A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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September (2 of 5)
A letter of intelligence.
Yours I received, and am glad to hear of your quietness in England, which shall not continue long, if your enemies can help it. Have a care of divisions at home, and be sure some will happen in the United Provinces; and the emperor, with the princes of Germany, may have some hand in it, as time will discover. I shall endeavour to give you what I can learn of it.
The first instant the emperor returned to Ebersdors, where he is to stay till the diet of Hungary shall begin, where a new Palatine is to be chosen, and the archduke Leopold Ignatius, eldest son to the emperor, crowned king. The first of November his majesty begins his journey to that diet, with the archduke and the rest.
M. le comte de Volmar, that goes to Franckfort, as I writ in my former, is invited in his way by the elector of Mentz, with whom he is to have some conference about business of importance; and part of it may concern R. C. and his designs. Within two days after the said count Volmar's being gone, Mr. Crane, counsellor to his majesty, has in command to follow him to Franckfort.
From Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh.
Upon the seventh of September, 1654. cominge from my garden-house towards evening, as I was about to enter the cittie gate, several coaches of the English company, who had been feasting it abroad with their new deputy Townely, came up with me, and most incivilly struck in at the very head of my coach, to take the gate before me; which all men know is the greatest assront, that can be offered to a publique person in these countries (much wondred at by the Dutch, that it should be done by his highnesse subjects to his servant here): onely by chance their stood a coach in their way, that they could not go forward; so I passed by them, tellinge them, it was rudely done to offer me such a publick affront, multitudes of the Dutch, and the guard of the cittie looking on: notwithstandinge I was noe sooner past the gate, but those coaches, drivinge hastily through another streete to gett before me, tooke their opportunity to give me a second affront, before I got home, by strikinge in right before my coach again in the open street, and so continued going all before me, till they came to the English house. These men were most, if not all of them, the new courtiers.
A letter of intelligence.
Some days since I writ to you, since which I have no news to impart to you, but that yesterday in the morning R. C. with five or six more in his company, walked a-foot through the streets from his lodgings to Cæsar's bath, where the princess royal was bathing herself. Old Hardin and four with him (he was in black with a cloak, with his ribband and garter) together in a coach. In the afternoon they went both with all their train to visit grave William of Friesland. He and his wife arrived here wednesday last from Friesland, and is altogether for R. C.
I understand the lord Wilmot is to go again to the emperor within a few days; and
that R. C. will depart from hence for Cologne the 25th instant. 'Tis thought Wilmot
will part on monday next. His business is secretly carried, and it cannot yet be penetrated by, Sir,
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
In my former letters I writ you of my intents to send on Mr. Bartholomew Harris to Tollon, to discover what the duke of Guise intends with his fleete ther. The gentleman departed this morning: he is a fitt person, expert both in the French and Itallian. I hav ordered him to give you advys of what he can ther discover, and directed him to send your letters to Mr. Geo. Smith marchant in London, by a sure way. I have given him some pieces of eiht to bear his charges this expedition. At his retorn thence, if you giv your approbation, I shal send him to Rom, upon the servis you formerly desyred, being in my poore judgment a fit man for that purpos. He affirmes to me, that he was imployed at Ratisbon by Mr. Scot, then secretary to the councel of state, from whom you may be informed well of this man's abillity and integrity; for to be true to you, did I not believ him to be such a man, I should not propos him unto you, nor send him upon any matter of trust. Your answer herunto pray, Sir, omit not for my future government. The great loss of the Spaniard at Arras renders him extreamly low in the ey of the world. I should gladly hear, how Ingland stands in relation to Spayn and France. I am,
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
I have seene three letters from the embassadors in England to their masters the states here, since my last to you; two of them were of the fourth instant, and the other of the eleventh of the same. One of the first contained altogether particuler bussines; the second mentioned moste of your greate fleete a preparinge, conceav'd first to sayle into New England, and after to the West-Indies against the Spaniards. Of this they write at large the beste intelligence they coulde get; but this is the substance, with some few particulars of the preparations, which are best knowne there. In their third letter of the eleventh they write moste of general Blake's fleete, their equipping extraordinous, this fleete consisting of twenty-two ships of warr, and five other vessels. In the same letter they write of the second fleete preparinge in like manner under Lawson, as admiral, and collonell Venables a general of the land-forces; the fleete intended, as neere as they can learn, to the West-Indies against the kinge of Spaine; and that warr to be pursued, and peace made with France.
Alsoe they write of composeinge the differences of the East-Indies, and to pay by two portions equal, in January and March nexte, 85,000 pounds, and for the busines of Amboyna 3615 pounds; with which accommodation they are very well pleased here, especially of Amboyna; for they would be content to give twice soe much, rather then it should be done. This is the substance of the letters. The province of Zealand hath intimation secret from the ambassador Jongestal of continued secret visits and conferences the ambassadors Beverning and Newport have with the protector and his councel, without his privacy.
The deputies of Utrecht arrived here, and those of Guelderland are expected: both, as I understand, came into favourable resolutions for the prince of Orange; soe it is hoped by his partie, that by plurality of voices he shall be captaine and admiral general of these provinces.
There is greate contention betwixt the province of Holland and the rest, about the process against the officers of Brazil, committed, as you had before. Two of them are of the province of Zealand and Groningen, which Holland would have tried by their several provinces; and it is sayd, that their ende is, that it may be president; that in case Beverning and Nieuport come to question, they may be tryed by the province of Holland alone, and not by the generality. The rest of the provinces allege, these officers were sworne to the generalitie, and must therefore by them be tryed.
My last mentioned our ship's passing by hence towards Nycoping, which is not since returned, but expected here within two or three days, there being an express arrived here with letters out of Liefland, from the general governor there, Gustavus Horn, touching, as is thought, the somewhat too near approach of the Muscovites to the Swedish borders in Liefland and Ingermanland, their late victory over the Polish army, under duke Radzivil, making them somewhat insolent. Six crown ships, which have carried over land forces for Bremen, are safely returned hither; which, and some other ships, are to take in more yet to the number of 8000 men; so that before winter his majesty is resolved to have a considerable army there to bring the Bremeners wholly under his devotion.
The French embassador, Davaugour, is now arrived here with a stately retinue. Great preparations are making for the solemnizing of the royal nuptials, the bride being now shortly expected here from Gottenburg. We hear of the pest being along the sea-coast of Norway, and also at Maelstrand, but four miles from thence; so that no vessels with any kind of commodities are permitted thence to be brought.
De Richelieu to Monsieur de Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Paris doth daily furnish us with some novelty or other. On sunday last here was imprisoned a cozener or cheat, who under a borrowed name, made a shift to draw from the poor nuns of the monastery of la Roquette, the sum of 40000 livres; and if he had not been discovered, he had deceived the master of the chamber of accounts of as much money. This is no new thing; for I do remember, that in the year 1608. a certain Italian, a doctor of physic by profession, who had a wife and children, changed his dwelling, and took upon him the quality of bishop of Venafry; and through the skill, which he had in counterfeiting hand-writings and seals, he got to be made over to Venice 10000 duckats, wherewith he bought a quantity of jewels, which he brought to Paris; where, upon a note of recommendation, which was given to the goldsmith and jewellers, he was taken and carried to prison, and there poisoned himself to avoid hanging. He that is now taken, will run the same fortune.
After a while expectation, we hear now at last, that the cardinal de Retz is at St. Sebastian. There are letters come of it from the earl of Grammont, and from Bourdeaux. The journey of the king is put off till tuesday next. The army of Guienne is joined with that of the king; so that they will be able to form a siege, and to resist those, that will oppose them, although the prince of Condé hath received 4000 fresh men to join with him. Certainly there is some great design in hand; for besides all the ordnance, that were taken at Arras, and those that were before in the army, there are more drawing out of the magazine here; for which purpose they take and seize upon the horses of those, that bring provisions, as also of the poor labourers, which doth cause matter of discontent.
A letter of intelligence.
The only news here is reported, that there is war betwixt this nation and England, of which all the town ringeth; which if so, we are like to see strange alterations. The court goeth away tuesday next towards la Fere; for they intend to besiege some new place before winter, if these tidings of war do not dissuade them.
A letter of intelligence.
Cardinal de Retz is landed in St. Sebastian, whence bound for Rome; for the greatness of Mazarin filleth all France, who is now archbishop of Rheims, first duke and peer of France, by the demission of the duke Nemours his father, and fourteen more naturalized by the parliament since the king's return, who formerly refused the same. You see what change hath brought Don Diego's base run-away before Arras. Few of the prince's Irish were taken, only some slain. They all fought gallantly. Murphy's regiment are for the most part prisoners, and most of them have since taken service, being disgusted and forced men under his command. Most also of all the Lorrain Irish were taken; some as yet prisoners, some took service; others are turned back. God augment the lord protector's favour towards our contrymen! Turenne was met on sunday at Merimont, within seven miles of Brussels, by the courier. What the interest of all, Deus melius novit.
Hocquincourt is now upon the march to Amiens with the Guienne-men, who are seven hundred effective, besides what the court will add thereunto, which is resolved to depart hence on this day for Picardy.
The duke of Joyeuse is deadly sick, if not dead; a prince much lamented by all. He was wounded before Arras, and fell into a fever. By his death two great charges will fall vacant, that of grand chamberlain, and general of the horse of France. They say, Mazarin the cardinal's nephew shall succeed to one, and the duke of Mercœur to the other. O abominable Arras, which doth produce such extravagant effects! All the French armies are resolved to winter this year on the charges of Flanders, which will hardly be able to support both armies.
A letter of intelligence from Sir John Hendersone.
Treulie Honourable Sir,
Yours from Hamburg I receaved here in Akenn the 9/19. of September. I am infinitlie glaid of your health and prosperitie, and wishes the continuation of the same. From heir I cann certifie you of nothing, bot that the kyng's resolutionne for Scotland stands firme; yitt his going will not be till the hard winter; but in the meane tyme he is to send coll. Blake to them, as also one coll. Huime, and Sir James Haime of Eckalls; and both going for Scotland cum from Suedenn, having his hyghnesse the lord protector his pass: they are to effect what they cann in the Meisse for the royall partie cause; zou have good attendance upon Berwick. The machinations are great and many; and certainlie ther will be aboundance of armes and ammunition sent for Scotland. Therfore it werr good to provyde in tyme for itt. This nixt tuesday I am to wrett to his hyghness att full lenth all I know. Four dayes hence coll. Durham and major Strachan the express from Scotland is to be sent home again, and, as I believe, he is not to goe home emptie-handed; bot from whence armes fall be sent home with him, I know not as yitt. The lord Niuburg is the director of his dispatchs. His correspondent in London, to my opinion, is one, that is named Richart Illies, a silk-dyer in Thames-street . . . at the London-post. Catch such letters as are directed to him. The lord Wilmott is to goe for the gathring in of his moneys in Germanie; bot in great haist to Berlin to the elector of Brand. where both is hoaps of 2000 foot, and shipping for the same, with money to pay for theese armes in Hamburg. Keep this designe principal to yourself till the nixt post. I sall acquent you with further att my nixt advertisment. Have your secretarie, or sum good ingenious mann reddie to goe for Berlin to waite upon what may be concluded ther, if they find any danger of transport from Hamburg, as thenn be sure they will use the ports of Hinder-Pomerania. In four dayes hence, we expect the great resolutionns of all particulars before our departure hence to Collonia. I am hard setten by the kyng and my countriemen to goe for Scotland for the conduct of the infantrie; bot I shunn as much as I cann; bot when I sall see they will putt me hard to a resolutionne, I intend thenn to excuse all, and say I am promised for the assistance of Spain and the houss of Austria against France; and thenn in all haist to goe for London, ther to have a conferrence with his hyghness, and most suddenlie to be back, before any capitall business be effectuated in Germanie. Sir, I intreat you assure his hyghness of my constant fidelitie; and be assured, if I knew to gett half a kyngdom from kyng Charles, I will not medle with them; because, when they hadd me, they wold not mak use of me. Now they see their infanterie wants conducting, and wold fain make use of me, when my honor and my parroll is utherwhair ingadged. Sir, I beseich you, lett not my wyfe want for any thing; and if I goe for London, and it be his hyghness his pleasure to detein me ther, or send me for action to Scotland, as then you will dispose my wyf's mynd to cum to London with the greater part of my familie, because I am fully intentionated to give the lord protector full satisfactione of my fidelitie by introducing my famelie for a reward of my constancie to his hyghness, to whom I owe my life, and intends to hazard the same for him, of whom I hold itt. Herewith I begg your patience till the nixt occasione, at which tyme you shall expect more ample letters from me. In the mein tyme I sall ever continue, noble Sir,
Sir, the confidence I have of my noble freind Mons. Reasteau, moves me now not to make use of my character; bot heirafter I will, and send you a compleit character, which I have compyled myself. I am forced for the keiping of great and companie to live at a hygh raite, cheiflie in sending for good Rhyne-wine; for such as I mak use of heir.
A letter of intelligence from colonel Bampfylde.
I came hither upon wednesday laste. I landed at Rotterdam, and have had but little rest since I sawe you, which besides my want of any thing, that may countervayle the pennance of a longe letter, I have soe great paince in my head, and am to full of the general apprehension, that this place trembles with, of having my quarters beaten up tonight in Bruxells by the French armye, that I muste refer a larger accounte of all thinges to the nexte poste; only I muste tell you, that the French armye starve the Spaniard here in theyr owne countrey, by their excessive apetites. They make out three meals a day, and at each devour a * * *. They intend shortly to breake theyre fast at Valentien, and dine here, and sup at Antwerpe. The playne truth is, I never sawe soe much sadnes and dejection in any place in my life as this; and 'tis reported, the conquerours exceed much in insolence; which I am not unapt to believe. Amongst the rest they have pillaged two or three nunneryes, and used the virgins soe, that if the rest of the women of this country were sure of a French army every year, I believe they woulde all turne relidgeous; but if they will let us alone to sleep quietly at night, (which may be questioned, they being but six leagues hence) I am resolved to spare them, till the next poste, by which I intend to send my man, and by him to let you knowe all I have to say, and all I shall desire of my friendes where you are. In the meane tyme, I shall request you to write mee all your newes, that is communicable, and direct your letters for mee in my owne name to Mr. Hewet's, the English house, on the Mere at Antwerpe, and they will come safely to the hands of, Sir,
Intelligence from several parts.
From hence we have not much of news since my former. The archduke is still here since his return from Antwerp, (as you had in my former letter) ordering all things the best he can, to put our army in a defensive posture, against the incursions of the French, who have done great spoil. All the country ran away from them with their goods and cattle, and broke all the mills; so that albeit they have come, yet they want mills, and consequently bread; which necessity of itself will drive them to a retreat into their France. Besides, the prince of Condé is at Mons with 15000, and others dispersed are coming to him; so that the French, though not far from Mons, dare not advance further, neither to lay siege to any place, which we expected before this tyme, because they are strong, and mustered ere yesterday 21000 gallant men. The greatest harm they have done is in the country of Hainault, where, when they scatter into small parties, they are seized upon by ours, and knocked on the head; or made prisoners. Of that sort some 1500, the relation here is, are already lost.
In my former I writ, that count Grandpré took some posts before la Capelle, in order to the siege of it, which news were brought hither to the secretary of state, but it was not in order to a siege, but to prey. And it is not to be believed, what mischief they do, where they come, committing all sorts of barbarities and cruelties, after their usual manner.
At Dunkirk likewise arrived the plate, which I writ to you about a month since, intended to relieve the army at the siege of Arras. It is come too late for that, but seasonable for the defence of this country. There are in jars of silver five hundred and eighty bars, and some pieces of eight besides; the whole may amount to two hundred and twenty thousand pounds sterling. I think some part of it belongs to the merchants; but what quantity, I yet know not. Of marquis de Leda's going as embassador extraordinary to your protector, here is nothing renewed since my former. Duke Francis of Lorrain is here; so is his son. He sent marquis de Liencour to Antwerp to compliment the queen of Sweden; and so did the prince of Condé from Valenciennes send to compliment her majesty Mons. l'Esné. The queen (as is conceived) will at least keep this winter in Antwerp, and it may be longer. Count Fuenseldagna, and count Garcias, are fortifying the town for Condé, lest the French should.
Here is no more of news; but all expect to hear what your parliament do, and whither the great fleet you are a preparing tends; for now the Spaniard is jealous of it against his West-Indies. This being all at present from, Sir,
An intercepted letter of Mark Harrington, &c.
Most Rev. and Honoured Sir,
It is not unknown to us, that the favours our mission hath met withal in France are in great part origined from his servent zeall and piety, whom the Almighty, ever admirable in his waies, hath placed in a high orb of influence into works of charity; or as we may say, sent as another Joseph into a more fertile soil, to provide necessaries against him of need for his bretheren left behinde in a more pennurious land: we meane yourself. We have certainty of the thing from those, who though known to be great co-operatours themselves to the worke from the beginning, do attribute both beginning and progresse to you, and who by dayly experience finde you their protector, their advancer, and your solicitude more than paternall for their prosperitye in all virtuous and commendable proceedings. And as we are with humble thankes to acknowledge this, and to request you to hold your hands continually elevated, lest the worke go down, and that what is well begun may go better on; so considering your study wholly bent to the good of your country, encouraged by the fame thereof, we take up the confidence of representing unto you the great need our clergy hath of an agent in the court of Rome, whom all here judge so necessary, that without him we conceave no hopes of successe in any thing, that may be suggested for our good, or redresse of any other want (our wants are many) from the sea apostolicke. We doubt not but divers men may be found fitt for the imployment; but by reason of a domesticke streightnes generally overspread our country, we know not how hence to contrive a competent subsistance for the person; and therefore rather then be in a perpetual want of all, for want of once speaking, we thought best to venture on a representation of this mayn want unto you, to refer the addresse to the divine providence, and your consideration, that if any fortunat way occur, that may be easily turned to this charitable relief, you may please to take hold of it, as your prudence shall dictat; adding, that to the rest of your meritorious works for your countrey, and that the obligation of,
An intercepted letter of Henry Metham's, &c.
Our dearly beloved Brethren in Christ,
As we heare from yourselves and others of our frends in those parts, that you are accommodated at Notre-dame des Vertues for all thinges requisite to the apostolical ends you aym at, through the compassionating zeale and providence of those great lights of the Gallican church, and true fathers of their countrey, whom the divine goodnes, without merit of ours, hath inspired freelie to poure of their heavenly oyle to our lampes, that are allmost goeing out and dieing; so we earnestly desire, that you make such use of your time and accommodations, as that your lives may evidently appear to be nothinge else then endeavours to put on Christ, by emulation of their spiritts, to whose care and institution you are committed, that at your retourn into your native soil, which clayms a share in your labours, cries for your assistance, and beares with your absence, in hopes of greater gain, you may import so much of the oratorian primitive spirit, as may reduce Great Britain, now unfortunat and decayed in spiritt, by heresie, schisme, and other vices, into the happy condition of France, now flourishing in all kinde virtue and literature, and so much celebrated in other countries for the reformation of priests and people; then which nothing can be more desired by true priests and patriots. We also desire you, with the like earnestnes to look uppon yourselves, as the objects of many eyes, diversly affected, som friendly, others apt to observe the least moth of misdemeanor in your carriadges, apt to carp and detract, but of no power to blast your credits, or hinder your progresse. Boni æmulatores fueritis, cautiously shunning all evill and all shew thereof; and that not for fear of their eyes, but his, who clearly beholds the hidden secretts of all hearts, and for the love of him. You know how much we are indebted to the charity and patience of those worthy fathers, your most loveing entertayners, and that we have no other demonstration of gratitude to returne them, but our acknowledgment of their favour, and a tender of what you may affoard for us, your submissive conformity to their wills, in order to the end proposed, with a punctuall observance of the rules, that are or may be ordained thereunto, your improvement in all priestly parts and exempliary of conversation; which we request may dayly appeare more and more even out of that motive of our gratitude, to the speciall comfort of us here, and the better satisfaction of those, with whom, and under whom you live there, who, not animated by your virtuous improvements, to continue their gracious helps, might be well discouraged by the unhandsom parting of some, that were once amongst you, who deserted their stations, too unmindful of their own credit and ours, and of the respects they owed unto all. We are sorry for them, but do hope for some recompence from you, who have now more time and liberty to do what befitts your places, being freed of their company, who it seems had no minde to be better then they were, by the faire opportunity offered. In this confidence, with hearty wishes of all good successes unto you, we rest, Sirs,
Mr. William Prideaux to secretary Thurloe.
I send your honour herewith a duplicate of my first, and a duplicate of my last unto you, bothe sent by several convoyances by sea, and under cover to the governor of the Russia company.
The merchants trafficke here fyndes severall obstructiones, by which some will rather be loosers then gainers by the commoditys they have brought. The causes are; first, too great quantitys of goods brought by us, the short tyme our merchants have to dispose of them, and to invest their provenew in goods of this countrey, to relade their shipps for England, and their not permitting them to goe further into the countrey then this place; the which being well knowen to the Russe, makes them to keepe upp the prices of their owne commoditys, and to undervalleu ours. A second cause is the totall want of moneys in our partes to help of such goodes of oures as usually we put in barter for Russia commodityes with parte money; and the want of moneys the Russe have for the buying of such of our goodes, as usually they were wont to doe with moneys; for that at other handes these Russia merchants have served themselves here with the emperor's treasure (so are called the finances or moneys, that comes into his majestie's coffers by costomes and elce as well in this place as others, for some 100 of myles hereabouts); but now all is sent away to the armys for his majestie's occasions there. A third cause is the contagious siknesse at Mosco, and the emperour, and the multitudes of people that be at the warres, there will not be that vent for commodties as otherwise there would be. Moreover the fourth courrant here arrived two Dutch merchant-shipps, which is alsoe another cause, that these Russe merchants keepe upp the price of theire goods.
To further particularise and debate on the mercantile affaires would but tediate your honour in their lecture to noe purpose; therefore I will desist from further insisting on them, and come to that, which is more proper for your honours cognisance.
Upon the shipp of warr from Holland, that I writt your honour of, that arrived to this porte with us, they served to convoye some merchant-shipps, and to bring the emperor's messenger, that was in Holland; there came also upon them about 300 tunnes of aminition and armes for his imperiall majestie's account, which have bine disimbarked out of those shipps, & here imbarked on eight greate boates, whoe carry them by river to Vollada; from thence are to be transported by land, where the emperor hath appointed. For the intire payment of these armes, there is yet due to the Dutch 10,000 rubbles; this money (which is 5000 pounds sterling) which summe some Dutch merchants doe here dayly expect payment for the dispeeding of shipps they have here in porte, which cannot be done without that money.
'Tis sayed, that the patriarch of this empire (who hath great power with the emperor) perswaded his imperial majestye to inhibit the Dutch & other strangers (as hath bin for some yeeres to the English) to proceed any further into his dominions than this place of Archangell, and to be put in execution this yeare. Therefore of what will follow in this particular, I suppose I shall know, before I departe this country.
As for the emperor's progresse in his warrs against the king of Poland, wee cannot have any certayne relation from these ministers or other Russes. What I learne, that is apparantly true, is by an Englishman, that's come heather from Smolensco, and departed thence the 4th August, whoe tells me, that hee saw the emperor there in person, haveing his quarter a little more distant from the cittie then a cannon-shot, behinde a little hill; that those in the citty had made a fally forthe on a quarter of the Russes, and killed about 600 of them, which is attributed to the negligence and fault of a Dutch collonel, for which hee was like to have left his heade, when indeed the fault was in the emperor's general, (whoe once was his majestie's tutor, and hath the greatest authority with him, and it should seeme noe great souldier nor captayne) whoe, to save his owne reputation, would willingly have put his owne fault on that Dutch colonel.
The emperor, at the departure of the Englishman from the leager of Smolensko, had 150,000 men before it, and had sent for as many more; and 30 cannon were on the way thether from Mosco, which arrivinge there, his majestie intended to storme it. The Englishe colonels, and other officers of our nation, that serve the emperour in that warr, doe thinke his majestie will be forced to quit the siege, for the brave defence is made by those in the cittye, the ill conduct, that is in the emperour's armey, and for the great want of breade for sustayning the millitia, and forrage for his horse, as maye be judged by that they have haye and oates brought from Mosco to Smolensko, 500 miles distant one from the other, and in summe waye will ask a long tyme for the conduct of such provisions; and the nearest places, that the beleagers of that cittye doe for their forrage, is 50 or 60 myles off from theire camps.
The secretary, that cometh and goeth betwixt the governor and me for such things as occurs, hath bine with me, and tells me, they have received a poste from the emperour, but noe newes more, then that his majestie hath much increased his titles (fn. 1); and that before my departure hence, here will be answer from him of the advise given of my here arrivall.
A letter of intelligence.
I wroate you the 15th by waye of Amsterdam, supposing it the safest: this I adventure, upon the word of a merchant here, whoe hath bin imployed since my last, to ask the magistrate, if C. St. should resolve to staye in their towne this winter, whether they would give him a free house to live in; but by their answear, they are not verie desirous of his company. You must know this is only to give occasion to the world to thinke he will staye in these parts this winter; but be confident he intends for Scotland so soone as possible he can contrive a means to steal awaye thither; for one, whom I named in my last letter, is to go alonge with him; and he told me yesterday, that C. St. the night before assured him, he would make all the haste he could, and he should goe with him; for he would go through his countrye, (which is the North) where he was acquainted with his friendes and the wayes. This gentleman and Wilmot goe from hence to Ceullon on munday nexte; from thence he goes to Rotterdam, and as near as I can gather, Wilmott for Hamburgh; but they are to meet where I can get from him. I thinke I have learnt the waye how C. St. designes to steale from his court: he will pretend to goe visitt the elector of Mentz, in order to solicit his money; only take with him a select company, and with some two or three of them to steale away. If he doe so, I shall knowe justly when he goes awaye; but although I may be mistaken in the circumstances, yet in the mayne you will sinde it true. Now it may be, he will goe into Norway to take shipping, and so thence from the North; but it is not probable, he will goe further then Hamburg or Lubeck. Collonel Blake goes also with him, not . . . . . . one of them; but is a remarkable person, and easily to be knowne by any, hath formerly seen them, although they are . . . . . . . It will be requisite there be a strickt examination of all persons, that arrive in those parts; but not before I eyther bring you worde, or write you he leaves these parts, because that would make him fearful to venture that waye, where in my opinion you may meet with him. One Mr. Armorer, whom I formerly advised you was in England, is lately come from the North, where he sayes C. St. hath many friendes. I see the marquis of Ormond take him from court, to discourse privately with him; when Ormond came againe, he tooke C. St. on a side, and spake with him, which made me thinke it concerned their voyage. They send as often into Ingland as they please.
Yesterday they got newes, that Middleton hath defeated Morgan, kill'd and taken 6000 men, and beleager'd general Monck in Sterling. Now all is their owne. They expect an expres to-daye. They say, he is arrived. I trust 'tis not true. Some Scochmen themselves will not belive before the express come. Count William of Friesland and his lady are here, supt last night with C. St. and his sister, whoe show him great respect, hopinge thereby to gaine a greater interest in him for their family. This is all at present. I beseech you remember mee.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
By the last weeke's post I gave answer to yours of the 25th August; since which have not received any from you, or the gentleman you knowe of, other than what you find inclosed. I believe, that junta is dissolved ere this, and every man shifted his severall way. If otherwise, and that they have confidence to hold together, and come to some importinge resolutions, I shall ere next post knowe of it.
The companie's late letter from London to this court was published yesterday; but nothinge then done upon it, save onely, that those then in power shewed their discontent at their brethren of London, for writeing such a smart letter to them, haveinge (as they say) soe fully owned and thanked them for their proceedings in all their former letters. But upon second thoughts, Mr. Townley this day resigned, and the commissioners chose me againe to the place of annuall deputie; but before he resigned, he with that court partly resolved to write letters by this poste to his highnesse and the commissioners at London, to vindicate themselves; and I suppose, their addresse to his highnesse will passe through your hands, and that you will please to hold it upp for one poste, till I can have time (which at present I have not) to give you an account how imsatably they are fallen upon that course to beget further trouble to the company, and diversion to his highnes. I presume, if their letters be not before the cominge of nexte poste, the businesse ere that tyme may be composed here, to prevent your further trouble, then onely to suppresse the letter by their owne consents.
I am very sensible of the goodnesse of my master, and your favour in hasteninge that command, without which the advice of the company at London would have little avayled. I hope, now they see to what extremity they had brought the businesse by their needlesse contestinge, they will not be soe apt hereafter to hazard their open welfare; yet I must needes say, that by what I have observed in their carriage of the businesse yesterday and to-day, what they have done seemes rather matter of necessity then choyse; but I hope, ere another post all things will be quietly settled among them, towards which I shall contribute my utmost endeavours.
The inclosed weekely paper gives the occurrences since my laste. The poore Bremers are but in a sad condition; yet the Swedish resident here assures me, the businesse will be composed shortly. Which is all at present, and that I am, Sir,
News from Paris to Mr. Stouppe.
Cardinal Mazarin has bought of the marquis of Munican the government of Fere in Picardy, for 150,000 livres; and therefore the king goes from hence the next week, to put the cardinal in possession of that place.
The seventeenth of this instant, the king's council was called upon advice sent to court, that the English fleet at Plymouth intends to land here in three places. Advice confirmed by Mons. de Bordeaux, embassador in England, that they shall beware of the English, as having a design upon France. It is not yet known, what resolution is taken by the king and his council on that matter; but that the duke of St. Simon was the same day commanded by the king to go with speed into his government of Blaye, which he did presently, taking post the same day.
The troops, which the king has drawn out of Guienne, passed last week through Nantz, to go join Turenne's army, lying about Quesnoy. They did use such hostilities everywhere, that their officers would not suffer them to do the like in the very enemy's country.
The prince of Condé has dismissed upon parole all the captains of the guards, and other captains, as well of horse as foot, on condition they should do their best to obtain of his majesty the liberty of all those of his, who are prisoners in the Bastille, Vincennes, and other prisons elsewhere, not obtaining that liberty to yield themselves prisoners again to the said prince, within the fifteenth of the next month. All those captains report, that the prince used them very courteously, and had a special care of the cure of all his prisoners: that relation pleased the king very well.
Cardinal de Retz is at St. Sebastian's, having made his escape out of France in a fisher's boat, with two gentlemen, lying all three on their bellies in the bottom, for fear of a discovery. He expects a passport from the king of Spain to go to Venice, and thence to Florence. He sent lately a packet to his majesty; but it was resolved to send it back without opening it. He wrote also to the duke of Orleans, who did not open his letters; but sent them to the king with one of his in the said cardinal's behalf, remonstrating his innocence, and praying to be permitted to live in France, and pass the rest of his days at Belleisle, and protesting for him, that being recalled, he shall not meddle with state-affairs. It is not yet known, what answer the king has made to his uncle; but it is reported, that the duke and his daughter are like to agree with the court. Believe it, when it is done.
There is a rumour, that the prince of Condé has received great recruits of men; and that at an encounter, he hath taken upon Turenne eight great pieces, and two hundred chariots of his baggage; and that he intends to besige Corbie. Time will shew all.
The twenty-first of this month, the embassadors from Hamburg and Lubeck had audience of the king, it being their first. The queen and the duke of Anjou were there; but not the cardinal, by reason of his gout. The king received them very courteously. It is not yet known, wherefore they come.
The 22d the marquis of Faussense of the house of Montmorency was arrested in this city, by order from the king, being accused to have intelligence with cardinal de Retz, as being one of his intimate friends: he is in the Bastille.
The 23d the king went hence as far as le Fere, to put the cardinal in possession of the government, to whom his majesty has given the property of it, with all the duties belonging to it; amongst which there is a forest, called Gaudoiun forest, containing five long leagues, being of the demaines of the house of Navarre; besides, the king has given him 900,000 livres, to be taken on the forest of Compeigne, to pay him thus the two millions of livres he lent the king, and use of that sum. Thence the king intends for Mezieres, to take the government of that place from the viscount Lamet, being resolved to besiege it, as well as Charleville and Mont-Olimpe, in case of resistance. The marquis of Normoutier, governor of this last, nor Lamet, would not appear at the king's coronation, although they were summoned. The rumour, that was spread, that the marquis Meilleraye, master of the ordnance, was become a Carthusian, is not true; for he is here, and follows the king in his voyage. 'Tis thought, that the treaty of his marriage with one of the cardinal's nieces, is renewed. The king had no mind to go to la Fere; but the cardinal pressed him by the consideration, that his presence or armes must reduce those unto his obedience, who swerve from their duty.
The 22d the council of state gave a desinitive sentence between the Papists and the Protestants of Sancerres, by which these last, although very much less in number than the other, have been condemned to pay three in four parts of all taxes and impositions, either ordinary or extraordinary, thus to force them to their habitations. They have informed all the Protestant churches of this kingdom of this high injustice.
The 23d, as the king was ready to go into his coach for his voyage, the provost merchants and the sheriffs, with six companies of merchants, presented themselves before the king; and, being all upon their knees, one made an oration of half an hour, in which the people's misery was represented unto him, by reason of the great and daily charge of taxes assess'd on them, and particularly upon out-works and laces, either of Genoa or Flanders, and of gold and silver; which impositions cause a decrease in all trades; and so ruin many workmen. The speech being ended, the king put off his hat, and made them rise, and assured them, he would see them satisfied in those things. In going from the king, they met the queen, who let them know in harsh language, she was not well pleased they had spoken to his majesty without her and the cardinal. This has lately bought the marquisdom of Neslé between Peronne and Fere, one of the sinest in all France, having seven or eight gentlemen for vassals. 'Tis not yet known what he gave for it.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours the 11th instant I received, stylo novo, with the bills of exchange, which came moste seasonable; but the rate is extreame, that I shall not gett here or in Cologne; for eighty pounds paye there but 320 dollars, a dollare being here no more then 4 s. 6 d. by which I loose eight pounds. However, I am glad to receave any thinge, being in want and in debt. While this lasts, I shall wayt here diligentlie, or where R. C. shall be; you may be assured, to improve what you desire.
Heere is yett grave William of Nassau. It is said here, that he and Wilmot will goe together to the emperor, and the rest of the princes of Germanie. Friday last R. C. with count William of Nassau, and the lord Wilmott alone in one coach, with some of their traine, went to take the ayre; they three were in a little field for four houres together in conference. The same day Ormond, Sir Edward Hyde, and Daniel Oneil went to Maestricke, but returned hither upon sunday last.
To the best of my intelligence, the rest of the provinces but Holland are to bring in the emperor, and to deliver their strong places, and to submit to him upon good conditions, least they be curbed by your protector, or the province of Holland. R. C. shall have auxiliaria sufficient, and shall be in capite. I have this from some able persons in this cittie, and from some of R. C. his dependents. That night R. C. returned, and with the rest was very merry at night. The nexte day R. C. sent the lord Taaf to invite them to dinner, where they were more merrie. Yesterday they went all to a cloister of regular Chanonesies neere this town, where they were dancing, and as merrie as men could be. I have the honour to be present at these sports.
R. C. expects to receave part of his contributions in this cittie. They will buy armes and powder, to send into Scotland; which they resolve not to give over, but pursue it close this winter. You may be assured, this is their resolution; let them, that are concerned, prevent it as well as they can, and tymelie.
The lord Wilmot, alias earl of Rochester.
Chancellor Sir Edward Hyde.
Bishop of Derry.
Sir Henry De Wicke.
Sir John Mennis.
Sir Gilbert Talbot.
The lord Goring.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augier's secretary.
I Have but little news to add unto my last, both by reason the letters from Catalonia, Provence, and Italy are not yet come, as also the court parting this morning to go and lie at Nanteuil, and from thence to Soiffons. The public entertainments have on this occasion made way unto those of particular affairs.
There is no likelihood, that the design is to frame a siege; and by reason the English armadoes are of great weight, 'tis thought they will content themselves to quarter, if possible, in the enemy's country, and to change the governors of Mont-Olimpe and Mezieres, who are not too sure unto his eminency, and may be suspicious unto his majesty, because they are partizans, and (if I am not deceived) kinsmen to the cardinal of Retz.
We can tell no certainty of that fugitive cardinal, save only, that the king's attorney general presented yesterday complaints from his majesty in the vacation-chamber of this parliament, to inform of his landing and march into an enemy's country, that his processmay be made, as the case should happen, &c. Whereupon Mr. Ferran and another member of the assembly were commanded and deputed to make the said informations, with the help of such officers of peace, as need shall be. A merry confident to the same cardinal has for that cause a few days since been clapt in the Bastille.
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
Coll. Hammond, Mr. Goodwin, and coll. Tomlinson are lately arrived heare, and I hope will prove a blessing to this poore land. Since their cominge, they have had a state of our treasury, and the necessity of supplies from England; though to reduce both civill and military list, we shall goe as farr as safety will permitt and suffer us, though you have deferred the tyme so late, that it will be very hard with thos, who shall be reduced this winter time, the condition of Ireland being to live much upon their potatoe-gardens, which now they cannot; but now they come into places, wheare they have nothinge to live upon: besides, we cannot sett them out their proportions of lands for their arrears, being not surveyed. Many other considerations ther are, and reasons might be urged; but I shall be glade to do what I can to ease the publick. I shall intreat you will labour to let me understand my lord protector's sence about this businesse, and what apprehensions you may have from lord Harry's parts of any designings upon Ireland; also that I may know what is intended out of England for our monthly supply. We must expect no more than 10,000 l. from Ireland towards its charge. My haste must excuse this rudnes, as
A letter of intelligence.
Before this wayte on you, I doubt not but Mr. Longland's will have acquainted you with his haveinge dispatched mee to Toulon upon occasions of your service; wherein, for the first character of my zeale, I thinke it not fitt to omitt to present you with this relation, which I mett with at la Cittate, a port-towne in Provence, five leagues Soth-westward of Thoulon, where I am just now arrived, and necessarily to stay two dayes at the least, before I goe to Thoulon. The substance is this; that the fleete at Thoulon consists of fifteen vessels of warr, and six gallys, all fully ready to goe to sea: the number of souldiers about 15,000; the designe generally conceived to be Italy, and peradventure Naples, however caution be used to hush the noice thereof amongst the people. The confirmative arguments are these:
That they have embarqued 4000 bridles and saddles, as many pair of boots, as many pair of pistolls, and as many musketoons; and principally they have five-and-twenty Neapolitan gentlemen of condition, all invested with principal charges amongst them.
But that, which opposes this, and gives suspicion they intend for Millan, is theire having sent a body between 20 and 30,000 men into Piemont, 5000 whereof are horse; which are sayd to have occupated and secured all the passes and inletts that way.
Upon the whole, it is generally believed, that the forces will to sea within eight or ten dayes at the farthest, being unfurnished with nought but onlie some secret and positive orders from the court. And this is all upon that subject, till I come to the place, whence you shall have all much more certainly, and more particularly, by the first opportunity.
As in relation to myselfe, I will forbeare to importune you with a narration of what I am, or what my employment hath hitherto been, and where; only thus much, that I am the same person, who was dispatched by authoritie in England two years ago to the dyet at Ratisbon, and continued there till the subrogation of that authoritie. I silence the frequent attempts made upon my life there, and the miseryes I have suffered since for my zealous affections and endeavours to God's present cause, differring it till I have the honour to be personally knowne to you; and humbly remitt you to Mr. Tho. Scott (if you finde it requisite) for my name, &c. which yet I humbly also desire may be kept intyrely secret.
Within a moneth at the farthest I shall be returned (God willing) to Mr. Longland, in whose hands I should be glad to find your orders addressed to mee, under the name, which I heer borrow to subscribe myselfe with sincere respect and reverence,
Extract of a letter from Aken, of the 25th of September, 1654. N. S. to Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh.
George Waites is still here, with col. March a grand Catholic, who is to go with him for your parts, to buy arms. I conceive the main reason of their stay is want of money, which is very scarce amongst them. None of the German money yet come in, than what was paid Willmot (titled earl of Rochester) by the elector of Mentz, at his coming from Ratisbon to Francfort. There are letters sent to all the princes, to give them notice, how acceptable and seasonable their contribution would be at this conjuncture of time; but no answer come from any of them. There is an express come from Scotland, says, Middleton is in no despicable condition, nor in a very good; for his men began to be weary, and so he hath given them leave to go home to rest until winter, having admonish'd them to retain their loyal affections, and to be ready against winter, when their king would be there. This relation, with what he says of the last rencounter, is not very acceptable at court. However, they strive to please themselves with fansying themselves in a hopeful condition. The king is resolved for Scotland, so soon as his moneys come in, and he can conveniently get away: for this purpose there are already some of his party sent abroad to prepare the way; I suppose through England thither. I have heard some discourse, that it may be he may take shipping, either at your town, or at Lubeck, privately: but I do not hear Waites is acquainted with this design, there being very few know of it. The next week the king and his sister go for Cologne, where he leaves her. She returns for Holland, and he comes back hither, where he will stay until further resolutions, which at present are very mutable.
A letter of Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France.
The lords commissioners of the Hans-towns have declared themselves in the quality of embassadors in this court, and have demonstrated, that they were admitted in that quality by king Henry the fourth; received and concluded a treaty with that title; that they were received and acknowledged in the court of the emperor as embassadors; neither were they received in Spain more nor less than other embassadors of what state soever. The alledging of these examples had some force here, and the said lords were received here as embassadors by the count de Berlise master of the ceremonies, and brought to an audience before the king, who sat in a chair with his hat on; and when they approached, his majesty rose up, and took off his hat a little, and put it on again, and then sat down again, and heard the speech and proposition of the said embassadors, who were all the while bare-headed: which being ended, they took their leave; and then the king took off his hat again, sitting still in the chair. The embassadors did desire amongst the rest the renewing of the alliance made by this crown with the Hans-towns, and formerly renewed with Henry IV. anno 1604. Whereupon commissioners are appointed to treat with them in the absence of the court, who are the lords of Brienne, Aligre, and Bignon, advocate general of the king in the parliament of Paris.
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
I Give you most humble thanks for the handsome relation you were pleased to give on the meeting of your parliament. There was none in this country, that had such an exact relation of it. It was published there, that the lord protector would take upon himself a new title, before the sitting of the parliament. Some do suppose now, that this parliament will have the same issue, that the foregoing had. We are only spectators in the affairs of another: in ours, wherein lieth our real interest, I could have wish'd, that the success had been as speedy as I did expect it. I was deceived this time; but because I will be so no more, I will henceforward follow the opinion, that you shall be of, and in no-wise the appearances and the common report, which most an end proceed from the relations of the lords embassadors of this state a few days since, and upon what was presupposed, that you had concluded. I was spoken unto by one of the chiefest lords of this state, concerning the peace, which you had made. The two propositions formerly hinted unto you were reiterated unto me by him. I gave him the same answer as before, and such as I had order for from the court.
The business of Bremen is in a fairer way and condition of accommodation at present, than it was before that the Swedes had taken the fort of Bourg de Breme, and redeemed their reputation in being routed. Koningsmark hath forced them to yield upon discretion; and all the neighbouring princes interposing for a peace, and a senator of Sweden Mr. de Rosenhan being come expresly for this negotiation, will not conclude the same, before that time doth form the return of the Swedish soldiery into their country.
If the queen of Sweden doth send me a pass to make use of the permission, which the court hath given me to go and salute her at Antwerp, I will not fail at my return to give you a description of what I shall have seen, since you desired it, and that you have power to order me, through the passion which I have to deserve your love; and that our correspondence may not be altogether included in the necessity of the service of our master.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The deputies of the admiraltie of these provinces assembled here have given their opinions to the states generall, touchinge the piracy of the French the 22 instant in this manner: First, that their mightie highnesses send their letters and commands to the embassador Boreel, chardginge him to doe all good offices with the kinge of France, that his majestie would be pleased to give strict orders to his governors of provinces and maritime townes, to cleere the seas from such pyrats, by sendinge ships of war against them, or by some other meanes. Secondlie, they give their opinion, that the shipps of warre of that commonwealth, sayleing in convoy with merchant-shipps, (after leaving them safe in their ports, whilst they are unloading and reloading) shall goe to sea, and seeke after these pyrates, by all the meanes they can, to destroy and subdue them.
To this opinion, after due deliberation, all the provinces assented. The said deputies gave also their opinion for all Portugal vessels taken, to be lawful prises hencefoorth. All the provinces assented thereto; onlie Holland presented to their consideration, that divers merchands of theirs had manie goodes in Portugal, &c.
The said deputies the same day gave also their opinion, that the ambassador Boreel should have orders to insist with the king of France for restitution of some shipps taken lately by the French corfaires, and brought into Rochel; also, that he should pursue with the said king the maritime treatys, as the precedent were.
The 22d instant likewise the committee of the respective colledges, upon the resolution of their mightie highnesses, the fifth of the same month, and other former resolutions, gave in their opinion to the states general, that the placart against the English manufacture, of the third of January, 1653. should not be repealed: but notwithstanding, for trade and conveniency sake, that entrance should be made for the English manufacture (without takeing notice of the placaert) it was practised with England before and after the war; and that it should be written de novo to the ambassadors in England, that they finish with all possible expedition the maritime treaty, begun with his highnes the lord protector; and to procure particularly, that the act made in England concerning navigation, to the greate prejudice of these countries, may be annulled. All the provinces have assented to this advice.
These states are ill satisfied with a letter of the kinge of Denmark of the twenty-fourth of August last, olde stile, written to their highnesses; the substance of which is, that his majestie doth not thinke himselfe obliged to pay any thinge to the states generall, as by them desyred, for the English shipps or goods by him disposed of, till that first the English restore and recompence to his subjects, what ships and goods were taken from them dureinge the tyme of war with England. This may breed some difference among them: the Dane will not loose any thinge by the matter.
These states are resolved to give an answere to that king's letter, concerninge the restitution and compensation, which they doe pretend for the shipps and goods, which he has solde, belonginge to the English.