A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 3, December 1654 - August 1655. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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May (1 of 5)
To his most serene highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 3.
The subscribed embassador extraordinary of the lords the states general of the United Provinces hath with several papers by special order of the said lords the states, represented heretofore the illegal, nay pyratical seizure of a ship of Edam, called the Schaep, Jacob Jansen Schaep master, by one captain Cotterell; and at last it hath pleased his most serene highness, with the advice of his council, to order on tuesday the 3d of April, that the said ship with all such her lading, tackle, and furniture as could be found, in whose hands soever it were, should be forthwith released and restored to the master for the use of the interessed. And according to the same order the decree of the judges of the admiralty in forma hath also been issued and sent down to them, with a letter of the commissioners of the custom and excise, whereby they permitted the sale of the goods that could be recovered and restored. Yet notwithstanding the said master having with the assistance of mr. Richard Dolbery, one of the aldermen of Poole, demanded of captain Johnson, collector of the customs there, the goods, which had been plundered out of the said ship of Edam, and left in his custody by the said captain Cotterell, he refused it, pretending that he had received a writ of appraisement out of the exchequer; and that the said goods being appraised accordingly were sold by him, as appeareth by an original letter of the said mr. Richard Dolbery, dated in Poole the 16th of April last past; and other private persons having some of the imbezzled goods in their hands, refused likewise to restore the same, according to his most serene highness's especial order, and the decree of the court of admiralty, both before mentioned. Therefore the said embassador beseecheth most instantly, that his most serene highness will be graciously pleased to consider the fraudulent proceedings of the said Johnson, the collector of the customs at Poole aforesaid, who hath very well known how much the said master Jacob Jansen Schaep was wronged by the said captain Cotterell; and that the goods were unlawfully brought ashore by the takers, and not by the said master, nor the proprietors. And that it is therefore a wicked invention of his to inform the said exchequer, that the duties of the customs not being paid, the goods were forfeited to his highness, the master and interessed not having the least disposition thereof. And indeed it is altogether contrary to law, equity, and reason, and never practised in any well ordered government, the ship being violently seized, and the goods wrongfully and by force taken and landed by the seizers, that therefore the said goods should be forfeited. And whereas it appeareth also by the said letter of mr. Richard Dolbery, that no surrender is to be expected of the said goods, nor compensation for the same but by compulsion and higher authority, the said master being a stranger, destitute of all such means as are necessary to make the said captain John Cotterell and others to obey the said order and decree, the said embassador hoping, that his most serene highness will be sensible of the poor man's condition, beseecheth, that such able and honest men may be employed therein, that the said order may be effectually executed, and that all may be done accordingly; and that just and reasonable satisfaction may be given for the cost and damages sustained by reason of the said unlawful seizure and detention of the said ship the Schaep of Edam aforesaid.
Given at Westminster this 1/11 May 1655.
Sir Benjamin Wright to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxvi. p. 14.
My last unto your honor was of the 22 of Aprill, by the way of Biluao, to accompany the copie of a former of the 10th, sent by the way of France, in regard it was heere reported, that all English shippes and goods were ther embargued; so I doubted, that my letter would not finde passage that way. But now by letters from Bourdeaux of the 18th paste, I understand, that letters will goe salfe, and soe I adventure to trust this by that conveyance, to lett your honor know, that the ship of advise, which is arrived at Cadiz from the West-Indias, bringeth newes, that the admirall ship of the South Sea, that bringeth the plate from Lima, to embarke in the plate-fleete at Porto-Velo for Spaigne, was cast away upon a bancke of sands, comeing too neere the shoare, but the men were saved, except some few, that upon the strikeinge of the ship lept into the sea out of feare, thinking to swim ashoare; but all the plate which came in the ship beinge too millenes of ryalls of 8, for the kinge, and eight millenes, as is reported, for particular men, wherof onely too were under register, so that for the other sixe, they came to composition with the king's ministres ther. By this mischance the plate-fleete will not be heere untill Auguste. Heere they seeme not to be much discontented at the delay, fearinge, that yf it had bin at sea, it might have met with yours; yet the not comeinge thereof accordinge to expectation will mightily hinder this king's affayres both at hoame and abroade. The courtes, which I have advised your honor of in my former letter were began, have yet done notheinge, that I can heare of, worth your notice, more then to give eare to many arbitristos, that giveth in papers of projects, to rayse monies for the kinge. In my last I tould your honor, that the letter, which his highnesse was pleased to write to this kinge in my behalfe, his majestie has remitted to Don Luis de Haro, to be seene in his junta; but I seeinge that a month was past, and no junta called, nor any resolution taken upon the letter, I resolved to goe to Aranxues, wher the kinge is, to petition his majestie, that his highnesse letter might be remitted to his councell of state, and satisfaction given me, accordinge to his highnesse request; whereupon his majestie hath commanded, that the letter, with my petitiones, wherein I declare the justnesse of my demands, be remitted to the said councell; so that now, within a few dayes, I shall see what resolution they will take. Yf they heere resolve to continue a good correspondence with his highnesse, I doubt not but that justice wil be done me; but I see they are very jealous, that your fleete, which is gone towards the West-Indias, will fall upon some of ther islands ther, and then all the English that are in Spaigne will suffer.
The kinge, queene, and infanta are yet in Aranxues, but wil be heere the 14th of this month. The queene is reported to be with childe, to the great content of all men. God graunt shee be, and of a sonne; it will put a stop to the treatie of marriage of the infanta with the duke of Savoye. The duke of Lorraigne, prisoner in Toledo, but permitted to walke the streetes in coach with his guards, thought to have made his escape; the maner how, as yet wee know not. His plot was discovered by interceptinge of some letters, that the coachman had secretly put into the coach under the coushin, wher the duke sate (by the guardo mayor) as the duke tooke them out, though he did it with much dissimulation. Wherupon he is not now permitted to walke the streetes as he formerly did. Heere they are very well pleased with the new pope, hopeing that he will make a peace 'twixtt Spaigne and France: yf he doth not, Spaigne wil be mightely put to it, for want of men and monies, for in the Irish they dare not trust, they haveing now againe shewne ther bad intentions at Armentiers; so that I thinke they will at last resolve to employ no more of them for commanders.
The letters yesterday from Cadiz, of the 2d of this mont hsayeth, that there was arrived one of your frigates in 16 days from London, 6 dayes before, with a dispatch from his highnesse to generall Blake. He made ther but litle stay, so that ere this I dout not but he is with him.
They are heere well pleased to heare of the arrest made in England on French men's goods, and in France upon the English; and with reason, for they will need your assistance to be able to defend themselves agaynst the French in Ittaly, and borders of Flanders.
The marques de Caracena, that entred with his army the dukedome of Modena, it seemes,
is retired with some losse, though heere they endevor to make the best of it; but they had
great hopes at Caracena's first entrance. Sir, I have not for the present more to advise your
honor of, feareinge the miscarryinge of my letter; and therfore I crave leave to remayne
From Madrid, May 11, 1655. [N. S.]
Your honor's most humble and thrice obedient servant to command,
The Polish envoy to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxvi. p. 13.
Præteritis nonnullis hebdomadibus excellentiam vestram interpellavi, rogavique ut responsum expeditionemque meam apud serenissimum dominum protectorem commendare non gravaretur, quâ acceptâ eandem ad sacram regiam majestatem dominum meum clementissimum revertere, ac rationem actorum reddere valeam, quo sacra regia majestas de mediis, quas Deus optimus maximus contra tot immanes hostes jam jam castra moventes suppeditare voluerit, sese, cum summum in morâ sit periculum, inservire possit: Cum vero hucusque nequicquam de expeditione tam necessariâ audierim, intermittere non potui, quin ab excellentia vestra iterum atque iterum peterem, ut commendatione suâ apud serenissimum dominum protectorem expeditionem meam promovere velit, quo quantocius hinc proficisci, ac ea, quæ impetraverim, referre possim. Excellentiam vestram certiorem reddo, nullum hocce tempore regi meo genus officii gratius futurum, meque sibi in perpetuum obstrictissimum fore confidat, cui bonam ac perfectam valetudinem à Deo apprecor, maneoque
Londini, 2 Maii, 1655.
officiosissimus ac observantissimus servitor,
N. de Bye,
Internuncius extraordinarius serenissimi Poloniæ Sueciæque regis.
A letter of intelligence.
Heidelberg, May 12, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxvi. p. 28.
His highness is for Italy about a month hence at the furthest. My lord Gerard and sir Marmaduke Langdale engage in this business with the prince, who hath conditions under the duke of Modena, and is to be general.
Countess of Ranalaugh to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxvi. p. 31.
His highnes upon the earnest petition of the earle of Portland was pleased to give you a direction to cause a letter to be drawne up to my lord deputy of Ireland, defiring him to secure the 8 motherless children of my now lord vicecount Neutervile from being transplanted out of the fifth part of their father's estate, which is alone what is left them to buy them bread, and from which they cannot bee transplanted without evident probabiletie of perishing, nor their being transplanted any way prevented, but by your charetie in hastening this letter from his highnes to my lord deputy; which if the charetie and necessety of the worke itselfe were not presumed to be prevayleing arguments with you to obtaine from you, she durst nott owne the confidence of presenting you this humble memorandum, who now subscribs herselfe
The 2d of May, 
Your servant in the Lord Christ,
Fleetwood, lord deputy of Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxvi. p. 33.
I gave you in my last an accompt of lieutenant generall Ludlow. I perceave you are about settling of the courts of justice heere. I thinke I could name six or eight judges, against whom no exceptions could be taken; only I desire to know, whether his highnes intends the chancerye in the hands of a lord chauncellor or commissioners: if a chauncellor, I must confess, I could wish wee had recorder Steele. If I may have the libertie to offer the names, I shall send them to you by the next; but it may be, I may presume to send them to you by this poast, lest by staying for an answare, I may be prevented by your engagement to others. I hope those places, which by our instructions are in our dispose, I hope his highnes will leave them to, there being many deserving persons, that have long waited for them. I shall not further add, then that I am
Dublyn Castle, May 2,
Your affectionate and humble servant,
Middlesex. The information of Robert Burgis of the parish of St. Giles's Cripplegate, London, wheelwright, taken upon the second day of May, 1655, before John Barkstead, esq; lieutenant of the Tower of London, and one of the justices of the peace for the county aforesaid.
Vol. xxvi. p. 34.
This informant saith, that about the 15th day of June last he wanting some money, went over the water to the house of John Minors at Lambeth, in the county of Surry, to borrow some of him; and when this informant came thither about five or six of the clock in the morning, he there saw the said John Minors and one James Dewey at work, the said James Dewey stamping of counterfeit money, and the said John Minors filing and making the edges thereof smooth; and saith, that he there saw the said James Dewey stamp about six half crowns, and the said John Minors file and make them smooth, which said John Minors then and there, after this informant had told him he wanted money, gave him of counterfeit money one half crown, two shillings, and one six pence, and then this informant departed, leaving them both at work. And further this informant saith, that about December last he with a constable and one capt. Thomas went to search the said house of John Minors, and there found melting pots, wooden presses, ingots, and several other irons and instruments for coining, as also one counterfeit half crown. And further saith, that he hath since heard by others the partners of the said John Minors, that he the said John Minors, together with Thomas Howard, the said James Dewey, William Dewey, and others, do now use and exercise counterfeiting of money; and that he the said John Minors hath a house for that purpose in Oxfordshire, which this informant hath not yet certain knowledge of, but doubteth not he shall gain knowledge thereof speedily; and further saith not.
The mark of
Robert R B Burgis.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxvi. p. 37.
The 11th currant I dispacht hence the Warrick pinnas, with your letters to generall Blak, who is to cal in at Alcuda bay on Majork, and not fynding the fleet ther, to proceed for Argier, wher they intend to vittel; and, as I understand, wil be very welcome thether. The French at Tollon make great dilligence to get out theyr fleet next month, which certainly wil be a very strong fleet, and ful of soldiers. Besydes 20 ships, they wil hav 12 gallyes, and as many fyre ships. 'Tis supposed theyr design is for Cattalonia. The Spanish ships at Naples mak but slow preparation, lyk unto all theyr actions. Generall Pen's fleet does more perplex them then all theyr wars with France. The Genowes hav certain newes, that the peace with Spayn is concluded; but the conditions not yet known. 'Tis advys'd from Rom by several, that from messengers or agents ar coming thether from his hyhnes the protector; & letters from Antwerp say, they wer past that place the first of April. This is what I hear, which I hope you wil accept of from,
May 14, 1655. [N. S.]
Your most humble and faithful servant,
My correspondent at Naples has not yett met
one mare to his lyking.
A translation of the speech made in Latin to his bighness the lord protector, by Constantine Schaum, the prince of Transylvania's envoy, May 4, 1655.
In the possession of the right honourable Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
The splendor of the glory of your sovereign highness, which on every side doth fill the world, and from the lowest part of the earth doth reach to the heavens, hath also broken through the bars of our orient, and poured forth itself upon the utmost points of the European quarters, as far as the iron gates or portcullises, where, with the security of the purer Christianity, the faith is shut up together. In so spacious a boundary of the world, illustrated by the brightness of your sovereign highness, some are gazing, some fearing, all with the same spirit of veneration giving worship. For it seemeth to all men, that a more excellent and fairer gift cannot by God himself be given, than a prince of holiness, and who is likest unto God. Which merits do even by the enemies witnesses crown your sovereign highness; so that none can doubt, but must confess, that not by any hidden power of a fate, but that God himself hath found out and made choice of such a majesty.
Which being laid to heart by the most high prince of Transylvania, my most gracious lord, who is none of the meanest rank amongst the princes of the world, notwithstanding so many impediments and interjacent distances of places, was willing to present himself, to compass this altar of glory, that he might view nearer at hand, what he hath heard of afar off; and withal to tender his devoted services, with a wish of a desirable friendship.
Whereupon his highness, by me, as his interpreter, doth congratulate his sovereign highness with all manner of prosperity, wherewithal his serenity is from heaven surrounded, in all sincerity, and as with a spontaneous, so with an unfeigned cordiality; for there can never be found a more sincere kind of congratulation, than that, which doth emulate those acclamations or shoutings, which have no necessity of disguising. May your sovereign highness be blessed with all happiness, and an estate of a continual encreasing exultation; more especially with a long life, prosperous years, a faithful people, peace from within, victories abroad, and in all atchievements, not with the selicity of Augustus, such as the ancients were wont to wish to their emperors, but with a celestial, and such as may make happy the state of christendom. Moreover, whereas by a constant same, his highness hath been acquainted with the signal successes of his sovereign highness's great actions, his highness cannot but express his joint resentment of joy together at them, and those, which may be greater hereafter, with all congratulating respects and applause. Which doth oblige his highness to a more strict observance of his sovereign highness, as having so truly and often understood, that all these designs are directed, not to a private interest, but for the publick good. And as his highness hath been hitherto of this assured, so he beseecheth the goodness of God, that those weighty intentions may be blessed with a most happy progress, that may end in the increase of the Christian churches. Which wishes and desires, his highness, by these present letters of his, which I am ready with all due submission to exhibit, will also make known.
At the council at Whitehall.
Friday, May 4, 1655.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 109.
That his highness be advised that nine be the number of the council in Scotland. That it be offered to his highness, as the advice of the council, that general George Monck, the lord Broghill, Charles Howard, esq; William Lockart, esq; John Swinton, esq; Adrian Scroop, esq; Samuel Disbrowe, esq; Nathaniel Whetham, esq; and Cooper, esq; be the persons to be of the council of Scotland.
That it be offered to his highness, as the advice of the council, that Emanuel Downing be clerk of the council in Scotland.
Approved by his highness in person,
May 4, 1655.
W. Jessop, clerk of the council.
Avaugour to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Stockholm, May 15, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxvi. p. 38.
I can tell you nothing new since my last; and I have only to thank you for the honour of yours of the 16th of the last month.
The departure of the king is put off for these three weeks or a month, and the states, who are still met together, will still keep him, and do represent unto him upon the subject all the fears, which they ought to have for the state, alledging the story of king Gustavus, whose death had like to have ruined all Sweden. It is also a sign of tenderness of his people, that they will not absolutely resist him, nor his glorious designs. They still expect here the embassador of Poland designed for this court. His name is monsieur Goraisky, and I believe he will come time enough to find the king here. Here is an embassa dor arrived from Tartary; he hath not yet had audience. He comes to give notice of the arrival of his master to the crown, and to congratulate that of this king to his; but in regard here is advice, that he hath made a league offensive and defensive with Poland, it is likely he will make some declaration of it.
Here is yet nothing concluded between Brandenburg and this crown, whose commissioner doth daily declare the alarm, which his master hath of the design of Sweden.
Heinsius, the Dutch resident in Sweden, to the states general.
Vol. xxvi. p. 40.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, in my last I made mention of the resolution of the states concerning the recalling of all the crown domains, as well of those, which in former times were assigned for the keeping of the king's table, but are now alienated from the crown by gifts of the former kings, as also of those, which belonged to the maintenance of the militia, admiralty, and mines. Besides this, every one without exception of persons shall be obliged to restore to the crown the fourth parts of all such estates that were given him, being of another nature than the four above mentioned whereby it is believed, the king's revenues will be yearly encreased with about 120,000 rix dollars. As to the duty of one rix dollar on each shippound of large guns, which I have here before mentioned to your high mightinesses, this seems to be altered, since I hear from a good hand, that the king's treasurer shews an order from his majesty in writing, to seize all pieces of ordnance or great guns, which are cast here in the country, paying to the founders or dealers in cannons eighteen copper dollars for each shippound, of which coin four make one rix dollar. If this order is brought into execution, no private merchants in the approaching war will have any liberty to export or to buy up guns. Yesterday the lord field-marshal Wittenbergh set sail for Pomerania; he will not probably be above two or three days at sea, because he has a very favourable wind. This day or to morrow sets out likewise from thence for that province the Danish lord high steward Corfits Uleseldt, to take possession of the bailiwick of Baerth, which he has bought of late, to make his residence there for the future. Lately are arrived here some deputies of the nobility of the dutchy of Bremen, and afterwards by water some Tartarian embassadors; what their errand is, we must wait for. The senator count Nicholas Tott is likewise arrived, having finished his tour to France and Brussels. The Danish embassador, the lord Peter Gull, is ready to take his leave from this court, transferring his place to mr. Erich Gull, who is now here, and will stay here for some time in the character of resident of the said crown. Although the Swedish states had rather, that the king would stay in the kingdom, he seems nevertheless resolved to assist in the next campaign; however it is thought he will return before the winter, the rather because it is certainly believed, that the queen, who is to remain here, is with child. Besides the army in Pomerania, and that in Livonia, the general Koningsmarck is to command a third separate army. After a long sickness, died this week here the senator Charles Hoop, having lived but a little above thirty years; he was endowed with exceeding fine qualifications, and had a great esteem for our nation; his death is generally lamented. The Russians appear very numerous on the frontiers of Livonia, which hastens not a little the preparations here against the next campaign.
Stockholm, May 5/15, 1655.
High and mighty lords, &c.
His majesty has taken physick for some days successively, but at present his cure is happily finished. The lord field-marshal Wittenbergh has put off his marriage till a better opportunity. The lord high chancellor is to follow the king in the field.
Resolution of the states general.
May 16, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxvi. p. 44.
The lord councellor pensionary de Witt, according to their high mightinesses resolution of yesterday, produced, and afterwards in the assembly caused to be read, a certain project of instructions for the lords their high mightinesses deputies, which are to be employed in the conferences with the province of the city and territories of Ommelands, in order to endeavour there to settle and adjust the differences and disputes which are risen reciprocally between the nobility as heritors, and the deputies of the body of the lands. At which opportunity was also resumed, the resolution which was taken yesterday, touching the same subject; which being deliberated upon, their high mightinesses gave thanks to the said lord councellor pensionary, for and on account of the trouble he has had in the drawing up of the said instructions. Whereupon the said instructions with some few alterations did pass, and accordingly for the execution of the said instructions and resolution, were commissioned and required hereby, messieurs Schoock, Lodesteyn, the councellor pensionary de Witt, Mauregnault, vander Hoolck, Aylva, Ripperda and Schulenborgh. The said lords, their high mightinesses deputies, shall have power to choose themselves two clerks, and are desired to set out upon their journey on monday next; whereof notice shall be given to my lord the prince William of Nassau, as stadtholder of the province of city and lands, as likewise to the burgomasters and senate of the city of Groningen, and to both parties in the so called Ommelands; which notice shall likewise be given to the lord Aylva, with request forthwith to set out for the said purpose, for Groningen. And the receiver general is hereby commanded, to deliver into the hands of the lord Schoock, a sum of two thousand guilders, to make good the charges of the said journey, which the said lords, their high mightinesses deputies, in due time, shall be accountable for. Further, and in conformity to the regulation of this country, these resolutions of their high mightinesses shall be delivered (together with the dispatches resulting therefrom, as also from the instructions) without resumption. Whereupon, concerning the abovementioned conclusion, as far as it relates to the deputation of commissioners, which was formed by the lord Ripperda, who presided last week, the lord present deputy of Friesland did declare not to consent, that out of the province of Holland two lords should be employed in the said commission, protesting against the prerogative, which the lords deputies of Holland did pretend herein, as being in prejudice of the equality of the provinces.
An intercepted letter.
Vol. xxvi. p. 47.
I Received yours dated the 15th day of May. Untill then I did much wonder att your long silence. I delivered your other letter to mr. Foster; hee said hee would suddainely send you an answere. All your freinds heere are well. Mr. Brandon is resolved to leave these partes suddainely. I beleeve hee is comeing neerer to the sea side, either aboute Dunkirke or Bridges, where hee doth intend to spend some parte of this summer. I gave him notice, thatt you presented your service to him, and hee desires hee may heere from you againe, thatt hee may right to you himselfe; and hee will give you directions, where you may direct your letters to him; and for the present, if you send any before you heere from him, send them to the signe of the three Fishes in Dunkirke. Mr. Charles is very well, and hath beene lately att the duke of Newburrowes: hee gave him very fine entertainement. Mr. Bealing is gone upp into Germany for money for us. Secretary Nicholas remembers him very kindly to you, and bid mee tell you, mr. Charles did aske him, where you were; and hee gave him an accompt of your being in England. Our house is much lessioned since mr. Charles came backe. I would have you bee of good harte; still I hope eare long, thatt you will heere some good newes, thatt wee shall have better lucke att last; for there are good things I hope in hand. I wish you were neerer mee, for I could say more then I may imparte heere. All your freinds presents there respects to you. Mr. Massonett, your old freind, remembers him to you very kindly. Mr. Chansellor and hee do not agree very well; they fell outt very lately about the entitulating some letters for forraine partes; which letters, I hope, will take soe good effect, that I hope you will heere from them eare it bee long. Pray lett mee heere from you againe, soe soone as you can, and I will give you a farther accompt. Soe I rest
Cullin, this 16th of May 1655. [N. S.]
This letter directed to John Woodd, is to mr. Pallmer.
This preausent fryday mourning, in persuans to your cummaund and my dutie, mr. Pallmer and I spent sume time together; and this letter he had from Cullin. Mr. Charls is the king; mr. Brandon, is lord Garrat; this William Armerror is eldest querre, but now waits as master of the horse; this secretary Nicklas is the same man that was secretary to ould Charls, and is the same now; this bove named Bealing went secretary into Jarmanny with Willmot; allsoe mr. Pallmer sath Foster dyrecks his letters now to Prodgers, by the name of Ward. Mr. Pallmer saith, the clark of the passes is not right.
For mr. John Woodd, att the signe of the hand and cumpasses in St. Martain's lane, London, these.
Mr. W. Prideaux to secretary Thurloe.
In the possession of the right honourable Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
The other, that goeth herewith, is a copy of my last. These will inform your honour, that the week before Easter this people with much superstition make shew of great devotion; but from Easter day to the end of that week, they are no less truly debauched in drunkenness and all other dissoluteness, than devout the former week; insomuch that they believe, they should sin in not committing those excesses in rejoicing for Christ's resurrection, as they should offend God, in not performing their pretended devotions the precedent week for his sufferings and passion; and this not only the vulgar, but the patriarch himself, bishops, fryers, priests, nobles, generally all, from the highest dignities and offices, to the meanest person. Also the Easter week they mutually give and send presents of eggs, bread, and wine, each to other. My prestave did that to me, by sending me such a present by his servant, which I refused, and sent him back to his master with it; on which he came himself with his present, with many protestations, that he was not the cause of the disgust given me by taking away my cooks, and using them as they have been; and therefore desired me with all earnestness and adjurations to be his friend, and accept of his present: that he had already, and would continue to use his utmost endeavour, that I should have satisfaction to the affront done me; so that I accepted of his excuses and present, and of his coming to me again at his pleasure. Two days past he came and visited me, when he told me, that the chancellor hath been with the patriarch expresly to entreat him to give order, that the cooks may be sent me back; who thereupon was in such choler, that he turned away the chancellor, and would not give him his blessing. I know for certain, that he is extremely incensed and averse to all strangers, but more to our nation than to any other. He takes more upon him, as well out of the church, as in it, than doth the emperor himself. I am told, that the four nobles, to whom the emperor hath committed all affairs here in his absence, some of the prime officers in the chancery, and chief merchants, Russes, in this city, have not condescended, and are sorry for the affront done me in the cooks; and all is put on the patriarch.
I have not as yet more light of the answers that are promised me, nor when I shall be dispeeded to go down to Archangel, than when the emperor went from hence.
By letters from Smolensko, of the 5th of April, is written from an English colonel,
that the emperor arrived there the last of March; that his majesty hath in all his armies
30 regiments of foot, their colonels and chief officers strangers, but all their soldiers
Russes: every regiment is from fifteen hundred to two thousand. Three of those regiments
went forth of Smolensko upon service, the 5th of April, and others were to follow. That
the Pole is starving. This is what I know merits your honour's cognizance. So I humbly
take leave, and remain,
Mosco, May 10, 1655.
Your honour's most humble servant,
A letter of intelligence.
Vienna, May 20, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxvii. p. 31.
Yours came even now to me, by which I see the misery of these poor men R. C. embroiled in his unfortunate designs in England. It were better he were dead, than so many suffer for him. Sure they will be weary of him in England, after this singular and signal ruin of his and all his; if not, they will be as unfortunate as he, and worse, which may not be. Here is no talk of R. C. or his affair, but every one admiring his misfortune. Heretofore they pitied him; now they say, he is destined by God with his family to ruin for ever. This is all the discourse we now have of him.
The news from Passaw by the last letters bring, that the differences, which hindred all proceedings betwixt the catholicks and the protestants in this tedious diet, are in fine determined last sunday was sevennight, by a particular advice from the emperor, which he communicated to both parties, by the prince of Dieterichstein and Auperch; whereupon being proposed in the diet, all which his imperial majesty desired was gratefully observed, both parties accepted without altering the least syllable, which came from the emperor. Since they begin to determine other publick and particular affairs, so that it is believed, in a short time they will finish all their business with satisfaction to both parties. It is not doubted, but before the latter end of this month the election of the archduke Ignatio shall be, to be king of Hungary. It cannot be unknown to you, how he and the king of Spain sent to the said archduke the golden-fleece.
The levies a making for the defence of his majesty's states are daily encreasing. The elector of Bavaria continues his fortifications in the city of Ingoldstat by 2500 men he has there. He has given orders in secret, to raise seven regiments more of horse and foot, and commanded in all his territories to have ready a quantity of carts and waggons, to carry victuals and ammunition, where there shall be occasion.
The Swedes are fasting, praying, and mortisying for a good and fortunate success to
their designs; yet incognito. The Poles make great preparations to defend themselves.
This season will let us see what yet lies hid. Interim patientia, which is this week's conclusion. From,
Sir, your's, &c.
A paper of Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England.
Vol. xxvi. p. 89.
Quoniam articulo tricesimo sœderis nuper initi convenerit inter serenissimum dominum protectorem reipublicæ Angliæ, Scotiæ, & Hiberniæ, & celsos & potentes dominos, ordines generales fœderati Belgii, ut commissarii seu arbitri nominarentur & constituerentur cum plenâ & integrâ potestate & authoriatate examinandi, & definiendi omnia illa damna & injurias, quas pars una ab alterâ se pertulisse causatur ab an. 1611, usque ad 18 Maii 1652, stylo veteri, quæque exhiberi oportuerat ante 18 Maii 1654, qui tamen dies consentiente parte utraque protractus suit ad diem tricesimum ejusdem mensis. Et si prædicti commissarii de prædictis damnis & injuriis non convenirent intra tres ab illo die menses, quod prædictæ querelæ ad cantones protestantes Helvetiæ remitterentur, qui rogarentur, ut commissarios nominarent & constituerent, qui antedictas querelas examinarent & definirent intra sex menses post elapsos priores tres. Et quoniam utriusque reipublicæ commissarii Londini congregati fuerint, receperintque diversas querelas intra prædictum tempus illis traditas, & aliquas examinaverint & definiverint expressas in prædictorum commissariorum laudo & arbitrio sub eorundem chirographis & sigillis promulgato 30 Augusti 1654, stylo veteri, & tamen diversæ querelæ intra prædictum tempus traditæ, indecisæ & indeterminatæ remanserint, quas juxta prædictum tricesimum articulum oportuisset remittere ad prædictos cantones protestantes Helvetiæ, ut per commissarios ab illis nominandos & constituendos deciderentur, quæ quidem nominatio & constitutio ab illis ante dict. temp. sex mensium facta non est. Et tamen necesse sit, ut prædictæ querelæ definiantur, & omnes simultates auferantur, omnisque umbra dissidiorum in futurum tollatur, conventum & conclusum est inter serenissimum dominum protectorem & celsos ac potentes dominos ordines generales, ut omnes querelæ traditæ intra tempus prædictum nempe 30 Maii 1654, neque comprehensæ, & determinatæ in antememorato laudo & arbitrio, referantur & submittantur judicio & determinationi antedictorum commissariorum, qui prædictum laudum & arbitrium promulgarunt, vel aliorum, qui utrinque nominabuntur & constituentur; utque illi rursum Amstelodami in Hollandia conveniant, eadem potestate & authoritate muniti & instructi, ut antehac; utque eodem ordine & modo eademque methodo procedant, atque ita omnes omnino querelas prædictas determinent intra tres menses post primum illorum congressum, qui erit 20 mensis Julii 1655, & quod publica notitia illius diei populo utriusque reipublicæ dabitur, quodque omnia, quæ antedicti commissarii intra prædictos tres menses determinabunt, utramque partem obligabunt. In quorum omnium & singulorum fidem & testimonium tam nos commissarii celsitudinis suæ, quam ego legatus extraordinarius fœderatarum Belgii provinciarum præsentes has propriis manibus subscripsimus, & sigillis nostris munivimus. Actum Westmonasterii nono die Maii, stylo veteri, an. 1655.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxvi. p. 71.
I hav not heard any thing from generall Blak, nor has my friend at Naples bin yet successfull in meeting with any good mares; but all dilligence is used to fynd them. What I writ you last week of the peace concluded twixt Spayn and Genoa, 'tis again contradicted, rather that they ar upon very remote terms; insomuch that the Genoa ambassador in Spaine is retyred from the court. This pope is lookt upon as a man set up in that place, to oppos and quash the thryving of the protestant party. He has already imploy'd the armes of Savoy against the protestants in that countrey, who hav liv'd ther, and enjoy'd theyr religion, as long as Cristianity has bin profest in Europe, from whom thos of Geneva and the Albigenses in France had theyr begining. The inclosed newes of Rom wil more fully acquaint yow with it. The French fleet from Tollon maks al hast to be at sea next month. The Spanyard is sending about six ships from Naples to Barsalona with provision and soldoirs. I should gladly hear, upon what terms wi stand with Spayn. 'Tis vulgarly here reported, that the Duch ar inclynable to any party, that is enemy to Ingland; but mithinks they should bi wyser. I am,
Leghorn, May 21, 1665. [N. S.]
Your most faithful servant,
A letter of intelligence from mr. Manning.
21 May 55. [N. S.]
Collen four and twentyeth.
Vol. xxvi. p. 66.
The duke of Glocester, with the lord Napier, Oneil, Maning, coll. Stephens, Edgworth, and some other Scotts officers with Amsterdam others of meane servants are come to Collen. I said the duke by order of the states generall, though no notice bee taken that that order was the cause. Middleton's designe is given for lost.
The lawyers I named were, sir O. Bridgman, mr. Palmer, mr. John Vaughan. Why I named these, was being Dr. Morley (Hyde's creature) when asked, why Hyde should take upon him so much, his answer was, hee did nothing without the advice of those and other lawyers, who were of the councill in London. The marquisse of Hartford, I have said to you in other letters, was treated with by Henry Seymore; but I could not say hee was absolutely engaged. One mr. Stephen Boman, a servant of his in Wilts, treated for him with Penrudock. Serjeant Hyde, his brother Frederick, coll. Edward Phillips, have been his confidents; and, as sir Edward Nicholas sayeth, hee knowes that the marquisse never did converse with more then one of them at a time. They are alarum'd here concerning him by the last post's letters.
To the Kentish men which I have mentioned, they were all engaged why Rosse was often sent by them to the king, Mr. John Heath and sir J. Mince, their agents at court. And for shipping in Zeeland, the king design'd to have been there in person. And when you had seized coll. Thornell, &c. then his thoughts were on Norfolke and Lincolne. I did know of letters sent by an oysterman from Flushing to Feversham, to one mr. Trowt, for Thornell, and sir Thomas Peyton.
At Dover all passe by the assistance of one And Day, Fox, &c. searchers. And as long as they are there, all will passe you. N ed as off them not th ing else, but upon what score they hold correspondence with capt. Will. Pain and Windham at Bolloughn. And Foster hath made Oneil, Manings, Armorer, Ross, Trelawney, Palmer, Holsey, and the other Dover escapes; and manie before.
From the west, mr. John Seymore and Trelawney have been sent to the king. Sir H. Polard made the dispatches in the name of the rest. The marquisse was ever shy in having his name mentioned at our councells.
The midland counties, Davison, collonell Francis Lovelace, who knowes much of all, and one major Horwood of Oxford. Wales by collonells Will. Toringham, Will. Owen, Edward Progers, agents in London.
North, by coll. Marmaduke Darcy, Worden, major Scott, Walters, Armorer, &c.
By major Edgworth, lately prisoner in Stafford, I understand sir Robert Sherley and coll. Randal Egerton were engaged; and that night hee was taken, the rendesvouz should have been at Ezerly-bridge.
Mr. Sam. Sandys, and the Coventry's for Worcester. The army party were treated with in England. Sir Bennet Gray and Norwood were of those who treated.
A plainer account I cannot at present give, haveing been employed abroad in the time of these confederacyes. But what you have is true, though the evidences you must get there from your prisoners. And what circumstances I can, by all the industry that may bee, pick up, as also any thing that concernes you here, you shall not sayle to have with all diligence. Remember Lovelace, who is privy to the intricacys of the whole designe.
If you would take notice of the persons I have named together in my former letters, and promise a reward to those who discover them, and where they have been harboured, you would find out much. Oneil hath been at the lord Nieuport's house on my ladie's score, and yet there are many of her's there, or at other places that the ladie knowes off.
This Oneil said himselfe to the king. I know your taking notice of them may bee many thousands in your way.
Richard Pile and Thomas Lisle, the one chirurgion to the king, are to be found at Chase's, his apothecary, and are little instruments.
Mr. Phillips is escaped, and at Antwerp; coll. Worden at the Hague. You must have more care of your prisoners.
Mr. Richard Nicholls knows all of the duke of Yorke and Darbyshire. Oneil said to the king, that hee was taken for him, and hee was then in another house by, where a party of souldiers were endeavouring to get in; but when Nicholls was taken, the officer called them off. This may easily bee found out.
Sir, I must entreate a supply of money by the next. You will doe mee a courtesy in sending it speedily, for what I had was expended at ho having if. I must bee at great charge to do you effectuall service.
Now all the expectation is from the levellers, and the party, who were then present at the proclayming the king in the late risings; of which sir R. Willis, &c. were. Manie are for assassinating the protector, but Ch. St. is not forward in having it don. The lords Gerard and Napier, who had a hand in Dorislaus's death, are impatient, and offer the undertaking of it, if there may bee due order taken for money to buy horses, &c. but doe you bee carefull at home. I will not be wanting in giving you notice from hence.
They are now endeavouring all that may bee to reconcile all partyes, especially Ormond, Hyde, &c. with the queen. Blagues is to goe to Paris about it. The king enquiring for severall persons, collonel Stephens gave this account, that he left Wilmot in London; that his lady had been with him, and Paul Smith his lieutenant colonell, and was engaged; and that the lord Oglebey, sir James Hamilton, Loughborough, colonell Roger Burges, Lawter, Mayard, major Francis Latcliff, and Beversham, and many souldiers of fortune about London, especially Ormond's officers, were engaged. The Horse-shoe Taverne in Drury-Lane was and is their meeting place.
Sir Thomas Armstrong is much valued.
Sir Thomas Stanley killed at Antwerp.
Mr. Le Maire to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxvi. p. 65.
Postquam de Angliâ decessi, vir nobilissime, nihil nisi ventus adversus, maris tranquillitas, et quidquid istorum impedimentorum magis est, mihi continuo acciderunt; quocirca post quinque demum dierum navigationem magno cum labore in Zelandia adveni; ex quâ non minori incommodo Hagam Comitis, ubi decimo quarto die hujus stili et mensis, five primus dies adventûs mei, discessum ducis Glocesterii expresso et reiterato dominorum ordinis Hollandiæ mandato, in Coloniam vidi, concomitatus per aliquot milliaria à forore et regina Bohemiæ, aliisque istius sequelæ hominibus, et ut hic abitus illis, ut rumor est, pertristis fuit, ita à multis etiam harum provinciarum subditis crudelis judicatur, et ordines supradicti eam ob causam execrantur, et à plebeis male exaudiunt.
Eodem die, vir nobilissime, ex officio meo duxi anxie investigare, qui et quales me possent ad scopum optatum, in re tibi cognitâ, fideliter perducere, et quos inveni, ne nimis generali obligatione tenerentur, causarum naturam scire desiderant, in quibus mihi auxilium offerrent, antequam quicquam promittere volunt; idcirco ne hac in re errem, operæ pretium duxi dominationem vestram interpellare, et obnixe petere, ne mihi aliquos articulos, desiderium vestrum continentes, quam primum transmittere dedigneris, quos illis possem exhibere, et tali jacto fundamento cum vestrâ bonâ veniâ negotium concludere. Quanta autem remuneratio illis hanc ob causam porrigenda sit, adhuc non possum accuratè et bene dominationi vestræ explicare; sed cum quinque sint numero diversæ functionis et consilii, credo centum libris sterlingis me illis posse satisfacere et taliter adstringere, ut quicquid istius rei fuerit, mihi fideliter tradant. Hæc si dominationi vestræ arrideant, quamprimum intelligere desidero, et interim Deum opt. max. pro dominationis vestræ bonâ prosperâque valetudine ardenter precabor.
Amsterodami, 21 Maii, 1655. [N. S.]
Tuus devotus servus,
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states general.
Paris, May 21, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxvi. p. 72.
High and mighty lords,
The king, queen, the cardinal, and the whole court, are gone from hence to Compiegne, where the ceremonies of the nuptials are to be observed between the duke of Modena and madamoiselle Martinozzi, niece to the cardinal. The prince Eugenio, eldest son of the prince Tomaso of Carignan, hath procuration from the said prince of Modena to represent him there. Before the departure of the king, several ambassadors took their leave of this court; and those of the Hans towns have effected their business between. A treaty is said to be concluded for the regulating of trade and commerce. I shall see to get a copy of the articles, and send them over to your high and mighty lordships.
They write from Turin, that the troops of the duke of Savoy, commanded by the marquis of Roanes, have wretchedly assaulted and misused the protestants formerly called Vaudois, who were retreated to the high mountains and vallies of Savoy, where they had their subsistence, with an intention to preserve themselves from the cruelty of the Papists, who were always very bitter against them, and now they declared against them, as rebels, and fell upon them in the said vallies with their forces, plundered and burnt their habitations, and put many of them to the sword in their sury; and some they have executed since by way of justice upon them; and two ministers they hung up: many prisoners they have carried away with them, and as much plunder as they say doth amount to 300000 guilders.
Don Augustus Navarra, secretary of state of the king of Spain in the Netherlands, past through this city on monday last, with a pass for Spain, after that he had first the honor to speak and salute the king, queen, and cardinal.
Here is news come from Marseilles, that the Spaniards are before Rose with 22 ships and six gallies. That likewise the English admiral Blake had taken in about Tunis the harbour and port called Farino, and there burnt and fired all the Turkish ships.
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to the pensionary de Witt.
Westminster, May 21, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxvi. p. 76.
The secretary of state sent me this week sealed up the inclosed answer in writing upon a memorandum given in the 24th of December concerning the contents of the 15th article of the treaty; and this morning his honour sent me the enclosed article, which I had drawn up with the communication of the advocate of the Netherland East India company, being signed by two commissioners, who had been in conference with me about it. I have sent him back the like article signed by me alone.
In regard of the reception of the marquis of Leda, and other occasions, the lords here say, that they have had no time to conclude and sign the peace and treaty with the lord of Bordeaux; and I have understood from the one and the other side, that there is a little difference risen about the business of Canada or Nova Francia; these lords saying, that the said lord embassador was contented, that the lord protector should declare by word of mouth, that that business should be examined amongst the rest of the arbitrators of both sides; and the embassador faith, that in regard both parties are agreed upon a former treaty, it ought to be put down in writing. I hope this accident will make no alteration. The embassador groweth impatient. There is no doubt to be made that all possible endeavours are on foot by the Spanish side to hinder it; but I believe they will not go back from what is agreed with France. Your honour may be assured, that I will not be wanting in my endeavours for the furthering and accomplishing of the treaty. I am told, that Francisco Ferreira, the envoy of Portugal, perceiving, that they will not accept here of any alteration in the treaty that was concluded here, nor that the merchants will be paid with compliments, is making ready to be gone. I hope their high and mighty lordships will not take it amiss of me, that I have not endeavoured to hold any conversation with a person, who hath spoke with so much contempt of the United Provinces.
Mr. John Pell to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxvi. p. 83.
The last thirsday, that is May the tenth, the fast was observed all over these countries for the Piemontois. After the last sermon they collected in this city almost 500 pounds sterling, which shall be sent to Geneva for them, as soone as the townes and villages of this canton have sent all their collections hither. The same day a great number of souldiours passed by this city toward France, of which I told the principall secretary's substitute, as soone as I saw him that day. He answered, that he had not seene nor heard them; that they could not be of the canton of Swits, as the people talked. They might be of the other popish cantons. But, said he, the Suitenses have newly made a decree against that renovation of the league with France, which was lately signed by some deputies of theirs, protesting, that they doe not hold themselves obliged by it at all; that if their delegates be so false to them, as wilfully to goe beyond their instructions, or so silly as to suffer themselves to be over-reached by the French ambassadour, yet they will be so true to their owne resolutions, and so wise as to refuse to ratify it. And therefore they have set their delegates a certaine time for the getting of that instrument out of the ambassadour's hands; and have added some threats what they will doe, if they have it not by such a day, &c.
The next morning very early the younger burgomaster of this city rode out towards Tirol, three dayes journey hence, to meete with Austrian deputies, to conferre with them about giving satisfaction to the demands and grievances of the cantons. There are many documents, records of agreements, &c. to be read over, so that he will be abroad a good while; and therefore M. D. tooke his last leave of him the evening before, as resolving to be gone hence before the burgomaster could returne.
This afternoone the principall secretary of this canton came to me, and shewed me letters, which they had received this morning, written to the burgo-masters, &c. of all the 13 cantons from cardinal Mazarin, and dated May 4. new style; wherein he tells them, that they could not be ignorant, that the intestine disquiets of France had hindred the satisfying of their demaunds, which now the king was better at leysure to thinke upon, as they should percieve by his majestie's letter to them, which he thought fit to accompany with one of his own, to assure them, that he was their affectionate freind. I asked the secretary, whether the king's letter were such another empty paper as this. He answered, that he knew not what it was, for they had received none but this; so that they knew not whether there was any such letter written by the king or no; or whether the ambassadour at Soloturn kept it by him, to send when he thought best. I asked him, whether they would not write to Soloturn, to know what was become of the king's letter. He said, no, we shall try what the ambassadour will doe. And besides, said he, we care not much what becomes of it, because we shortly expect the king's answere to the letter, that was lately written to him in the name of the protestant cantons alone, calling upon him for satisfying the arreres of our dismissed captaines, &c. without any conditions. It was sent about a fortnight agoe by an envoye from Zurich. He had order to tarry for an answere. I then tooke occasion to speake at the last assembly at Araw. He said, that there they consulted concerning Piemont, and had secretly reviewed the old articles of confederacy among themselves, which must receive some alteration to fit them better for these times. That of old they used once in ten yeares to renew their oath of mutuall defence, &c. all over the 13 cantons; but since the reformation of religion in Switzerland, there had beene no general renewing of their oath, because the papists would have all men sweare according to the old forme, [By God and all his saints] which the reformed will not doe. But the protestant cantons have now beene considering, how to amend the defects of the articles of the union among themselves. As for Piemont, they had com maunded a major of Berne presently to ride poste to the duke of Savoy, and to represent their sense of his cruelty towards their brethren, and to offer their interposition for those that are yet alive. They also commanded him to bring back as full informations as he could get concerning their present estate, and the pretended causes of this furious proceeding. I told him, that we knew allready some of their pretensions; but one of the true causes was the esteeme the Savoy had of the protestant cantons, looking upon them as men that had little power, and no courage to put out the strength that they have; standing so much in awe of their popish neighbours, that they dare not budge a foote in favour of any protestant church, least the popish cantons should fall upon them. He replied, that their concordia discors had hitherto preserved them. For, said hee, had we beene all of one religion, we could not have beene kept from intermedling in the late German warre, that undid almost all that had to doe in it. But being so divided, wee hindred our neighbours from assisting the emperour, and they hindred us from taking the contrary side. But, said he, the truth is, the popish cantons are no lesse in amity with Sàvoy than wee; so that we cannot hurt him, without giving them occasion to fall out with us. We have many men, that at the reading of the letters concerning Piemont, seeme to thinke of nothing but invading Savoy, or massacring all the Savoyards that are in these countries. But few of them consider, that we are not able to finde money enough to make us fit to invade any other prince's dominions. And indeed it is the onely thing we want, for we have men inough and armes, as they shall finde, if they meddle with Geneva, as some seeme to feare they will. I reply'd, that Geneva might be eaten up, before they would agree to succour it. He said, that the posts were so well settled, that in thrice 24 houres Zurich could have newes from Geneva, and by the way Bern should heare it sooner. Their militia was in such a good order, that in 2 or 3 dayes they could have a great number of men [trained bands] whereof every one brought his armes with him. And Geneva is very well fortified, and well provided for all things requisite for the enduring a long siege, so that they cannot be over-run before succours come to them. But, said I, if Geneva should neede you, would not the greater number among you answere, we cannot for want of mony, we dare not for feare of our popish neighbours ? He said Geneva being so neere, they should straine themselves very much for so short a time, as seemed sufficient to drive away any forces that should come to attacque it. I replyed, if you had never so much mony, you might still pretend a feare of provoking the popish cantons. No, said he, they have no mony, nor no meanes to get any considerable summe: we have had mony, but extraordinary occasions have lately spent it. If that defect did not now hinder, we should not looke upon the popish cantons as in æquilibrio with ourselves, but should a great deale more readily resolve to teach the duke of Savoy, that our intercessional letters and our freindship deserved more regard. I answered, that they wanting no men nor armes, every man having his owne armes, and their magazines well stored with all sorts of weapons, &c. lesse mony would serve their turnes to begin a warre, than other nations that have nothing before hand but the great purse. He confessed, that was true, but to keep their people from discontents and disorders, they must be punctually paid, &c. I replyed, that when they came into a country, where they meant to exercise all manner of hostility, they must make their enemies beare the greatest part of the charge.
I should tire you with more of this dialog, if the poste would give leave. I must
trouble you no farther at this time. Yet for all his haste I will take so much time, as to
Sir, your humble servant,
May 12, [1655.]
I pray you reade this French sheete as soone as you may.
Advice from Dantzick.
May 22, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxvi. p.138.
I Think, that it will not be thought improper to lay before your honours, how affairs go in these quarters, in order to communicate the same with the greater secrecy, where it is requisite. In Poland they firmly believe, that the Cosacks will be quieted with granting them good conditions and privileges, but they will have also the Russians comprehended therein, which will hardly be done. The latter have now closely besieged Dunenburch, and stormed the same twice already: they are afraid, that after the taking of the same, Wilda will not be able to make any resistance; so that all Lithuania will be lost. All the rest depends upon the approaching diet. The first and chief point, it is said, shall be, to send an embassador, with full power of the king and re publick, into Sweden, to endeavour a peace to be concluded, if they do not come too late; since the likelihood of an invasion of the Swedes, both by sea and land, into these countries seems daily to encrease.
The copy of the letter, which the Swedish senators have written to the Polanders, I do not question, but has been communicated to their high mightinesses: here inclosed goes the answer, which the archbishop, instead of a receipt, has sent in the interim, three days ago, to Kock the Swedish agent here, as an excuse for the long tardiness of the Polish embassy, and in answer to the said letter.
The nobility of Upper Poland and Prussia encamp on the frontiers towards Pomerania, to make resistance in case of a sudden invasion.
Here in this city, as far as one can see, they are very diligent, by augmenting their troops, exercising and drawing up of the citizens, and especially by fortifying the circumjacent mountains to make a good defence, though for making any resistance by sea they have but a few or rather no ships at all; and as I am confidently informed, the magistrates here have been exhorted as well by the king of Poland as others, to crave assistance from their high mightinesses, but the court of this city makes difficulty to effect the same, for fear of any reproaches; and that in return for the said beneficence, some conditions might be demanded for the re-establishment and confirmation of the reformed religion, as also for the abrogation of sundry unreasonable imposts, wherewith our nation is charged here. The impositions upon our nation here are chiefly the prohibition of keeping houses, the anticipation of the duty called Tollage, and the demand of the tenth penny in case of leaving the town, or in case of death.
They disperse here also a certain printed paper, whereby they intend to prove for several reasons, that the Swedish design is not against this country, but against Hamburgh. It is however believed, that this is only given out, to make the people secure. The magistrates here take away and call in as many of them as they possibly can.
Now they are very desirous here to know, in case this country should come into troubles, how far the neighbouring powers, viz. their high mightinesses, Denmark and England will concern themselves in their interest.
Resident Heinsius to the states general.
Stockholm, May 22, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxvi. p .110.
High and mighty lords,
All things are here making ready at present for the funeral of the queen Eleonora against the appointed day, which is to morrow. The ceremony will be very costly, but no foreign publick ministers are to assist at it.
The embassadors of the Tartars have not yet had any audience, nor no news yet of the arrival of the long expected embassador from Poland, who will hardly be able to reach this place before the departure of the king.
A letter of intelligence.
Paris, May 22, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxvi. p. 98.
Yours I received with the reception of marquis de Lede, as many others have, which puts cardinal Mazarin to his wits end. They undertake, that mr. Bordeaux has orders from Mazarin these two posts past to conclude with the protector. I have it from a good author, that if the protector will now assault Bordeaux prudently, he will win the treaty and peace to his mind. I have given several hints of this before. Of a general peace here is not a word, but ranting of some, it must be by the new pope. The king, queen, and cardinal, gave a compliment to secretary Navarre, to be presented to the king of Spain, that all inclinations in France are for a general peace; but this is no new invention. Every Spanish minister that passes through France is entertained with such like. In my time many of them past so. I hear one Thomas Talbot, a Franciscan frier, goes from R. C. to Rome; but I am sure he will do no good, being not beloved in the court of Rome. Divers proclamations in print are come hither from London against priests and friers, with an oath of abjuration for the laity. Great talk is of it. The divines of Sorbonne say, they do not believe the second protestant in England, or in the world besides, will take it, being an oath not to be presented against all liberty of a christian. It is damnably censured. Count Brienne, secretary of state, swore, he would wager half his estate, the protector nor his council would take it.
Here is nothing more of news at this time, but rumours of wonders done by general
Blake against the Turks. I have not the particulars, I expect them from England in due
time. For the rest I refer you to the occurrents, and am,
A letter of intelligence.
May 22, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxvi. p. 94.
Having received yours by this post. According the conference the cardinal had last sunday with the first president (as I writ in my former) touching the assemblies of the parliament about the edicts, which was resolved between both, that his majesty consented they should meet to consider of the edicts, and the verifications thereof; only that his majesty desired them to have a little patience till friday of the next week, because then they must also meet for the reception of a new counsellor, son to mr. Catinat; and then on that occasion the parliament may consider of the verifications of the edicts. Then we shall see what shall be done; but yet some say, the king had a desire to return hither once alone to sit in parliament, of which yet nothing certain. Mr. Navarre, that was secretary of state in Flanders, having had audience (as I writ in my former) from his majesty and eminence, the king and queen desired him, as soon as he should arrive at Madrid, to assure his majesty of Spain, that they were here always very ready to make a general peace, when it pleases his majesty to think or consider of it. It is written by the last post from St. Malo's, that a vessel arrived there, that came from the Indies, which brings, that a Spanish galleon of the Spanish fleet was sunk, wherein was eight millions of pieces of eight; but being lost near the land, that they fished four millions again, and that they were in hopes yet to get more of it.
They bring also, that the English fleet, commanded by general Pen, was sailing towards the isle of St. Dominick, and for that reason they think they were to attempt something against the Spaniards. Also that if they do not attempt St. Dominick, that sure they will Cuba or Cartagena.
The count of Harcourt arrived at Chantilly since the king parted hence, where he was received by their majesty and eminence; he is come upon the word of the court, without having made any treaty. Mr. de Charlevois takes an employment for the king's service under the command of this prince Harcourt, who is to command the Lorain troops, that quitted the Spanish service in the pay of Luxemburg.
Last saturday some body stole from the cardinal out of his cabinet 4000 pistoles, for which one of his valets de chambre is made prisoner, and another woman, being suspected, &c.
It's reported, that the duke of Mantua will arrive here next week: what may be his designs we do not yet well know, only many say, it is to sell all the goods he has in France, and accommodate with the cardinal; yet the Spaniards are afraid his voyage will be prejudical unto themselves, because they think he comes to make a new treaty with France.
I think I writ to you before, that the king named mr. de Levy, brother to mr. duke d'Amvilles, bishop of Mirepoix, the bishop that was there before having given his dimission of that place to the king, who gave him that of Carcassone, and by that means has determined the great difference, that was betwixt the said Levy and marquis de Mirepoix.
The bruit we had last friday it seems is not true, that our peace with England was concluded; being to the contrary, that mr. de Bordeaux writ hither a letter dated the 12th instant, by which he signifies, the protector would not perform what he promised touching the conclusion of that peace; and therefore the next day he was to desire audience to take his leave, and return hither. This letter he writ to his father, but I see by yours he is yet in London.
All hopes we have of a general peace is by the assistance of God and this new pope; but we are afraid of a new peace to come between England and the Spaniard by the means of marquis de Lede.
Yesterday our letters from England were retaxed again in a manner; a small letter of
12 sols came to 24 sols, which is the strangest thing that ever was seen, about which was
a great quarrel between the merchants and the postmaster, having returned all their letters
to the post again; but all will not serve, and if it continues, very few will be able to pay
for their letters. Your proclamation is most cruel against catholicks; and it is not a way
to make amity or friendship with catholick princes. All the world thinks, that no man
should force another for his conscience, he himself not being sure of his own ways of
salvation. You desire to be protector of all hugonots, and assist them when there is
need; but there is no catholick prince, that desires the like against the hugonots; and
therefore it's thought France or any other catholick prince will not grant the like article
in a conclusion of a peace. I heard general Blake does miracles against the Turks, which
is all the news known at present to,
Sir, your most real servant.
Bordeaux to his son, the French embassador in England.
Paris, May 22, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxvi. p. 111.
I have been to see monsieur Servien at Meudon, to whom I communicated the whole state of your negotiation according to your two last letters. He is persuaded, that you will not be able to conclude any thing, and that they are affected delays; and in regard he doth altogether aim at the honour and glory of this state, he cannot brook any longer the proceedings of the government where you are; and yet notwithstanding that by your orders you are writ unto to return, if so be they will not give you satisfaction, he doth esteem, that as often as any overture is made unto you, that it is more convenient to continue the negotiation than to break, in regard we have business enough without engaging in a new war; assuring me, that if so be you had orders from hence to demand audience to take your leave, that it was done with an intention to advance the treaty, and not a breach, upon a belief we had here that the lord protector would not let it come to this last extremity, in regard of the essential reason of their own good. And yet in regard it is very dangerous to give you any certain advice upon this resolution of rupture or continuation, upon which I pray'd him to give me his counsel and opinion, he did freely confess to me as my friend, he did advise me to inspire into you rather a continuation of abode a longer time with lawful pretences of an overture and accommodation, than a resolution of returning, which he told me could not be but very disadvantageous to those, who did procure a publick good through their service; and that it was but just to recompence the ministers of state; and likewise that it was usual to lay the fault upon them, if business succeed otherwise than is expected. And withal he added, that he would take care to secure you your assignations for your re-imbursement, that so you might not suffer too great a loss that way in case of bad success. If there be any faith to be given to his promise, you are like to have your money. He withal did conceive, that you ought to signify to the protector, that if he will observe [les mesures d'honneur] the methods of honour, which ought to be among sovereigns, that he ought not to have delayed the signing of the treaty or the rupture till the arrival of the embassador extraordinary of Spain; and that it is to make you serve for his triumph; and by this proceeding he will give far greater offence to the king your master; and that your delays and bearing of several injuries might have altered his inclinations, but they are not so injurious as to alter them. He likewise told me, that upon the two new propositions, the one about the merchants and contraband goods, and the other for the liberty of merchants, that you may for the first agree to have it reciprocal; and as for the other, it was an exception, which could not be granted, because such a permission cannot be given to the merchants, but by consent of the sovereign; and consequently that it would be the same thing, as if he himself did assist our enemies. He charged me, that I should write you word, that you must, upon the first article of equal power agreed to the Hollanders by our treaties of contraband goods, tell the commissioners or the protector himself, if it be possible, that he ought not to desire to see his people in the condition of the Hollanders, who are rendered so powerfull amongst themselves, that they do trade and deal with all nations without submitting themselves to the laws of the countries where they come; and that it would be unhappy, if within his authority the merchants should have this faculty to treat for their freights and ladings without his orders and permission. He also added, that to save the honour of your treaty, you were to insist to have the articles signed, as they are resolved and agreed on; and by private articles consent and promise the two last demands, provided they be reciprocal. This is that, which I got out of him; you may do herein as you shall think fit. You may make your reflections upon what he hath told me; for my part, I judge it more convenient, that you should execute the orders of the court, rather than expose the state to so many indignities, which are said to be received through your weakness and residence there, without any fruit or satisfaction either for yourself or for us.