A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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October (2 of 5)
The count de Charost, governor of Calais, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
I did not write to you by the last post, having nothing considerable. In the mean time I received yours, wherein I perceive, that the lord protector had like to have killed himself: he is too old to learn the trade of driving a coach. I saw once a child of seventeen years undertake such a business, and he had like to have killed himself. If an express should carry this news to the king of England, that he had like to have broken his neck, he would not have been sorry for it. In that, as in all things else, it shall be as it pleaseth God. There is very little news else, besides the death of the pope. Pray God, that he, that is to succeed him, may settle peace in all Christendom. Notwithstanding what you write of the protector, he hath not the title of king, but he doth all the offices and functions of the king; and with his negative voice in the point of war, he hath more than ever the king had above the parliament.
Richelieu to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
The great tides happen but once a month at the full of the moon; or, to speak more properly, but twice in the year, at the two equinoxes. It is one and the same thing with news, which do not happen every day. Sometimes there is good store of news; but that is not often. When there doth, you shall know of it. The court did intend some great design, and to that end the regiment of the guards had new colours given them, which were worn to pieces; but I believe the enemy will see none of these colours this campaign. The design is vanished, and the king is to see his troops of Guienne, and afterwards to come to Paris, where he is expected on wednesday next.
A letter to Mons. de Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
We expect your father here very suddenly. The court is come to Compeigne, and from thence they go to Chantilli, where they are to stay some time; and from thence they come directly for Paris. Here arrived on monday last another express from Rome, who says, the pope was not quite dead, but lay in an agony, and every minute expected to give up the ghost. The duke of Guise is said to be gone from Toulon with his fleet. It is thought this fleet will do more good than an embassador, whom they intend to send for Rome. The said express says also, that he met the cardinal de Retz near Rome.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augier's secretary.
The 4/14 of this instant letters arrived from Provence, bearing, that the duke of Guise sailed out ever since the fourth, stylo novo, as for Italy, without one could notwithstanding discover his design. It's thought to be chiefly for the upholding of the interests of France and Rome, from whence we hear no other news, than that you have already known, that post being only to arrive to-night or to-morrow. The court intended to be here monday or tuesday; but I hear it will only be some days after, as much by reason of the care it takes to fortify the frontier places, as also because that cardinal Mazarin being in a treaty with the marquis of Noirmoutier for the Mont-Olympe, it is in some manner necessary for the king to stay there, to intimidate that marquis, who doth intercede for cardinal de Retz. He insisteth, that he may be established in the archbishoprick of Paris: he is answered very civilly, that they would be so much the more willing to satisfy his demands, that the intelligences of the duke of Retz in England are much feared; but that agreement, which is, as I am informed, managed by the craftiness of madam de Chevreux, will not be an easy matter, since whatsoever this court doth promise, it is always at the exception of the said archbishoprick; for the conservation whereof cardinal of Retz hath hitherto been so obstinate: besides that, the interests of that cardinal, and cardinal Mazarin, seem to be incompatible, and chiefly because of their mistrusts.
We are informed, that the prince of Condé's troops have for certain defeated two French parties; one of some eight hundred men commanded by the marquis of Renel, as he convoyed some provisions to Quesnoy; and the other of five hundred commanded by Mons. Guillotiere, both the said commanders having been made prisoners, with most part of their men, after many killed.
The prince of Conti is coming from Catalonia upon the latter-end of this campaign, to preside in the states of Languedoc, which are to meet in six weeks or two months. The king sent him a brevet; and the duke of Orleans doth not only see himself scoffed thereby, but also ill used at present by the denial of the 50,000 crowns you have heard of, which his majesty had given him leave to accept from those states; and the said duke having demanded the vacant government of Gergeau upon the river of Loire, for some gratification his royal highness would make thereof, his said majesty hath refused it unto him, although it be of little importance or value, saying, he had already put the disposal thereof in cardinal Mazarin's hands, unto whom he should speak of it. The difficulty the said duke makes to compliment the said cardinal is the cause of these he findeth in his way. And nevertheless he is still stiff-necked, saying, he will never submit unto that first minister, who can do nothing but undo him, and not take from him the quality of the king's uncle and servant. The notices from Blois are, that the said duke's court was reasonably gallant; that Mademoiselle was there, and that the duke of Beaufort went not far from it.
We hear from Bordeaux, that at last the exterior defences of the castle Trompette have been ended; and that Mons. d'Estrades was putting therein 1200 men in garison. The last letters from St. Malo bear, that four vessels of Terra Nova of Grand-ville were happily returned from that country well loaded, but had brought news of the loss of four Maloin ships by the ice; adding, that the English frigats had carried away a Dutch vessel richly laden from the French, at the road of New-haven, as he thought to have gone in the port. The inhabitants of St. Malo are ill satisfied with the king's council, by reason it hath ordained, that the goods, which were found in the prize a while ago upon the coasts of Spain by the commodore of Neufchaise, whereof they have complained, will be only distinguished from those, which belong unto the Spaniards, instead of granting them the whole main levée thereof.
A paper to the protector, shewing the difference of tolerating Papists and Protestants.
If I had any cause to believe, that this my boldness of writing were burdensome to your highness, or that your highness might conjecture, that my aim therein was selfinterest, I were very much to blame to assume to myself that liberty. But the belief, which your highness hath possessed us with, by so many miraculous actions, and divine confirmations, as a person acted by an ardent and universal zeal for the good of the churches of God; and moreover having a certain knowledge, the churches of these parts have endured a very great brunt by the deceitful promises, which have been made unto them by the former supreme powers of Great Britain; and therefore upon these two so public accounts may safely conclude, that there is just cause of inquiry, forasmuch as the providence of God has restored so pious and noble a government in the person of your highness, how we may, if possible, be instructed by your highness, from this so pure a fountain and well-spring, how to derive some streams of comfort suitable and proportionable to those evils, which have befallen us; as also considering, that we have no other human powers in view, which have interested themselves in the cause of God: upon the serious contemplation of this, I say, it is, my lord, that I have taken the boldness, upon the account of those former negotiations by me transacted, to implore your highness to bend your heavenly thoughts to take cognizance of our state and sufferings, as your highness shall judge it agreeable to the will of God. And as for that employment of mine, so little sought after, it is, my lord, such as that I dare presume to boast, that there are but a few to be found, which would willingly expose themselves to that hazard, which I run in our enterprize; which, upon the discovery, and that witnessed against me, would prove so exceeding dangerous. As also this, that there are but a few experienced men, to whom God has vouchsafed such opportunities of a general acquaintance and access for the information of your highness of so many places, and giving such considerable advertisements, which may come to my knowledge with much ease, if so be, that I may obtain the favour of your highness, as to be employed under you as an unknown and secret agent for our churches. Wherefore I presume to continue this little correspondence, till such time as I shall receive your highness's more punctual orders concerning the same, or else be commanded silence, and desist from so narrow a search and inquiry; or on the contrary shall give me such express commands, as you shall think convenient; the which I shall attend, upon the one or the other of these considerations; after which I shall either retire from this place, and shut myself up in my own house near Rochel, or make preparation for an actual residence and settlement here; both that we may have an occasion to say, that God owes your highness to the good of his churches; and that we owe to your highness all sorts of solemn vows and promises for their advantageous progress and growth, which are the principal incitements, and the most cordial desires, of him, who does, and always shall, consecrate and devote himself,
October 7. 1654.
At court and council they present papers of grievances and complaints of their ill treatments by those of the reformed religion in France, contrary to those formal concessions formerly given by edict for the liberty of their religion, and continuance of their persons in all sorts of employments, which they are now denied.
First, that the papists beyond the seas, for the most part, are devoted to the Spaniard, whom they have endeavoured to make master of all the places, where they have abode, and by a great many devices, universally perceived, have attempted the total subversion of those governments, under which they live. The continual machinations of the deceased queen of Scotland, and the bloody massacres conspired and almost brought to a head for the seizing on and taking the possession of the king, even in England, are witnesses of this beyond exception.
Besides, although the innocence of some particulars may be vindicated, as not being disposed to such horrible attempts; yet this may be asserted, that all the Papists univerversally depend on another sovereign, than that which they have established in the place of their abodes, which is the pope, unto which they render a blind obedience, and who is able to dispense with all sorts of obedience, and oaths of allegiance, and mould all sorts of people and subjects for his own design, and discharge them of their native and established laws, as well secular as ecclesiastic.
On the contrary the reformed Christians serve and yield obedience to their own proper governors, excluding of all others; and that as well out of conscience, as upon account of birthright. The kingdom of God and sound doctrine is by them intirely kept and preserved, and they are independent of any other jurisdiction than that, under which they are constituted, obeying the bad as well as the good; from whence it may be concluded,
That if the Papists, and not the reformed churches, had the authority and power in their hands, there would be no assurance of any government, or any (though never so solid) constitution; the which they would resign to the pope, and call in the Spaniard also, whom they think their only potent supporter and prop of popery, to the utter excluding of the native power, by which they ought to be governed. And oftentimes the pope is altogether swayed by the Spaniard, whose ambition, it is known, has always been greatly aspiring to the monarchy of Christendom; and therefore have indefatigably laboured to destroy all other kingdoms.
Moreover it is evident,
That since the great reformation in the commonwealth of England and Scotland, made through all the corporations, and especially amongst the higher powers with all the members of state, the Papists have had no establishment in Great Britain by the fundamental laws of the land, but have been rejected; what by their being estranged from the word of God, what by their cruel and horrible machinations and deportments, which are too manifest in those late unmerciful persecutions, which a great multitude of protestants suffered under them in Ireland in these late times, which one would have thought ought to have been more moderate. And the said rejection of the Papists so solemnly engaged, that if there has been since that any toleration of any particular persons, it has been no other than by a connivance contrary to open laws.
But as to the reformed in France, what ought they not to seek and obtain for their advantage, not only to give aid and assistance to their kings and princes, known to be the legitimate successors of the government; and that, notwithstanding that, they have been ejected and dispossessed of their natural rights, the Protestants having this to glory of, viz. the conservation and re-establishment of the house of Bourbon, and the preservation of the kingdom from its declining condition, against all the machinations of Spain, and the horrible licences of that confederacy ?
But over and above these public favours, what may not the reformed Protestants pretend to ? and what is not due unto them after such horrible persecutions? And not to repeat those of the poor Albigenses and Waldenses, and which have been followed with cruelty not to be imagined even unto our days; I say, besides such plunderings, murders, burnings, and massacres, be it that of St. Bartholomew's at Paris, be it of all other great cities and other countries, where there may be reckoned more than sixty thousand Protestants to have had their throats cut, at least been put to death at the same time; the which in the stead of this diabolic intention, that these bloody men had to extirpate them, God suffered to increase and augment in such a number, that they were at least able to give laws everywhere, without disloyalty or treason against princes, who under colour of affording them relief, and managing affairs for their restauration, and that under oaths and promises, sold and delivered them up; they should not be now in a declining condition, into which they were reduced, as it were, in a way of kindness and courtesy; but the work of God shall abide for ever. Wherefore they have just cause and right in all points of equity to pretend, that the whole kingdom is deeply engaged to them, and owes to them all parity and equality with all other subjects, with the same prerogatives of other inhabitants, for the reparation and just compensation of their losses, depredations and wrongs, which they have suffered, and of those services, which they have actually performed.
At the least we ought not to think it strange, that the said Protestants should strengthen themselves (as God permits) by any human helps, (while second causes do not resist the first and supreme) and provide before-hand so far, as it is just and equitable, against the rage of the people, which the magistrates repress not with sufficient authority to preserve them in union, which is the strength of a state, seeing that the said Protestants are exposed to such a condition at the present, and such a convenience for their enemies, by the demolishing all their works, that at the first stirring or motion they may be seized upon, or taken openly; for the preventing of which, and for the cause of liberty and safety, divers cities have been surrendered for the security and tranquillity of the states, as well as for the safety of their own particulars, that so the facility of wronging or attaching them being out of the power of the people, by reason of the strength, which the Protestants had in their hands by means of the said cities, the envy, passion, and rage of their evil-willers, was hindered and made invalid, and so the insurrections hindered; which so many times and so often being repeated, have troubled the states; and so by this means peace and tranquillity preserved. But it is now come to pass, that the Protestants have been fraudulently divested and dispossess'd of their cities, and laid waste, and as it were, openly exposed to the fury of their adversaries.
By this I have had nothing from you, but many letters are come to the great disadvantage of the protector; but I will not give credit to any, till yours come; and many others are of the same sense, because we are confident you will write nothing but truth as for such. In several former letters I gave account of all I knew concerning the affairs of R. C. here, to all which I refer you; for since, I have nothing to add of his affairs of certainty, but many rumours, to which I do not give any belief being not well grounded. When I shall find truth or probability, you shall have it.
The emperor, upon the late application of the king of Poland's minister, desires the adjacent countries to consider the power of the Muscovites, and their violence against the Poles, who endeavour always to hold out: so it is thought, they of Poland shall soon be relieved.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
By the post I received yours, and I have not much to write at present, but that our embassador's treaty with your protector is much resented, as to the high demands made by his highness, and, which is more, the equality inter serenissimos, &c. which we in this court cannot swallow; and I doubt, the business will not come to such a conclusion, as expected by many, but time will be drawn from you. Bordeaux was once remanded, and he gave such hopes of finishing his treaty to advantage, that as yet he is permitted to stay there; and if matters fall out well with us here, his stay shall not be long. However of a general peace no thought here; nolumus illam. Our design against Flanders is great, and will cost much money. We expect a rupture in your army, which we value as the only means to break your protector, and not otherwise to be done.
Of R. C. I hear not much. His gallant brother the duke of York arrived here yesterday, beloved and honoured by all, and he deserves it. He studies nevertheless night and day how to return into England. His brother of Gloucester is to be bred a catholic by Wat. Montagu, who is in good esteem in this court. This is intended, if some stratagem of policy hinders it not. All our army go into their winter-quarters as soon as Clermont is taken, and the Irish are now in great esteem here. Their winter-quarters are to be in Champaigne.
Orders are gone to our army in Italy, not to think much of winter-quarters this season; and whatever the common rumours are at this court, I cannot yet give you positive, where the duke of Guise and his army are. Till I be sure of it, I shall be silent; but we are resolved here to have Rome and the pope of our side, whatever it shall cost; and we are not without fear of general Blake and his fleet, to prejudice the duke of Guise's designs.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours of the seventeenth of last month came safe to me, whereby I see all is quiet there, and so like to continue; but others write from thence the contrary, I can assure you, and large demonstrations of it; but the great heads statesmen here say, the protector will carry all in his days, and after his death great troubles shall arise. Much talk of it, and that is all.
Some write, but I cannot believe it yet, that R. C. and the queen of Sweden will come hither, their chiefest business being in order to a general peace. The most forward of all the cardinals to this peace is cardinal Albisio: the rest of the cardinals res proprias curant; and all the cardinals of Spain are silent, either not knowing what to say, or saying, that they can do nothing.
Here, by proclamation, a thousand crowns, and pardon for life, is offered to any, that shall discover the robbers of Donna Olympia's moneys; but that, which may cause you to laugh, as it hath done all Rome, he that took the moneys, being some twenty leagues off, writ a letter to Olympia, seriously exhorting her not to vex any innocents for what he himself had done, and to change all her locks, because he intended again to visit the same places, &c.
Duke de Terra Nova, embassador for Spain here, presented to Donna Olympia four thousand crowns in jewels, since the pope's recovery, who is now very well, and this morning sat in consistory. His niece principissa Rosana, married to his only nephew Camillo Pamphilio, was delivered yesterday of a daughter: a great business here.
Cardinal Antonio Barberini sent a gentleman expresly to the grand duke of Tuscany with a salute; and here old cardinal de Medices was with great pomp to visit the said cardinal Antonio, where the whole train were feasted and banqueted. Of this familiarity betwixt the two eminent French and Spanish cardinals, much is said as to a peace; but I see nothing of it as yet.
The elects of the people, in case of necessity, offer to that viceroy 30,000 men in arms. Some troops of horse are sent to Salerno, and others to Sessa, where thirty carts of ammunition arrived from Naples.
Frangipani, formerly governor of Frankendal in Germany, under the king of Spain, is now made governor of Salerno; and the command of the galleys of Naples is to be given to P. Avelino; and marquis de Bayona shall command the Spanish galleys.
Letters of intelligence.
A letter of intelligence.
Accordinge to promise att our departure, I shall not fayle weekely to corresponde with you; and indeed had not mist last poste, butt that our change of places unsettled all our businesses; butt nowe we begin to fixe, and are resolv'd to staye here, untill we goe a longe journey, and to returne noe more to Aken, findinge this a better place for our business and divertissements, and the magistrates every way as obliginge (if not more) then those of Aken to his majestie, receiving him with 30 piece of cannon or more att his entrance, and next day invitinge him with the ceremony of harangues and accustomary presents of wine in pots, and in some few dayes after payinge that ceremony to the princesse royall; butt we liked the last ceremony best, in runninge two lusty fodders of their choicest wine unto his majesty's cellar. In a word, they are very kind, and this weeke they intend to invite the kinge and the princesse royal to a banquett to the statehouse, and to waite on his majesty thither (as my intelligence sayes) from the court in theire coaches. The churchmen on the other side are as kind theire way: they have not beene scrupulous att all of entertayninge the king in theire severall orders and waies. The Jesuits they began, and wellcomed the king att their colledge with severall harangues and presentations. Amongst the rest, I cannot forgett one passage: uppon his majesty's entrance into the refectory, after many salutes before, there stood prepared to receive him seven boyes richly habited, holdinge in their hands seven shields with the letters Carolus written on them, every one (he with the letter C beginninge) congratulatinge his majestie's welcome thither, and in an instant, turninge them, the word Colonia appeared; and then they all sunge Colonia her wellcomes, bowinge theire knees to the ground. There were after this many other pretty enterteinments of voices, and musick, and speeches, with several impresses too long here to insert, and a banquett after all of the fruites in season. Next was monday (sunday interveninge, when every one attended theire devotions) the king came to the greate church, where all the reliques were set out in the vestry for his enterteinment; and after two cannons of the church in their roabes of crimson velvett (which were earles) opened the tombe of the three kings, a burgemaster and another lord of the towne beinge present (it beinge the custome, whenever that is done, soe to doe, which is very rarely done); after which they tooke leave of his majesty, who returned to court. The remainder of that weeke was spent in visiting of the Carmelites, (where the pope's nuntio mett the king, and the chiefe burgomaster, and the suffragan, where was a banquett of fruites allsoe, and excellent musicke in the church, it being theire greate festival) and in visitinge the Franciscans and the Benedictins (where lies the body of St. Alban the proto-martyr of England); and lastly, in visitinge the Carmelitish nunns. But I cannot ende my diurnall of that weeke, except I tell you of the congratulatory wellcomes and addresses of the elector Collen and duke of Newburgh made the kinge by theire ministers of best quality sent expresse for that purpose, the last excusing his not waitinge on the kinge, as he came through his territories, which had he knowne, he would not have fayled, he said; for the day the kinge went from Aken, he sent his chiefe houff-master to the kinge to Aken, who arrived that night he came thence, there, for that with many other compliments, too longe to sett downe here. Thus much for news. I desire you would nowe addresse your letters for me, to Mr. Anthony Ringe merchant in St. Lawrence-streete, and to doe me the favour to write to your correspondent in England to be careful of my wive's letters, and send them in your pacquett. I sent two letters of yours from Aken inclosed in mine from thence, directed to your father-in-lawe for you. I shall nott fayle you weekely from hence; and you may be sure, what commands you have else for me, I shall be punctual in beinge
Cullen, October 20. 1654. [N. S.]
A paper of the commissioners of Overyssel.
The lords Ripperda and vander Beeke, commissioners of the province of Overyssel, have in the name and on the behalf of the states of Overyssel their principals, made known to the assembly of their high and mighty lordships, that upon the 29/9. Sept./Oct. 1654. the commissioners of the members of the states of Overyssel, who had separated themselves the last general assembly at Deventer, have had a conference, to make mutual propositions for the removing of the present differences, that reign amongst them at present; but that the commissioners of the separate members did propose unreasonable propositions, and would no wise hearken to the reasonable propositions of the other side: that thereupon an unlawful assembly was held on wednesday last by the separated members, and there the lord prince of Orange was chosen stadtholder of the province of Overyssel, and lord prince William of Nassau his lieutenant-stadtholder; and that by them are intercepted, and as yet detained, their high and mighty lordships letters, and orders sent to the militia in Overyssel to command them to desist from all manner of hostility: that also lieutenant Meyer at Hasselt, in the absence of his captain, did require powder and shot of the commissioners there, saying, that he had received order lately to march very suddenly towards Twent: and that the lords their principals do hear, that there are other captains, that have received the like order; whereby we presume, that the separated members are resolved to execute their designs by force of arms. Wherefore the lords their principals have desired, that the same might be made known to your high and mighty lordships, and that some speedy course may be taken to prevent all apparent dangers, as they in their wisdoms shall think fit.
The count de Bonneau to Mons. Datin.
We expect to hear, what is become of our fleet, which was to go to Brest. On saturday next I shall know, what resolution they have taken. The merchants, that trade abroad, do admire at their frequent losses; and that nothing is done against the English. It was hoped, that all would be suddenly remedied through an accommodation with us; but I perceive by your letters, that the business is still prolonged.
Intercepted letters. To Dr. S. Barbe.
The armies of the king and prince lie within two leagues of each other, both about Cambresis. They talk of fighting; but it is generally believed, that neither party have any mind to fight any more this campaign. The prince's army is said to be the strongest in number; and that the king's army is distressed for provisions. The king is every day expected at Paris, where, it is feared, will again be some commotion, if not prevented by his speedy repair thither. A general discontent reigneth through all sorts of people.
To Monsieur Ouitte.
The court will be here on saturday night. Some report they will lay siege to some place; but I hold it impossible for want of forage. We dispose all here to pass the winter in mirth, having so well behaved ourselves this campaign.
Advice of the council of state to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
We have read the inclosed resolution of the twentieth of this month with the inclosed proposition of the lords Ripperda and vander Beeke, tending to the end, that three companies of horse and four of foot may be sent unto Deventer, only to be employed in their defence against all acts of hostility. We have also read the further orders, resolutions, and letters of the lords states of Overyssel. Having fully considered of all things, we do conceive (under correction) to forbear sending yet a while any soldiers to Deventer; but in the mean time earnestly desire the lords states of the province of Overyssel to desist on both sides from all acts of hostility, and to accommodate the differences amongst them in a peaceable and quiet way: and for the furthering thereof, that they would be pleased to accept of the interposition and mediation of some commissioners to be sent thither, only receiving them as mediators, without any prejudice to the sovereignty of their noble great lordships.
The enemy proceeds no further, but keeps Szklow, Smolensko, and Dambrownuna besieged, which places will now shortly be relieved, our army being in a manner bastant, and resolved to encounter the enemy. The plague is said to be exceeding strong amongst the Muscovites. The loss of their general's son, who was slain before Wittebsko, causeth great alteration amongst them.
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
We have had no letters from you by this post; and we do comfort ourselves, that no body else had any from England. I did not expect the conclusion of your negotiation, since it was deferred till the parliament met. It may now continue till they dissolve; and you are already so accustomed to patience, that six months more or less will not cause you to wonder. I know not whether it is not for me to complain of the tediousness of your treaty; for although it was concluded, yet you would not be at liberty to return into France. You must begin to keep a correspondence between the nations, after you have procured their amity. There is no body so fit as yourself; but I do persuade myself, if your work were done, I should have a door open to obtain my dismission.
We have nothing of news, but the heat, which doth increase about the difference between the members of the province of Overyssel. At the beginning it was only a contest about the election of the drossart of Twent; but one of the parties, who was already the strongest in number, hath strengthened themselves by nominating the prince of Orange for governor of the province, and count William to officiate till he be of age. That lord is of late made prince of the empire. The other party, which is of the city of Deventer, and of the chief of the nobles, hath recourse to the province of Holland, fearing that their adversaries will take up arms, and will force them to receive this earl for their governor. You see how insensibly the difference doth fall upon the question of the house of Orange. And certainly, if it be not remedied, all the provinces will partake of it, and it will at last end in a civil war, which would be a signal unhappiness, and which must be timely prevented through prudence.
But it is so commonly, that states engage themselves: God preserve these provinces from such a blindness. In the mean time Holland hath called their assembly of states to meet speedily upon this occasion. The business of Bremen doth remain in the same condition. The new queen of Sweden was embarked at Holstein the fifteenth of this month. I wonder that the king of Sweden would not give audience to Mons. d'Avaugour, by reason his credentials were not in that form as they desire them. It is a symptom of their northern flegm to be tied to such punctualities. They write me word, that the king of Sweden, upon the advice, that the Muscovites have had some advantage in Lithuania against the Polanders, hath sent 8000 men to watch the frontiers of Lithuania, which is prudently done.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to count de Charost, governor of Calais.
After I have given you humble thanks for the continuation of your remembrance, there is no other news remaining for me to write, than the continuation of the indisposition of the lord protector, which the common reports of the people do make greater than it is in effect; for this night he was to receive a visit from one of the embassadors of the states, who hath leave to return home. Another maketh account to follow them very suddenly; and the lord Beverning will remain here alone. The fleet of Blake was forced to come to an anchor upon the English coast. It hath been good weather since; so that it is likely it is gone to sea. The other is still repairing. The parliament, during the sickness of the protector, hath not resolved upon any thing considerable. The earl of Montecuculi is still here; and my negotiation is in the same condition, as my foregoing will have informed you; but I hope it will have such an end, as will permit you to pass the winter at Paris.
Mr. Charles Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Here is not yet any newes, wher the French ar landed. The catholik faith of this place is, that they ar desyned for Puglia: one reson is, that the fleete has again bin met on the west syd of Sardinia, going the way thether. Another reson is, that the French, undertaking a winter's expedition, must needs be bound thither; for that only contry of the kingdom of Naples cannot receiv an army in the sommer for want of water, there being nether wels, springs, or rivers. They had no other then rain-water; so that it is only invadable in the winter-seson. We hav latly had very fowle and tempestuous wether; so 'tis a question, whether they be not wrakt by the way. We hear nothing what passes betwixt the Spanyard and Genowes.
Upon the hyh fortune of the French, and theyr great victory at Arras, the cardinal de
Medici in Rom has made frendship with the cardinal Barbarini, being the heads of the
Spanish and French factions. You may se thes wyse Itallian princes wil be nether of the
French nor Spanish party longer then it turns there to account. 'Tis reported, the Genowes;
prince of Parma, and duk of Modena, hav al given fre pas for the French horse throh
theyr contry. Here is som reports, the Pimontes begin to quarrel with their masters the
French, and grow wery of theyr protection. I am,
Leghorn, 23. October, 1654. [N. S.]
News from Paris sent to Mr. Stouppe.
The king was expected in this city; but his return hath been delayed, because that all the waggons of the king and queen, the duchess of Anjou, and of all the court, were given to make a convoy to carry to Quesnoy. And since it is known, that the prince of Condé had taken most part of those waggons.
The duke of Mercœur is to take possession of the office of colonel of the French horse, which was promised to the marshal of Turenne, and refused to the duke of Longueville, who had asked for his son the earl of Dunois.
The letters from Bordeaux say, that the castle Trompette was at last finished to be fortified; that Mons. d'Estrade, their perpetual mayor, had caused some cannons to be brought, which he had caused to be bought in Holland; that those, which had sold them to him, had brought them under pretence to come and buy some wine; that that mayor had caused them to be brought by night in that castle, fearing an uproar of the people, because the inhabitants had refused to give him those, which belong to them, which are in the townhouse.
The count de Charost, governor of Calais, to Monsieur de Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
By reason I was not certain, whether the king and the cardinal were at Paris or at la Fere, I thought it my best course to send yours to Mons. Colbert, who will have a care to dispatch them to the court, and to press for an answer. I wonder they still keep you in suspense, and delay your negotiation with continual pretences, and that they do frame every day new difficulties. I do not understand what the earl of Montecuculi can do in England; for to take any command upon him there, it is not likely. The king will stay some few days at Paris, and will then go afterwards to Fontainebleau.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
You have formerly seen a sheet printed, containing the examinations, which have been taken against the lord Haersolte, called drossart of Twent. This citation, No. 1. is to admonish him to answer to those crimes, wherewith he is charged, or else there will be a more special and ample writing divulged against him. There is at present a general meeting at Zwoll, but those of Deventer are not at it. On the contrary those of Deventer have writ a letter of thanks to the states general, declaring, that they accept of the offer of the states general, No. 2.
They have writ to the elector of Brandenburgh, as is to be seen in the inclosed copy, No. 3. however I do not know, whether these confiding persons will be embassadors to go to Vienna, or whether they will be commissioners to confer only with his electoral highness.
There is an act permissive sent to the lord Jongestal to return home, and also a warrant to all men of war to transport him. It is a strange thing, that there is yet no refutation come forth in print against the deduction of Holland. It is true, that a sheet containing a counter-calculation is come forth, concerning the expences made by the prince of Orange, which you have seen. However it is said of a certainty, that there will appear very shortly a manifesto, under the name of the states of Friseland, which will be the refutation of the deduction of Holland.
There is yet no provincial advice come from the province of Utrecht concerning the seclusion; and I believe, that will be forgotten. In the mean time I do perceive, that 173 do endeavour to cog, collegue, or flatter a little 149. I do not know, whether it be in earnest, or whether it be to separate them from 148, and the interests of 148; but we shall see shortly by the counter-deduction of Friseland, how it stands.
There is yet no news of the arrival of the commissioners of this state in the dukedom of Bremen, much less whether and how they be received or admitted. It is clearly seen, that the Swedes will not admit them for mediators, in regard the Swedes do pretend the city to be subject unto them, and do hold this difference as domestic. And as for the commissioners of the elector of Brandenburgh, and of Lubeck, and Hamburgh, they have admitted them as assistants, not as interposers.
Those of Friseland have complained to the states general, how that several scandalous books are put forth against the house and person of the princes of Orange and Nassau, desiring, that they may be prevented by a placart or otherwise.
Now is come advice, that the four members of Overyssel (Sallant, Vollenhove, Campen, and Zwoll) making the plurality, have named the prince of Orange for stadtholder, and prince William his lieutenant. This will cause some new trouble and disturbance.
The difference of Overyssel is not yet composed. The states of the province (that is, the plurality) have writ a very serious letter to the states general, containing very expressive terms, and which do render the other, or those that share in the opposition, very criminal. Yea one of the states general, after the reading of the letter, said, that many had been hanged on a gallows, who had never trespassed so much as these men accused in that letter No. 4.
Upon which the council of state, into whose hands those two papers were delivered, hath advised, as is to be seen in this paper N. 6. which very likely the states general will assent unto. Those of Holland are perplexed, by reason that those of Overyssel do set down in their letter, that they will accept of the mediation, upon condition, that the other provinces will also by a resolution promise the said interposition, also assistance to any city or cities, which may separate from the other cities; a business which may redound very much to the prejudice of the province of Holland, who are not altogether of the mind concerning the seclusion.
The raedt-pensionary hath been absent for this fortnight, making love to the daughter of the deceased burgo-master, John Bicker, at Amsterdam. One of his friends told me, that the Bickers, at least those that had any credit, were dead; that their name is not acceptable; that the raedt-pensionary can have no great assistance of the Bickers, nor love of the people. But it is no matter; the Bickers are very much allied at Amsterdam, and also at Dort: that is no small matter.
The company of East-India hath sent hither some of their commissioners, to make known, that by the old resolutions the state is obliged to give to the company the 2/3 of the sum, which they have paid, and are to pay, to the English for the business of Amboyna.
A letter of intelligence.
This weeke yeelds not much of newes; but it may be, in some tyme after the arrival of the ambassador Jongestal, you may have more of newes. Likewise the goinge of your greate fleete and land armie once out of sight may add to newes here, because the house of Orange are still busie, and hoped more divisions nowe in England than it seems are or shall be.
Tuesday last the lord Riperda come to this court, and brought the news, that the states of Overyssel divided, as you had before, into two parties, being but six in all, of which four of the one and two of the other. The four elected the younger prince of Orange for their captain-general and admiral-general, and count William of Nassau his lieutenantgeneral, during his minority. The two did protest against this resolution of the four; but the four, being more in number, intend to compel these two to a concurrence with them. And to that end this lord Riperda is come hither from the four, and demanded the states generals assistance and interposition. Whereupon great contestation has been in the assembly of the states, and high language passed, every one seeking to support best his own party and faction, which is not wanting among them. At length, after all their debates, they could not agree, and therefore the business referred at present to the council of state. What they shall do in it, tyme will let us see.
The deputies of Friesland complained in the assembly, that daily scurrilous libels by seditious persons were printed and spread against, and to the great prejudice and dishonour of the prince of Orange, and the whole house of Nassau; and desired therefore, that the placarts against such infamous libels should be put into execution. The province of Holland, though authors of them, well dissembled the matter, and expressed much of their displeasure against such libellers, and would pursue them with the greatest rigour; and in order to it would have search made, and the penalties expressed in the placarts severely put in execution.
I have seen a letter from our embassadors in England, dated at Westminster the ninth
of October, to the states general. It contains only some passages there of the parliament,
protector, and such-like in one part, and the other is of the treaty of maritime affairs;
all which you have best there; and I do not see any cause to send the extracts of them
to you, because I have always observed since the conclusion of the peace, that Beverning
and Nieuport write favourably as in any thing relates indifferently to the protector or
council. Many letters they have written, to which Jongestal, when there, did not subscribe. This is all this week yields to, Sir,
An intercepted letter of Sir W. Vane to Sir H. Vane.
Here is a flying report of the fleet's being gone to sea again, which makes every body very curious to know the course they steer. It is feared here, the protector will fall foul with the French, and that Bordeaux hath his time for his retreat limited. It startles the governors, by reason of the necessity of the alliance with France, and their almost impossibility of their being neuters. The last week the prince of Orange was declared by the province of Overyssel their stadtholder; count William, during his minority, his lieutenant. This resolution hath been occasioned by a division of the province concerning the giving of an office. The stronger party, the better to maintain choice, hath done it. It hath surprised those of Holland, and hath made the council summon an assembly in very great haste. They are to meet next tuesday. Though this province be the least, yet examples having governed much here: it is feared the rest of the provinces may follow, there being very great inclinations amongst the most of them for it.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Brienne.
In answer to your letter I do assure your lordship, that I will do my utmost endeavour, and use all my industry, to conclude the treaty upon the conditions his majesty can desire; but by reason of the long conferences, which I have already had with this government, it is very easy to understand what may be expected from them, which will be no more than what I have formerly made known unto your lordships, and I do think it will be in vain to expect more from them now. However I will do my endeavour to the best of my skill, to satisfy his majesty's intentions. I do not see, that it is necessary to make mention of the queen, of her domestics, and the officers that serve in the troops of his majesty, since that the article will not be set down in general terms; and that in the memorandum of those, that are desired to be sent out of the kingdom, there is not one of them, that is in the one or the other service; but without doubt, the sending away of all envoys of Mousieur the prince, and other rebels, will not be contested. The relative clause in the antient alliances between France and Scotland will receive more of difficulties; and also it is needless to insist upon it, since it hath been so often rejected, when I have proposed it; and since now the treaty doth only regard the revocation of the letters of marque, and the establishment of commerce, which they have interrupted, one may presuppose, that it will not give any pretence to all the antient treaties made between France, England, and Scotland.
As to the arbitrage of the city of Hamburgh, I have formerly explained myself, that the intention of the king was not to submit to it any other difference than the valuation of the merchandizes, that have been taken at sea. The commissioners did not go beyond that restriction, nor did I ever understand, that their intention was to do otherwise. I have not failed to insert the necessary clause to hinder that, in case the commissioners and arbitrators shall not judge and determine the differences in the time agreed on, that then however no new letter of marque shall be granted, to which the commissioners have given their hands; but they will not bind themselves in case of contravention, for want of executing the treaty.
I did also think it necessary to reject the two articles, which did limit the authority of the king upon the establishing of impositions, although the equality was offered, confessing well enough the difference, that there is between the commerce of France and England; and without doubt, this state would not have made new instances upon that point, if the interests of the king had permitted to defer for some time the augmentation of the customs upon foreign merchandizes.
My commissioners complained to me, and amongst the people they make use of this consideration to cool the heat, that the people of England doth declare to have to see the commerce with France and the liberty of transporting the cloth of England established. Those of Jersey, amongst the rest, do make great endeavours to this council for the discharge of the impositions put upon the stockens; and without doubt, as I promised to write on their behalf, I shall be pressed for some answer: what doth concern in general the laws of commerce, I shall not have much trouble to reduce them conformably to the antient treaties, since in that, which is proposed unto me, there is no mention made of it; and that they do presuppose, that by making to cease the acts of hostility, and the letters of marque, the people of the one and the other nation may continue it after the same manner, as they did it before the last times.
I am advertised from several places, and it is every day confirmed to me, that the fleet of general Blake hath order to fight that of the duke of Guise; as also that the English have taken Canada: yea the pamphlets of London do publish it; and by reason that I cannot plead ignorance, it would be in some kind to cover the action by passing in silence a proceeding, which doth give cause to believe, that they seek rather war than peace. But I do not believe, that it is the mind of the parliament: and that I may profit by their sitting, I must henceforward press all manner of ways the conclusion of the treaty.
The protector is said to be discontented at the vote, that passed lately, for having the protectorship elective, and that he will endeavour to have it recalled; but his friends through policy say, he never desired to have that dignity settled upon him and his posterity. They talk here still of the design of their fleet; but some do suppose, the raising of men is merely to increase their number of forces by land.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to his father.
Your last letter doth begin with reproaching my little resolution in the publick affairs; mais les despeches de la cour m'accusent, & mesme son eminence s'en est expliquée en plein conseil, que j'avois trop pressé la conclusion du traicté, & depuis deux mois toutes les despesches de Mons. de Brienne m'obligent d'agir avec plus de reserve, que par le passé, d'où vous pouvez juger le fondement, qu'll y a de m'accuser de bassesse & irresolution, quand au discours de de Bas de moi ils ne sont en aucune consideration; & j'ai de quoy me satisfaire; puisque son E. ne desapprouve pas ma conduite, & qu'en effect les delays; dont l'on use, ne peuvent m'estre attribues par ceux, qui ont quelque connoissance de ma negotiation & des esprits de ce pais. L'exemple de Munster est beau, mais ne fait rien pour le traicté d'Angleterre. Je pourrois alleguer beaucoup des differences, si mes affaires particulieres m'en obligoient pas de venir au traicté.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Chanut, the French embassador in Holland.
I cannot yet write you the end of my negotiation, although that on monday last I had a conference of five hours with my commissioners. All the time was spent in debate of the articles formerly mentioned. As I treat with persons, who have not the power to change a syllable in the writings, which they bring, the first difficulty doth oblige them to go to council, to the oracle, which doth not a little prolong our business.
The lord Jongestal, who is gone from hence this day, will inform you of the news of this country, having assured me, that he would not fail to see you. He had conceived some jealousies of late, through the often visits, which his collegues had made without his knowledge: but I believe he is in the wrong. I must give this testimony, that during the course of his negotiation he did appear very zealous for the interest of France, and with a great correspondence. I hope you will renew the thanks, which I have already given him.
The lord Nieuport doth also pretend to retreat very suddenly; so that there will only remain here the other two. This is without doubt on purpose, to bring all in subjection of Holland. I am still of your opinion, that our business will end in peace. This council hath not yet resolved what they will do with the salt-ships.
The parliament is daily busy about matters of no consequence. There was spoke in the parliament concerning a successor; four or five were nominated, and amongst them the captain of the guard. The protector is said to be very ill; but I hear the contrary. Admiral Blake, being driven back upon the coasts, is gone to sea again.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to count de Charost, governor of Calais.
This last ordinary brought me a letter from the court, and now it will only depend upon the lord protector, either to determine well or ill. I am persuaded, that we are not to suffer ourselves to be injured and plundered any longer. They do publish here, that the fleet of Blake hath order to fight that of the duke of Guise. The lord protector is now in perfect health. The parliament is still debating of the articles of the instrument. They have referred to the council of state the election of the protector in the intervals of parliament; but the parliament doth pretend the establishing of the said council; so that by that means they will reserve to themselves indirectly the choice of the protector. The place is fine enough to merit the suffrages of all the people.