A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 3, December 1654 - August 1655. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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May (2 of 5)
Letter of convocation of the lords the states of Holland.
The lords the states of Holland and Westfriesland did lately part with a firm belief, that the members could not take upon them to give their absolute consent to the collection of the known augmentation of convoys to make good the charges of the new intended equipment; and therefore, that they would apply for the said consent, within the limited time, and comply with the issue thereof, where and as it behoves. But whereas, against expectation, a letter is sent to us from the burgomasters and governors of the city of Amsterdam, bringing the said consent on the one side, but on the other side absolutely putting off the raising of the so called last en veyl gelt, for the motives and reasons expressed in the said letter, a copy whereof goes here inclosed; and in order to put a stop to the intentions of the said lords, and to make them alter their resolution, we have decreed for that purpose a special deputation, but all to no purpose; so that no more can be done by us therein. And because the said affair is of great weight, and of a momentous consequence, for the service of the country, we did not think it proper to leave the same undecided any longer; and therefore we have thought it necessary, to summon an assembly of the said lords the states of Holland and Westfriesland, to meet together on tuesday the first of the ensuing month of June, to deliberate and resolve upon the said subject, and what belongs to the same; very friendly and earnestly desiring, that your honours would be pleased to send your deputies hither against the said day, with such instructions, whereby the service of this state may be promoted and considered: which we depend upon.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours of the 22d of last month I received, by which manifestly I see the protector is as he was ever wonted, victorious, and poor R. C. for ever undone. Poor fools, that rise for him, must hang; and that is the usual pay of royal armies now adays. Yet some royalists here will have a general peace presently made by this pope, and R. C. quarrel undertaken by the universality of catholicks; but this is not the first vain toss they have had here of this nature. It matters not; but since my last I can tell you something more solid touching the peace betwixt the two crowns; for this pope is really resolved by all the means he can to have it done, and that with as much expedition as may be. To which purpose he writ lately to the kings of France and Spain to forbear being too forward in their treaty with the protector; in answer to which letters are expected in due time. An express is sent to Spain, because there is no nuncio there, but not to Paris, only a letter in the nuncio's way, one being resident there. This pope being a familiar acquaintance of the emperor's, has a great affection and respect to him, and writ much to him of this peace. Time will let you know I speak truth, and that great endeavours shall be for the said peace. This pope studies much how to make bishops in Portugal, but without prejudice to the king of Spain, which is a difficult work. There is no more of it here at present. His holiness has sent to the duke of Modena to make his peace with Spain; and it is thought by the means of the Barbarinis he will prevail, they being the greatest with him. Great preparations are making in Naples, which, 'tis thought, will march against Modena, if a reconciliation be not made. There are now four red caps vacant.
I hear prince Camillo Pamfilio is absolved from his title of general, but none as yet in his place. The Venetian embassador came hither to congratulate his holiness; to morrow he is to execute that office.
It is certain the pope gives to the states of Venice all the profits attributed to the offices of being general to the church, general of the gallies, and all forts in his territories; as also of Chastelain, castle of St. Angelo, &c. In the mean time he ordered the troops he raised for the service of that commonwealth, to march to Ferrara, from whence they shall be sent to Venice.
His holiness ordered to examine the cause of imprisonment of monsieur Savelli and others committed by the late pope. They are all after by his holiness's commands set at liberty. It was remarked, his holiness having a mind to buy some of the house furniture belonging to the late deceased cardinal Montalto, all those, that have had interest in the said goods, endeavoured to make a present to his holiness of what he had a mind to buy, which he refused, and paid more than the value for as much as he bought.
Many cardinals parted from hence lately; some to their archbishopricks and bishopricks,
others to their other stations, being thereto required. And so you have this last week's
news from, sir,
Copy of a letter written from Paris unto mr. Petit, the 24/14 May, by one of the English merchants interessed in the seizures made upon them at St. Malo.
This is to inform you of the mainlevée pure and single granted unto me, for part of the seizures made upon us at St. Malo, which I thought fit to follow apart since your departure. I have already received the decree thereof; it orders me charges, damages, and interests, which I will cause to be taxed, amounting to above 10000 livres Tournois. It's a great prejudication for all the rest. We perceive well the effect of a good going on of the affairs, and of the protection you have given me to understand. The count of Brienne has also dispatched the three letters de cachet of the king, whereof you had hopes given you by the last orders, to supersede the suit in law our parties thought to have made in your absence against mr. James Thurston, our countryman, dwelling at Bourdeaux.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to his father.
I did expect to hear of the admiration, whereof you write me word, which my letter did occasion, wherein I gave notice of the audience I had demanded to take my leave. I do no less admire at the strange proceedings of this state, whose interest I always did conceive to be, to agree with France. If my conjectures are false, they had at least very great ground; and it is not a crime in an embassador to penetrate into the secrets of those, with whom men treat. All that I can perceive at present is, that they will endeavour to delay me for some longer time. They promised me a resolution this day; but the lord protector and most of the council have been in the country these three days, and from whence they returned this afternoon; and my chiefest commissioner is remaining still in the country. However I did not fail to send to the secretary of state, who sent me word, that his highness had taken some resolution upon my affairs on friday last; and that it should be sent to me very suddenly. This answer doth not afford me any matter to write to the court; therefore you may be pleased to signify so much unto them, in regard you know I will not give them any hope of expedition, having been deceived so often; but if one may judge of it by the discourse of the ministers, and likewise of the lord protector himself, one might consider the treaty as good as concluded, and ready to be signed. However I have advice, that they will still delay me from time to time; but the orders of the court, nor my domestick affairs, will not permit me to forbear any longer. Wherefore I will not defer my departure, if speedy satisfaction be not given me; and if the ministers of France be of another mind, they ought, without loss of time, to explain themselves, and provide at the same time for my subsistence; for life is the foundation of all actions. If I have not wherewithal to maintain it, it is in vain to think of my abode here, or of doing any good service.
To the states general.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, according to, and in obedience of your high mightinesses resolution of the 16th of this current month, we set out (most of us) on Wednesday the 19th following from the Hague, and arrived here at Groningen on the 23d instant in the morning, about 8 o'Clock, except mr. Aylva (whom we found here, and understood that he was arrived already, on friday last the 21st of this month, in obedience to your high mightinesses letter of the 16th past) and the counfellor pensionary de Witt, who likewise arrived here yesterday towards the evening. Whereupon in the first place, and especially, messieurs Lodestein and Aylva aforementioned, in compliance with your high mightinesses resolution and authorisation granted to the lord Schoock, bearing date the 17th instant, and delivered into the hands of the said lord Schoock, did promise upon their oath, which they had here before taken to the state, that they would exactly regulate themselves according to the last article of our instructions, agreed to, on the 16th instant, and to the resolution of the 10th of August, 1651. where we inserted that promise, which the other deputies of your high mightinesses had made, in the hands of the lord president, before their departure, in the assembly of your high mightinesses.
My lord the Prince William of Nassaw, being present in loco, paid us his compliments, in honour of your high mightinesses, immediately after our arrival, viz. after the forenoon's sermon; in the afternoon we paid him our contra-visit, wherein only the customary expressions of civility and compliments were used.
The lords vander Hoolck and Ripperda are not yet arrived here; however we expect them very soon; and whereas we think it to be your high mightinesses intention, that we should hasten our conferences, as much as possible, we will wait for the arrival of the said absent lords: however, under your high mightinesses approbation, we will begin to prepare matters, and do follow your high mightinesses good intention, as much as lies in our power.
Positiones serenissimo et celsissimo domino domino protectori Magnæ Britanniæ humillime oblatæ.
1. Celsissimæ suæ serenitati Angliæ, Scotiæ, et Hiberniæ domino protectori, celsissimus Transylvaniæ princeps amicitiam suam sinceram, omniaque ea studia, quæ ad eam comparandam et conservandam facere possunt, significat et defert. Quæ si suæ celsissimæ serenitati grata futura est, vicissim nihil gratius et acceptius erit suæ celsitudini Transylvaniæ principi, quam mutuæ cointelligentiæ et correspondentiæ erigere utrinque monumentum, si dignum et utile suæ celsissimæ serenitati videbitur.
2. Percrebuit ad aures celsitudinis Transylvaniæ principis fama non vulgaris, confœderationem inter populum Angliæ, regnum Sueciæ, fœderati Belgii Unitas Provincias, extincto cum illis bello, stabilitam esse, pro bono publico, pro gloria Dei, pro libertate oppressarum gentium et conscientiarum. Ideò an talia fœdera, quæ orbi Christiano in hac nunc horribili passim perfecutione maximoperè optanda essent, jam rata sint; aut an propositum sit, aut verisimilitudo talia fœdera aliquando inuendi, sua celsitudo Transylvaniæ princeps cognoscere expetit, & benevolam informationem desiderat.
3. Cum sua celsitudo Transylvaniæ princeps eo locorum positus sit, utpotè non solum ad viciniam in Poloniâ strepentium armorum, verùm cum tanta etiam orbis concussio ubique sentiatur, ut meritò longiùs prospiciendum sit, omnino maximè necessarium putat intelligere celsissimæ suæ serenitatis ulterius intentum, quo se nempe conatus ardui propositi, quod celsissima sua serenitas in animo volvere dicitur, reflectat; præsertim tam insigni et omnibus stupendo omnium rerum ad militiam spectantium apparatu, tam mari quam terra comparato. Quocirca sua celsitudo Transylvaniæ princeps enixè expetit, ut celsissima sua serenitas non dedignetur suam celsitudinem certam reddere de hac suâ intentione et animi proposito, quocunque etiam spectet in hac rerum et orbis commotione, quantum per ratio nem status fieri licet, et quousque arcana reipublicæ communicare fas est, cùm hac certâ et infallibili assecuratione, quâ suam celsissimam serenitatem assecurandam jubet Transylvaniæ princeps, non defuturum suæ celsitudini Transylvaniæ principi ergà gloriam Dei, et publicum bonum promovendum, quantum per circumstantiam status suæ celsitudinis Transylvaniæ principis licebit, zelum quoque ad communem juvandam causam, dummodo liquidò intelligere possit celsissimæ suæ serenitatis reflexionem.
Quæ si sua celsitudo Transylvaniæ princeps obtinebit, nimirum ut in his omnibus tempestivè informetur, rem gratissimam et desideratissimam obtinebit pro voto; quam pari studio sua celsitudo relatum erit. Quorum informatio non faciet solum ad fundamentum futuræ cointelligentiæ, quam sua celsitudo procul omni dubio majore solennitate quam nunc fit, stabiliendam curabit, verum ad tempestivam etiam circumspectionem, quâ sibi sua celsitudo Transylvaniæ princeps prospiciet, tam de internâ securitate regni & principatus sui, quam de mediis melius ordinandis, quæ in futurum servire poterunt causæ publicæ.
The prince of Transylvania's envoy to secretary Thurloe.
Magnifice ac generose domine secretarie, domine observandissime,
Ex jussu & mandato serenissimi & celsissimi Angliæ, Scotiæ, & Hiberniæ domini protectoris, positiones illas, quas nuper ore tenus proposui, in scripto transmitto. Obnixe rogo, ut celsissimæ suæ serenitati domino protectori cum debitâ meâ observantiâ offerantur, adjectâ hac humillimâ petitione, ut tandem hinc clementissimè dimittar ad ingrediendum iter meum, quod sanè longinquum habeo.
Si etiam fieri potest, rogo, ut magnifica vestra generositas haud gravatim mihi velit tempus designare, quo eam convenire possim quædam conferendi gratiâ cum magnificâ vestrâ
dominatione, quam bene valere cupio,
Vestræ generosæ magnificentiæ servitor,
The prince of Condé to Barriere.
I HAVE advice from Spain, which doth assure me, that I shall receive fifty thousand escus of the money, which the lord de Cardenas hath in his hands. I pray you give notice thereof to the said lord, that the money may be ready, for I expect to receive sufficient orders for the same by the next post, and I will presently send one into England to receive that money. In the mean time see, if you can prevail with my lord protector, to let me have a man of war to bring over my money safe; otherwise it must be made over by bill of exchange. See what can be done, and do herein as you shall think fit; and in regard I owe still something to the Irish, be sure you let no body know, that I have money in England, but give out that it is some money of the king of Spain's.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I have received your leter dated the 7th of May, and am glad to heare that the fleet gott soe well forward. The shipps kept together, and the men had their health soe well, for which blessed bee God, in whom (I hope) wee shall heare of their good success. Wee have little newes heere. All those, that are out in armes, have made applications to come in, and (I beleeve) will conclude before there be grass for horse in the hills. I beleeve we shall not have much to doe this summer, but to provide our garrisons with provisions this winter.
I have thought fit to acquaint you with a particular (in case there should bee any application made by the Scots in Leith to his highness concerning mr. Hogg their minister) to prevent misinformation.
I have given orders to the deputy governor to permit the said mr. Hogg to preache
noe more there, which I did, because of the great resort of Scotche people to the towne
to his churche; and indeede it might endanger the looseing that towne, if their meetings
there continued; for there mett sometimes 1500 neere our magazin, whence they might
come (when the forces are at other churches and meeteing places for the worship of God)
to seize on our magazin, and make themselves masters of the towne; in respect whereof,
and that the said mr. Hogg preached for Charles Stuart, this was don. I remaine
Dalkeith, May 15, 1655.
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.
Your lordship will receive herewith coppies of two letters, which I received the last weeke, whereby you will see the condition the poore protestants are in in the dominions of the duke of Savoy. There is noe question, but all our popish neighbours have the same minde, and will fall to the like worke, as they have opportunitie. And I doe assure your lordship, the government heere want not sence of these proceedings, and I hope will expresse a just zeale therein, as the Lord affords them meanes. In the meane tyme letters will be writ on their behalfe. The French army is takeinge the field; the king will comaund it in person, and it's sayd to be very stronge, at least 37000 stronge; the Spanyard seemes to be in noe wyse able to resist hym, and therfore must probablie be upon a defensive posture. All the discourse now is concerninge the Swede, who is with an army of 50000 in Pomerland, marchinge towards Prussia; and, as is sayd particularly against Dantzicke, which is under the protection of the kinge of Poland; and if he masters this place, it will be more worth to hym then all his kingdome of Sweden. He will by this have the comaund of all the trade in the Baltique sea, haveinge besides a good fleete of 36 men of warre, with which he will beseidge the sayd towne at sea. The states generall are very apprehensive of this designe of the Swede, which they have great reason for, in respect all their trade in those parts, which is very great, will be brought under the power of the Swede. Wee cannot yet conclude with France: sometymes wee are neare a close, but at other tymes very farre asunder; in the meane tyme wee have had heere a Spanish extraordinary embassador from Spayne about 10 dayes. He hath made some tender of an allyance upon extraordinary termes; what they are like to come to, you may easily judge: Our old enemies have not yet quit their hopes; they are upon new designes, and that which they most intend now is the murder of the protector. I thinke their will be a necessitie to deale with that generation of men, as the Irish are dealt with in Ireland. It is certeyne they are restlesse in their attempts; it is certeyne, Middleton is gone out of Scotland beyond sea; soe that wee hope that countrye may be settled this summer. And when the comon enemie is downe, I wish our old friends doe not give trouble: but I trust the Lord will in his owne good tyme make peace amongst his own people. Your Lordship need not feare, that places and offices to be settled in Ireland shall be supplyed heere. I doe assure you, that there is noe such intention, but to leave that to your lordship; nor will they be hastie heere to send you judges, before you are acquainted with them. I have not further to trouble your lordship with, but to subscribe me
Whitehall, May 15, 55.
Paulus Pels, the Dutch commissioner, to monsieur de Bye.
Our condition is here still uncertain; we do arm and fortify ourselves as well as we can against the invasion of the Swedes; pray God, there may be no need of it. The king, after the general meeting, is expected in Prussia. We do hope a good accommodation will be made with the Cossacks, and it may be likewise with the Muscovites, whose armies are miserably ruined through the plague.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours I received by this post, by which I see you have no great news in England, all being quiet. The audience of the Spanish ambassador is no small trouble to us. We fear much he will obstruct our peace with the protector, with giving cities and forts to the protector, as I writ formerly; but some at council here certainly aver, the king of Spain will never do it. However, mr. Bordeaux wants not new instigations every week to proceed and conclude in this treaty, of which you will know more there in time.
I have seen a letter from Turin of the 12th instant, which imports thus: That the principal circumstances confirmed from Vallée de Lucerne are, that 3000 Hugonots were slain and perished in the snow. Also that 1500 catholics were slain upon the place. That there were 3000 houses of the Hugonots burnt with all their places of devotion. It is confirmed also, that 300 children of the Hugonots were taken by the catholics, and are now entertained and instructed by them in that religion.
The Valée of St. Martin, which was fortified by the hugonets that fled away, is surrendred, and the booty the catholicks took from the Hugonots came to 15000 bestials, besides quantity of gold and silver, with other riches, which is the last news from Savoy; and what further I can learn you shall have since you so earnestly desire it.
Our recruits from Bretagne being 4000 are in their march to Picardy, and the marquis
of Castlenau meets them the last of this month at Abbeville. All the volontiers are
gone, and you have now no more from,
A letter of intelligence.
The last letters from Nantz bring us, how Mareschal de la Ferté arrived there with his wife, who had her received most gallantly both by his army and the townsmen. First he caused all his troops to advance within 12 leagues to that city, where they were in order, as if they were to give a battle; by which she was received with great honour and respect, and marched in her company three leagues from that place, where they met all the dames of Nantz, both in coaches, and the most part a horse-back, and in order as the troops that conveyed her before. They all came and complimented highly this lady, singing and dancing, having people with them with their instruments to that effect. They gave her a royal collation, after which they marched all in order, till they were within half a league to the city, where they found all the burghers in arms, which saluted her several times with their muskets and the artillery of the city playing during their salutations; and between both the gates of the city they met with the citizens, who made long and eloquent speeches before that lady, great fires in all the streets, fountains of wine given out the town; besides made her a present of silver plate for her table gilded with gold, worth 5000 pistoles, with a little casket of 100 pistoles, wherein was worth 300 pistoles of fine laces and rare little things. The said mareschal has given to mr. de Roisselau, uncle to his wife, the government of Mirccour, the charge and lieutenancy of gens d'armes to chevalier de Fourville, another friend of her's, which is all of that story.
The rendezvous of mareschal Turenne's army will consist of 277 companies, and his horse of 150 companies; and the army of mareschal Senneterre will be in number 10000 men, who will have his rendezvous near Stenay; and besides them, mr. le Bar will command a flying party of 5000 horse. Some say the king will go in person with that army of Turenne.
Last saturday some of the parliament were resolved to make their assemblies against the first president's advice, which was like to be troublesome; but were pressed so by the said first president and many others in the behalf, and especially mr. de Grandmont, who was resolved to go unto that assembly himself, and bring with him 15 companies of the guard, which staid here on purpose for that occasion; in fine, that they were as yet deferr'd, 'till further orders, and the 15 companies of the guard are gone away yesterday, by reason they saw nothing to be in that matter.
The duke of Orleans's wife and daughter parted last thursday for Blois, where they will stay about eight or ten days; and yesterday madam de Guise parted hence to meet them at Orleans, to sign the accommodation of their differences, which you heard of before.
Madammoiselle Martinozzi parted hence last thursday, to meet the king at Compiegne; and to that purpose those that sing for the king are gone away all with their instruments. Her marriage was published last sunday in the parish of St. Germain de Leurenois.
It's written from Languedoc, that count de Rieux, second son to the duke of Elbeuf, taking the air at Privas one day, a certain gentleman passing by him, who did not salute him (as some say) because he did not see him; however the said count's men advertized their master of it, who presently ran after the gentleman, to offend him; upon which the gentleman drew his sword, to defend himself; but the count's men, seeing of that, beat well the gentleman, who being known in town, the people rose in his behalf, and did not spare either the count or his men, which were all wounded, and two made prisoners; but the consul came and accommodated the business next day, and set the two men at liberty.
The bishops deputed here from the clergy of Languedoc have orders from that province, to enquire a bishoprick for the abbot Beauregard, heretofore a general agent for the clergy; and to represent to his majesty, that every one that had the like commission before him, was recompensed by the king with a bishoprick.
Last thursday four gazetteers were committed to prison, for selling privately in print the copy of cardinal de Retz his letter to the clergy of France, two or three months ago, as you heard of before.
We are afraid our treaty with England will be deferred by the means of that extraordinary embassador from Spain; and the wife of our embassador there is resolved to go for England, thinking her husband must stay yet longer than he thinks.
Our letters are here of late so high taxed, that we shall not be able to pay the post.
And I am sure many will give over correspondency by reason of that, which is also
Sir, your most humble servant.
A letter of intelligence to mr. Petit.
The king and the whole court parted on last saturday from Chantilli for Compiegne, where he arrived at night. The ceremonies of mademoiselle Martinozzi's wedding with the duke of Modena's son, (who will be represented by the prince Eugene, prince Thomas's son) are to be performed there to day or to morrow; and the said lady will in consequence be led unto her spouse by mr. de Noailles.
The duke of Mantua is expected here. He will be lodged in the Louvre, and feasted 8 days at the king's charges. This prince's voyage causeth many discourses, and one can hardly guess the motive thereof: time will bring it to light.
All the troops march to their rendezvous, and mr. de Turenne is gone to the Quesnoy, to give orders there until the forces be assembled. The enemys do also gather together. It's written from Bruxells, that mr. le prince will command towards Luxembourg, the earl of Brouy upon the river of Lis, and Fuensaldagna another body; that they hope to have a great number of horse, but very few foot.
The count of Broglio parted last week for Modena, and all the troops of Dauphiné and Provence, which are to serve in the Milanese and for the duke of Modena, march so, that the campaign will doubtless be fine in those parts. Mr. de St. André Montbrun will command under prince Thomas, as also mr. de Refuge, an old and experienced captain, who some years since had had no imployment.
The baron of Navarre coming from Bruxells for Spain, as you have heard, hath conferred here with some of our ministers' of state at the count of Brienne's house, and hath exhorted them to a generall peace.
Another letter unto the said mr. Petit by one of the deputies of the religion, of the same date.
My last will have informed you of the extreame straight, wherein our poor brethren subjects to the dutchess of Savoy are reduced by her violence. Those that are done unto us, do daily give us cause to humble ourselves before God, and to pray him for the prosperity of my lord protector. I pray you consider, how we have been dealt with at Florensac, soon after the commissioners had re-established there the exercise of the religion, according to the king's will; the papists having hindered those of the religion from meeting, and driving them from the place where they were to assemble, and seeing that most part of them were in a neighbouring house, they broke open the doors, beat both men and women, and plundered it. The minister being taken, and endeavouring to save himself over the houses, was drawn along by the hair, and put out of the city, with prohibitions not to return thither under penalty of life; all this being done by the consuls themselves at the head of the people. We hope that the peace between these two states being once ended, will serve for a bit unto our enemies, by reason they will be obliged to consider us more than ever, and that our persecutors will fear to become the subject of a new misunderstanding, especially if the prosperity of England do but increase according unto our wishes, and the likelihood his highness's vigorous government gives thereof.
From Turin 26/16 May, 1655.
The forces assemble in these parts to begin the campaign about the latter end of next month. The governor of Milan hasteneth his preparatives both for his defence on his side, as also towards Modena. The protestants of the valley of Lucerne have gathered themselves to the number of 800, and have cantoned themselves in the hills, from whence they come down unawares, and do not only plunder all that they can find, but also commit unheard of cruelties against all the papists they can light on. For which purpose his royal highness is resolved to send thither 3000 horse to hinder their courses.
The states general to the duke of Savoy.
Tres haut, tres puisant, & tres excellent prince,
Nous venons d'estre informez a nostre tres grand & sensible regret du detestable massacre, qui depuis n'agueres a este commis a l'encontre de ceux de la religion des Vauldois, qui durant quelques siecles se sont conservez dans les vallees d'Angrogne & de Pragelas sous la jurisdiction de vostre altesse, en Piedmont, dont un infini de tout age & sexe, par une cruauté horrible, & execution toute barbare, auroit este immolé a la fureur de leurs adversaires, non obstant les sauvegardes, qui de temps leur ont esté donnez de la part de vos prædecesseurs, aussy bien que de vostre altesse mesmc. Or comme nous avons esté touchez d'un tres sensible de plaisir de ce malheureux disastre survenu a tant de pauvres Christiens, dont le sang innocent pourra un jour crier vengeance envers Dieu, comme celuy d'Abel, nous avons creu estre de nostre devoir, & compassion Christienne, comme intercessez dans la conservation de touts ceux, qui font prosession de la religion reformée, de prier & requerer tres instamment vostre altesse, comme nous faisons de tout nostre cœur & affection par ces presentes, qu'il luy plaise par un instinct vrayement Christien de prendre elle mesme la cognoissance de la cause & plaintes de ces pauvres Christiens persecutez, sans les renvoyer a ceux, qui se disent estre de la congregation de la propagation de la, & de l'extirpation des heretiques, leurs adversaires jures & formels, qui au lieu de les convaincre par des raisons solides & esclatantes fondees en la parole de Dieu, contre toutes les reigles de la douceur & charité Christienne, & le commendement expres de nostre seigneur & redempteur Jesus Christ, les ont persecutez a feu & a sac. Ensemble qu'il plaise a vostre altesse de donner les ordres necessaires, que les sanglantes & barbares persecutions contre ces pauvres innocents & miserables puissent cesser au plustost, & le reste de ce petit troupeau estre remis dans leurs biens & terres, qui leur ont estre ostées & ravies avec tant d'inhumanité & injustice. Vostre altesse fera en cecy un œuvre digne de sa grandeur & justice; & nous ne manquerons pas de prier Dieu, de luy vouloir inspirer des conseils moderes & salutaires a la conservation d'une partie de ses fidelles subjects, qui n'ayant jamais eu autre but, selon que nous en sommes informes, que la gloire de Dieu & l'exaltation de son grand nom sous une parfaite obeissance a leur princes, se sont reposez sur le sauvegarde & protection, que vos ancestres, & vostre altesse mesme leur avoient departies; en quoy faisant vostre altesse nous obligera de plus en plus de demeurer, &c.
Mr. Morell to secretary Thurloe.
My letters from Marcellis of the 18th May advise mee, that after my long patience, and unwearied transactions, with this state, itt hath pleased God to release our Lady Fryett, and deliver her out of that port, which is as badd as Tunis; so that howeaver they name ther king absolute, unless wee bee his friends, they finde it is but tittuler. St. Mallo's, Nance, Tholloone, yee most of his ports and governors, are as many petty kings, whom he fears to check, till the contract of our amitie bee syned, which makes him absolut. I have returned thanks to the cardenall by letters; for the byassing of infeours ought not in equity and justice lessen my respect and syvillitie to him, who is sensable of the troble given mee, in which hee suffers, and must, untill England and France bee friends. The crowned Lyon is now my next worke, which I hope will com offe easier, now thoes parties see I act not, but on grounds, which must dishonour ther state to refuse mee.
Du Poll, commander in cheese under the duke of Vandome, will rejoyce att his absence, ife itt prove trew. Wee are here modestly unsyvill with the king: he commanded the parlament of Paris not to assemble, and to pass his edicts. They have assembled, and voted the edicts may not pass for manie reasons, which his majesty is to bee desired to take into consideration, and to direct for tyme to com in the accustomed : in English thus, the king will have his will ther law; and this parlament will give it a bridle, and curb to reason and publicke good.
Wee have it from good hands, as they say, that the trettey with France is syned; my
vote is for that, many reasons mee indusing, and yett making reflection on the Spaniards
grav complaint and greate cost to gaine his interrest on us. Prudencie, yee and pollecy,
whisper mee, that his highness cannot give his result so suddenly. God direct him and his
council, as may most conduce to God's glory, and ther the publicke will finde the greatest
quiet and comfort; which shall be the unfeygned desires of him, that as in duty remaynes,
Your honnour's most humble servant,
Fleetwood, lord deputy of Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
Ther is a very worthy person heare, one mr. Standish, the receiver general of Ireland, who hath long and faithfully served the state, and truly deserved from the publicke. If it be considered what dilligence and faithfullness he hath expressed, it will be manifest he is a person exceedingly meriting his desires to take some bishopp's lands in Ireland. I shall only presume to recommend him to your special favor, that if he makes his perticuler application to the counsell about the same, that he may receive some mark of favor. His case is very singular; he hath longe served, and now when as others are in hopes of reaping some fruits of their former labours, by having their lands sett out for arrears, he hath none. I think I may say with much confydence, that ther was never any person in his capacity served a state with greater faithfullnes and good husbandry then himselfe. If the Lord had not blest his endeavors, and given him a most faithfull, carfull, and dilligent heart, to husband his imployment to the best advantage, Ireland had beine in a sadde condition probably longe before this time; and though I am sparing in recommending perticuler persons concernment (knowing the necessityes, which lye upon the publick) yet considering his case different from others, I thought it convenient to intreat your interest and favorable assistance in what he shall present to his highnes or counsell, which will further oblige
May 17, 1655.
Mr. Hugh Grove's speech on the scaffold at Exeter Castle, May 17, 1655.
All that I shall desire of you, besides your hearty prayers for my soul, is, that you would bear me withness, I dye a true son of the church of England, as it was established by king Edward the VIth, queen Elizabeth, king James, and king Charles of ever blessed memory; and that I dye a loyal subject to king Charles the second, my undoubted sovereign, and a lover of the good old laws of the land, the just priviledges of parliament, the rights and liberties of the people; for the re-establishing of all which I undertooke this design, and for which I am now ready to lay down my life. God forgive the judges and councill for perverting the law; and God forgive the bloody minded jury, and all those that procured them: God forgive Crooke for denying and for swearing his articles so unworthily. And God forgive mr. Dove and the rest, for swearing so falsly and maliciousty against me. And God forgive all my enemies, for I heartily forgive them. Now God bless the king, and all those that love him, and turn the hearts of all them that hate him: God bless you all, and God be merciful unto you, and to my soul. Amen.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
I Cannot giv you any certain advys, whether Spayn and the Genowes ar agreed, being here affirmed both wayes. However tis uncertain, whether theyr plate fleet be arryvd; and if it should want but one year, that king wer undon, for that pollitick Machiavillian way of government is so pernicious to mankynd, that his country is voyd of people, and without mony he can rais no men. The general language of Jewes in al places, wher I hav bin, is Spanish, which shewes they ar com most from thence; and I by experience hav seen many hundreds, if not som thousands, landed here. A ship seldom coms from Spayn, but shi brings many Jewes hether, amongst whom the affaires of al the Spanish dominions is very wel known. A doctor of fisick of that nation told me 3 dayes since, that theyr learned Rabbins say, a great king of Europ must shortly fly into the West Indyes, whom they tak to be the king of Spayn, dryven by his necessityes. I hope general Vennables will shar with him there. I hav not heard any thing from generall Blak since the 14 April. 'Tis supposed the fleet is gon for Argier. 10 French ships of war and som gallyes ar latly gon out of Tollon with 3000 soldiors supposed for Cattalonia. The Spanyard is sending 6 ships from Naples, with the sam comodity likwys for Cattalonia. My correspondent at Naples has hetherto found only one mare to his lyking. I am,
May 28, 1655. [N. S.]
Marseilles the 18/8 May, 1655.
It is true, that general Blake hath burnt 9 Turkish vessells at Tunis, having beaten down the two forts, that were at the entry of the road, without being able to obtain the English slaves that are at the said Tunis; in consequence whereof he is gone to recruit himself at Argier.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
There being come advice from Rochell, that those of Biscay continue their piracies upon the ships of this state, they have resolved to complain of it, and to write to the admiralties to advise about it. And the provinces are required to declare themselves favourably, and without any delay, upon the twelve hundred thousand guilders for the 24 ships, which are desired.
There came yesterday more express advice concerning the defeat (some call it a massacre) of 4000 Vaudois. And they are very angry against the embassador Boreel, for not mentioning one word of it; which doth renew and confirm the opinion, which his enemies have of him, that he is too passionate for France, and that he never writes any thing, which doth concern or trouble that crown.
There hath been a new instance made for the sending of forces upon the Yssel and the Rhine; but the councell of State (except the Lord Raesvelt and those of Holland) being the most part affected to the prince's party, do procrastinate their advice through cunning and craftiness; to cause to depart in the mean time the lords Ripperda and Hoolck (being to go to Groningen) and so to weaken that party, which doth favour Deventer; and after this manner they do dispose and dispute of employing the militia, not according to the exigency, but according to the affection, faction, and interests of the factious; for those of Deventer will and pretend to fortify themselves by this means; and the other party would sooner weaken them, saying, that there is no danger nor fear of the German levies and forces, and that that only serveth for a pretence.
The lord Nieuport hath writ a particular letter, wherein he giveth to understand, or rather doth judge the English do not proceed sincerely for a conclusion of the treaty with France; and it seemeth, that the taking of 20 Holland ships by Penn hath provokt him to anger, judging the English to be more inclin'd against France, than for that crown.
The Lord Huygens and other commissioners of states general, as also of the counsellors of the prince of Orange, have consulted with the embassador of Spain for the payment of the arrear of the said prince. But that being a debt, which never cost the said prince any thing but only a liberality, the king of Spain would wrong his interests, if he were too hasty in making satisfaction; and Holland will be very glad, that the said prince be kept under and low.
This day it was resolved, not to spare the Lorrainers, but to treat and use them with hostility, when they offer any hostility; for the the king of Spain hath disowned them: they will also write to the states of Overyssel by duplicates (for there are two bodies of the states of Overyssel) to name somebody for the chambre mipartie.
The letter of the Rhinegrave, making complaint of the troops and extorsions of the Lorrainers, he doth also add some complaint against Stevensweert; and upon the first is vigorously resolved, sending the execution thereof to the councill of state. The second point will be only matter to speak of to the embassador of Spain.
Prince William hath procured the prolonging of the assembly at Groningen 'till the 13/23 of June, unless that the difference be composed in the mean time. In what manner he left the difference is said in the inclosed letter, a little old, but not from the purpose.
The 31st is to be an assembly in Zealand, where the difference of Toolen will be discust, and the lord Haersolte, with the secretary Bredael, is also going thither, on the behalf of the states of Overyssel.
The prince of Tarente hath signified to the states general by the president, that the princess his wife is brought to bed of a young prince. The states general did require the lord president and the lord de Gent to make him a compliment, to congratulate, and to offer him the office of the states general to be godfather at the christning.
The advice of the council of state having been, that at Deventer there ought to be three troops of horse, besides them, which are in Overyssel, the states general have confirmed the said advice; but those of Twent and Deventer have declared, that those troops of horse, which are in the country of Overyssel, are suspected by them, and that they cannot trust them, desiring the companies, which are without partiality and without faction. And in regard that would not be agreed unto, they have protested, that they shall be obliged to make a new levy, declaring that it is impossible for their citizens and countrymen to bear any longer this burthen.
Those of Holland have companies enough (and likewise of horse) upon their pay and repartition; and the said Twent and Deventer have solicited them sufficiently to promise, or let them have some of their repartition. But Holland doth so much fear the breaking of union, or order, which was made in the great assembly in the year 1651, that they durst not, yea they durst not so much as promise it; but however in the end they will be forced to do it, or otherwise no body in the other provinces will adhere unto them.
In the business of Brandenburg there hath been nothing further done. They have suspicion, that Sweden and Brandenburgh do treat to equal their rights and impositions in Livonia and Prussia, charging the strangers with a third more than their subjects, which will be of very great prejudice to the commerce of this state.
Yesterday they resolved to write to all the members of Overyssel, to the end they might send commissioners to a certain place, and there to agree together, what troops are to be given for the securing of the city of Deventer; and if they cannot agree upon it, that then they are to write back to the states general.
In Zealand the two magistrates at Tolen do jar and divide the province into two: Middleburgh and Zirickzee are for the one party; and in case, that the others making the plurality will make and choose a stadtholder to fortify their party, then it will be the same comedy which is in Overyssel.
The lord embassador Boreel having confirmed the massacre of the Vaudois, it hath highly offended this state. And the protector hath also spoken to the lord embassador Nieuport about it, although that his publick letters do not make any mention of it. And some here for pure zeal to the religion, and others to shew themselves zealous, do declare great displeasure thereat; and France might chance to lose their credit for it. There were some that did propose to have the embassador of France spoken to about it; but they left the business to the embassador Boreel to manage. They did also conclude, that the lord Nieuport hath done very well for having had nothing to do, or taking any notice of the envoy of Portugal.
Also the states of the country of Cleve do represent in particular, and require, that for this treaty the cities of the country of Cleve may not be evacuated, being provided at present with garrisons of this state; and also to be secured in the privileges.
The resident of Denmark saith, that by virtue of the treaty of alliance, when this state will send some men of war towards the Sound, they are to declare it three weeks before; and in regard it is much said now, that it is intended to send a great fleet to the Sound, that they would impart it unto him; upon which nothing is yet resolved.
In what manner the project of conclusion is in Holland, is to be seen in this extract concerning Overyssel, wherein Amsterdam especially was difficult. But at last however Holland must come to it; otherwise they will abandon their own interest. And in the mean time they do embark here by little and little into a civil faction, which after a smoak will at last break out into a flame.
At Gorcum there hath been likewise a predominant party. Those, that are domineered over, had recourse to the provincial court, who sent the lords Dorp and Goes, who found little obedience; on the contrary, when they would have departed, they found themselves arrested.
From the protestant cantons of the Switzers are come letters, with a copy of that, which the poor banished Vaudois, that escaped the massacre, have writ to the said Switzers. They do make a sharp complaint of the said massacre; do invite this state to help and assist those poor banished men with a subsidy. Whereupon they have resolved to write to the duke of Savoy, notwithstanding that there were six regiments of French.
There was this morning a conference with the lord Wyman, counsellor of the elector
of Brandenburgh, concerning the alliance to be made between this state and Brandenburgh; whereof I know not yet any thing, only that he will make report thereof.
Your most humble servant.
A letter of the honorable burgomasters and rulers of the city of Amsterdam, to the delegated counsellors.
Noble and mighty lords,
My lords, by the deputies of this city, that have been at the assembly, we are informed at large, of what has been transacted in their noble and great mightinesses assembly, concerning the armament at sea for the security of the same; as also the funds to be found for that purpose; and that at last the advices of the members did generally conclude, that instead of the directions money of one and two per cent. upon goods, as also of the last money, a tax should be consented to, of one third part of convoy money, agreed to in the year 1651, and that this affair was brought so far, that it was resolved upon in the said assembly: but whereas the said deputies had no instructions for that purpose, they took upon themselves to bring over a report thereof to their principals, to have their resolution hereupon entered in writing. On the same day was also delivered to us an extract out of the resolutions of their noble and great mightinesses thereunto belonging. For which purpose we caused the common council of this city to meet. When, considering the necessity there is that the sea be secured, not only for the sake of the commerce, but also for the good and reputation of our country in the present conjunctures, when almost all the power of Christendom fit out great naval armaments, so that the said sea ought not to be abandoned by this state; it being besides this considered, that some extraordinary funds ought to be found, whereby at least part of the said armament might be made good; it was thought necessary, and resolved by the common council, to give also their consent for the raising of the said tax, so as the said consent is hereby presented to their noble mightinesses. Provided however, that the present tax of one and two per cent, as also the last money, shall cease on the first of June next ensuing, and that by their noble mightinesses the matter be thus directed, that by a resolution of their high mightinesses, the tax of the said one third part, by heightening the ordinary convoy money as above-mentioned, be introduced and take place on the same day.
The necessity we think there is, that the said tax cannot any longer be permitted, has been debated and demonstrated by the deputies of this city in such a manner, and proved with reasons, which could not be answered, viz. that the same caused here not only a general prejudice to trade, whereby the navigation, trade, and commerce, and also the revenue of the admiralty here in this city was hurt, but if continued would entirely be ruined. Add to this the neglect of other members, especially in the northern quarter, who did moderate, dispense, nay, even entirely remit the said tax according to their pleasure, when here in this city with sincerity and zeal more was done than could be borne; so that if the same had been thus executed every where, the said debts, as we firmly believe, would have been paid even before the limited time, at least in Holland. For as to Zealand, we can assert nothing as a certainty, for we have no knowledge of the said tax there, than barely what they say themselves; but as we are on the other hand well informed the said tax is not practised there, neither is the edict of their high mightinesses issued in the year 1653, concerning a general declaration of the goods, even so much as begun to be put in practice, without which it is not possible to prevent frauds. Neither has there been to this very day, of the produce thereof, any account delivered in the general chamber of accounts, although the same ought to have been done from six to six months, the more since they intend to receive the money for the payment of their debts from the direction in Holland. And although no body could oblige us by any reason in the world to the continuation of charging our citizens and inhabitants under such an unequal tax; yet out of a zeal and affection for the publick good, we have thus continued the same, that we have received so much, wherewithall not only the debts made and contracted here by the direction of this city can be paid off, but are likewise able to pay off the greatest part of the incumbrances and debts contracted by the direction of the northern quarter, wherewith we have acquainted the magistrates of the respective towns by our letters to them, in order to pay the same next week into the hands of their directors. At the same time we recommend most earnestly to their noble mightinesses, that in case any repartition of the said armament should be proposed, that none may be rated higher than what probably can be well paid out of their revenue. For we must tell you as a preadmonition, that for the future it is no ways our intention, to levy this tax close and sincerely here, and to suffer that others dispense therein, or that the money raised thereby, by the direction of this city, shall be employed for the payment of what others fall short. We must needs own, that we can hardly be brought to the belief, that other members will proceed herein with the like sincerity, by reason of the ill practices we daily observe, that are used in other places. Those of Enckhuysen have suffered the lean cattle to pass by without paying any thing to the direction. At Medenblick arrived last week a rich ship from the Streights, consigned to one John Marees a merchant of that city, which was there unloaded, and the merchandizes imported here under inland passes, without having made any entry thereof, as it ought to have been done according to their high mightinesses edict, touching a general declaration as above-mentioned, at the board of admiralty of the northern quarter; neither has any thing been paid there to the directory on that account, whereof the college of admiralty has also made its complaints by their deputies. Your noble mightinesses may easily see by these few instances, how little an equality of practice is to be depended upon, especially if it be considered what little respect is paid by some members, to the authority of their noble and great mightinesses, in keeping the defaulters up to their duty.
Nevertheless, considering the said tax is agreed to here, we are resolved to execute the same sincerely among us; and are further of opinion, that we shall be able thereby to fit out and maintain eight men of war at sea, without being any ways troublesom to their noble and great mightinesses, or any body else on account of the charges thereof. Provided that their high mightinesses think proper to authorize the college of admiralty at Amsterdam, to furnish the directions here, by way of lending, with four hulks of ships and guns thereunto belonging.
A letter of Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to N. Ruysch.
The lord protector has received, since my last, yet further information touching the cruel proceedings against the poor reformed inhabitants of Angrogne and other Vallies of Piedmont, and has requested the lord de Bordeaux Neusville, in the last conference, by his commissaries, that he would be pleased to do his utmost endeavours, that by the interposition of the king and court of France the said inhabitants might be restored to, and maintained in the privileges, which they have so long enjoyed in those Vallies, which he has promised to recommend in the strongest manner. This day I am told by a good hand, that the articles, which are adjusted, are copied fair, in order to be sign'd forthwith by both parties; and that his highness the lord protector is resolved to contribute what he can in behalf of the said oppressed protestant inhabitants of the Vallies of Piedmont, not doubting but their high mightinesses will take this affair likewise to heart. I have here before written concerning the same, but never received any answer upon it for my information. Their high mightinesses formerly did not think it improper, to cause letters to be answered from time to time; and I think, with submission, that there is now as much reason for, as ever was. Mr. Thurloe told me to day, that the declaratory act concerning the decision of the East India differences was sent this day to the lords commissioners of the great seal, and that some few words, which we had drawn up, touching the acquittance passed by the private interressed in the affair of Amboyna, were inserted therein. His honour assured me likewise, that within a few days, all my complaints relating to sundry private ships should be considered; and that also sundry articles concerning a regulation of trade and navigation, should be delivered to me in writing. However, by daily domestick accidents, these gentlemen are often diverted from their intentions.