, Wilmot, and secretary Nicolls. To these are added, Ormond, Culpepper, and Weyntworth: the latter was sworne but four dayes since; they have bin noue in counsell. I am told their chief busines was to consult the providing and sending armes into Scotland, the which are to be bought at or about Hamborg. Those imployed in the busines, is collonell Marsh, a Kentishman, and a violent Papist; and one Georg Wates, a merchant adventurer, whoe was imprison'd at Hamborg by resident Bradshaw. There is a Sweed, whoe hath bin bargaining with them to deliver ten thousand armes, and I beleive they will agree. From whence they will ship them, is not yet resolved; but I gather from discourss, from Hamborg. I see Wilmot (whoe hath gott the money in Germany, and hath the managing of itt) discourss long with Wates, whoe told mee, it was about that. I hope by him to unlock their designe, that I may give you tymely notice thereof. They beleive the news of Middleton's great victory in Scotland (which I hope is falce); soe 'tis to be supposed they will hasten the sending of these armes. When Marsh and Wates depart, I will give resident Bradshaw notice thereof, that he may have an eye on their actions at Hamborg, where it would not be amiss for you to have a small frigat riding in the river to attend; for probably Mr. Bradshaw may finde out the ship they send their armes by, and so give warning to the man of warr. The better to gett access, and understand what passes amongst them, I have made acquaintance with Harding, Blake, Oneal, and Killigrew, all of the bed-chamber. I thought best to oblige them by an invitation, with some others of the court, to a taverne, where it cost me some five pounds, which I thinke not ill bestowed to effect my designe; for thereby I have ingrost familiaritye with them, which will give mee occasion to knowe their designes. I observe the court and counsell are divided into factions, concerning their master's going into Scotland, and what he shall doe, when he comes there. In order to his going, some are hot to have him goe presently, being Midleton by the last express, whereof I wroate you, sent to him to come. Others, who live easily on board wages, alleage many dangers this summer tyme, and would have him staie till winter. Trye the cover of this letter.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours I received, and conveyed to Vienna, and to your friend now at Aken, what you desired from both. You have now divers letters, which will give you the news from those parts.—Here we have the saddest, that can be, of the defeat given to our army before Arras, which is shame and loss to all the princes there. But it seems there was treachery in the business; and if that be true, the case is more favourable, as to the honour of our army's commanders. The last tuesday morning this unhappy accident happened, being St. Louis's day (fn. 1) the French king and saint, in the morning, the French, not known how, enter'd at the entrance of the Walloons quarters, without any noise or resistance; and the Lorrains quarters being next to them, stirred not, and made little or no resistance; yet Condé rallying the men, beat them twice out; but the passage being inlarged by the beatings of the horse, the French horse got in; and the archduke, Condé, and the rest, finding treason and power together, made away, leaving all their artillery, bag and baggage behind; only the archduke, the prince of Condé, and some few more were saved, and conveyed away with the army. The day before this the great convoy arrived, and nothing then wanting. The French were within the line above an hour before they were discovered, not going over the line, but at the very gate, which ours made for their own passage. Don Ferdinando Solis, a Spaniard, and general of the artillery, commanded those quarters, that the French enter'd; for which he is much suspected, and the business to be well examined; for it was so strong. The Lorrainers will be also questioned, some of them, if they can be catched, of the treason: if any more, time will discover it. This is all I hear yet of it.—That valiant prince of Condé has made himself ever famous for his conduct and valour that day; for he brought away the archduke's and his own bag and baggage, and fought the French all the way, being in the rear himself, till he came to Cambray, and flew a great many of them. The archduke and prince of Condé together, were at a town called Condé, betwixt Valenciennes and Cambray, at least 16,000 horse and foot; and some of them escaped, daily flocking to them; and divers letters bring hither, if they be true, that we have not lost in the whole fifteen hundred men, and lost not one person of note. The next will bring more certainty of this great affront and loss; at present I cannot give any other relation of it.
The embassador, spoken of to be sent by the king of Spain into England, is at length named the marquis of Lede, governor of Dunkirk, admiral of Flanders for the said king: how soon he will go, I know not.
The queen of Sweden's attendance is landgrave Frider. de Hessen-Cassel, who married a sister of this king of Swedland: some few gentlemen of Swedland came with her; and because she came unknown hither, nobody went to meet her, only the lady of Don Antonio Pimentelli, who was lately embassador in Swedland, in whose house the said queen took up her lodgings. She visited the Palais Royal, and all places of curiosity in this town, and took much delight in the pictures at Palais Royal, and play'd daily at the mall till nine of the clock in the morning. She visited, since her being here, the college of the Jesuits, and the nunnery of Barlemont. She parted hence to Nivelle, well satisfied with the civilities she received here; which is all of her, or any other news here at this time, that I know of; every one lamenting the loss before Arras, when we were assured it should be ours in some days. Many wagers have been laid upon it, and some bet four to one it would be taken. Of a general peace nothing said. This is all you have now from, Sir,
An intercepted letter.
Friday nor tuesday's letters are not yet arrived from thence here; the cause as yet unknown. I believe you have received ere now from Flanders a full and exact relation of the levy of the siege before Arras; a most shameful and prejudicial piece to all interested therein; neither do I well conceive remediable by human forces. As yet the list of all the prisoners is not come, but they are said to be 8000, 64 pieces of artillery, all the plate of Leopold, Condé, Fuensaldagna, &c. 5000 tents, above 2000 waggons, 25 coaches and harnesses, 9000 horses. The king and court are expected here on saturday. All officers, adherents, and dependents of cardinal de Retz banished with their families from hence; others put into the bastille, himself to be pursued with fire and sword; against whom edicts are issued to that effect. Had 100 complied with 200 and 800, matters would have had ere now another face: Corydon liberavit animam suam, & fidem tuam. We have news here of Barcelona's rendring confirmed: what will then become of Don Diego's? If the 6000 Irish in Catalonia fall off, as most likely they will, we shall have here an army of 16000 foot of Irish only, and all brought on the Spaniards expences. See where he shall find so many again ! This ill usage of them hath bred in their hearts an inextinguishable hatred against them.
The duke of Guise feasting at Lions, and dancing with sixteen violins he took from hence to make him music, having sold all his estate for this voyage of his, sent his baggage before by water, which is all lost for the most part, to the value of 25,000 pistoles, on the river of Roan, at the bridge of Vien, five miles above Lions.
Copy of a paper sent the governor of Archangel by Will. Prideaux esq;
Whereas there hath bine a desistance of commerce for some tyme by the English marchants to this porte of Archangell, they are now come heather with their shipps laden with goods; soe it is required of the governour, in the name of his highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging, by William Prideaux, his highnesse messenger to his imperiall majestie, to know what followeth, and to have the vayvod's answer in writting.
5. What goods cannot be vented here at sea-syde, that liberty bee granted to carry them upp into the country; and not permitting, that they may be left here for a tyme, to be retorned into England, when ocation shall present, without paying any dutyes.
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
I MUST tell you plainely, I doe not thincke, as the case stands, (unles there were an evident necessitye) to detaine any person, that is elected a member of parliament heere. However, upon your intimation, I have adventured to stay for the present Sir Har. Waller, Sir Charles Coote, col. Axtel, col. Sadler, major Redman, and lieutenant-coll. Purefoy, which was the number you prescribed; and whether these persons shall stay, I shall entreate my lord's positive orders: severall of them have occasions and desires to goe into England. Thorough mercy the army is in a good condition; and though I doc question, whether it be convenient for so many officers to be absent, yet I must be excused, without order from my lord protector, that I detaine any. Some of these will be desirous to goe; and I would gladly know my lord's commands, not willing to come under the sensure of a parliament, for detayning there members. I shall not at present further trouble you, then with what I am
By the commissioners appointed by his highness, for the manageing the Southerne expedition,
That Mr. Maurice Thompson be desired to attend his highness, praying an order to the commanders of the admiraltie and navie, and commanders of the navie, to transmit unto the commissioners all such papers as concernes the fleete to be commanded by general Penn, as shall from time to time be desired by the present commissioners.
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states general.
Here in this city are many commissioners, almost out of all the provinces, who come to complain in general about several excesses, as piracies committed at sea, and the great impositions laid of late upon the goods and merchandizes, that are imported of ten, five, and twenty in the hundred respectively; whereby they do find, that the importing of such commodities doth very much decrease, and all manner of wares and manufactures do rise very much, to the great burthen and oppression of the commonalty. It is said, the court hath some new edicts ready, to lay some heavy impositions, or to raise the old ones.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to cardinal Mazarin.
I Recevied this day your letter, which your eminence was pleased to write to my lord protector. It will serve me for a pretence to ask of him a particular audience, and to press him still to conclude the treaty, which he hath propounded unto me. It would have been material, that I had known the intentions of the king upon the difficulties, that do keep me back from speaking to him more precisely, and to remove wholly from him the confidence, which he hath, that his majesty, after so many advances to establish the commerce and the amity betwwen the two nations, will not break upon the two points, about which we cannot agree; so that we must either let him see the contrary, or else yield to what he demandeth, tho' never so unjust, having nothing more to manage, after he is reduced to declare, that he cannot yield to the mediation of Holland. Your eminence will be pleased to let me know, whether I shall not stand firm to my answers, and rather speak of my retreat, than to yield to any thing more than what hath been agreed upon already.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to the duke of Elbcuf.
The news of Arras was received by the protector, to whom I carried it on monday last, with some demonstration of joy; but many will have it, that that opinion was only affected; and this opinion seemeth to depend upon the condition of my negotiation; the conclusion whereof is deferred for two inconsiderable points, and which may yet one time or other be able to produce a breach, if my lord protector will not hearken to reason. Without doubt he doth carry himself firm at this conjuncture, not to appear to be troubled or frighted at the successes of his majesty.
I do hope, my lord, that the parliament, which is to meet the fifteenth of this month, will give me wherewithal to satisfy the curiosity of your highness; chiefly if, according to the opinion of all the world, he puts on the crown, which is wanting to this government, to establish and confirm the authority upon the head of the lord protector.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to his father.
I Received by this post your letters of the twenty-ninth and thirtieth of August. I have no other answer to make upon the last, than to pray you to read over my former letters to the court, and to consider the condition of my negotiation, and the humours of this people, to make you forsake all those thoughts, which some reflections have put into you, by looking upon the history of times past, much differing from that of these times. The letter of the twenty-ninth contained some proposition more solid, that is, that of Mons. Servien, which I attributed as much to the jealousy, which he hath of his collegue, as to the amity, which he doth bear us; and we must endeavour to profit of the one and the other, to get into a place in effect honourable, and which would set me above that, which is common. I have nothing to write of my negotiation, only it doth not advance; for the lord protector doth remain firm upon the two points, which you know. It would be very necessary for me to know the resolution of the court, how to govern myself, not hoping ever to have any reason of this government, as long as they do suppose and imagine, that we are desirous of their amity, that we will rather submit, and yield to what they pretend, though never so unjust, rather than that we will break with them.
My opinion is, that the wisest course will be to speak clearly henceforward, and to demand an end, or leave to be gone; but I will have precise orders, before it come to this separation. However I am persuaded it will produce some good effect, and yet there is danger in putting it to a trial, lest it should not take.
Extract out of the register of the states general.
It being taken into deliberation, it was thought fit and resolved hereby, to chuse the following colonels, lieutenant-colonels, and serjeant-majors respectively, to form the council of war for those officers, that are brought over from Brazil, and who might be guilty of deserting the conquests of Brazil aforesaid; to wit, colonel Wynberg, president, Kirkpatrick, Byma, Killegrew, Allard, lieutenant-colonel Walter Schotte, and the serjeantmajor Van Santen, Van Dorp and Drost, and for advocate fiscal of the said council of war, is hereby appointed Mr. William Stryen, and for greffier the secretary van Alphen, as also Goris Wolfsen, as assistant and clerk to the said greffier, and further, Antony van Boss, and John Serwouters, as chamber-keepers. Moreover the said council of war is authorized to nominate and appoint such further assistants for the execution of their commission, as they shall think necessary; all which persons shall be commanded to be here at the Hague by the nineteenth of this instant month, with order to be punctual as to the time; for which reason, the lords the commissioned counsellors of Holland are desired to accommodate the said council of war with a convenient place for their meeting. However, upon their arrival here, they shall be asked, if they are not related to the persons, that shall be submitted to their jurisdiction, or otherwise interested. The letters, that are to be written to them, shall be sent without resumption.
It being put into deliberation, it is thought fit and resolved hereby, to desire the lords the commissioned counsellors, that they would be pleased to have Sigismund van Schoppe, late lieutenant-general in Brazil, secured in his lodgings here, with the most civility it is possible.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.
We have received your H. and M. L. resolution of the tenth of August, concerning the visiting of the merchant-men; as also concerning the ship John and Peace brought into Plymouth, upon which we shall humbly inform your lordships, that as soon as we had notice given us of the said ships, together with the Salomon of Schiedam, we presently acquainted the president of the council with it, and delivered him a memorandum, to have them presently released; and that the like may be prevented for the future, as also against the visiting of the ships, which we understood they were not subject unto. We presently upon this our information had the ships released, as we advised your lordships by the last post. But by this occasion speaking with the lord president concerning the inconveniencies, that will happen about the visiting of the ships, and the bringing of them in; and that therefore some expedients ought to be thought upon to prevent the same. He asked us, what means we would propound to prevent the same. Whereupon we answered, that we must meet and consider together, what is to be done about it; and that then we would give our opinion upon it: and since we do perceive, by your lordships resolution of the twenty-second of May last, and by that of the eighteenth of August, that it is your lordships desire, that we should proceed to make a treaty of commerce and navigation, we humbly desire, that your lordships would be pleased to furnish us with your further intentions and opinions upon our letters of the twelfth and nineteenth of July, and that of the twentieth of August, and that we may have some orders concerning the same, that so we may fully settle ourselves to accomplish that business, according to your lordships good intentions.
Mr. William Prideaux to secretary Thurloe.
These are to give your honour advertisement, that my departure from Tilbury-hope was the 7th July, in the ship Adventure of London, accompanied with two other merchant-ships, all three laden with goods for the Russia company's account; and all three, praysed be God, (without any evill incounter) arrived, after much calmes and contrary winds, before the barr of Archangell (distant from this place 20 miles) the 18th currant in the evening.
The 19th some of the merchants, that were on our shipp, went ashore with our boate, and signified to this voyvod or governour Borris Juanowich Porkin, of my being on the shipp, who sent the seacond scribe of the emperor's office, (soe is termed the place, where the voyvod or chancellor (who is as a recorder) fitt and determine of affaires) named Collina, accompanied with six muskatieres and two boates, to bring me my retenue and baggage a land. Soe the next morning, which we arrived to this place, from my landing, I was conducted through a lane of about 500 muskateers to the English house (where I make my aboade) the accustomary place, where the English ambassadors, and other Englishe publick ministers, are used to lodge.
About halfe an houer after my arrival to this house, the voyvod and chancellor, named Evan Lerenewick, in the name of the emperor, sent the prime scribe of the afore-denoted office, namely Symon Barbrackin, to welcome me; who told me, that the governour had order from his imperiall majestie to give me convoy to Mosco, or where his majesty should be at the tyme I would appoint. After I had requested the scribe to thank the voyvod and chanceller, in my behalfe, for my good reception, as his highnesse lord protector of the commonwealth of England, &c. his messenger to his imperiall majesty, I told him, I had order to see the proceeding of the merchants affayres hereafter; that by reason of our long passage, the stay of the ships here for their discharge and new lading could not be many dayes, before they retorne (the tyme of theire staye must not passe the ingoeing of the next moneth); and therefore I must see their departure, before I could for myself forward towards his imperiall majestie.
This resolution is thought by the merchants very convenient and necessarie for them; for that my being here may free them from some obstructions, that would undowtedly befall them in their commerce, if I should departe from hence before the shipps.
The day after my arrival to this house, the scribe Barbraekin brought me from the governour a present of a quarter of beefe, a live sheep, and some other things, telling me, that soe much the emperour did allowe me daylye, and left it to my choice for the future to have that allowance in victualls or in money, which I doe daylye receive.
The governor by Barbraekin hath sent to me to be excused, that he doeth not vizite me himselfe in personne, which he cannot doe, neather can he permitt to bee vizitted by mee; for that such a publick minister, as he is, cannot communicate with a publick minister of a forreyne prince, before that minister have sene his imperiall majesty; but the said scribe is appoynted to passe all matters betwixt him and mee; so that Barbraekin comes heather to mee once, and sometimes twise a daye with such messages, as concernes the merchants affayres.
The day, that wee came to the barr, there arrived alsoe a Dutch shipp of warr with this emperor's messenger, that was sent to the states of the Netherlands, and accompanied six warre-ships with merchandice.
The Dutch merchants, that lived in the citty of Mosco, were some three moneths past commanded to disinhabit, and to retire at a village, called the New-cittye, distant from Mosco two miles, but come to the citty to traffick, when they please. They had but two dayes given them to accomplish such command.
'Tis credibly reported, that the emperor's army against the Pole consisteth of 700,000 fighting men, divided into severall bodyes, and of a good part are at the siege of Smolensco, where the emperor is in personne, who went forth of Mosco in an exceeding rich equipage, and glorious pompe.
I have now received from the governour an answer to such propositions as I sent him, of which I send your honour here inclosed copies. Any thing in them you doe not understand, the Russia company will give your honour the explanation of them.
This is all I know, that merits your honour's lecture; and indeed as much as I can write for the present, being the ship, by whom I send this, is on departure for Amsterdam. I humbly take leave of your honour, and remayne
The answer of the governor of Archangel to fix propositions propounded to him by William Prideaux esquire.
2. The English company must pay custom for their goods, as other strangers do, the rates being set down in the chief customers commission; and for their warehouses, as many as there can be found room for any-where else, to empty the corn into, they shall be with speed employed, and the rest made ready against the next year.
5. That the English merchants, as soon as they have done trading, must go beyond the seas, and not go up in the country for Mosco or any other city in Russia, either with or without goods: if any goods shall not be sold at the fair, they may either leave them at Archangel, or carry them back for England, without paying any custom.
6. There shall be no delay in their exporting of goods; but so soon as they come into the office, to desire a pass for their goods in or out, they shall presently be dispatched; and for his highness the lord protector's messenger, it is not handsome for him to make so long stay here at Archangel, but to make haste to his imperial majesty to Mosco; it is my commission from his imperial majesty to dispatch with all speed all foreign embassadors and messengers from hence for Mosco. Therefore it is my duty to acquaint him with it; but he knows his own commission, and must answer it to his highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging.
A letter of intelligence.
The French army is marched towards Cambray; but whether to sit down there, or, as most believe, before la Chapelle, is yet uncertain. The Spanish army is rallied betwixt Valenciennes and Doway, reported 18,000 strong; but scarce credible, though many of their foot got off in great bodies. The king and court are gone to Paris, to improve the victory in that inconstant place.