A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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February (3 of 3)
Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
We have much groundes of suspition, that the Irish have some designe to make some disturbance. Their great want is of armes and ammunition: they have hopes of supplies from beyond seas. There are three Brest men of warre, which lie upon the Westerne coast, and through the negligence of the states shippes are like to continue. They give out, that they expect a fleete to come into those parts. We have some intelligence, which gives us much ground of suspition, that the intelligence, which my lord protector formerly gave me, might be a reall designe. I am sending more forces to strengthen those partes, and I doubt not, if there be occasion, but that we shall find the same prefence of the Lord, which hitherunto we have had. The state is much abused, through the carelesness of those men of warre, which attend this coast: they loose much tyme in harbours, under pretence of victuallinge. Col. Odwyre (fn. 1) had orders from the late council of state, to levye 3500 men in Ireland; in persueance of which orders the commissioners gave him libertie soe to doe; but I am sending orders to him, to forbeare draweing any more together, until he hath first satisfied me, that he hath shippes readye to transporte them. I have sent major Wallis his letter unto you, desireing you will take some care therein; but through the want of that shipp, which it should seem he had engaged should transport 800 men, the state is necessitated, rather then to suffer the men to run out into rebellion againe, to advance to some officers near 1500 l. to transporte those men with the addition of 400 more. I desire that he may be enforced to reimburse the state here what through his defect they suffer in this business. The publicke hath been very much abused by such kind of actions upon the Spanish capitulations. Pardon this tediousnesse of
The high court of justice have agayne adjourned, the judges not being satisfyed to act, unlesse under the new authority, which we conceive ourselves not impowered to do, otherways then we have allready. Such kinde of delayes doth no good: the attorney general desires new authority from my lord; he is a very able honest man: pray get him a patent.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augiers's secretary.
At last France sends an authentical commission of ambassador to M. de Neufville, with order to demonstrate unto his highness the feelings of a love necessary to gain that of the commonwealth, whose preparatives are much feared. The cardinal Mazarin, to whom all governments are indifferent, as long as they are suitable to his interest, had long since been of that opinion; but the delights towards a young prince, and a queen governed by superstitious impressions, have detained him until now in the deceitful and imaginary hopes of the Stuarts, who are in earnest to be gone, as I am informed. Some whisper in their ears to go toward Denmark, as to cause the storm to fall upon it, and bring hindrance, if possible, to the agreement of both commonwealths, whilst prince Rupert shall try to land in some place of England, or at least in Scotland or Ireland; bragging that they have very good intelligences, and that thereby they shall succeed at this time, being upholded by the Roman clergy's contributions, and the league the Papists meditate amongst themselves for to maintain their Antichrist, who to that purpose hath already tried several negotiations in divers parts. They brag moreover of the great divisions, which would happen in London itself; this court making them believe the more, thereby to be rid of them, promising them the king will carefully remit them their pension where they please; and that his majesty will be more able to serve them absent, than present; so that I am informed, the little queen is to shew them the way.
We have but little of other news; that of Tholouse, whereof I made mention in my last, hath been followed with dangerous consequences. The name of the protestant gentleman put to death is Leran, marquis and kinsman to the house of Vantadour. He hath been unhappily condemned for fighting in a duel, and beheaded a moment before the arrival of an express his friends sent him with the king's pardon; which causeth infinite grief unto all those of the Reformed church, who are resolved to draw reason of the malicious temerity of that parliament. To which purpose many deputies come hither from the city of Montpellier and others; and in the mean while the sons of the late deceased have put themselves in the field with 4 or 500 of their friends, and have already burnt by anticipation several houses about Tholouse belonging to the said parliament; and also one belonging to the reporter of that process, expecting more sensible retaliations upon the persons themselves; so that here are hostilities, which can produce nothing but much animosity. This court is much offended with it, although it seems much irritated with the proceeding of that parliament. Those of the Reformed church cry always, they receive no justice, and that the insolency of their foes doth daily become insupportable. Great numbers of the nobility of Poictou, which are in this city, have resolved to speak openly to his majesty's counsel, concerning the business of Rochechouart, the mareschal de Turenne having promised to uphold them.
It is said that Dureteste hath accused two persons before his death; and that some have been taken going from England to Bourdeaux with letters, which had been sent hither; whence the mareschal of Grammont parteth this week for the government of Bayonne.
The cardinal Mazarini gives his palace to the prince of Conti, who hath already received of his marriage an hundred thousand crowns in money, with promise to receive as much again, a year hence, without pretension of any interest, and to enjoy the pension of 50,000 crowns, reserved him in his church revenues. Some distrust some jealousy between him and the cardinal; and it is noted, that since his arrival many rails have been planted about the entries of the Louvre; and that more than ordinary care is taken to see who cometh in it. Two honest citizens have been repulsed and searched two days since, for passing with their cloaks about their shoulders, because of cold weather.
Intelligence from Dantzick.
BY the last letters from Warsaw we cannot hear of any considerable action hitherto taken in hand upon that rix-day. The Tartars have sent a message there, to demand the 500,000 gilders due; as also the 45,000 florins new tribute; a fine recompence indeed for that they have plunder'd the whole land within four miles of Lublin, and carried away so many men, beasts, and commodities. The grand duke of Moscow is said to be with his army at Wierna, a border town of the dukedom of Smolensko, from whence he hath already sent some parties in the said dukedom, who having driven back the Polacks, have caused their wayvode to desire prince Radzevil (whom the king, for to draw him on his side, hath presented with the generalate of Littow) his assistance for the maintenance of the head city, against the violence of the Muscovites, which he was not able to resist.
A proclamation of the duke of Austria.
To all high officers, major generals, colonels, captains, and soldiers, bearing arms under the ensigns and colours of the lord duke of Lorrain, Charles, greeting. Know that we having this day made sure for some time of the person of the said lord duke of Lorrain, Charles, in execution of the order and special command, which we have received from the king my lord, for the proper good of the house of Lorrain, and other high considerations tending to the safety of the state, and the publick tranquillity; the intention of his majesty and ours is, that the body of his troops remain under the command and order of the count of Ligneville for the same service that they are at present employ'd in, until such time as the lord duke Francis of Lorrain render himself here, as he will do in few days, to take himself the government of that body for the conservation of the rights of the said lord duke, and of the house of Lorrain, under the protection of his majesty; and declaring, that no soldiers of the said body, nor officers, shall be examin'd or punish'd for any pre text of former actions, which they shall have committed under the government of the said lord duke: we have done, and do by these presents strictly and expressly forbid them to pass into the service of any other potentates or neighbour states, friends or enemies, on penalty of confiscation of body and goods of his majesty's vassals and subjects, as also of those inlisted and inrolled heretofore in their books, and for and in regard of other strangers, on pain of being punish'd as military deserters; provided always, that those heretofore enlisted and inrolled for his majesty's service, although retired from their colours without permission, may return without any danger of being examined or punish'd for other matters. We remit to what the count of Fuensaldagna, governor general of his majesty's armies, shall more particularly make them understand concerning the advantages that shall be promptly procured them and effected. 25th of Febr. [165¾. N. S.]
Manifesto of the archduke of Austria.
No person can ignore the just terms of the duty and office, into which our cousin the lord duke of Lorrain Charles was obliged to contain and behave himself towards the king my lord, and all his allies, friends, and good subjects, as soon as he was in this country and provinces. Under his obedience, he was protected from the violences, oppressions, and usurpations, which France committed against his person and his country; and he was here received by his majesty, and his lieutenants general, not only in all friendliness and trust, and under a special protection, even to espouse all his interests, and all treaties of peace; but hath been also gratified with pay and subsistence for his troops, and was made privy unto all counsels and resolutions of wars against the common enemy.
On the other side, it is no less known unto all the world, how much the said lord duke hath fallen from the terms of duty and respect due from a prince of his birth, received, used, and gratified in the manner above expressed, and bound by so near and just ties of relation to the interests and service of his majesty, and to the good of his states: for besides the tears, sighs, groanings, and general exclamation of the people, who have publickly witnessed the robberies, thests, and sacrilege done in churches, forcing of wives, and ravishing of maids, with divers other execrable, abominable and detestable things, which were done and committed under the power and government of his troops, and he himself received what remained of such destructions and calamities; his majesty and his lieutenants general having been duly informed from time to time of the secret intelligences of the said lord duke, of his many designs contrary to the publick good and service, unto which, and what was the end and intents of the junction of our forces, of his inconstancy and dissembled variations in the resolutions of war, and his changes or affected delays, which he brought in against things already concluded, at the very time when exploits of great importance were to be executed; from which came the ruin and destruction of divers high enterprizes, which according to all appearance of human judgment ought to have had favourable success; these things by frequent continuance are become so publickly evident, that not only the lieutenant generals, majors, colonels, and other officers, touch'd all his crasty subtilties with their finger, and were eye-witnesses thereof, but also the least soldier and all the people became astonish'd to see, how it slid in and increased, without endeavouring any remedy. 'Tis true, my lord the king, by his accustomed goodness, and restrained by the singular affection, which he bears, and will ever bear, unto the house of Lorrain, connived and dissembled at it as long as it was possible for him so to do, hoping that the said lord duke, touch'd with the humanity and goodness which his majesty used towards him, coming to know his own true interest, would in the end submit, and subject himself to his duty; but contrarywise, his proceedings went beyond all bounds, and came to such a height, that not only all the subjects and vassals of his majesty had him in horror and detestation, but also the princes and neighbour states had conceived such an aversion, that the effect of vengeance that they designed to take, apparently would disgorge itself and overflow in these Low-countries, to make them fall and absolutely miserable; the king my lord, without pulling the wrath of God on himself, could not delay longer to stop the torrent of his evil. And it is upon the consideration of these truths, publickly and manifestly true, that his majesty had commanded us, for a prompt and efficacious remedy, to secure the person of the said lord duke; in which he hath proceeded according to the law of nature, that when sovereign princes shall raise taxes, and make violent oppressions against their states and subjects, to do justice to themselves, to their people, and to potentates and neighbour states and friends, after all other ways and means have been attempted in vain for which lawfulness divers examples are in times past in, and for cases of less consequence, and not so justified as this. 'Tis not that his majesty hath any aversion against the house of Lorrain; contrary-wise he protests ever to protect it, and take part in all his affairs: in witness and faith of which, his majesty hath taken care, that the government of the army and troops of the said lord duke may pass and remain sequester'd in the hands of the lord prince Francis of Lorrain, his brother, of whose good disposition and right intention his majesty hath infallible assurances, to receive the right and due effects and fruits of the junction of his army; and in the mean time that the said lord duke Francis arrive, the intention of his majesty and ours is, that the count of Ligneville continue to occupy his place and function of general.
We command then, in the name and by the authority of the king my lord, to all his subjects and vassals, and require all princes and neighbour states, to remain satisfied and well contented with this order and resolution of his majesty, waiting that other times and conjunction of publick affairs calm these storms and alterations; and that God bring back the great good, by mollifying the obstinate hearts and spirits of France, that are against a peace; the people may be re-establish'd in tranquillity and general rest; and each one in particular re-united, and enjoy what belongs to him. Bruxels, the 25th of February 1654. [N. S.]
The lord of Amelandt to the states general.
The letter of your lordships, dated at the Hague the 28th of this month, stylo loci, I received yesterday; whereby I did understand, to my great grief, that your lordships were displeased at the sending of two Amelanders into England (fn. 2), to desire an act of neutrality. Therefore this serves in all humility and reverence, in answer to your lordships, that therein was nothing done by me, but what had been formerly done in my time, and before my time by my predecessors and forefathers, the lords of Amelandt, with whom it was usual and practicable, namely in times of war and danger at sea, to desire an act of neutrality, either by sending of commissioners, or writing of letters to all such places and persons in supreme power, where the same is thought requisite, that so the poor inhabitants of Amelandt might not be hindered from getting their livelihood; of which being once debarred, they must perish with hunger. Withal it is very well known, that the lordship of Amelandt, and the inhabitants thereof, were always neuters, even during the time of the wars between your lordships and the king of Spain, without being hindered by your lordships, who did not conceive themselves prejudiced thereby; and therefore what is done, is humbly conceived to be done according to reason, justice, and equity: for it is most certain, that those that have no community in the war, ought to be held for neuters.
Beverning, the Dutch commissioner in England, to the states general.
According to your high mightinesses commands, I have demanded audience this afternoon, and obtained the same of his highness; when I made a compliment to him, conformable to your resolutions of the 19th instant. I have nothing in particular to write on that head, but only that his highness, assisted with the whole council, did receive me bareheaded, and did hear me thus almost all the while: and because I was somewhat incommodated in my lest leg, and therefore obliged to be carried in a chair, his highness ordered an arm-chair to be set for me, of the same fashion as that wherein he was going to sit down; but seeing that I remained standing, altho' he stooped already to sit down, yet he rose again, and heard me standing. I was brought up by the master of the ceremonies, and introduced by two noblemen, when his highness advanced towards me one or two steps; and thus I was again led back, and was accompanied sitting in my chair by Mess. Pickering, Strickland, and the master of the ceremonies, thro' all the chambers and galleries to the park. I thought sit, because of the good opportunity, besides the compliment of congratulation, to mention something bythe-by of our chief affairs; whereupon I received nothing but a dilatory answer, since my pro position was only relative to the arrival of my confraters. But as to my congratulation, his highness answered me with many expressions of affection and esteem towards your high mightinesses. High and mighty lords, I do not doubt the happy success of our affairs in general; but I must own, that I am a little concerned at all those considerations expressed in your high mightinesses instruction; for I think I am well assured, that if we should begin in our conferences to touch upon those things, all which are already adjusted, they would be intirely laid aside, with new disputes concerning the fishery and sea affairs; so that this business must unquestionably be managed pursuant to the salutary secret resolutions. But since I find myself likewise a little vexed, to pass them by so very regardless, I am resolved, after having made this compliment, to wait the time limited by your high mightinesses, before I begin any thing, in order first to consult with the lords my confraters: but in default of their coming, since I see that on the other side the time must be watched, (being here in the midst of their preparations, though with some difficulties) I will make a beginning on wednesday next, and endeavour, under the blessings of God, to finish the same; whereof I will acquaint your high mightinesses immediately, remaining in the mean while,
An intercepted letter of Mr. J. Phillipps to Mr. John Gunter.
All the tidings that I can give you of Vavasor is, that he, together with captain Williams and Moris Griffith, are gone on their pilgrimage to Cardiganshire. Upon friday last they were all three at Llanddewyvrevy near Tyvy preaching, as I am very credibly informed by a member of the church, that came from thence to Radnorshire. It is reported in the country, but I cannot find the certainty, that captain Williams, when he came here, gave out, that if he had come here but a little sooner, he had stopped the commissioners and the country from paying the last contribution; and that he and his fellows, meaning the last parliament, made an act, that there should be no king or protector in England; and that it was treason for to name or proclaim any protector in England, by reason they had made a statute against it. As soon as I can possibly attain the certainty hereof, you shall hear further from me. It is reported, that all the Watkins are about to take their journey to London; and you may do well to prefer these articles of tyranny and oppression, which I sent these 12 months ago to you, against them; and I shall, if needs be, bring witnesses to London to prove them. There is also some report here in the country, that the anabaptists will fight it out, before they will submit to the protector, or present government; and Vavasor Powel saith absolutely, that he will never submit to any government, but that which is according to God's word. Richard Powel is repairing and scouring his pistols, and so is most of his brethren theirs also, and setting them in order at the smith's in Finnon-Kynid in Glasbury. Mr. Thomas Powel promised me to meet on friday at Therrow, but did not. I believe that new petitions to the protector for the clergy, and for bringing the propagators to an account, would be now granted and heard by the protector, and his council (fn. 3). This is all at this instant, February the 15th, from your true friend
Extract out of the secret resolutions of the lords the states of Holland and West-Friesland, &c.
The counsellor pensionary de Witt has reported in the assembly the considerations and advice of the lords their high mightinesses commissioners for the affairs of Poland, in consequence of, and concerning the commissorial resolution, dated the 11th of November of last year; and that after previous resumption and examination of the most considerable treaties of commerce, concluded formerly by this state with other kings, republicks, and states, they have projected and brought in writing such matters and articles, whereupon, as their lordships are of opinion, their high mightinesses could make and conclude with the crown and republick of Poland a good and advantageous alliance, for the defence, conservation and increase of trade and navigation; having besides consulted upon and taken under consideration, how and in what manner the said business for the service of the state might be further carried on, directed, and managed. This being consulted upon, after previous distinct reading of the said project and articles heretofore mentioned, and having heard and understood also the explanation and elucidation, by word of mouth made by the said counsellor pensionary on that subject, it was thought sit and resolved, that this affair in the general assembly shall be thus directed, to the end that the said articles, by order of their high mightinesses, may be delivered as a project of the commissaries, to the hands of the lord de Bye, residing here for and in behalf of the said crown and republick, with this express addition, that their high mightinesses were desirous to have thereupon the sentiment of the states of the said crown, now assembled at the diet of Warsaw; their high mightinesses remaining in the mean while, as well in this affair as also touching the extension of the said articles, in their full authority, and unprejudiced.
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
Since my last to you, the high court of justice did againe sitt, but have adjourned for three weeks or a moneth, without doeing any thing. The occasion of their sittinge was upon tryal of the lord Muskerrie; but by reason of the late acte sett out by my lord protector, which hath declared what shall be treason, they conceive themselves not in a condition to proceede to the tryall of any person, untill that acte shall be explained, because murther by the lawes of this land is treason; and by our proceedings heere upon the acte of settlement, and the lawes of this land, all accessories and abettors are proceeded against as principalls, even before the principalls be attainted: but by reason of this late act, they can onely be tryed as fellons.
This inclosed paper from the attorney generall will more particulerly informe you concerneinge this business: besides there are other thinges, as burneing of howses, corne, &c. alsoe by the lawes of this land are treason, which were made soe by reason of the barbarisme of this people, so apte to such crymes: but indeede this of murder has beene soe high a wickednes, and almost unheard of cruelties has beene exercised by these nativees, that I am sure it was farre from my lord protector's intentions, or any others concerned in makinge that lawe, that I most earnestlie presse you will send us a full and speedie explanation thereof.
I have one thinge more to adde, that the coyne heere is exceedingly debased and corrupted, and this countrie will be ruined, if not tymely prevented. I must therefore entreate
your speciall assistance in procureing us a minte here, according to the letter to my lord
protector from the commissioners heere. Excuse this trouble from your very affectionate
friend and servant,
Dublin, 16 Febr. 1653.
Sir, It is said the Venetian embassador shall have liberty to transporte men from Ireland. If my lord of Muskerry his innocency appeare, and that he be acquitted, he will be the fittest person to command them, of any other, and of most advantadge to the publicke (fn. 4).
Col. Robert Lilburne to the protector.
May it please your Highnesse,
According to those commands I received from your highnesse this day, havinge very happilie a man of warre, that I hope will be ready to goe out to-morrow, I have dispatched intelligence and orders to all those men of warre upon this coast, to cruse about the Orknayes, Shetland, and Lewis, to see if they can hitt upon Middleton. I have not a further account of colonel Morgan's successe as yet; onlie to confirme the businesse, I heare that Kenmore fled to Dunkell, which was some thirty or forty miles from that place, and came in there privatelie the next day after the engagement. I suppose colonel Morgan is desirous to give mee an account of the taking of Kildrummy, before he sends mee any other account, by reason of the great distance he is att from this place, and the difficulty of passages. I have this day received two lines from lieutetenant general Fleetwood, as also from colonel Venables, wherin they desire to hold correspondence, which I am very glad of, and shall give order therin for the settlement of a garrison in the most convenient place for landing. A partie went to gaine the shallopp wee lost in the Clyde, which was carried uppe into a lough: but before wee could come att her, they fired her, in sight of our men. There seemed to bee before this defeate given to Glencairne a verie great spiritt of insolencie in the malignants. I cannot conjecture from whence itt comes, unlesse upon some assurance from colonel Drummond, uppon his late arrivall from France. Lieutenant colonel Mason having secured the earle of Calender, I have this day received some further confirmation of that intelligence I had against him; though I am doubtful it will be difficult to bee made evident. However, my judgment leades mee to secure him for the present. I remayne
Dalkeith, 16 Febr. 1653.
The examination of Roger Cotes, Febr. 16. 1653. viz.
About the first of November, 1653, your examinant Roger Cotes was at the Feathers tavern in Cheapside, where there was as followeth; captain Dutton, William Jenkins, Roger Lee, captain Smith, Joseph Barker, Thomas Tucker, and Lee the dancing master. At that time was engaged (fn. 5), Thomas Tucker, captain Smith, and myself. Dutton likewise told us, that there was a council of persons of honour, that did act this design far above us, and therefore thought it requisite, that two persons should be chosen out of each council, to go to this head council to receive orders and instructions from them. Whereupon captain Smith and Roger Lee was chosen, and the next night went with Mr. Dutton; and the night after we had a meeting at the Bull-head in Cheapside, where there was captain Dutton, Roger Lee, alderman Bunch his son, captain Smith, Peter Middleton, and William Jenkins. To all these captain Smith and Roger Lee did certify, that there was a council of persons of honour, according to Mr. Dutton's information: and it was further urged by Mr. Richard Dutton, that it was necessary, that some money should be gathered, for defraying the charge of those that met most constant; and it was agreed, that 10 shillings of each person should be gathered, and to be brought in the next morning, which was at the Pope's-head in Cornhill, the 15th of November; but before your examinant could have convenience to come, most of them were gone; there only remained captain Dutton, William Jenkins, Roger Lee, Thomas Tucker, and Joseph Barker. When I came, Dutton and Jenkins took me aside, and told me, they had all given Mr. Dutton 20 shillings apiece: whereupon I gave him my 20 shillings. About the 12th of November there met at the Exchange in Abchurchlane, captain Dutton, colonel Whitley, John Archer, Edward Gosnel, William Jenkins, Roger Lee, and Thomas Bunch, where Lea told me, Whitley had a letter from the king, which certified him, there was a design far above ours, which he had notice of; and at that time they did conclude it necessary to send colonel Whitley and John Archer to the king, to receive orders, commission, and instructions to carry on this design; where Roger Lee profered to lay down 50 l. for their charges. About the 15th of November there met at the Nag's-head in Cheapside colonel Whitley, captain Dutton, captain Smith, Roger Lee, John Archer, Joseph Sawyer, Thomas Samborne, and one William; where it was thought necessary, that only colonel Whitley should go into France; and Roger Lee did agree to lay down 15 l. and myself 10 l. which we had bills under their hands to see us paid again; which was captain Dutton, capt. Smith, Thomas Samborne, and Joseph Sawyer. The next night following, there met at the Castle in Wood-street, colonel Whitley, captain Dutton, captain Smith, Roger Lee, and myself; where Roger Lee paid his money to Whitley, and myself paid my ten pounds to Dutton at his chamber, in the morning. At this time there was Edward Massey, the duke of York, the lord Willoughby of Parham mentioned to be the generals of us, when our design was grown to persection: but it was concluded, not to speak to any great men to that purpose, before colonel Whitley's return, which he conceived would be within a month at the most; but since that time I have never seen him.
About the 14th of December there met at the Nagg's-head in Cheapside captain Dutton, captain Smith, John Archer, Edward Gosnel, Roger Lee, Thomas Samborne, and Joseph Sawyer, in expectation of some letters, which Mr. Dutton told us he had from Whitley: but by reason of two strangers that were at that time engaged, he thought it not convenient to read them, but appointed a meeting at the Red-lion in Abchurchlane, the saturday following, being but two days; where there met captain Dutton, Roger Lee, captain Smith, John Archer, Edward Gosnel, and myself; where captain Dutton shew'd us two letters, which were to this effect; That the commodities he sent, were received very acceptably by their friend; and that he, their friend, had some commodities of the same nature in England, which he should intrust him and his partner to buy for him; but his return would be longer than he did expect.
Presently after Mr. Dutton went into the country, and did not return until the 4th day of February; and his relation to me and Peter Middleton at the Fountain in Fenchurchstreet was, that he had been in most parts of the West of England, in Wales, in Yorkshire, and Lancashire, and had engaged of his friends, and gentlemen, to the number of six or seven hundred, which would be ready, he seared, before we could, and would come up when he sent for them: and Peter Middleton told me, that Massy is in town, and that the king himself would be here, and be our general very speedily, and many other great persons would be, and is here, whose names he would not tell me; and that theit intention was to crown Charles Stuart king in Cheapside, in the heat of the tumult.
Dutton has told me, that the lord Biron, sir Thomas Sandys, sir Thomas Armstrong, the lord Loughborrow, colonel Lovelace, are of the council. Middleton told me, that sir John Watts would be in town very speedily with eight horse, and desired me on monday last to ask at the Miller in Fenchurch-street, whether he was come to town, or not, who certified me, not as yet.
In the time of Mr. Dutton's being in the country, there was letters received by Mr. John Gerrard, who goes by the name of Edward Lewis. We had a meeting at the Feathers in Cheapside, where there was captain Smith, John Archer, Roger Lee, William Jenkins, Mr. Gerrard, and two friends of his, which had a letter from Whitley, who desired that somebody might come over, and meet him at Calais, to bring over the commodities he was sent for; but at that time, by reason of charge, there was nobody at that time agreed upon to be sent; but since Mr. Dutton's return he saith he hath sent one.
The Danish resident to the states general.
High and mighty Lords,
The most serene and most potent prince and lord, lord Frederick III. by the grace of God king of Denmark and Norway, &c. my most gracious lord and master, after greeting and most affectionate offer of whatever may be acceptable to the high and mighty lords the states general of the United Provinces, and contribute to the continuation of the good and neighbourly friendship and correspondence, which has always subsisted between the crown of Denmark and this state, has thought proper most graciously to send me to your high mightinesses, to declare with due respect the joy and satisfaction, wherewith his said majesty has heard, that the almighty God has at last blessed both republicks by the treaty, which is lately concluded, to that degree that they are mutually come to a happy and peaceable conclusion of the cruel and bloody war, which they have carried on one against another for near two years; wishing sincerely, and from his heart, that the divine majesty will be pleased to finish and to strengthen the said treaty of peace and concord, which is so well begun, and wherein all Christendom is so greatly concerned, to the peaceful prosperity of your high mightinesses whole estate, and your United Provinces, as also for the lasting tranquillity and welfare of your neighbours and allies.
His royal majesty having further observed, inwhat manner their high mightinesses the lords states general, according to their promises, have seriously endeavoured and taken care, that the interest of his majesty, and his kingdoms and dominions might be minded by their deputies to the government of England, pursuant to the tenor of the negotiations carried on between the two republicks, more particularly contained in the 7th article of the same; therefore his royal majesty, my most gracious master, gives his friendly thanks to your high mightinesses, for your care and regard therein, desiring friendly and neighbourly, that you will be pleased to continue still further in such good design and intention, and especially to direct and manage every thing so, that before ratifications of the said treaty be exchanged, the lords embassadors of your high mightinesses, being ready to set out again for England, may be instructed still further to observe the interest of his said majesty, and the tranquillity of his kingdoms, and to manage and transact every thing with the present government of England in such a manner, that the friendship which his majesty, even to the hazard and danger of his kingdoms, has shewn to your high mightinesses in these dangerous conjunctures, may not prove nor tend hereafter to the loss, damage, and prejudice of his majesty, and his kingdoms and subjects, in consideration that between the crown of Denmark and the republick of England there have been no differences, except these present ones, which however only at the request of their high mightinesses, and to their advantage, have happened to his majesty, in relation to the ships that are seized; whereby his majesty's faithful friendship towards his neighbours and allies clearly appears. Therefore he doth not doubt in the least the performance of what their high mightinesses the lords the states general have on their side promised by their envoy in ordinary, Nanningh Kaiser; viz. That they will help with all their power and strength to avert, whatsoever by reason of the stopping of the said ships might any ways happen to the prejudice of his majesty, and the subjects of his kingdoms, trusting that the promises they have made will be fulfilled with the like punctuality.
As to the restitution of the English ships and goods that have been stopped, and which article their high mightinesses the lords the states general have been pleased to propose by their commissioners in England, his royal majesty my most gracious master relies upon it, that your high mightinesses will be pleased to command the said lords embassadors, further to endeavour, that all claims and pretensions, that any ways may be formed by the English government on account of the above-mentioned ships and goods; and the restitution thereof, may be settled intirely and with speed to the best advantage of his majesty, and liquidated in such a manner, as the same may be most proper for his majesty's reputation and benefit, and tend likewife to a reasonable restitution and satisfaction to his subjects, of such ships and goods taken from them by the English, on account as above-mentioned.
Not to rehearse any thing of all the losses and damages suffered by the stopping of
trade and commerce, of the decrease of the tolls, nor of the charges, though pretty
considerable, bestowed for the defence of his majesty's kingdoms and dominions, and
this for no other reason than only because his majesty had resolved to detain the said
ships for the advantage of your high mightinesses, and for the no small disappointment of their enemies; so that therefore it would be unjust, that his said majesty's
subjects should be sufferers to their ruin and loss, for that friendship, which your high
mightinesses have desired from Denmark with so much earnestness, and so great promises, and obtained accordingly; which his royal majesty is also ready at all times to
maintain with the greatest sincerity, and on all opportunities that shall happen, to the
best advantage of your high mightinesses, for the good of your subjects, and for the
wish'd-for welfare of all the United Provinces in general. Hereupon I expect very
speedily a favourable answer in writing, and remain,
Done Feb. 27. 1654. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
They sent back the 20th of this month the express, which the lord of Beverning had sent hither, to have new letters of credence, power, and order, to congratulate his highness the lord protector, and to declare, that in a short time the extraordinary embassadors of the state would follow to make the said congratulation with more solemnity; and they have sent for the lord Jongestall to come hither with all speed. Item, they have desired Zealand to supply the place of the lord vande Perre with all speed.
All the ratifications of the provinces are now brought in, except that of Groningen and Ommelande: but this last province would never have any thing to do with the peace of England, and never did give their consent to send into England; therefore in all likelihood there will be no ratification from them; or if they do, it will come conformable to that of Friesland, or else may-be they will pass by the business without speaking any thing about it.
The new order and instruction for these lords the embassadors to finish the treaty will be composed out of all these ratifications, with some moderation, and between both, among all these ratifications, and their conditions; and all will depend very much upon the dexterity of the embassadors, whereof two will be Hollanders, and the third a Zealander. Now Holland hath agreed to it without any reserve. Zealand hath no other reserve, than the proviso about the prince of Orange. These three at the worst will carry it against the fourth, though he should make much opposition.
The lord Stockard, commissioner of the Protestant Cantons of Switzerland, hath had audience. He was brought attended with two coaches, one of four, and the other of two horses; as that of Genoa afterwards brought to audience by the lords Nieuport and Renswonde. I spoke of his negotiation or mediation in England; so that this was only a compliment; and he goeth from hence to Switzerland.
You have formerly seen the proposition of the lord embassador Chanut, wherein he did demonstrate to the states general by several reasons, that they ought not to make peace or agreement with England, unless at the same time there be an agreement made between England and France; otherwife the state would have no benefit of the peace.
Whether that of late the lord Bordeaux Neusville hath a little advanced this treaty, and perceiveth that without the intervention of this state France will do well enough to make their agreement; or whether that France doth not stand in need at present to implore the intervention of this state, chiefly since this state did so coolly resolve, if it can be done, not absolutely for the inclusion of France; it is so, that the said embassador did make this week a generous proposition, wherein tacitly and civilly he did make a reproach of injustice and ingratitude, and after a handsome fashion gave to understand, that the embassadors of this state might very well spare their labour in speaking for the inclusion of France, since that his king is in a condition to make his neighbours both to desire a peace, and to fear a war; and in the close, notwithstanding assuring the state of his affection, he told them, that his majesty will force them with his courtesies and assistance, to cherish and reverence, if they did it not already.
In the mean time those of Holland and Amsterdam found very much to gainsay and contradict in his favours and courtesies; namely, of twelve millions, which the French have taken from them upon the Mediterranean sea. In the mean time we see, that either the king or the embassador is angry; but in effect they have no great cause; for they did never promise here the inclusion of France, as they did promise that of Denmark. It is true, that the lord Boreel did endeavour to make a treaty with France, and that very strict; and the design of this embassy was merely to engage this state with France against Spain and England; and all the Orange party would be of this opinion; but Holland is wiser.
The lord Beverning doth a little give the alarm here, saying, that in England they do make great preparations, which they need not do against us; for we do make no other account but of a peace; and those are bad people, who do publish, that here they have no effective intention for a peace, but that they prepared for war. They have appointed the second of March for the departure of the embassadors for England; and those that are not ready then, may follow after; and if the lord Beverning be nimble and dextrous, as he is, he may do all alone.
The king of Denmark doth only write to know, whether he shall prepare his ships; but his resident hath declared by word of mouth to the lord president, that they ought to make peace with the sword in hand; that is to say, he desired to have the subsidy of 192000 rixdollars in hand.
Beverning to Ruysch.
Yesterday I received the packet with the dispatches of their high mightinesses, as likewise therein your letter, with the secret resolutions written with your own hand. Whereunto I say only, that the same ought to have been in cypher, since I very much suspect, that it has been seen and read, together with all the others in the packet, which I could see plainly to have been opened. And besides, I must renew by this opportunity what I have told you already, even from the beginning of our negotiations, that by the opening of our letters, and by comparing the same, the cypher of their high mightinesses, which is at best but indifferent and very common, has been discover'd without doubt long ago; and therefore that they would be pleased to provide new orders against the same.
I am confidently informed, that two expresses, one after another, have been sent by the court of France to the queen of Sweden, with letters, which shew some diffidence against their high mightinesses; since it seems that some suspect the powerful armament as well of their high mightinesses, as of the government here, at a time, when they are there of opinion, that our affairs here are finish'd and concluded, and consequently that any secret design may lie concealed under it. And having discoursed thereupon with the lord Neusville, assuring him of an absolute and intire affection and sincere inclination of their high mightinesses, he seem'd not absolutely to contradict the sending of the expresses; however he assured, that his majesty did no ways doubt the friendship of their high mightinesses. That gentleman looks every hour for new orders, to take upon him the character of embassador, and then to bring his business here with the greatest zeal to an issue. Herewith,
Daniel Searle, governor of Barbados, to the protector.
May it please your Highnes,
By some shipes heare lately arived from England, wee have receved intelligence of the late parliament's dissolveinge themselss, resigneing up theire powers and authority; and that the administration of government in the commonwealthe is invested and establish'd in your highnes person, assisted with a councell, for the goverment and transacting the greate and weighty affaires of the nation with successive trienniall parliaments. This place beinge a limbe of the commonwealth, and myselfe by commission from the late councel of state, constituted by your highnes authority, intrusted in the goverment, I holde it my dutie in all humillity to represent to your highnes and greate councel, that for the continuance of this island's futuer peace and tranquillity, and regular and orderly proceedeings in courtes of justice, that your highnes pleasuer and commands maight be made knowne unto us, that such publications might be heare made thereof, as may settell us in a dew conformity and suteable adminestration of justice in this place, with that of the commonwealth of England, this collony beinge a limbe thereof.
The nation haveing had soe greate experiences, and seene such visible apearances of the power and wisedome of God, leadeinge your highnes through such wilderneses and seas of trouble, for the accomplishment of those greate things hath bin brought to passe, and the resentment your highnes have had of the commonwealthe manie yeares troubled and unsetled condition, the greate hopes of persons are, that notwithstanding these severall mutations of supreame authoritie, (which soe long as the influences of heaven reach affaires on earth, and the affaires on earth have soe great a dependency on heaven, and cannot but be expected as the motions of divine providence, to bring forth the etemell decrees and purposes of God in the world) that now supreame authority is invested in your highnes person, as protector of the three nations, that suteable to your highnes several declarations, promises, and often pleadeings before God the cause of his people by prayers, and before the people the cause of God with the sword, your highnes will eminently and vigorously endeavour to bring this tossed commonwealth (oughtentimes even brought almost to shipwracke) into a quiet and peaceable harbour, and establish justice and rightieousness, the beauty of goverment, and pillar of all greate states.
And considering that as clocks by weight pressing them downe, if not drawne up, will at length come to an end; soe the most vigorous, best, and greatest speritts, through the weight of greate affaires and discouridgements therein, may at length languish and waxd saint, if they resume not strength from heaven, and be drawne up by the breathings of the Speritt of God within them, and oughten communion with him, as Moyses, that greate statesman, who had soe familliar a recourse to the tabernacle of God; I shall (as one of the meanest of your highnes servants) suplicate the throne of grace, that your highnes, and the great councel of the nation, might more and more be enlightned and inlivened with the rayes of divine light and life, to act and doe such things for God, his people, and the publicke weale, as that rightiousnesse might be to you a crowne, and justice a gerdel of honour.
Soe shall him that dazeleth the eyes of the wise, and blindeth the most pollitique,
sufferreth wise councellors to fall into the hazards of sencelesse men, preserve your
highnes, and the greate councell of the nation, to the praise of his owne name, the
rejoiceinge of his people, and your highnes lasting comfort; which shall be the prayers
Barbados, the 17th of Feb. 1653.
An intercepted letter of major general Drummond to the earl of Glencairne.
I am exceedingly vexed, that since my comeing to this cowntrie all the cowrses I have proposed to myselfe for haveing the honor to kis your hands, have proved [in]effectual. I wes once the lenthe of Blaw in Atholl, in order therto, wher I receaved very disconfortable newes of your lo. and thes with you, which I trust shall not appear as wes related; nor cowld I have any opportunytie to wreatt before this. My lo. I cannot deny, but my lo. Atholl hes pressed me much for staying this ten dayes besyde him, dureing which scharse have we been on night without on, two, or three alarmes, sometymes trew, sometymes false; and even att present he wowld hardly suffer me to part from him, albieit I knowes whither to direct my jowrney to find yowr lo. which I am altogether ignorant of. My lo. I beseech you find some way to acquaint me, when and wher I may waitt upon yow for communycatteing things of consequence from our master and lieutenant general Midletone. I shall forbear to towtch bussines here, or expresse any of my private thowghts in order to the service, waitting your lo. will command a dyett for such things to,
Dunkell, Feb. 17. 1654.
Our negotiation here seems for a while to be asleep. The treaty of peace betwixt England and Holland, and its likelihood of taking effect, hath caused this people to be a little wary: and it doth concern them; for if peace be ratified, it will put both nations to take up new counsels. The queen hath promised his lordship, that she will dispatch him as soon as she receives the certainty of that affair (fn. 6). The senators are very busy in council. Some think, that there are commotions likely to be raised amongst the country people, by reason of the great burthen of impositions. The great assembly of states is called, and is to meet on the 12th May next. The queen revives her former overture of resigning up the government to her successor, and desires the liberty of retiring into privacy. This she made about two years since, and she was then over-persuaded; but now she hath again proposed it, and the senators are consulting what answer to return her.
Resolution of the states of Friesland.
The states of Friesland having heard and examined attentively, and with mature deliberation, in our full assembly, the circumstantial report of the lord Allart Peter Jongestall, counsellor in ordinary in our court of Friesland, and one of the deputies of this state to England, which he made to us as well by word of mouth as in writing, delivering unto us sundry papers, debates, and answers, belonging to that subject, especially the 29 articles of the treaty to be made between the republick of England and this state, have thought necessary and proper to compare, in due order and method, the said articles, with the instructions given to the lords the deputies of this state in England, and the resolutions sent unto them from time to time by their high mightinesses; and after having maturely weighed and considered, what any ways might come into consideration thereof, they have accepted, approved, and ratified, and by these presents do accept, approve, and ratify, the said projected and concerted 29 articles, agreed upon between the republick of England and this state, under such provisos, conditions, and reservations, as follow; viz.
First, that in the fifth article of the said 29, after the last word contained, shall be put the following words; which shall attack the one or the other republick, their dominions, or lands, as abovesaid.
Secondly, that the declaration of the king of Denmark and Norway, &c. to the seventh article, ought to be first had, before the ratification of the said treaty; and in case his majesty should not be satisfied with the contents of the said seventh article, it is our opinion, that the state cannot proceed to the ratification of this treaty, according to the plain text and tenor of the alliance made between the lord king of Denmark and this state, containing the words following: That this state shall not be permitted to negotiate with the present government of England, make any treaty of peace, nor lay down their arms, but with the communication of the said lord the king, neither shall there be made any peace, treaties, nor suspension of arms with the aforesaid government in England; but the above-said the king, with his respective kingdoms, principalities, provinces, dominions and subjects, shall at the same time have the benefit of the said treaty of peace, and be expresly comprehended and included in the same.
From which plain and clear words of the said treaty we conclude, that the interpretation thereof cannot be applied only to one of the contracting parties, that is to say, to this state only; but that the same concerns also the other ally, as having expresly received this right.
Besides this, we think it likewise safest for this state, not only according to the said treaty and alliance (being inviolable ties for religious observers of their word and faith) to hold themselves obliged thereto, in relation to the said lord the king of Denmark, but also for the general interest of the state, and security of our trade: for in case of any conquests of some places and sortresses by either, on this or the other side of the Oresound, made by the English government in a successful war against the king of Denmark in the east, and by the conquest of Calais in the west, the power, welfare, or ruin of this state, and the safety or danger of the trade, would be intirely left in the hands, and to the pleasure, of the said English government.
That out of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth articles must be omitted the words, enemies that are now declared, or shall be declared hereafter; as not being found in the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth articles of the treaty called Entrecours, dated Feb. 14. 1495. and this act, being too general, is subject to too many captious interpretations.
That the last of the well-known 36 articles ought to be also the last article of this treaty, as having been always used by all civilized nations in treaties and alliances, to be inserted under this solemn clause: Hostium hostes erimus, exceptis regibus, civitatibus & portubus, quibuscum sædus nobis & amicitia est. At least this state never has made any treaties and alliances with any princes or republicks, but what have always included therein its allies.
That the government of England has declared to the deputies, that they would live in good peace and unity with all their neighbours, and nevertheless will not permit the allies of this state, and more especially not the crown of France, to be comprehended in this treaty, is very suspicious, and of a dangerous presumption, that there is concealed a snake in the grass; and that the government of England either actually has, or for the future may have thoughts, which formerly had Ferdinand king of Arragon, in the making of a treaty with the king of Navarre, as it is related by Bodinus, lib. 5. de republ. cap. 6. with these words, Ferdinandus Arragonum rex, ut Petrum regem Navarre imperio spoliaret, nibil prius habuit, quam ut illum a Francorum societate sejungcret, ut tandem ab omnibus desertus facilius opprimeretur. The inclusion of the crown of France in this treaty is the best guaranty of this state, and of that consequence and reputation, that thereby every one will be prevented to do any injury or affront, either to France or this state, seeing that he thereby would rouze against him, at once, the forces and opposition of both powers; viz. of France and this republick, which being well united, would be formidable to any one that would wrong them, knowing that he would offend both at the same time, and consequently must expect the resentment of both; France and the United Netherlands being thereby preserved and maintained in a strong and lasting peace and welfare.
The inclusion of the crowns of France and Denmark in this treaty is likewise the best safety thereof, united with their high mightinesses; since thereby the state of both republicks will be settled in a lasting tranquillity against all their enemies, and the trade in a security and flourishing condition.
When on the contrary the crown of France and the republick of England being continually in arms, and insulting one another, nothing else can be expected but a perpetual disturbance in trade, and incertain events of war; no peace but only an outward shew of peace, no security but danger for the trade of this country.
And whereas trade is the soul and life of this state, so it is likewise an irrefragable maxim of the same, not only to have peace with all their neighbours, but also to endeavour with all application, and by all possible means, that all the neighbours of this state may live in peace with one another, since the least disturbance of war among them causes also a disturbance, stop, and ruin of the trade of this republick.
If it be true in any republick, it is certainly the most true in this state, what Sallust says; Non exercitus, neque thesauri, præsidia regni sunt, verum amici. Non aurum istud sceptrum est, quod regnum custodit, says Xenophon; sed ccpia amicorum, ea regibus sceptrum verissimum, tutissimumque, nec ullum majus boni imperii instrumentum quam boni amici. Tacitus, lib. 4. histor. Videtur amicitia rempublicam magis continere, & majore, quam justitia, in studio suisse legislatoribus. Nam si amicitia inter omnes esset, nibil esset, quod justitiam desiderarent; at si justi essent, tamen amicitiæ præsidium requirerent. This also is the sentiment of Aristotle, lib. 8. cap. 11.
This likewise was the opinion of their high mightinesses, when they, from time to time, by serious and reiterated resolutions, of the fifth of June 1653. and others, did order, and firmly conclude, that the interest of France should be minde by this state, as much as their own; and that the crown of France should be reconciled with the government of England, as well as this state: these are the very words, whereof communication was made by the lord Boreel, upon the credentials of this state, to his majesty and the regency of France; whereupon the articles projected by this state, and approved of by all the provinces, for the renewal of the alliance with the crown of France, were sent, upon which conferences were held with his majesty, and brought to the very brink of conclusion.
Which proceedings of this state ought not to considered as a mere compliment, much less must the same be looked upon like a pretence or snare, to obtain in the mean while the more advantageous conditions from England; but like a true, sincere, and upright intention and resolution, approved of by all the provinces, to bring the same to a good issue.
All which considerations we think to be of that moment, that this state ought not to proceed to the ratisication of this treaty, except with the express inclusion and comprehension of the crowns of France and Denmark, the one of which is the most antient and considerable ally of this state, that in several occurrences has paid such notable deference and subsidies to the same, that the remembrance thereof ought never to be forgot by our regency.
And it is also our opinion, that the lords, the late deputies, together, and at the same time, shall be sent with all speed into England, invested with the characters of embassadors, and with these instructions, having the firm confidence, that the government of England, against reason and justice, will not very much oppose the inclusion of the crowns of France and Denmark, since they have declared already, that they will live with all their neighbours in good peace and unity.
Further, we give thanks to the lord Jongestall, one of the joint deputies of this state in England for this province, that his lordship has not hindered nor prevented the free deliberations of the whole state, nor of this province, by the signing of the projected articles, in conformity with their high mightinesses resolution of the fifth of June 1653. Likewise we give thanks hereby to his lordship, for his zeal and the trouble he has taken for the service of the state.
Further, the commissioners of this province are ordered to direct matters thus, that the lords the deputies may all of them have thanks given them for their good endeavours, offices and conduct, which they have shewn in this negotiation; and that the same, after the finishing of the said treaty, may be duly acknowledged.
Thus done and resolved at the landhouse, on the fourth of February 1654. Signed, for Ostergoo, S. Saekema, Z. Huber; for Westergoo, W. van Osiega, Zælius Swaga; for the towns, Sierd Claess, Francis Riemersma. Underneath stood, Agrees with the original, with the knowledge of me the secretary. (Signed)
Beuningen to the states general.
Vol. xi. p. 267.
Since my last to your H. and M. lordships of the 25th of this month, is publickly made known the resolution of the queen, which she hath for a long while carried in her breast, to be dismissed of the government of the kingdom; and on monday last did declare so much to her council, that she was fully resolved to quit her crown, and to resign it up to duke Charles, her designed successor; and to that end to appoint a general day of meeting. The reason whereof, as I am informed, was said to be the infirmities of her bodily disposition; and that now especially, she could discharge herself of the government without any disservice to her kingdom, since she should leave the same to a prince endued and provided with all manner of great qualities, to employ the same to the best advantage of the kingdom; and which was also acceptable to the states of the kingdom, since he was chosen for successor to the crown. I do not know, whether her majesty did extend herself upon any further reasons, but that she did speak the same with such efficacious expressions of so unchangeable a resolution, that there is little likelihood to take her majesty off from what she hath so thoroughly resolved upon; yet the same hath been twice attempted by her council, and desired with many instances, that her majesty would be pleased to keep the government in her hands, but without any effect; and therefore they do consult at present, for the appointing of a general meeting, which, is said, will be in May next. The queen, in the mean time, intends, some four days hence, to go to New Copenhagen, and from thence, it is said, to some other place, where she is to meet with his royal highness, to speak with him about the maintenance of the court; for which she demandeth two hundred thousand rixdollars per annum.
The news, that came here eight days since, is, that the English take all ships whatsoever they can meet withal in the chanel; and that they had taken lately two ships belonging to Gottenburgh, and had misused the men, which had caused her majesty to complain to the embassador Whitelocke about it in very earnest terms; and to expostulate about the damages, which the merchants have formerly suffered in the bringing in of their ships; but the embassador defended himself with excuses and exceptions, which gave no satisfaction; and he should have said amongst the rest, that he had no instructions about it; but that they should send to his principals concerning it. It is thought, that he doth intend to be going home as soon as the weather will permit him.
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to the protector.
May it please your Highnesse,
If the water, which I left with you att my comming out of England, be lost, my wife hath some of the same to putt uppon the inclosed paper, and will attend your highnesse with it, if you please to commaund her. Concerninge the passages heere, I have given a perticular account in my letters to Mr. Thurloe, wherby your highnesse may att your leisure see all the circumstances, as well as the substantiall partes, if they were worthy your view. The queene was pleased yesterday to send unto me twelve rayn deere with a sledde, which is drawen by one of them with a man in it. They travaile in this manner with increddible swiftnesse, and they are very rare; I am contriving the best way I cann to send them to your highnesse, together with their keepers, two Laplanders, who came hither with them. I beseeche the Lord to continue all prosperity unto your highnesse, and to my sweet native countrey.
Mr. Daniel Whistler to the protector, from Sweden.
May it please your Highnes,
The last weeke I mentioned how wee were becalmed in our buisnes heere, in expectation of the issue of the Dutch treaty. Wee have little hope of any progression in the negotiation heere, till that buisnes bee one way or other determined, either for warre or peace. The ricks-diet of this nation, mentioned in my former lettres, is deferred till May; but her majesty's councel of senators met heere on munday last, to whom her majesty is sayd to make a tender of surrendring her crown to her successor, if they thought it for the publique good, shee prosessing herselfe weary of the great care, and of her owne disposition inclinable to a private life; soe that they would establish for her certein maintenance 200000 duckats pension yearely, and Pomerania and the town of Gotenberg; which puts statesmen to a muse at her designe therein, her crowne beeing as yett neither to hot nor to heavy for her, shee being in noe extremity, but the general want of generous princes, barenes of mony, havinge noe declared publique enemy, and beeing in general reputation amongst her people for her liberality, wisedom, and moderation, and temperance, and more than feminine spirit, and of such authority amongst her councel, that she overrules them in most actions. Some thinke, that shee hath inclinations to marry, and settle the crown upon her issue; but that her spirit is such as not to admit a prescribed husband, as the prince Palatine is, in case shee would have her issue to inherit it, who is declared her immediate successor. There is more than probable surmises, that the emperor solicites privately a match betwixt her and his sonne the king of the Romans, hoping that the bait of beeing hereafter an emperesse is sufficient to tempt her to swallow it, that is a princesse, that deserves and affects honour; for which the Spanish agent Don Piemontil, a wise man of exact intelligence, voluble of languish, and accomplished in courtly addresses, upon the interest of the Austrian families the more balast the French faction at court, which by his meanes of late is of lesse strength than formerlie, is thought sollicitor. Her exceeding respect to him makes a presumption of her tacit approbation of the buisnes, whereby also the Stuartian design was frustrated with a bare complimental answer, that signified noe ayd to him; for that he must excuse her, if shee did not engage her no yet settled crowne in the support of his ruined fortunes; but advised him rather to expect the worke of Providence, than to desire to drown his reputed friends with himselfe sinkinge. There is of late come one Count de Montecuculi, an Italian, but of command in the emperor's army, and favour in his court, to negociate that buisnes, as is thought, more vigorously; but with private instructions, that the councel may not resent any such matter, till her majesty's good inclinations to the offer be ascerteined, the emperor hoping by this meanes of alliance, if accomplished, to recover his lost interest in the late German warres. This count also is received with all open respect, which occasions belief of her private relishes of his arrant. Yesterday for enterteinment of him there was a ball given, and he installed knight of her majesty's new order of Amaranta. Whilst shee was more bookishly given, shee had in her thoughts to institute an order of Parnassus; but shee beeing of late more addicted to the court than schooles, and having in a pastoral comedie herselfe acted a sheapheardesse part called Amaranta, wherein the pastoral song in Italian had viva Amaranta, the humor tooke her to institute for her order that of Amaranta: shee in the creation invests with a scarfe, at the knot whereof is a jewel, with an A reversed; the motto is Dolce nella Memoria. I should not have mentioned this, but as a ground for your clearer judgement from her to the messengers, what shee thinkes of the message. For my part, I doe not thinke her tender was real, but to fish the sence of her councill, and thereby at least discover the Palatine's faction which were many, whilst Magnus was in favour, who marryed his sister; but he is now cashiered the court, at first by voluntary cession, occasioned by his own discontent (as I have mentioned in my former letters); but since, though he desired by lettres to returne, not admitted. Prince Adolph Palatine likewise grand master is volontarily withdrew upon some disgust taken from count Todt, the new favourit, which was soe high resented, that he challenged the other upon it; which beeing knowne, the duel was hindred by the queen's expresse order, but the scarre of discontent as yet remeins in the prince. I suppose likewise, if her tender find a general mislike, that shee will make that a ground to take of her restreint in marriage. Accordinge as shee can ripen her design in this and other matters, before the ricks-diet, soe she intends to manage her proposals there, either for confirmation of them, if approved of by her senators, or, if rejected, for redresse, by way of appeale to the generelity, of whose affections towards her, and her authority upon them, she hath good confidence. Besides, though she may beginne a warre, and conclude alliance of herselfe, yet shee will scarce doe any such considerable action, that concernes the publique intetest soe highly, without procuring the people's consent and approbation, at least without declaring to them what necessity of state moved her and her council in the undertaking such courses. This action of hers being as obscure to understand, as the meaning of dark prophecies, I cannot presume to unriddle it but from the event. Truth is sayd to be the daughter of time; when the mother shall produce the daughter, I shall (God willing) with your permission acquaint your highnes with the complexion of the babe. This day her majesty sent to my lord embassador seventeen reine-deare of the Laplande breede, to be by him conveyed as her present to your highnes. I have nothing more at present, but with sincerity of spirit to beseech that overruling providence, that hath seemed hitherto to support you by his miraculous hand, to embrace your highnes nowe closer in his armes, that you may be a long, happy conduit of conveying the blessing of God's mercys to his people.
Roger Cotes to col. Sydenham.
Your honour favoring me with a command to acquaint you with my greevances, (if any) makes me soe bold nowe to sertifie you, that the persons your honour imployed to seize on the companie at the ship in the Old Bayly, have not beene soe private as (I conceive) they ought to be; for the whole busines was told to all the prisoners at James's, that I was the discoverer, and the passages how I did it; insoemuch that it is now the common discourse of the cittie. And since my coming to the tower, I being in a roome amongst them, I was reviled and threatened, that I was affrayed of my life; but since being at a lodging, I desired of his honour the lieuetenant, that Joseph Sawyer might be with me; for him, if any, I did presume I might worke upon to confes, which I have effectually wrought; and he desires with me to waight upon your honour, if your honour please to permitt it. Hee by his confession can conferme most that I have saide, but especially that of the last night, conserning Ross. This if your honour please to take into consideration, I shall remayne
Col. Sydenham to secretary Thurloe.
The inclosed is from Roger Cotes, whoe is, it seemes, discovered by some officer of the partye, that apprehended those that are in prisson. May it not be best to release him, and to send to the lieuetenant of the Tower, to take Sawyer's examination, who confesseth, you will perceave, what Cotes discovers, and especiallye what passed the last night? Lieutenant colonel Worslye lent Cotes 5 l. It will be just to repaye it to him; and to send Cotes 5 l. more, may be an act of mercye. He had his cloke taken from him by the souldiers, as he went to the Tower, as I am informed. I doubt he may want necessaries.