A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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November (3 of 3)
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
I gav you an account last week of as much as could here be known of the proceedings of the French forces landed nere Naples. It siems the Spanish army, althoh so greate, would not assail the French, but lay intrencht about two myles from them, wherein they did wysly, becaus they had no great considence in the fidellity of theyr men, who, had they bin worsted, myght hav bin the los of the kingdom. The French had not a sufficient strength to mak any progres, having held Castel de Mare twelve dayes, with the les of 250 men only. On the 25th of the last month imbarkt al theyr soldiors, and ar now gon to sea, supposed with an intent to land in the pope's state, at a place call'd Terracina, nere the consynes of Naples; and by this meanes they may join with the horse com out of Piemont into the pope's state. They ar about 7000 foot; and if they can mak but 3000 horse, they wil very much perplex the Spanyard, who is very jealous of the Napollitans.
Two dayes since arryvd in this port fom Duch ships from Holland; who bring word, that general Blak's fleet of twenty-six fail was at an ankor in Gibraltar bay. They spak with som of the frigats, that wer turning to and fro in the Streits-mouth, who tel them, they wait for the French Newfoundland fleet; but the French here say, they ar al arryvd at Marseilles. The Duch report, they wait ther for the French fleete of men of war, that ar coming into the Streits. This is what is com to the knolledge of,
Extract out of the secret resolutions of the lords the states of Holland.
The counsellor pensionary did report the resolution of the conferences held by the committee of their assembly; having in consequence and compliance with their noble and great mightinesses commissorial resolution dated the 28th of last month, examined the retroacta, that passed heretofore on the subject of renewing of the former alliance made with the crown of France, and considered likewise and inquired, on what foot and order the said renewing of alliance could be best enter'd upon. After deliberation thereupon it was thought proper, and resolved, that this affair in the general assembly shall be thus directed; that for that purpose, by order of their high mightinesses, conferences shall be opened upon the said subject with the lord embassador Chanut, by a deputation of the same, on those grounds and instructions contained in the preceding orders and instructions of this state, sent in the month of June of the last year, to the lord embassador Boreel, for the said purpose: that likewise, with the said lord embassador Chanut, the projected treaty delivered by the commissioners of the king of France, last year, to the said lord embassador Boreel, and sent by him on the fourth of December of the said year to their high mightinesses, shall be conferred upon; provided however, that the provincial advice of their noble and great mightinesses on the said projected treaty, opened on the fourth of April, 1654. in the general assembly, as likewise the most essential points, which are controverted, as the same are extracted out of the said provincial advice of their noble and great mightinesses, and on the same day presented to the generality, shall serve particularly the said lords commissioners of their high mightinesses for an instruction, endeavouring to direct matters, as much as possible, in conformity thereunto, as far as the present conjunctures of times and affairs shall permit; and for that purpose to represent and well to explain to the said lord embassador Chanut, as the essence and foundation of the whole affair,
I. That the foundation and intent of this state, in making of an alliance with the king of France, is, to assist one another reciprocally in his defence by sending him succours or subsidies for the conservation of such places, the preservation whereof highly concerns that ally, that defends the same: however with this condition, that the assisting party shall nor engage himself thereby into a war or open rupture with him, against whom such succour or subsidies are given; when on the contrary, in the 29th, 30th, and 31st articles of the said projected treaty is mentioned, that if France, after the peace with Spain is concluded, shall happen to come to a rupture with the same, this state should likewise be obliged to break with Spain: as likewise, if this state should come to a rupture with England, France likewise should be forced absolutely to break with England: that to such a reciprocal obligation to a rupture, in relation to the said two states, their high mightinesses, on their part, cannot consent, especially at present, when the peace with England is concluded; the more, whereas the treaty made by their high mightinesses with the lord protector of the republic of England aforesaid says in the fifteenth article, that in case any one of the two allies should happen to make any treaty with any other kings, republics, princes, or states, that then the same shall be obliged to have the other ally, if he requires it, to be comprehended therein; with which stipulation such a particular obligation to come to a rupture with England is quite inconsistent.
II. That from the same consideration another seems to result, viz. That the intention of their high mightinesses is, not to extend the obligation of the said defensive alliance of succours and subsidies, from their part, any further, than to all such places, which the king of France possesses as well in France, as in the Netherlands, when on the contrary, in the said projected treaty, art. II. the alliance is mentioned in general, and without any restriction.
III. That out of the same consideration is annulled, and of no force, what is said further in the said 30th, 31st, as also in the 32d article of the said projected treaty, viz. That this state in such a case should be obliged to break with Spain, and France with England, upon the mere declaration of the requirent, that the same against the one or the other of the said two states was in a rupture; as also that with England, and after the peace was made with Spain, hereafter no peace nor war could be had but jointly; it being the intention of their high mightinesses, to enter into no obligation to grant the said succour or subsidies, otherwise and further than against him, who shall attack or wage war against the one or the other ally, and possess himself of such towns and lands, that are contained and mentioned in the alliance.
IV. That it is the intention of their high mightinesses, that according to the example of all the preceding treaties, which are made by them before the obligation of the sending of the said succour or subsidies shall take place, time shall be given to the ally, that is called upon, to try the way of accommodation.
V. That their high mightinesses take very much to heart a good and salutary regulation in the article of the marine, the same being for this state the chief aim, which by the treaty now to be made ought to be attained, when it is nevertheless observed, that several considerable points, proposed for that purpose by the said lord embassador Boreel, to the commissioners of his royal majesty, are left out of the said treaty, which needs must be inserted therein, in order to attain, in some measure, the chiefest intent of this state in the said treaty: besides which, some points in relation to the said subject, that are inserted in the said projected treaty, are found to be couched in such terms, that justice and equity is not consulted therein as it ought, especially in the article of prohibited goods; in relation whereunto it is said in the 18th article, that in case the same should be sent to the enemies of any one of the alliances, all the goods shall be deemed lawful prize, as well the ship with her appurtenances, wherein the said prohibited goods are laden, together with the other merchandizes, that shall also be found on board of the same ship, as the contraband or prohibited goods themselves; so that the French project is to be consented to no further, than that the said confiscation be extended only to the goods laden on board, belonging to the same merchant or company, that have caused the said prohibited goods to be laden; as also to the share of the ship, belonging to the master or captain, in case it shall be evident, that the shipping of the said prohibited goods was done with his privacy.
A letter of intelligence.
Your friend here is a little mended in his health, yet no assurance of his life by the doctors. He required me to write so much to you; and of news here are not much; only that the assembly provincial of Zealand are departed without resolving any thing of the prince of Orange; and that in Overyssel hitherto prince William of Nassau has not been able to overcome the difficulties of the towns of Twente and Deventer; and thereupon he is to returne suddenly to his government of Friesland. These two points trouble the Orange party. The elector of Brandenburg has made a league with that of Cologne, and other princes of the empire; and does invite those provinces to it: what they shall do, I know not.
Our embassador Beverning has had licence to returne hither, his busines being, as given
out, to be married; others speak otherwise: tyme will discover the truth. And more you
have not at present from,
A letter of intelligence.
Yours of the 27th last month I received last night, and have sent yours to Vienna and Cologne, as accustomed; as from those cities you now have yours. It is now here confessed, all is quiet in England; but the cavaliers and some others leave not to give out of great divisions among yours yet: they aver it with much confidence. According to your desires, of the strength and number of the Irish regiments here, you may know, that in the archduke's army there are only two regiments; that of col. Philip Reily being above one thousand strong; and col. Murphy's being not seven hundred. Lorraine had four regiments; but they are reduced now to two regiments, under the command of col. Cusack and col. Connor. Both regiments consist not of above 1500. The prince of Condé had six regiments, which are now reduced to three, under the command of col. Mortagh O-Brian, col. Dampsie, and col. Meara. Those three regiments consist of about two thousand and two hundred men; which is a true relation of their force here, or very near it.
All our troops are ordered to their winter quarters. We have set in a place Castlenée sixtyfour companies of horse, and seven regiments of foot, for fear of some attempts by the enemies, being necessary to preserve the places about La Bassee and Bethune, as also Alveldin, Marchin, Perclau, Illers, and other places about; and we have given orders to all and every of those, that quarter in those places, that in case the enemy should attempt any thing against them, that upon pain of death they hold out at least forty-eight hours, to the end the adjoining troops and peasants may relieve them.
The prince of Condé's troops are quartered in the country of Luxembourg, and he himself yet at Namur, and suddenly expected here, where count Fuensaldagna the coward is already, after quartering the archduke's army.
Besides the presents his majesty of Spain made to the prince of Condé, in giving him La Capelle and Chastelet, in recompence for Stenay and Clermont, with 100,000 crowns pension yearly, he sent to him a sword, with the scabbard all beset with diamonds, and other precious stones, valued to be worth 30,000 crowns. I hear, that the said prince hath also seized upon 100,000 of crowns the king of Spain sent to his wife the princess, as a gist, and took it for himself.
The duke of Wirtemberg having intelligence here, that six regiments of French horse lodged in the village of Montagu, betwixt Ham and Rocroy, he sent presently the baron of Guldenleue, natural son of the king of Denmark, serjeant-major general de battaille, and col. Rens, with three hundred horse, towards the enemy; whom they found so careless, that setting their quarters on fire, and stopping all passages, by which they might escape, many of them were burnt, and among the rest he that commanded them in chief, marshal de Plessis Praslin's own son; so that of the whole not above thirty men escaped; and about six hundred horse of theirs, sit for service, have been taken.
I writ to you in my last but this, of the plot laid to surprise Guelders, which was contrived by two German colonels discontented, one of them residing within the garison, and the other without, to put that strong garison into the possession of the French. He that was without, treated the business with him that was within, who accepted of it; so that 300 men were severally to enter in boors habits by several gates, and to lodge in divers houses. The time of execution drawing near, the colonel within repented, and consulted his nearest friends, who condemned the act as treacherous; and thereupon the colonel resolved to give notice to the prince of Ligne; which was done, and thereby all the 300 men taken prisoners, and a reward given to the colonel for the discovery.
A week ago here has been a report, that the queen of Bohemia was in this city, or the princess of Orange with the princess of Hoogsholdet, and after a short stay here returned to Antwerp, to visit the queen of Sweden. But of this I have no assurance, nor more to say of the queen of Sweden, or any thing else at present, but what you had formerly from, Sir, Yours.
Mons. de Bordeaux to his son the French embassador in England.
We received on thursday last at one time three of your letters; and this retardment had caused great trouble at court, and men did attribute it to some division in the country where you are, being so far persuaded here, that the parliament cannot separate without ruining the protector, or the protector them. And there are some persons, who do give advice from thence to the chief minister, and to the surintendant, who have both of them separately some agent or correspondent, from whom they do receive very often intelligence of the state of affairs in that country, and who are authors of great hope of change, upon which they do ground their resolution, rather to incline to a breach or a delaying of the agreement, than of acquiescing upon the conclusion. And that which I write you, is not of my particular opinion, but of some of the lords of the council, who do think, that it is either upon the expectation of some change, that those two ministers are inclined to a breach; or that it is by reason of the great interests they have in the prizes, which have been taken from the English in the Mediterranean, whereof they will not be known, and that they must make restitution, if they should consent to the arbitrage; and that the only means to free them from those restitutions are only to be found in an open war, or in a composition, which was proposed unto you, which it seemed would not be hearkened unto, as these lords did imagine themselves it would. They have ever since carried their inclinations, discourses and counsel for a breach: yet notwithstanding M. de Brienne hath charged me to write to you, besides what he will write to you about it in his own letters, that although in the letters of the king, and likewise in those of his eminence himself, they should order you to break off the negotiation, and to return home, yet you are to use great delays in the execution of those orders; and that you should make more than ten dispatches; and that you should have more than ten confirmative orders for the rupture, before you conclude it. And herein your prudence and skill are to appear, as well by signifying over hither in your letters sometimes the power of the protector, sometimes that of the commonwealth, and of the disposition of the people there against France, united in their intentions to make war; another time to represent the strength of the armies of that country, where you are, which do wish nothing more than to be landed in France. In another letter you are to make them here to apprehend the relations of the body of the religion and this state with them, whereby to hinder so sudden a resolution for war. In another expedition you are to let them see the intelligences of the prince and of the rebels of Guienne with the English, who being favour'd, might also make ruinous landings in France. In another letter you are to give them to understand the assistance and union of Spain with the English against us, from the very moment of a rupture. In another letter you are also to let them know the union of the Hollanders, Swedes, Denmark, with all those of the religion, that border upon the North sea; and who having made a league offensive and defensive, will also become our enemies by a breach. These are the divers considerations and reasonings, whereof you are to make use in your letters, and which you are to inlarge as much as is possible, when you shall have received the orders of the rupture. And you will judge of yourself, whether it be sit to draw all these considerations out at length, or to insert them in one letter, which you are to send before your rupture, or before your return. M. de Brienne, who doth still aim at the welfare of France, and who doth also write to you his particular opinion, and who doth apprehend, that this chief minister, happening to repent himself suddenly of the rupture, might impute the cause thereof to you for being over-hasty in a business of this weight and consequence, and for not using more prudence and consideration; wherefore his particular opinion is, to do all that you can to come to some treaty, or to remain in a retardment of a rupture so dangerous to this state, and to which the ministers can never agree unto, but they will repent themselves for it for ever afterwards. And although the injustice of the conduct of the English be great in their refusing of the article of reciprocation, and in that in the title of the signature; yet it seemeth to be a matter altogether inconsiderable to engage us in so great a war.
His eminence yesterday receiving your two letters by my hands, and reading to him what you had writ to me in your letter of the xxi. and which I went to present unto him by the advice of M. de Brienne, to whom I communicate all my letters, before I present them; and after I had deduced those difficulties of the article of reciprocation, and explained a part of the letter, which I gave him, he told me, they could no longer suffer in France so many delays, and all those depredations; that you ought to come away; and gave me charge to go presently and find out M. Servien, and to let him know from him, that he should draw up a manifesto without any delay, to let the parliament see all that hath passed, and to let them understand all the means, which have been used to maintain a peace with the English nation, and to justify our conduct towards them and all the world; and to this end ordered to give him copies of your two last letters, and of all other memorandums of what hath passed, to the end this business might be dispatched in all haste, and to send it to you afterwards by an express. Such a passion he was in at the resolutions of that government, where you are, and at the advice, which he had received of the taking of a part of the ships of the falt fleet, whereof the English, joined with the Ostenders, had taken five great ships, and pursued the other thirty-five ships into the ports of Bretagne. The instance, which the commissioners of Bretagne do also make to have leave to set forth men of war against all these piracies, had also heated his mind to take this last resolution; and as you may perceive, that his order to M. Servien is a sign of little confidence in M. de Brienne, you must not make it to be known, that you are in any fort related unto him. I will of my own head participate the same to M. de Brienne; and observe duly in your letter of the king to Mons. de Brienne, that there be not any terms in them, which may make to appear, that you have known of this manisesto, which is to be sent you, unless it be, that they have referred it to him to let you know so much. And this observation is very nice and delicate, in regard his eminence hath declared unto me, that he doth always desire to receive from you particular advice, or at least to be informed the first; whether it be to make his report thereof to the king in part, or whether it be to inculcate the belief, which he doth also establish in all other negotiations, and which I also believe he does practise, and allege in all other occurrences of advice, that he is already informed of that business, and that he doth know what hath passed; and so oftentimes he hath reproached me, that he had not his letters till after the rest. And it being just to satisfy him, and to maintain the more near relation, you must use great circumspection, and omit nothing, that so he may not have wherewithal to find fault, or be distasted at your conduct. He commanded me to return to him again to have his answer, and I will not fail to go to him. M. Servien is to see him this morning, upon the subject of the order, which I carried to him for the said manifesto. He declared unto me, that it was a work of that consequence, that he could not draw it up so suddenly; that he had not all the proceedings of the affairs; yet however after he should have communicated with his highness, he would set down the memorandums, and would do that which should be necessary. He added, that it was a work, which should proceed from you, and not from him, nor from any here; and that you ought from the beginning to have made a draught of this declaration, as foreseeing great difficulty in the execution of the treaty: that he doth believe you to be a more able man, than not to have thought upon the discourse, which is to be held at the last audience of the rupture, whether of his highness, or the parliament, or the commissioners; wherein you are to deduce all that is advantageous in the proceedings of France, and on the other side, the obstacles and depredations authorized hy the protector, the commonwealth, and the state. The said lord Servien added, that in regard you had so well managed your business hitherto, both in your conferences, and in your letters, which he found always very judicious, he could not doubt, but that you were more capable to draw up this manifesto, than he is. I was not wanting to contest this article with him, and to persuade him, that he ought not to refuse or deny France his pen, to defend the justice of our cause: and he promised me, that he would satisfy the intentions of his eminence, who undoubtedly will be of his opinion, when he comes to confer with him, and that he shall give him to understand, that it is an act, which ought rather to proceed from you, than from any minister here. And I am obliged to tell you, that it is the advice of M. Brienne likewise. And in regard that in your first harangue made in England you did speak in such terms, which have been approved of, it will be easy for you to make a manisesto, if you undertake it, by inserting that discourse: the rest will follow to your hand. But before you publish it, you may send it over to me, to communicate it privately to the said lord Brienne, who will either make use of it in his own name, by adding somewhat to it, or diminishing it; or he will present it to them as made by me, upon my memorandums; or in case the court doth intend, that it shall proceed from you, then it shall pass as proceeding from you directly to be published by you there, as your last work and leave, and to serve for satisfaction to France, according to the usual custom in matters of rupture between crowns, who will have all the world to know the justice of the war.
M. Servien told me also, as I parted from him, that you ought as of yourself to speak to the protector, and to let him know, that you are blamed in France to have deferred it so long, before you made the rupture; that you have had your orders for it long since; and that of yourself you have desired France to suspend that resolution: which you are to tell him, not as an embassador, but as a private person, that doth honour his merit: that from the very moment, that there is war, all his enemies and parties will fortify themselves; and likewise, that they have solicited in France the rupture, upon the assurance, that there would be found in France amongst the people, and also in the army, men and parties, that would be able to undertake against his own person, which would not be granted; and that he ought to consider the sincerity, wherewith he hath been used; and that you have of yourself diverted all those here, who have had in specie any pretence against him, with an intention to preserve him: in short, to make him sensible, that he is obliged both to his eminence and yourself, for the sincerity and affection of the past conduct; and you do discharge yourself to him of further events, which may happen to him hereafter by a rupture; and are also to present unto him the endeavours, that have been used here, to send the king of England out of France.
News sent to Mr. Stouppe.
We told you in our last, that the duke of Gloucester had been put in the college of the Jesuits, by the queen of England's order, against the carnest prayer of the king of Scotland at his departure not to make him change his religion. Now you may know, that the earl of Ormond hath by the said king's command carried away the duke from that college: 'tis not yet known, whither the earl hath conducted him. That action hath extremely vexed all the English, Scotch, and Irish Roman-catholics, who are in this city, by reason of the hope they had he should one day be made a cardinal, according to the pope's nuncio's promise to the queen of England in his master's name.
The 27th of the last, news came from Provence to the king and his council, that at Marseilles and Toulon were arrived all the duke of Guise's fire-ships, the most of them much torn; and that those, that are in them, say, that the said duke had been cast by the storm on the isle of Malta, where his ships had suffered much; and that having desired some refreshment for his fleet of the great master of Malta, the latter desired to be excused, alleging to the duke of Guise, that being a neighbour and friend to the vice-king of Sicily, he could not relieve him without offence to the other. News came also, that 'tis not known, where that duke is with his navy. This is quite contrary to that his majesty received lately, that the duke had taken many places in Calabria.
Cardinal Mazarin hath received letters from cardinal Antonio, intimating that cardinal of Retz was come to Rome, and that all the cardinals were resolved to adhere to him; and that they took his cause in hand, demanding that he be restored and maintained in his archbishoprick of Paris, and other church-livings in France. The pope, the great duke of Florence, and the consistory of cardinals, have allowed him 5000 l. sterling yearly.
Letters from Seville in Spain certify us, that general Blake had joined the Spanish men of war, which are upon the Mediterranean sea; and that the rumor was, that they were going to set upon the duke of Guise.
The king hath ordered the demolition of Clermont and Stenay castle. The pope's nuncio hath presented unto the king a letter from his master, by which he signifies the arrival of the cardinal of Retz; and prays him to send him to Rome the charges and accusations against the said cardinal, promising him justice, in case he be guilty.
De Lionne, who is lately gone for Rome as an extraordinary embassador, isto receive 600,000 franks by letter of exchange; and that sum is to be distributed among the cardinals. He hath an order to offer in the king's name unto the cardinal of Retz his archbishoprick of Paris, and all the church-livings the late archbishop his uncle did enjoy.
Letters of intelligence.
The news of the duke of Guise you are now wearied with. He may curse the day and hour of his coming to Naples; for I can assure you, he lost by it about 3000 men, and eight ships, great and small; some cast away by Naples, others by Gaeta. I do not know, whither he is gone since, or what is become of him. M. de Plessis Bellieure, wounded on the occasion of the Annunciata, died in Castelmare, and the marquis of Gonzuga is released for the marquis Castellaneta. Many gibing epigrams are made on the French in this city, and many parts of Italy; one whereof is thus:
This word gatta in English is a cat, and by it here is understood Carolo della Gatta, the Spanish general in the kingdom of Naples: which is all at present of the French news; only in this secret, cardinal Antonio Barberini yet entertains soldiers against Naples. He gives to every horseman a horse, and five pistoles to cloathe him; and those horsemen he keeps in places belonging to himself in the ecclesiastic territories: but since the duke of Guise's expulsion, all will come to nothing, if some princes in the kingdom of Naples will not rise up; for the people declare for the Spaniard. The pope conniveth at cardinal Antonio's levying men, which is harshly taken by the Spaniards; but in prudence and obedience to the court of Rome, he says nothing at present.
Of a general peace, or R. C. I assure you here is now nothing, but great jealousies of the protector's two great naval armies. Cardinal Retz arrived here, as I writ before, and since publickly received by the pope with much honour, presents, and pensions. In his first audience he had a very long discourse with his holiness, and Mazarin's friends are much offended at this reception. This same morning a consistory is held, wherein the cardinalitian hat shall be given to cardinal Retz; which is all of him yet.
We expect here daily M. de Lionne being sent from France to visit the princes of Italy; his business I know not. I hear, a great Holland ship laden with dry fish was cast away at Naples by tempest; but of general Blake or his fleet I have not a word since my former.
The viceroy of Naples was made prisoner, and sent to Capua, Don Gerolamo Amodei, who was governor of Castelmare, when Guise took it, having not done his part for the defence of that garison, as became him.
The rain has continued here these twenty days; and if it continues much more, or towards twenty, it will cause another deluge. The river of Tyber is swelled already like a sea; and last week the people were constrained to pass in this city in little boats: which is all I have at present.
General Disbrowe, to the protector.
May it please your Highnesse,
This day being faire, hath put a little life into our businesse againe; and if the Lord please to send us faire weather, I hope by saturday night we shall have twelve or fourteen sayle ready, which will carry 1200 souldiers at least with them. I humbly offer, if it bee not convenient to have one of the commissioners at least goe with them; and that instructions bee given them what to doe, when they come at the Barbadoes. I am sometimes encouraged in our businesse, and sometimes crosse rubbs come, and new proposalls; but we doe what we can, to get over them; and there shall be no paines wanting for dispatch. If the Lord please to blesse our endeavours, I hope the next weeke may doe much to the whole affaire. I long to get from this place. I beg, that your highnesse would give order in relation to instructions, that there may be no stay for them. I have no more, but to subscribe myselfe
Your Highnesse humble servant,
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
The post is but newly come with yours of the seventeenth present. 'Tis good newes indeed, that his highnesse and the house correspond soe amicably, and that you are in foe faire a way thereby to dash the hopes of the old malignant party from promoetinge their interest. This willingly deluded people were in great hopes by this post to have heard, that all was to peeces with you. I trust you will now goe on smoothly, and more expeditiously, because of the colonel imprisoned. You have a great deale of foundation-worke yet remayneing; and somethinge further will be desired, if not expected from you, ere you breake up. Touchinge Waites, if you please but to looke over, or call to mynd, my late letters, you will find I have given you an accompt, how traiterously he. had acted of long tyme in theise parts for C. S. and that my expellinge of him this cittie for it hath beene the true cause of soe much malice discovered in his party towards me; but by the next post you shall have a particular of his pernitious practices, and who have beene, and still are, his abettors, though now more covertly than formerly.
His designe of shippinge armes hence for Scotland I long since discovered and disappointed, by expellinge him the cittie; and you may please to rest assured, I will have a watchfull eye upon him and his confederates, by whome he may doe that worke, though he never come more in the cittie. Waites is one of the company, and tooke the engagement before me to be true and faithfull, as many others of his party here did, who yet have acted very persidiously since, and thinke they should not be taken notice of for it; of which, when you are more at leasure, I shall give you account. I doe not heare, that Waites is returned to this cittie. The last newes I had of him spake him gone with Wilmot to the princes of the empire on a begginge errand for his master.
I hope you have or will receive my two last weekes letters of the fourteenth and twentyfirst instant; and that I shall in the course of the post heare from you touchinge my resolvinge to quit the company; which I wish I had taken sooner, to have prevented so much trouble I have given you. I am,
Sir, I pray let me knowe, if Mr. Benson have any money due to him from the state, for his service at Dantzick. My freind there, to whom I recommended him, complaines much for the want of allmost 100 l. lent him to pay for his diet, besides 20 l. due to me upon the account of his sendinge home.
A letter of intelligence.
The conclusion of the Bremish treaty at Stoade is now confirmed, and a perpetual peace made between his majesty of Sweden and the said city, on the twenty-fourth of this month, S. V. and on the twenty-fifth, being the next ensuing day, the articles of the said agreement were to be revised and adjusted. But how and in what manner the same was performed, no information as yet is come thence; only thus much, that the city was to give unto his majesty the Burgh, and two other places of importance belonging unto the said city, viz. Berghste and Lehe, for satisfaction; and then for the reducing of his majesty's forces to pay the sum of 12,000 rixdollars. These are the chief: the other conditions (as by a person of quality I am fully assured) are so tender and tolerable for the Bremers, that it seems to have pleased his majesty rather to manifest in this agreement his royal clemency, and sincere love and inclination to peace, than to make use of this advantage in taking a just and severe vengeance of them. Whereof, and of the tenor of the other particulars, the next post, God willing, will yield us a more special account.
Mons. Augier to secretary Thurloe.
I am informed from very good hands, that M. Neusville, embassador of France, hath received order to take his leave of this state. I perceive by the last letters of my nephew Petit, that M. de Servien and other enemies of his excellency and of all honest men, complaining of the delayes of the treaty his excellency has in hand betweene England and France, and imputing the blame to the great patience and moderation of the said embassador, (in which they pretend the honour of their king and of his state offended) would be very glad in taking away from him the glory of ending the said treaty, to have occasion of quarrelling, and misuse him, thereby to exhaust the treasures of M. de Bordeaux his father, and his also, and establish in his room, according to the occasion, a person more suitable to their eager humour. I thought convenient to give your honour this word of notice, remaining always,
Mr. Richard Laurance to the protector.
May it please your Highnes,
My last was of the seventh, adviseing the decease of the Dutch agent, and that Sir Thomas Bendish intended to force that nation by Turkish justice to come under his protection, it being an artikle of your capitulations, that when they shall happne to bee upon the place without a publique mynister, they ought so to bee. Sume money hath bine spent therein, but to no purpose; for hee hath not bine able to effect what hee intended, which was to bring them under his protection, that soe hee might have had theire consoledge. But those few Dutch, which are here, in affronte unto Sir Thomas Bendish, have presented one Warner for theire agent, who is accepted by the Keymakam, and fower dayes since was vested. What this Warner is for parts, I know not; but this I know, that he is a poore man, one who was mainetain'd divers yeares by Sir Sackvill Crow, and since by the late Dutch agent. The occasion of his being here, as I am informed, was to buy books for the universities and schools of Holland. Thus I give your highnes an account, what this Warner is, to shew how litle the Turke esteemes of what person bee presented, soe hee have a presente; and the greatest person with them is hee, which giveth the most. And if a person of honor bee sente unto them, they will make him pay at all tymes to preserve his honor, or affronte him more then they would doe a meaner person. Sir Thomas Bendish hath advice, that your highnes hath confirmed major Sallaway for this imploymente: God send him in safety! and I am confidente, that as the state of this empire is at presente, no reasonable thinge will bee denied us. As yet, noe newes, when Ipsher basha will be heere. Sume feare there is, that haveing now gotne the feale, hee will place his servants in all strong houlds of Asia, and at last refuse to come in. A litle tyme will shew the evente hereof. Thus desireing God to direct you in all your weighty affaires, to whose protection I comit you, and rest
Pera of Constantinople,
29. Nov. 1654.
A letter of intelligence.
The cardinal's father is said to be dead at Rome, and that the duke of Guise is landed at Castelmare, some twelve miles from Naples; which place is said to be taken by stratagem; and that he hath defeated 1500 men, which were sent from Naples to fortify that garison.
The cardinal, understanding some difference was like to be between the protector and the parliament, is said to have sent order to the embassador, that if the protector insisted to refuse to sign the articles, unless the French king signed first, that he should break off the treaty upon that occasion. But the embassador, believing the differences not so great, as was here pretended, desired that the treaty might not be broken off: but what answer he hath received, I know not.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
I received nothing from you since my former, by reason the post of England is not yet arrived, either of this day, or friday last; and all think it is by reason of this foul weather, which cannot be helped, till God pleases to dispose it otherwise.
The duke of Rohan is now in perfect health, being recovered beyond expectation, by the means of a poor shoemaker's experience, by a kind of powder, after all physicians quitted him, judging him for dead.
Saturday last the king was well entertained at supper with the cardinal, and afterwards they came to the ball, where they spent an hour and half dancing; and when they finished, the queen went up to the cardinal's chamber, where they were in conference till three o'clock after midnight. Sunday in the afternoon the king gave audience to the embassadors of Venice, and envoy of Parma, and him of Sweden, called count de Braune, who had audience also from the queen the same day.
Monday following Madame de Chastillon, the great creature of the prince of Condé, arrived here by permission from court, and came before the queen the same day, signifying her fidelity and affection to the king; which the rest of the ladies of the court did much admire: but some do think she is come from the prince about some business; and others, nothing but to live quietly.
Father Wantadour, a Jesuit, quitted his convent against his master's will, to take possession of a bishoprick, which the king was pleased to confer upon him. The king had a declaration verified the last day in parliament in the chamber des comptes, by which he created gentlemen twelve masters, that were of several houses here in Paris, and thirty-six servants, which are now all made gentlemen; but all that was to get their moneys. Some report, that the Polanders and Muscovites have fought, and the Polanders got the worst, and lost above 50,000 Poles, and forty officers, all noblemen; and some say, the king himself, after having been there wounded, died of his wounds: but of this we have no certainty, only relations.
Your friend in Rome adds to his letters, after writing of them, that an express arrived there from the viceroy of Naples to the Spanish ministers that same day, signifying the landing of the duke of Guise, and the taking of Castelmare by the said duke, where now he is with what forces he has there. But you must know how that place was taken thus; the duke of Guise sent some Italians, that were in some of his ships, behind the walls of that fort, during the time he was playing himself on the other side with his cannon. The Italians, dissembling to be Spaniards, or of that faction, cried loudly, Vivat rex Hispaniæ! which the governor perceiving, caused the gate to be opened for them: but they, as soon as they came together, gave the sign, that was between themselves and the duke of Guise; and upon that the duke advanced. The governor fell rather upon the Italians within; and in the mean time Guise took possession of the fort; where there were 1500 men in garison, and it within five leagues, or rather fifteen miles, the city of Naples, a very considerable place, which will hinder the communication of Sicily and Calabria from Naples, and besides will cause a great disorder through all the country. The viceroy of Naples, hearing this news, was mad at it, and called together all the nobility of the country, in his master's name, of whom some came, and others not: but he endeavours now to alter all the garisons upon the frontier; in the mean time Guise is not asleep.
His holiness sent the abbot Charrier to Florence, to accompany cardinal de Retz to Rome, and tell him, his eminence should be heartily welcome to his holiness, who promised to shew him all favour, honour, and affection.
Yesterday arrived here an extraordinary courrier from the duke of Guise himself, with the confirmation of what is above written, and signifying how he was forced to attempt that place, being the nearest to him at that time, and having nothing to live withal either for himself or his men, the wind having turned away all his galleys towards Malta, having no men there but those that were in the ships; yet he says, he hopes his galleys will be soon back. He says also, that he endeavours now to beat down all the mills about Naples. He desires, that more forces might be sent to him; and he has great hopes, he shall compass what he designs, by the assistance of God.
All our forces here are coming to their winter-quarters. The king's ball is finished, and was not so pleasant as expected: the queen did not like it. Duke of Gloucester lives still in the suburbs of St. Germains, with Ormond and Radcliffe.
King Charles is still at Cologne, and intends to pass his winter there, being assisted by the
Huguenot princes there, as also by some in Germany. I have no more, but that I am, Sir,
Your real servant.
Mons. de Bordeaux, the father, to his son the French embassador in England.
My last letter will have informed you at large of the measures, that are taken here upon the subject of your negotiation, and of a disposition to a rupture, rather than to suffer so many shameful delays to France. The letter, which was to have been sent to you on saturday last upon that subject, was retarded, it being thought fit to resolve upon it at the first sitting of the council above, before it be sent to you, which was to have met on monday; but it was put off for that day, upon the news, that came at that time of the death of the father of his eminence, who is in close mourning, and also withdrawn for some days. You must not forget to compliment him upon it, either by your first letter, or by the occasion of an express, which you may send, if there chance to pass any thing in your negotiation, that may deserve it. In the mean time M. Servien is preparing to go to work about a manifesto; although he tells me every time he feeth me, that it is a work, which ought rather to proceed from you than any other person. And this is not only my opinion, but of all those, that do take part in your interests; which ought to oblige you betimes to put all your papers in good order, either to make use of them yourself, or to send them over to the earl of Brienne, when he shall send for them. He doth conceive, that after you have received the letter, which is to be sent to you, and that is once here declared to the lord protector, as well in particular as in general, the little satisfaction, that is given to his majesty upon those things, which he doth demand with so much justice, that you ought, under pretence of coming yourself, to signify to the king and his council the difficulties that remain; that so such resolutions may be taken as may serve to remove them in all haste, and to make an end with them. And being come back into France, you will find at Calais the order of the king, to let them know the discontent of France; and by reason we cannot bear any longer with their proceedings, you are not to return any more into England. This is to be the form of your retreat, which M. Servien hath signified to be very necessary, and which hath been very much approved of, that so your person may not be exposed to the hazard of any detention or ill usage at your return, or in your passage. And of all this, that is here mentioned, you will receive the orders of the king, remitting all things to the knowledge, which you have of the state of affairs, which you are to manage, as well for the service of the king, as your own preservation: and in regard the dispositions here are inclin'd to a breach, it will be requisite for you to write about your expences, &c.