A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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October (3 of 5)
An intercepted letter.
This city is very long; and certainly from the end of one suburb to the other at least six miles, but it is narrow. There is nothing so pleasant about it, as the shore upon the Thames, and the view of all the ships there. There is never a key; the houses are built to the very water-side. The nobility lodge in the suburbs, which is the best part of the city; but there is not one good house amongst them, not the king's palace itself, none of them being completely fair: but surely the place hath some resemblance to Paris. There is a special convenience of the coaches, which attend at every corner of the streets, and will be hired, as long as you please, for about three shillings of Flemish money for the first hour, and two shillings an hour after. There is infinitely more dirt than in Paris; and who had seen it in the king's time, and looked upon it now, would discern a great change in it. There are in it few or no persons of quality, most of them being ruined and reduced to a rustic kind of life. We have not yet seen the protector: he doth as yet keep his bed of his fall. I fear we shall not see him at all; which is a great affliction to us.
Sir Benjamin Wright to secretary Thurloe.
My laste unto your honour was of the seventh of this month, since when I have received a letter from my brother of the 4th of September, advizeinge me of the receite and delivery of mine unto your honour of the fifth and nineteenth of August; and therefore I dout not but all others as I have sente unto him for your honor will come safe into your hands; and that you wil be pleased to favour me with yours, wherby I may remayne assured, that mine hath and wil be acceptable unto your honor. In my laste I signified unto you the care wee were in heere for not haveinge then received advize of the arrivall of the shipp, that carried the monies from Cadiz to Flaunders; but now we have certayne niewes of her arrivall ther, God be praysed. The cardinall de Retz is to goe from San Sebastian to Valentia, without comeinge to Madrid, and ther to embarke for Rom in two gallies, that this kinge furnisheth his eminency with, haveinge likewise furnished him with a great summe of monies towards the defrayinge the charges of his journey; for wee heere give the pope for dead. This king hath called the kingdome to cortes; the which is, as your parliament of England, composed of two burgeoises out of every cittie and towne in the kingdomes of Castil and Leon, that hath voyce in the cortes; and they are to begin on the eighth of December nextt. In them the princess of Spaigne is to be sworne for queene, in case the kinge her father, to whom God give many years of life and heyres males, shall dye without leavinge any. His majestie also will demand in them from the kingdome a donative of five millions, in regard of his great necessitie and expences, his domestick and forraigne warres; as also that they doe perpetuate some former donatives graunted. This is the cause of callinge these cortes, as is generaly reported.
In the month of June, 1652. the kinge commanded the brasse-monie (that for manie yeers has gone current in this kingdome) called the Calderilla monie, to be cried doune, and carried into his mint-houses; but no man did carry it in, imagininge, that it was cryed downe to be made current agayne, as soone as the kinge should have it all in his owne possessione; and so wee may imagine it was to be, by what we have seene; for the twelfth of this month ther cam forth a proclamation, commandinge upon great penalties, that every man, whosoever had of that monie, should carrie it into the minte-houses within thirty dayes; and that the kinge would pay them the one halfe of its worth; and givinge it a niew seale or marke, make it passe agayne at the same price it passed before it was cryed downe in the year 1652. But the people is not contented thus to loose the one halfe of their estates; and as yett none carrieth in the monies. By this your honor will see how things are carried heere soe much to the dislikeinge of the people, that more cannot be.
Much talke there is of a great change to be made of the ministers; to say the president of Castil, beinge a churchman, shall be made a bishop, though against his will; and in his place cometh the condé de Ognate, esteemed to be one of the wisest men in Spaigne; and indeed he gave testimonie thereof dureinge his vizereynatoship at Naples. The marquis de Leganes, now presidente of the council of Italy, shal be made mayor domo mayor to the kinge; and in his place entreth el condé de Penaranda, now president of the councell of Indias; and to governe that councell, goeth Don Fernando Ruez de Contreras, cheefe secretary de la camera; and some four or five councellars of the councell real are to be jubilar'd. And yett notwithstandinge all this change, I dout the affayres of the kingdome will not better. The French in Catalunia hath beseeged a towne called Puchardan, and it is to be douted, that they will take it; for wee have no army ther to oppose them.
The duke of Lorraigne, prisoner in Toledo, as in my former I have advized your
honor, has now leave to walke the streets of the cittie, and two of the king's coaches
to attend him with guardas de Vista, continually, day and night. He is mightily
dejected, and cannot refrayne his passion and tears, though he be in publicke. This
people doth nowe speake publickely, that your great fleete of shipps is designed for the
island of Santo Domingo in the Weste Indias, and already giveth it for lost. Yf it doth,
the estates and persons of all the English in the king's dominions wil be ceazed upon.
The differrence 'twixtt Spaigne and Genoa is still treateinge of in a junta, wherin entreth
the marques des Leganes, condé de Onate, and the condé de Penaranda, with a counsellor
of the councell of Italy. They meete dayly with the embassadour, but as yett have
concluded on notheinge; and moste men are of the opinion, that they will come to a
breach of the peace. This is what I have to advize your honor, and that I remayne
Your Honor's most humble
and affectionate servant,
President Violé to the marquis of Barriere.
The French army is marched towards Clermont. His highness the prince doth intend to follow them, and to attempt the retaking of Quesnoy. It is very likely, that this campaign is almost at an end, and that the French are drawing to their winterquarters.
Intelligence from several parts.
Yours are come safe to me, and the letters directed to Cologne and Vienna are sent as accustomed; and your correspondents letters from those places you have herewith. The great rumours, that were of the protector's being slain, and his children, are now vanished here; and I hope little or no credit shall be given hereafter to such, being so frequently found false.
This last week yields no great matters. Here is a report, as if the queen of Sweden would interpose for a peace betwixt the two Southern crowns; but I have no assurance of it: wherefore I leave it so at present. Count Tot, of whom in my former, is still at Antwerp, and said he will sojourn there some time, to bear the queen company; and nothing more yet said of his negotiation, but what you had in my former letters. Of marquis de Leda's going embassador extraordinary to the protector, I hear not any thing lately.
The archduke has been indisposed, but now mended, and walks abroad to take the air and his pleasure. If any troubles shall happen in Germany, we are afraid his highness shall go thither, for which we should be sorry here, because the rest of the commanders here after him will never agree.
Monsr le Prince,
We are well informed of all the transactions before Arras and other places in Flanders, and especially your worth, valour, and gallantry, as also fidelity in my service, beyond all the rest of my commanders there. And as for that remains of my forces and places there, I owe all to you, &c. Signed, I the King.
This letter was very sensible to the other generals here, only owning the glory, honour, and generosity of a stranger, and nothing of themselves. However, the said prince doth promise, that this winter he will recover Quesnoy and all other places taken by marshal Turenne in Flanders; which he may easily do, Quesnoy being taken. As for the posture of our army and the enemy's, it is thus at present:
The French are retreated further towards France for forage, which they wanted, and left three hundred horse and foot in Quesnoy in garison, and to keep the country in contribution. This army passed not over the river Leur, betwixt Guise and La Chapelle, as was believed they would.
The troops of marshal de la Ferté Senneterre are advanced towards Clermont, and those
of Guienne are come to Turenne in their places, being near equal in number. This is
what occurs this week: what the next week shall produee, you shall have from,
Richelieu to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
The poets have feigned many stories of the voyage of Ulysses, whom they made to pass through many ways and passages, which were not in his way from Troy to Ithaca, which lay not far distant one from another, to have been so long a time about it. The same hath been practised at present about the cardinal de Retz, who was said to be gone to Dunkirk; from thence to Hamburgh. Some said he was gone from Belleisle towards Italy in an English vessel. He was said to be landed at St. Sebastian: he was said to be met within eight leagues of Rome: in short, he hath been made an ubiquitary; so that there is no certainty where he is. The common reports speak him to be at Rome. And this I am also told to be true, by a person of quality, one of his intimate friends. If he be arrived there, he will have found the pope not dead, as the letters advised from thence, but full of life; and that his holiness hath taken care for his subsistence. This gentleman went something further, and told me, that this news being arrived here at court, it had caused some moderation there; and that his greatest enemies began to speak for him. The king is to arrive here to-day.
On tuesday last he was at Meudon; and as he was coming home, his coach overturned in the street about seven o'clock at night: he was slightly hurt in the head, M. Pepin in the shoulder, and I in both my legs. We made as good an escape as my lord protector, who, by the going off the pistol he had in his pocket, doth declare to stand in fear.
Brienne to Bordeaux.
I know not whether my lord cardinal hath received the letter, which I do presuppose, and with certainty, that you writ to him the day of the date of that, which I have received since my arrival in this city, which was the day before yesterday: but I could wish he had, for it would have been for the service of his majesty, that I had been at court; for the affairs contained in your letter are of that importance, that they cannot be resolved but by a full council. But all what I can tell you upon the one and the other of those affairs, do not engage yourself to say any thing more than what you have resolved on; but expect a full answer to your letter. And as for the differences of particulars, there might be commissioners named, and we might hope, in case the English came to the conference with an equal intention, as ours have, that satisfaction would be given to the interested. I make no doubt, but his majesty doth approve of the compliment, which you have made to the protector, for the accident happened unto him. There are letters, which do represent the business far worse, and of a worse consequence, than what yours do. That, which doth surprise me, is, that he carrieth arms hid about him for his defence; but whosoever will be feared of many, is subject also to stand in fear of many.
Monsieur Petit to Monsieur Augier.
The business of St. Malo was three days since reported in the council by M.d'Orgeval master of requests, who will not yet be named. He carried it on with an English fervour, and as though he had been waged by us: but the business was referred to the upper council, as being a state's business, and of great importance, where the said M. d'Orgeval is to report and maintain it with all his power, as soon as the king shall be arrived; questioning not but that we shall have the upper hand, in spite of all the Maloins strivings.
Those of the house of Vendosme do still exceedingly curse the English, to see that one should suffer to be continually taken by them, without that one durst take them: on the contrary, restore what hath been taken upon them, instead of using reprisals against them.
A letter of intelligence from Monsieur Augier's secretary.
The last article of the here inclosed gazette will tell you of the escheat received in Italy by the Spaniards, whereof I made mention in my last. The particulars we have thereof with divers letters, are, that the marshal of Granday, entering into the Milanois, had met with the fore-guard of the marquis of Caracena, and had routed it upon its retreat into the junction of the rest of the army, which he had also caused to withdraw, with the loss of above three or four thousand Spaniards slain, and five hundred taken prisoners, with two pieces of ordnance; but not without a considerable loss for the French, wish whose success the Genoese seemed to be well pleased, in the discontent they had always of the Spaniards; the same letters adding, that the pope was still better and better, and that they had seen from the said city of Genoa the army of the duke of Guise passing near the island of Sardinia, without being able to march on which side it drew: all which news do exceedingly rejoice this court; as well as the great relief entered into Quesnoy, without that Mons le prince hath assaulted it, although it passed but a league and a half distant from his camp.
In consequence of the arrival of that relief, the marshal of Turenne seeing he could not easily keep Château-Cambresis, he hath, as I am informed, caused the works he had made therein to be cut off; and that he hath for certain dislodged with his army, and hath passed between Guise and the Châtelet; which hath obliged M. le prince to do the same, and go towards Maubeuge, as he hath done.
The king of Spain hath written a very courteous letter unto that prince, in these terms: "I have informed myself of all, and all has been told me; and as to the remainder, "I owe it unto God and to your valour. I the king, &c." So that it is said, that prince is so much the more pleased, that the states of Flanders do also attribute to him much glory of that action of Arras, and offer to second him so far as to furnish him wherewithal to keep his troops in action all the winter upon the frontier, to free themselves of the disorder of the winter-quarters, desiring only, that their moneys be well managed and distributed by commissioners, which they will nominate to that purpose. It is written moreover from the said prince's camp, that the queen of Sweden was to go thither; and that Pimentelli was to return from Madrid towards that princess. Whereupon it is told me, that the said Pimentelli returning by her, he is to make some propositions of peace from the said king of Spain, though it should only be to give some jealousy unto England.
Their majesties are still expected here to-day or to-morrow from Chantilli, where they arrived three days since. In the interim my lady Montail, wife to the governor of Rocroy, hath been made prisoner in a house of our suburbs of St. Germain. She came from Auvergne, with a pass from the king, to withdraw herself to the said Rocroy; and this by the chancellor's orders, who after he had seen the said pass, said, that they should notwithstanding keep the said lady until his majesty's arrival.
His said majesty doth exceedingly press the duke of Orleans to agree with cardinal Mazarin, and to write unto him the first; but this duke would not yet do it, saying, he would enterprize nothing against him, nor against the royal wills, if so be they are to maintain and approve his ministry; but that it is impossible for him to be his friend.
His royal highness doth still pass his time at Blois. The prince of Conti hath of late dispatched a gentleman unto him, to pray him to consent, that he should preside in the states of Lauguedoc, according to the commission the king hath sent him thereof; but that gentleman has been scoffed at by his said highness, asking him amongst other things, whether it were true, that the said prince his master had married, as was said, unto a Mazarin: and I am informed, that the said gentleman hath withdrawn himself without any other answer.
We have had news, that the said prince of Conti is better; and that almost all his army was tyed to Puicerda, with likelihood of a happy success, having in the interim taken some castles near that place.
You may see by the gazette of Paris cardinal Retz's march from St. Sebastian to Madrid, at the beginning of last month; which does notwithstanding not hinder this court from thinking him past from thence into Italy. Cardinal Mazarin could not, as I hear, come to any agreement with the marquis of Noirmoutier to render Mont-Olympe; which he saith he will keep as well as any other for his majesty's service. In the interim his eminency is said to have bought the dukedom of Rethel; and that he will cause Clermont to be besieged again by the marquis of la Ferté Senneterre.
A letter of intelligence.
We hear of a misfortune befallen the lord protector, for playing the coachman. He had better have sat in his chair in the painted chamber to govern the parliament, which is more pliable to his pleasure, than in the coach-box to govern his coach-horses, which have more courage to put him out of the box, than the three hundred members of parliament have to put him out of his chair. Est malum omen, & ab animalibus for san discent exemplum; qui sedit, videat ne cadat. We hear your fleet is gone to sea; at which I do not much trouble my wit: for if I live, I shall hear the success. If the prince had been master of the army at Arras, perhaps ere now it had changed masters; sed sero sapiunt Hispani; yet better late than never.
The court arriveth here this night, having been since wednesday at Chantilli, a house formerly belonging to Condé. The army will speedily retire to winter-quarters. A strong garison is left at Quesnoy, which causeth contribution far and near. The marshal of Turenne's nephew is appointed governor. The marshal is made colonel general of the horse of France. The prince of Condé hath got more Irish, than he lost at the rout of Arras. We do not yet hear, for whom Belle-isle declares; only it holds itself refractory to our commands. It is certain, that cardinal de Retz is near or at Rome. We have made a shift to get Mont-Olympe of the marquis of Noirmoutier. Montbazon is dead, aged 84 years: his son the prince of Guisnes succeeds in his charge of grand veneur of France, and is to wear horns at his gate, as his father did, in signum of his charge. His government of Isle de France is given to marshal d'Estrée, and the survivance to his son, paying to Montbazon's heirs eighty-five thousand crowns.
The marriage between madam Longueville and the duc de Nemours is concluded; and Mazarin now archbishop of Rheims, and premier duc and pair of France thereby. Marshal de Grande hath given a defeat to the Spaniards commanded by the marquis de Corasen in Milan, 7000 slain and taken prisoners. Sir James Preston, who commanded five regiments of foot and five of horse, did wonders in that execution: this is certain. Now they have the passage free to Alexandria and Genoa, where Don Augustino de Spinola is made doge, that is, the chiefest. The duke of Guise is gone to sea with 7500 effective men, and 600 voluntiers.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to cardinal Mazarin.
I have not much to add to my former letters, which I writ by the last post to M. de Brienne, concerning my negotiation, there being nothing passed since the conference on monday; but I am since confirmed in the opinion, that they are indifferently inclined and disposed here to an accommodation. I shall do all that I can to manage all the advantages, which may render the accommodation more agreeable to the mind and desire of his majesty. Since the indisposition of his highness, the parliament hath not passed any thing of consequence; and although there are a great many members, that have signed the Engagement, and sit in the parliament, with a contrary affection to his interests, yet it is not seen, that they have acted any thing against him. The common report is, that he is yet indisposed of his fall, and that it will confine him to his bed and chamber for some longer time; and that he hath now-and-then a fever, and sometimes fits of the stone and rheum, which is fallen into his leg, that is hurt; but having sent yesterday a gentleman to inquire after his health, the lord Pickering, who received my compliment, sent word, he was pretty well. The secretary is still indisposed. The preparations for the other fleet continue still. Blake was fain to return back again upon the English coasts: I believe he is gone away. Since, the lords embassadors of the lords states do seem to desire an accommodation; and the lord Beverning doth declare a great deal of affection to our interests. They have not yet received an answer from the council about the ships with salt, taken and brought in here: they hope to get some relief.
I do hear, that the states embassadors here do take ill, that our ships should molest their merchant-men in their free navigation and commerce, by bringing of them into their harbours. Wherefore they are sending a squadron into the Streights, to preserve trade.
A letter of intelligence.
By the last tuesday's post I saluted you with such occurrences, as this place affords, which M. Anthony Ringe of St. Laurence-street (to whom my last desired you to addresse your letters for me) inclosed in a packet of his, which I presume is come to your hands. Since that I can tell you noe more, then that one of the landgraves of Hesse, a Catholique, and newly made generall of the ordinance in Flaunders, invited the kinge and princesse royall wensday last. This day comes my lord Bellcarris, (who is after bound for Paris to see his lady) coll. Blake, and Mr. Knox, (who are bound for Scotland) and coll. Tuke, (who is designed to winter with you in Holland) towards you. I told you in my last, the kinge winters here; therefore I recommend to your kind care once more my correspondence with my wife, whom I have address'd to your friend at Tower-hill. When you have read your diurnalls, send them me; in which, amongst the rest, you will very much oblige
Your very humble
and most faithfull servant,
A letter of intelligence.
The embassador of Spain is not pleased; and here is a flying report, that 3000 French horse marched from Piedmont to Modena, and there joined with one thousand more, and passed through this pope's dominions towards Calabria to meet the duke of Guise, being already there disembarked: but this, I am confident, is but a mere fiction. The next post will, I presume, give you more of this matter; for the preparations at Naples are so great, that it argues they apprehend something; and if the French appear there, without doubt they will find strong resistance.
True it is, cardinal Antonio Barbarini made his request to his holiness, to grant passage through the territories of the church for three thousand horse of the French: but his holiness gave him a check and reprehension for proposing that to him: yet his holiness neither denied nor granted his request. Many reports you may hear of it; but this is the truth; what may be hereafter, I know not.
The last letters from Venice bring, that general Mocenigo in Candy presseth that senate for licence to return home; and that the Janisaries in Constantinople are in arms against the divan, for having beheaded the first vizir, and elected a new vizir, whose house was plundered and pillaged.
The Venetian naval army at Archipelago met with twelve Turkish tartanes, of
which they took seven, and sunk four. Genoa and Turin are near you by the French
post, to which you are referred at present by, Sir,
Eight days ago there arrived upon the Donaw a Muscovian embassador, with sixteen persons, whose business is said chiefly to consist in these three particulars; as first, to proffer unto the emperor the fair correspondence and amity of the great duke his master; secondly, to justify his war with the Polish king; and lastly, to desire his majesty, not any ways to intangle himself in the said king's quarrel.
We have this year, God be praised, such a rich vindemie, that where we did expect but twenty pails, we got forty, yea some fifty pails of wine, insomuch that the wine is like to be extraordinary cheap.
A letter of intelligence.
We hear as yet little of the treaty at Staade, only that there hath been one conference between them, wherein the lord Rosenham, having propounded some part of their pretensions against the Bremers, these desired, that their demands might be fully and generally presented unto them in writing, and that then they would give a general answer to it; which being refused by the Swedes, caused that the said conference, notwithstanding the good advice and endeavours of the present mediators, viz. those of the states general, as also them of this city, and the city of Lubeck to the contrary, was render'd fruitless. The emperor, well knowing that the Swedes would not admit of his mediation in the said business, hath sent now to the treaty; and for the others, though they be permitted to be present in the assembly, yet in regard of the Swedes firm determination to have their wills of their subjects, (as they term them) it is to be feared their mediation will be to little purpose.
This day the lord Plettenburgh, resident for the emperor here, passed hence for Sweden to congratulate the new king, and to carry on some other business from his master, it is thought, touching the election of a Roman king, and the business of Bremen.
I suppose you have the news of the pope's death from other parts: the current report here is, that there are great divisions between France and Italy about the election of another; and that a French embassador with 3000 horse, and the duke of Guise with 8000 foot, is gone to Civita Vecchia.
The queen of Bohemia to the states general.
Nos très-chers & très-bons Amis,
Il n'y a long-temps, que la presence de messieurs les estats de la province d'Hollande nous ayant donné occalion de representer les extremes necessités, es quelles les malheurs du temps, & especiallement de nostre maison, continuent sans relasche de nous precipiter, nous les priasmes quant & quant, que pour le comble de tant de bienfaits, que nous avons receu durant nostre sejour en ce pays, il leur plust pour la derniere fois nous ac corder quelque subside, qui nous aida à subvenir aux despenses, que mesmes après les prieres de monsieur le electeur nostre fils, & nostre resolution arrestée, de nous transporter vers la Palatinat, & ensuitte denunciation d'icelle desja faite aux assemblées, nous avons estés obligés de continuer par le retardement de nostre dit voyage, que nous n'avons voulu refuser aux instances qu'à la contemplation de nos creanciers, messieurs les estats susdits en remirent pour lors la resolution à leur assemblée prochaine, pour avoir le moyen d'en deliberer chez eux par l'insertion, qui en doit estre faite es points de leurs deliberations, & que nous apprenons, qu'ils sont à la veille de se rassambler, nous avons veu à-propos d'addresser par la presente les mesmes prieres à vos seigneuries, lesquelles pour n'estre point intempestives, nous avons remises à l'occasion, que vous en puisses conjoinctment resoudre avec messieurs de la province d'Hollande susdit. C'est avec unextreme regret, messieurs, qu'après tant d'assistance et soulagement, que durant nostre refuge en ce paix nous avons receu de vostre courteoisie, au lieu des recognoissances, que nous desirons si ardemment vous en pouvoir tesmoigner, nous-nous trouvons contraints de vous faire encore ceste demande, & vous pouvons assurer, que ce n'est point sans violence, qu'une très-urgente necessité nous l'a sceu extorquer. Nous esperons, messieurs, que la descharge que nostre depart pourra en mesme temps donner aux trais, qu'ils vous a jusquesci plu contribuer à nostre sejour en ces lieux, facilitera en quelque sorte cette seule & derniere priere, que nous sommes forcées de vous faire; principalement, si comme nous vous prions & requerons aussi très-affectueusement, il vous plait non seulement avoir pour agréable, mais aussi favoriser & avancer nostre retour vers la Palatinat, asin que en cas que nos créanciers ne puissent totalement rencontrer leur justes pretensions en Angleterre, comme il y a lieu d'esperer le contraire, pour les raisons que ci-devant nous vous avons deduittes sur ce subject, nous puissions par de-là mesnager les moyens de les contenter, que nous ne faisons que devertir & diminuer par de-ça, & dont neantmoins nous ne seront jamais satisfaits en nous mesmes, qu'ils n'ayent receu leurs entiere satisfaction; & comme cette derniere courtoisie doit estre le comble & couronnement de tant faveurs, bons offices, assistances, liberalités, & civilités, dont il vous a plu l'espace de tant d'années user envers nous & les nostres, & qu'il n'est pas seulement hors de nostre pouvoir de les dignement recognoistre, mais aussi de trouver des parolles assez significatives pour en exprimer nostre ressentiment, nous prions la bonté divine de subvenir nostre impuissance, & de combler vostre estat & vos personnes de tant de bonheurs, qu'elles ne puissant jamais estre reduites à faire de pareilles demandes. Ces sont les vœus, que fait du fond de son cœur,
Hauts & puissants Seigneurs,
Nos très-chers & très-bons amis,
A la Haye, 27. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
A letter from the Hague.
Since the English letters are not come, we have news brought us by Nicolas Spyck, our ordinary messenger, who was at Nieuport, Dunkerk, and other places in Flanders, saying, that there was a strong report, that Cromwell, as he was coming from the parliament, was shot through the head by one of the members, and that he fell down dead presently; and that all the ports were shut: which the letters of the Spanish embassador in England, writ to the archduke Leopold, and sent by an express a little before the shutting of the ports, do also confirm.
A letter of intelligence.
I cannot yet procure the rest of the remonstrance for you, and less the petition, which I mentioned in my former letters: but you may be assured, I shall use all means to get them. Of news since my last, here arrived an express from Scotland; his name is Walker, born in the county of Antrim in Ireland. He was in the party of the earl of Glencarne. Upon his letters and relations were dispatched from hence some three days col. Blake and col. Tuke, and some others, whose names I do not yet know; and the said Walker went also with them. They go from Holland, and bring with them to Middleton some arms, ammunition, &c.
They go every day here a-hunting, and every night drinking, dancing, and wenching. Sunday last they were invited to an Englishman's house: his name is Gutier, married to a rich widow's daughter in this city. R. C. and his sister were there very merry, and were nobly feasted.
The lord Taaf the pope's nuntio here invited the last sunday to dinner, and gave him
great encouragement for R. C. to go on in the great design, of which I writ at large in
my two last but this to you: but I have to add, that the Jesuits take now in hand to
undertake the business. How it shall further proceed, I yet know not; and I can assure
you, that here is no more pertinent, that this week produces, come to the knowledge of,
News sent from Paris to Mr. Stouppe.
The governors of Mezieres, Charleville, and Mont-Olympe, have again of late refused to put their governments into the hands of the king; asking first, that satisfaction be given to the cardinal de Retz, by re-establishing him in his archbishoprick of Paris.
The king having sent order to the prince of Conti to hold the states in the province of Languedoc, his highness the duke of Orleans, who is governor thereof, hath opposed himself unto it, delaring, that he will never give his consent thereunto.
The news from Valenciennes bear, that the king of Spain had written to the prince of Condé, to thank him very kindly for that he had done before Arras; and that he alone had hinder'd, that the states of Flanders were not lost to him; and that he should always be bound to him.
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
This court did order Mons. d'Avancourt, going in embassy from Sweden, to sound the king concerning the business of this city of Bremen, which his excellency hath performed, as well in his way in the dukedom of Bremen with the Swedish generals, as also with the king himself. The said embassador hath signified to this court, that his majesty was fully resolved to subdue that city, and that he was not willing to hear spoken of any accommodation thereof.
P. S. I am certainly informed, that this court hath writ to their embassador M. de Bordeaux, and sent him precise order, not to delay any longer; but that he do either conclude, or break off, and return home.
It seems the Muscovite is satisfied with what he hath got this year, having now, as the report goes, betaken himself to his winter-quarters; and I see not how the Poles can mend the matter, or help themselves. The plague is very much at Stollitz; they write of near twenty thousand dying in three weeks time; and some say it is also in the Muscovite army: however, that part of Russia under the Pole is wasted, this year's growth of hemp, &c. depopulated, and not like to be planted this next year, &c. Therefore, if the state be not the better provided, but should want, they must pay a great rate for it.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
The posts of this day, or last friday, are not yet arrived, by reason, as I believe, of rain and foul weather. Our king arrived saturday last, and court; since which time they have done nothing but recreate themselves after their journey.
Mr. Montagu is a great man at the French court, so is my lord Jermyn too. The first has gotten of late upon St. Martin's abbey, 800 pistoles by the year, besides what he had before. So he is now yearly worth 1800 pistoles by the year.
The lord of Inchequin, after he shipped his regiment with the duke of Guise's army at Toulon, returned himself to Catalonia, where he is now in a town called Migny, to see whether he can draw the Irish from the Spanish service there. Whether he will follow Guise, I do not yet know; but I think not. Our king goes this day to Bois de Vincennes, and after next sunday will go to St. Germain's, to pass there St. Hubert, being his day of hunting, and the ordinary hunting-feast for the kings here. Whether he will a longer journey afterwards, as spoken of, I know not. We have from our new camp at Neufville of the twenty-fifth instant, that marshal de Turenne, passing from Chastillon with his army, sent colonel d'Espres scouting to the field with ten squadrons of horse; and has beaten a party of the enemies he met, and took many prisoners.
Next morning another, called St. Lieu, was commanded in like manner, who met with another party, of which he took a hundred and fifty prisoners, and a quantity of horses. The twenty-first the general Turenne had four thousand out of his army commanded by Mons. count de Lisbonne, to convoy home the two hundred waggons, that went to Quesnoy with the provisions, as you have heard of before; but hearing, that the prince of Condé with his whole army was decamped from Noyelle the twentieth, and was marching after, the convoy was forced to return again to the army in another way. In the mean time Condé with his army were camped within a cannon's shot of Quesnoy, where having observed the fortifications ours made there, returned and marched towards Meubuge. His army is strong enough, but ours have eaten all the forages in those parts, which will cause him to retire unto his own countries, or starve both men and horse.
Our armies are considerable, though not so numerous as theirs, and composed of an hundred squadrons, and twenty battalions, as strong as they were in the beginning of the campaign, of which our general marshal Turenne is high and glorious. Mons. la Ferté's army commanded by marquis d'Uxelles, being reinforced by the troops of Guienne, and some of the king's guard, are gone to Clermont, and now about it. They doubt not but they shall get it. The town is not strong, but the castle is considerable. When it is taken, all will look for their winter-quarters, and our general will come to court; for now he must be vigilant to hinder the enemies from giving any relief to Clermont.
Last saturday the procureur-general told the parliament, that the clergy were offended by the declaration given against cardinal de Retz, being much prejudicial to their privileges. Upon which his majesty ordered they should present their honours and titles, and in the mean time he would himself give instructions to make the said cardinal's process, whose informations were given into the hands of the lord chancellor.
It is reported, that part of the Neapolitans, as those of Calabria, offered to sell three
considerable places in the French hands; and that the nobility and clergy of the said
Calabria desire to have the duke of Anjou for their king. This is certainly by many
confirmed. Judge as you please. You have from Genoa of the fourteenth instant, that
cardinal Grimaldi is yet at St. Pierre de Strena, where the senators of that commonwealth
visit him often. He endeavours wonderfully to unite that commonwealth with France. In
Provence they are busy making of biskets and other provision for seamen; and at Toulon
they are making more galleys and great ships to fortify Guise's army, which a bark sailing
from Levant met, and said, to shorten their way, they passed at the mouth of Boniface,
between Corsica and Sardinia, and were to arrive at the isle of St. Helena to be master
of the place called Reggio, as also the best part of Calabria, where the great prince of that
place doth expect the said duke of Guise with his forces, being desired this while past, and
long expected; of which more by the time. I have to add to your letters of Rome of
the sixth instant, that the recovery of his holiness defeated the Spanish designs, hoping
for his decease, and thinking to make a pope at their devotion: also, that the disgrace
of prince Pamphilio proceeds from the secret intelligence he had with the viceroy of Naples,
and other ministers of state belonging to the king of Spain; by which means prince
Palestrine has obtained his charge and office as to the general of the troops of the church;
and by the intervention of the king of France, duke de Florence and cardinal Bichi, those
of cardinal Medicis and cardinal Antonio are reconciled, and visit honourably one another;
the visits of cardinal Antonio being very rare after the old Roman fashion; two hundred
coaches all full of fleur-de-luces and black spots, as the gentlewomen here wear in their faces,
accompanied with thirty prelates, with the most part of all the French, Roman, and Portuguese nobility in Rome; which reconciliation was not so well approved by Donna Olympia, or cardinal Barbarini the brother of Antonio. I have nothing at this time from Catalonia; if any comes, you shall have it next from, Sir,
Your most humble servant.
Intelligence from several parts.
I do believe Mons. Bordeaux shall soon have them again with some amendments from hence; but these things of course must be best known to yours there in time. I can only tell you from hence, that in this conjuncture of times cardinal Mazarin will make peace with the protector upon any tolerable terms, of which you may be most assured; but how long it shall continue, God he knows.
Here is a report, as if some English frigats had taken Canada in the West-Indies from the French. I do not hear certainly, that any letters are come to court of it. If so, they keep it private, and will be angry at it, and shew it when they can. The merchants cry out, and threaten already I cannot tell what. The other news of our army, in brief, la Ferté's army consisting of about 5000, are gone to besiege Clermont; and Turenne's army is near Guise 15,000 at least, strong. The Spanish army near Landreci, is within two leagues of them, and are about 20,000; some say 24,000 strong. They are like to give work to ours till Christmas, which is all now, &c.
Engagement of John Streater.
I John Streater do promise, that I will make good my promise to general John Disbrowe, which was, that I will not act or speake any thinge to the disturbance of the
commonwealth and the present government thereof; and that I will, upon notice given
me, apeare before the counsell, or any persons the lord protector or his counsell shall
appoint, there to answer any thinge of misdemeanor, that shall be charged against me,
News from Paris, sent to Mr. Stouppe the twenty-ninth of October.
The pope's nuncio with a good number of prelates and clergymen are resolved, when the king comes back again, to go to him, and to ask of him very submissively the recalling of the arraignment of the cardinal of Retz, before his natural judge, who is the pope, and the consistory of cardinals, whereof he is a member.
His highness the duke of Orleans hath sent an express to the king, with a letter, by which he beseecheth him with all submission, that he would make a general peace; and that he would consider, how all the people of his kingdom were totally ruined; and that he would cause the princes of the blood to return about his person, who had removed, seeing the disorders, that were in the kingdom, at the persuasion of some ill-wishers, who ask nothing but the total ruin of the state, having cast away the chiefest upholders of the kingdom, which are those of the houshold; and amongst the rest have forced the prince of Condé to go out of the kingdom, and to seek his refuge with the enemy of this crown; and that by this peace he shall be bound to acknowledge his fault, and to have recourse to the goodness and clemency of the king to take again near his majesty the rank, which his birth has given him. The same letters bear also, that he did most humbly beseech his majesty to permit the marriage agreed upon of his second daughter of his second bed, promised to the duke of Enguien, son to the prince of Condé, by the consent of the king, of the queen, and of all the council, and that being it will be the means to bring in again peace and tranquillity in the kingdom. It is not yet known what was the king's answer; but it is believed, that the duke of Orleans will make his agreement.
Letters from Compeigne do say, that the governor of Arras, the magistrates, mayor, and aldermen, with all the commanders of the garison, had sent an express to the king, to represent to him the misery they were brought to for want of victuals, because none could come to them, seeing the prince of Condé did hold all the passages; and that it was impossible, that any could enter in that: that it would please his majesty, most humbly to take into consideration, to chase the prince away from thence, and to make the passages free; or else, that they should be forced to starve for hunger.
An intercepted letter of Sir W. Vane to Sir H. Vane.
I did in my last tell you, the assembly of Holland was called together extraordinarily upon the sudden chusing of the province of Overyssel the prince of Orange stadtholder, and prince William his administrator. They met last monday, and parted the next day, after they hadresolved very little or nothing; only passed one vote, that plurality of voices were not enough to chuse a stadtholder in any province; but that the general consent was necessary. This may be a coal to make a great fire in time. The princess royal is come from Cologne, and will be here the next week. The king of Scotland stays there all this winter. The town hath given him a house, firing, bread, and wine. The plague continueth still here.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to count Brienne.
I have received your lordship's letter, which was delivered to me so late, that I must defer answering it till the next post; the domestic affairs having also employed his highness and the council all this while, so that I have nothing to write of my negotiation. I did not think fit to press for a conclusion, till such time that I know his majesty's intentions upon my letter of the nineteenth. There is nothing remaining for me to write, except what hath past in the parliament. My foregoing gave you to understand, that there was spoken in the parliament of succession to the charge of protector; and that this proposition was traversed. I did also add, that the opinions of many persons hindered this business from being debated, by reason of the little likelihood there was, that the resolution would be advantageous to the protector. However being persuaded of the contrary, or being carried on by some other consideration, which is not known to all the world, he caused this business to be renewed again. Presently his party seemed to be the strongest; yea general Lambert himself made a long speech to persuade the parliament, that it was necessary to make the charge of protector hereditary; but when it came to the vote, all those relations and friends were of opinion to make it elective; and of two hundred and sixty members, two hundred of them were of that opinion; which hath not only surprised the public, but the family of the lord protector, who thought himself sure, the day before, to keep the dignity in his family. And in effect, without this confidence, he might easily have prevented that deliberation, which could not be but disagreeable to the officers of the army; whereof the least doth pretend in his turn to command in England; so that hereby is easily discerned, that the nation is no-wife affected to his family, nor much to himself. Without doubt he will strengthen his army, and keep that in a good posture. They began this morning to agitate, to whom the choice should appertain. However, the children of the protector do not yet hold themselves altogether excluded; they may chance to be established by some other parliament. Admiral Blake is gone to sea. My foregoing did desire his majesty to use all manner of precaution, and to look to his sea towns.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
The great expectation, wher the French wil send theyr forces, taks up every man's tym in this place; but Puglia is in most mens eys, as the most probable place. The gentleman, captain Harris, whom I sent to Tollon, is now retorned hither. He assures me, they ar raising as many more men in Provence for a suply; and when the first ar landed, the fleet retornes to tak in the rest. The Spanyard is very vigillant, and has made very great preperations in the kingdom of Naples; but my opinion is, if the French gain a landing place, they wil prov a thorn in theyr syds for the piple in that kingdom; ar much discontented by the great taxes and oppressions. 'Tis certain, that thes princes giv passage to the French horse out of Piemont in smal parties of forty and fifty in a company; so that the Spanyard is lyk to be embroiled every-wher, especially if the protector sends a fleet for the West-Indyes, which is the general newes upon th' exchange in London. I am, Honourable' Sir,
Leghorn, 30. October, 1654. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Behold here already the letter writ to the princess royal dowager and elector of Brandenburgh in print. It is said, that prince William Frederick, governor of Friseland, is now ready, and disposed (by commissioners sent express from Overyssel to him) to go to Zwoll, and there to accept the charge of substitute, or lieutenant-stadtholder; and by this means there will be two lieutenants stadtholders; for colonel Haersolte was already before lieutenant-stadtholder, as was formerly Mons. Smeltzinck; but this difference there will be, that Smeltzinck and Haersolte were by substitution of the stadtholder, and prince William Frederick will be by the state, and will be the true function; the others in effect were only commanders at Deventer the chief city.
As to the advice given by the council of state upon the proposition for the lords Ripperda and Beecke, demanding assistance of three companies of horse, and four of foot, there hath not been any thing resolved upon it; for those of Holland have resumed it to themselves, and have expresly called the states their principals together to advise upon it, but chiefly upon the election of a stadtholder, for fear lest that should take footing in all the provinces to embroil them with England; for the intention of Orange party is not to rest there; for that doth also raise the spirits elsewhere, which were lulled asleep; for really here in Zeland and elsewhere, there was no more spoken of the deduction nor of the seclusion; and I know, that men did believe, that they had also pacified and contented grave William at least they were in a fair way towards it; but this will disturb all again.
In the commission, which those of Overyssel will give to their new stadtholder, there will be no change or alteration, only that they will add, that as well the stadtholder as his substitute shall swear the observation of the peace with England, according to the thirtysecond article of the peace, to the end to content Holland. and to avoid offending England. The informations against Sigismond Schop are now finished; but the council of war faith, they can go no further; and so likewise there is no further proceeding against Schonenburg and Haex, by reason of the connection of affairs; for likewise in effect Schonenburg and Haex have been as well military as politic, in regard they have as it were commanded over Schop, and have composed a council of war together. This business and opinion is fomented by pr. of Orange and grave William for the consequence; namely to the end to bring also the two embassadors who are with protector under the censure and judicature of friends of pr. of Orange or states general The well-affected of Holland or republicans on the contrary, and for the same reason, do insist very much, to the end that such judicature may be left to each province upon their own, not to states general, and to this effect the one and the other party do search many retro-acts; but the most evident and chiefest retro-acts are the history of the year 1618, where the states general changed all Holland, changed Utrecht, &c. caused Barnevelt and Hogerbeets to be punished: item, since that in the year 1626 the generality caused the delinquents come from St. Salvador to be punished: item, several of the admiralty of Rotterdam: item, in the following years also there were several judged, as well of the civil as military robe, by the generality.
But it is true, that since Holland shewed themselves sensible, being not willing to admit any more of the judicature of the generality, but began to follow and extol the maxim of Barnevelt and Grotius, that every province is sovereign, and not bound to obey the generality, unless it be as to the military.
In effect it is a great dispute and question, what power the states general have. The union seemeth to have given the same power to the states general, which formerly the king had; for in effect all placarts, (or laws) treaties, peace, war, commissioners, viceroys, &c. have been given and made by the states general. Moreover, every province hath the rights, privileges, customs, item judicature, magistrates, governments in particular, which the king was bound to swear and observe. The states general are more than the king; for they do not swear to it, but for the consequence.
The states of Holland will maintain their rights every manner of way, that the provincial sovereignty is in themselves, yea during the lives of the princes. In the year 1640 I did see, that the states of Holland, as they visited and welcomed the queen of England, did cover themselves before her as well as the states general.
Vasquez and Hottoman have writ illustrious questions, but they have not treated nor decided the said illustrious question; and it is strongly to be presumed, that at last a third will carry it away; so that neither the states general nor the states provincial will have that, which formerly the king had.
By reason the letters of England do stay so long before they come, men do publish very much the death of the protector; which if it were so, there would be more commotion and disturbance; but that being false, Holland will shew a great deal of vigour.
The lords of Holland have been for some days met together. It is with them, as you may have already preconjectured, and partly heard, the seclusion (as a synagogue) was already buried; but it is revived by this difference of Overyssel. Item, according to the rule, Quod tibi non vis fieri, alteri ne feceris, well-affected of Holland themselves in states of Holland would not, that the other states general should assist any of states of Holland separated from all states of Holland in the same manner at present as Deventer separated from the rest demanded assistance. Yet however there are some amongst well-affected of Holland that are less scrupulous therein than the rest. Of Amsterdam I understand, that they have declared themselves resolute enough to give assistance. Verily well-affected of Holland do want a protector. In the year 1618 prince Maurice, to remedy these differences, did not merchandize any long time; but as the Arminians then did speak only of moderation, toleration, accommodation, and peace, so likewise at present the most part of states of Holland and well-affected of Holland will not resolve, at least not yet awhile, than to agree, and urge a deputation towards Overyssel, a preliminary exhortation to the peace, and the like. In the mean time prince William Frederick is gone to Zwoll to accept of the charge, and to pursue the business, not only of the stadtholdership of Overyssel, but also for that of Guelderland; for in Guelderland they are also very forward to produce some like thing.
Notwithstanding amongst those here themselves, that do hold and are for the prince, there are some, that do envy Haersolte and his family, as too powerful; and I do believe, if Haersolte did quit his election on pretence to the charge of drossart of Twent, to some one of the contrary party, that generally the nobility would be contented, or would shew themselves content. Deventer however would murmur, but for that Orange party would not greatly care.
Orange party will proceed further themselves, notwithstanding the opposition of Nimmeguen, Aernem, Bommel, Tiel. The nobility, which is not Orange party is mute. Dux & auctor opus est. States of Holland are and remain cui similes, evanescentes sua subtilitate.
The queen of Bohemia, seeing that there is nothing for her in England, hath presented a memorandum for a subsidy of this state. Lamentabile regnum! the title of majesty doth hinder her from going to dwell at Franckendale, although the son also do take from her her dowry; and for the son's impiety the common people here must suffer.
A letter of intelligence.
My last unto you was the 23d per post. Since the inclosed are come to my hand, whereby you may perceave the occurrances at C. St's court; only I must add, that per this post, that came yesterday, I receaved noe letter from my correspondent; but a letter was read to mee, wroate from secretary Nicolls, whoe wrote to Sir Edward Walker, that C. St. had resolved to staye at Cullen this winter, finding it more convenient for his affaires, untill the tyme he could opportunely transport himselfe on the other side of the sea: that Wilmot was gone into Germany, to gather mony of the princes: that Weyntworth was gone into Zealand, from which, I suppose, he is stolne into England: that C. St. and his sister wear invited by the duke of Nuburgh, and laye there the last night at Disseldorp. He was intended to bringe his sister to the borders of the states territories, into which he would not goe, beinge forbidden by those ingratefull Hogen Moghens to come into their country. These were the contents of his letter. Culpepper talk'd about his particular affayres, whoe by waye of discourse commended the protector's speeches, yet hopes the parlement and he will not agree. They begin to belive the affayres in Scotland succeed. Those gentlemen mentioned in Marshe's letter are not yet come hither. When Blagge comes, I will, if I can, learn of him, which waye he intends to goe. Neither have I heard since from Armorer: he comes with the princes of Orange. My request to you in my last to give a letter, or procure one in my behalfe from his highnes to the company of merchant-adventurers, for the secretarie's place at Rotterdam, which is now voyd, and offered to mee by some of the company to solicite it. The office will suit with my occasions, and not any wayes render me incapable to serve you, which is my chief ambition. My friend Mr. Thomas Harris will waite on you for your letter, and he will present it to the court of merchants. To him I beseech you likewise to passe the 30 l. for allowance of house-rent. I have sent him my bill on Mr. Upton.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.
One of the chiefest things, which hath happened since our last in the parliament, is the debate, that hath been, whether the charge of protector shall be hereditary or successive, which was at last decided by plurality of voices for election, notwithstanding many endeavours to the contrary, and amongst the rest the lord general Lambert, who voted for succession. Now the debate is, upon whom, and after what manner, the election is to be made; whereof we shall be able to inform your high and mighty lordships by the next. His highness is now pretty well again, and was yesterday in St. James's park in a sedan to take the air, and is also said to be pleased with the resolution of the parliament, and to approve of the same. Blake is said of a certain to be gone to sea with twentyfour ships, which were to be followed by five others, that were somewhat damnified through the last great winds. What course they will steer, and what design they have in hand, is not possible to penetrate into.