A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 3, December 1654 - August 1655. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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May (4 of 5)
The agent of the prince of Transylvania to secretary Thurloe.
Generose ac magnifice domine, secretarie statûs, domine observandissime,
Si tam beatus essem, ut accessum obtinere possem ad generosam dominationem vestram, mallem oretenus desideria mea exponere, quam scripto aut literis; quia pro his hactenus nihil, quam silentium reportavi. Quia verò ipsa necessitas, aut si quid majus esse potest quam necessitas, me urget, ut petitiones meas repetam, denuo hoc meo scripto supplico, ut mei memor esse benevolè velit apud serenissimum dominum protectorem, ac clementissimam mihi impetrare dimissionem. Non possum edicere quantum incommodum habeat inde celsissimus Transylvaniæ princeps dominus meus clementissimus, quod tamdiu his in partibus commorari cogar. Quodcunque generosa vestra dominatio præstabit pro impetrandâ dimissione mei, summâ gratiarum actione recognoscam. Cæterum me gratiæ generosæ dominationis vestræ commendo. Dabam ex hospitio, 22 Maii, 1655.
Mr. W. Wyndham (fn. 1) to secretary Thurloe.
The sence of his highnes's displeasure hath bene a more then ordinarie affliction unto me, in regard of those speciall favours it hath pleased his goodness to vouchsafe me. The libertie of our profession hath allways bene to urge matters of law to the best advantage of our clyents, which made me now unawars of that rock, on which I am falen. I have made an humble address to his highness by petition, which (according to usual course heer) I have commended to the hands of our liftenant collonel Baxter.
I shall beseech you to further my desires therin, wherby I may have libertie to visitt my
afflicted wife and children, now disconsolate in a farr remote cuntry. I present yow with
my best respects and service, restinge
May 22, 1655.
A letter of intelligence.
Since my last to you last week, this immediate past saturday at ten o'clock at night four persons entered with false keys in the convent of the Augustines, where finding one man alone, drew him down the stairs, cut off both his hands, broke his head, and cut his body into small pieces.
The Hugonots, that fled from the Vallies to Dauphiné, and thereabouts, are lately returned about one thousand of them to attempt a place called St. Second, where near half the number were murdered, they pretending to get into the place by force (where marquis de Pianezza left one hundred and fifty soldiers to guard the place;) at length treated with the garrison, and a composition was made, so far that the soldiers opened the gates for the Hugonots, who as soon as they got in, fell upon the catholicks both great and small, and without any quarrell destroyed all with great cruelty. This caused the last tuesday his royal highness to send monsieur Marolles, lieutenant general of his infantry, with his regiment and the squadron of Savoy to hinder such disorders, and to chase all the Hugonots out of the Vallies, and treat them as they have the catholicks. But it is thought he can do but little harm to the Hugonots, having their retreats to the territories of France, and some inaccessible places, where the troops of Savoy cannot follow them.
In the mean time two deputies out of the canton of Bern in Switzerland arrived here last week to treat with his highness for accommodation for the said Hugonots. They represented the cause: his highness answered, he would communicate their business to his council, and after give answer; and in the mean time desired the deputies to go and appease the said Hugonots, to which they are gone, and we expect their return from them suddenly to accommodate them besides.
Mr. J. Aldworth to secretary Thurloe.
My last unto you was of the 25th past from Tolon, eight leages from hence; when gave you notice I was theare to procure of admirall Vandoisme the releasment of our English ships, the which hee immediately accorded, telling mee, that the day before hee had received an express from the court for that purpose.
Since my arrivall heare, I have noe further advise of gen. Blake, then that he was still
at Argeirs, where hee have been furnisht with all things hee needed to content. Monsieur
de Merkure's skadron of ships and gallys hath furnisht Roza with provisions, and from
thence is gone to a place called Port Vendoe, which is neare Cape de Quires, and hard by
Roza also. The said place they have beseidged by land with the soldiers they carried with
them; and batters it by sea with theire ships and gallys, insomuch it's suposed in a very
short time they will have it, in regard it's a place but indifferently fortified. Theare is 2
Spanish gallys, which they have beseidged also with 2 berganteines, which in probability
they will have also. Monsieur de Merkure's gallys going for Roza took an English ship
laden with lead, tynn, and other goods bound for this place: they have not yett sent her
for Thollon. When she arrives theare we hope the admirall will release her. The Portegall men of warr not yet arrived att Thollon. So for at present humbly take leave,
Your honnor's servant,
A letter of intelligence.
Since my former, the duke of Longueville returning from the waters of Bourbon, passed through Orleans, where he met his royal highness, who made much of him, and received him very honourably: he is now at Montruebellay. Madam de Longueville did not pass that way, being yet at Bourbon. Madam de Guise arrived last wednesday at Orleans, being welcome to their royal highness, to whom she presented the next day in the afternoon the transactions made upon the arrest of the accounts betwixt the duke of Orleans and his daughter, which before they did see it, have signed it; and after being read, the daughter was not satisfied, being in hopes of more before that was judged. The accounts which the father ow'd to the daughter amounted to about 1,200,000 livres, upon which the judges rebated 400,000 livres for the possession of the lands the daughter had before she came to her due age, of which she received the profit of the rest. She is to be paid within three years by her father equally in three times, but the father being so good, is thought will content her wholly of what she desires, if she will but have patience. There are many circumstances in that process, but I see them not worth the pains of writing, being not to your purpose.
The parliament commanded all the prevosts here to put in execution the king's orders against the laquies not to carry any sword, for which one was four days ago whipt thorough the streets, and had been hanged, were it not he made them believe, he came then out of the country.
This morning the king reiterated his orders, and had them printed, and affixed to the walls of Paris, that all the officers should come to their rendezvous in the field this very day, upon pain to lose their places; and his majesty knowing, that many will not obey, commanded all governours and generals to command them out timely, upon pain to lose their places and honours. In the mean time mr. Turenne endeavours to do what he can in gathering all his troops together towards Chauny, and the court intends towards la Fere in Picardy. It is not yet well known, how we shall begin our campaign. The armies of the said mr. Turenne will be composed of 337 companies of foot, and 292 companies of cavalry, which will come to the number, as supposed 10,000 men, without comprehending the regiment of guard and the king's horse. Some say they will besiege Londrecy, if they be not near it already.
It is written from Verdun of the 28th last month, that marquis Dusselles was arrived without his baggage, to gather all his troops that shall compose the Lorrain army thereabouts; and that the Spanish army that is upon the river of Muze, begins to remove; upon which river they made a bridge at Guiet, to pass when they see occasion. Likewise that mr. count de Duraze was at Philipville, and marquis de Persan at Marienburg, to order in some troops to Rocroy, where there are already 2000 foot, which are working a second counterscarpe, hearing the French were to besiege it.
The ceremonies of the prince de Modena and mademoiselle Martinozzi were solemnized last sunday at Compiegne. Yesterday they were to depart from Modena, conveyed by mr. count de Noailles and his wife, who will disburse all for their voyage, till they come thither, and will be recompensed when they return hither. The duke of Savoy hearing that the Hugonot cantons of Switzerland sent their complaints to his majesty of France, for the affronts done to the Hugonots of Valle de Lucerne and St Martin, sent a courier himself to the French court, desiring not to give any protection to the said Hugonots.
Mr. Fabry, brother to the chancellor's wife, died last friday in the morning, being more indebted than he was worth. We hear our treaty with you can take no effect, and that the extraordinary Spanish embassador will retard it. We hear nothing from your fleet at sea, and less from our own as yet; which is all the news known.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours I received by this post barren of news; only the protector's mercy to most of the late risers, which truly they deserved not; however his highness's indulgence is commendable. We see here our treaty with his highness is retarded, which gives us the greater jealousy of marquis de Leda, though some have written hither by the last post from London, that marquis de Leda would soon return into Flanders re infectâ. Here since my last we have no other news, but what you have in the occurrents annexed.
Because you are so curious after the business of the Hugonots of Savoy, I am inquisitive of that matter; and yesterday I have seen a letter from Turin, the mansion city of the duke of Savoy of the 19th of May, which imports thus:
The 18th day of May two Hugonot ministers, with 58 others, were converted, and made abjuration of their heresy publickly before his highness in the great church of that city; and immediately one of the ministers preached against the religion he professed before.
Thursday before the date of this letter four hundred of the Hugonots Savoyan, that
fled into France out of St. Martin, and other places, marched in arms to the Valley of
St. Martin, where they burnt the prevosté of Pery and that of Mizolo, and returned,
after having taken with them all they could meet in their way. And friday following being encreased to the number of 600, they came to St. Seconde, where they entered into a
house of the catholick reformed fathers de la mission, slew a priest, a lackey, and a boy
of 15 years old at his prayers before the altar. After they took away all they could find
in the church and house, and returned. As they were rigorously dealt with by the catholicks,
so they deal with them, where they are strongest. These letters bring, that they kill all
children they can catch, and cut off their heads; but that may be partiality in the writer
of the letter or some other, for sure they are not so inhuman as to do such things. However it is so presented at the duke's court. Wherefore his highness sent count de Campillione with a body of the army to suppress them. What further shall come of it you shall
know as soon as I can, for I intend to enquire after it, being you so much desire it, from,
Bordeaux to his son, the French embassador in England.
I write to you in my last what I had understood since my arrival at court. All that the Swiss proposed and declared to monsieur Ondedi of his relation's designs and offers concerning the affairs of England, hath been reported to his eminence by the said Ondedi; whereof I have not had yet any communication given me. I verily believe it is done out of design, and to cast some kind of contempt upon your proceedings. And in regard all things pass here with much intricacy, I have discovered that his eminency hath some other correspondents in England besides yourself. But coming yesterday to see the earl of Brienne, being very much troubled about your affairs, I found him in private with his eminence; and staying till he came out from him, seeing me somewhat melancholy, he told me, he had some good news to tell me; that he had received letters of the conclusion of your treaty; and that by the next we should hear, that it was signed. At my return home I found your packet, wherein you give me advice, that you were agreed upon all the articles with your commissioners, and that there was order given for the engrossing of them. I wish you may send us by the next the good news that they are signed, and that no longer delays may be suggested for the keeping of you in England. However, as long as you see there is any hopes of concluding, never come away; for it is better to hazard 3000 l. more than to lose the fruits of all your labours and expences. I know you are hardly put to it to find money for your subsistence; and I confess, if I had it at present, I would willingly furnish you.
On monday next the king and the court doth remove from hence for la Fere, and from thence to his armies; so that I shall suddenly return to Paris, where I shall expect your letters; and in the mean time I would have you to observe very punctually the orders, which shall be sent you from the court.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours I received this week, by which I see all is quiet in England, and barrenness of news as now we have almost here. You heard formerly how the duke of Gloucester arrived here, and lodges at court in Ormond's lodgings. He learns Italian, as his brother does; for they intend to have a bout with Rome. It is said R. C. will change his house, being too small for his retinue, and all that follow him being inclined to it; for within a short time the young princess royal with her young prince will be here, and then we shall have a formal court, with all ceremonies. To augment this court already colonel Stephens and other gentlemen, who were in England, came safe hither with the duke. I do not hear what is become of Wilmot; yet after came hither chancellor Hyde, sir George Hamilton, and some others. The lord Wentworth and many more are coming, as they say; but how they shall all live, God knows, for I am sure I do not.
Saturday last arrived here from Paris, sent by the quondam queen, one mr. Thomas Talbot, and one other gentleman with him. They were with the king the first day, and next with Ormond. They come to consult of sending some persons to Rome, and say some other plot is now found out for R. C. far beyond any that yet he had in excellency. What I can learn further of it, you shall have as soon as I can.
They give for granted also your peace with France. The protestants here and of all
Germany are very sensible of the massacres committed in Savoy, as you will further hear.
The Bishop of Munster goes on with his levies, and the electors ecclesiastical do the like.
The prince elector of this place is gone to Triers for devotion sake; and I am still here
Sir, yours, &c.
A letter to monsieur de Bye, the Polish agent in England.
The envoy of Denmark, the lord Rosenwing, after that his first proposal was denied him, as ungrounded, hath delivered in since a second memorandum, wherein he complains, that the merchants do not observe the treaty made in the year 1649. The lords of Holland have ordered the same to be examined.
The Swedish preparations do cause the greatest difficulties. It is credibly affirmed, that their design is against Pillauw and Elbing, to take away the toll, that is put upon corn. Holland would not willingly engage against Sweden; yet they cannot well suffer, that the Swedes should become masters; wherefore they do daily consult how to prevent it. Letters are sent into England and France to their embassadors, to consider how the same may be accommodated.
A letter from several officers in Ireland to the protector.
May it please your highness,
We thought it our duty to inform your highness, how deeply sensible we are of the sad condition of the servants of the Lord in Piedmont, called the Waldenses, upon the informations, that have hitherto come to us. Sad tidings are these, that the precious sons of Sion, comparable to fine gold, should be esteemed as an earthen pitcher, the work of the hands of the potter; Lam. iv. 2. Let it not, my lord, be as nothing to you and us that stand by, when we hear such a relation, and cannot behold any sorrow like unto that sorrow, which is done unto them, wherewith the Lord hath afflicted them in the day of his fierce anger. Let us all resolve to put on garments of heaviness with them, and say as formerly the church, Lam. ii. 11. Our eyes fail with tears, our bowels are troubled, our livers are poured upon the earth, for the destruction of the daughter of our people, because the children and sucklings are spoiled in the streets.
As to the transactions of your affairs with foreign states, we rather desire to trust the wisdom of the Lord, by which we hope you act, than to take the confidence to pry into them; and therefore shall not in the least presume to interpose with our advice, but rather humbly to beg, that these and other distressed protestants in the world may continue, as we hope they are already, much upon your heart, that these nations may not sit down in quiet and contentment, as if they were in a blessed condition, when the distressed and afflicted people of God, have so bitter a portion, even a cup of astonishment put into their hands to drink, by that scarlet strumpet, who makes herself drunk with the blood of the saints, because they refuse to drink of the wine of her fornication. What peace can we rejoice in, when the whoredom, murthers, and witchcrafts of Jezebel are so many? Who knows what the Lord of hosts is doing in this day of his power? May not the experiencies we have had of that mighty arm breaking in pieces the pride of proud oppressors, make us trust, that though their pride hath lifted them up to the heaven, and their they shall perish in their own we may hope, that we shall take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, how hath the oppressor ceased? Isaiah xiv. 4. If you have a prey put into your hand, the Lord grant you may make use of it for these people's relief. Who knoweth whether the Lord hath not intrusted and exalted you, for such a time as this? We do not the least distrust of your tenderness towards them, sense of their sufferings, readiness to manifest both, as the providence of the Lord shall call; but desire to strengthen your hand in that good work of God, and continue your prayers at the throne of grace for them, which we trust shall not be there alone; but hope, that many thousands of God's people will pour forth the same petitions for them; which through his grace we shall not cease to do. Let the blood of Ireland be fresh in your view, and their treachery cry aloud in your ears; that the frequent solicitations, wherewith you are incompassed, may not slack your hand to an unsafe pity of those, whose principles in all ages carry them forth to such brutish and inhuman practices, which consist not with human society: and let not such be lest untransplanted here, or unminded in England, whose continuance amongst us do palpably hazard the very being of protestant interest in these nations.
That the Lord may direct you, and make you a polished shaft in his quiver, to wound
to the heart cruel and proud oppressors, is the prayers of
Your highness's humble servants,
To mr. Petit.
The court is still at Compiegne, where the betrothing of the duke of Modena's eldest son with the lady Martinozzi has been accomplished on thursday last. The ceremonies of the wedding were made on the sunday, there being both balls and masks, each one striving to testify by his joy the part they took in that of his eminence, who hath never shewed himself so joyful. It is thought the king will depart from thence on friday next for la Fere. Marshall of Turenne having cast a convoy into Quesnoy, was yesterday to cast a second therein, whilst all the troops destinated for his army arrive from all sides to their rendezvous. There runneth also a rumour, that Landrecy is invested, but I believe not. The enemies fortify all other places. You may see by the here annexed copy of a letter from Verdun, which cometh from a person of quality and employment, which will inform you of the state of the affair of the frontier of Champagne. It is thought the duke of Mantua's voyage is broken, or that it is put off for a while. The differences between the duke of Orleans and mademoiselle his eldest daughter, touching the administration he hath had of her means during her minority, have been ended by the arbitrators, which had been nominated by the dutchess of Guise, to whom they had wholly remitted themselves. Mademoiselle hath not received the advantages she promised herself thereof; and I believe that all things being well compensed, they will remain reciprocally quitted.
It is written from Rome, that amongst the reformations made by the pope, he hath caused a command to be given unto all the whores that are there, to go out of the said city, and out of all ecclesiastical land, under penalty of corporal punishment; whereupon hath been found written upon the Pasquin, Laudate pueri dominum.
— That about six weeks since there was divers persons, as shall be hereafter named, viz. Sir Richard Minshaw of Essex 4000 l. per ann. estate, sir Henry Jerningham of Norfolk, doctor Frier of the Temple, with divers others of quality, which did resolve then of a design, (to wit) that did resolve by watermen and divers gentlemen in the night to blow up his highness, or otherwise to dispatch him in his lodgings at Whitehall, which was to be effected from Lambeth, where all things are to be prepared, which — is to make ready, and is to have 30,000 l. for his pains, being resolved not to act it any way, but by cutting off his highness; and after that they should have men to carry on the design for an insurrection, which business hath been aggravated the more to be acted by reason of the late proclamation. The persons more in the business are sir Robert Hurlston, sir Robert Sherley, mr. Cramlingham of Newcastle, and his brother, who married sir Henry Jerningham's sister.
Fleetwood, lord deputy of Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
I Cannot but desire to sympathise with those poore people the Waldenses; and yet I hope it is a further heaping up of that measure, which will, I am perswaded, hasten the downefall of that interest, which is so diametrically opposite unto that, which wee may call truely our Lord Jesus his worke and designe, which wee may with assurance be perswaded it will be fullfilled in it's time and season. I confess I am not without my hopes, that his highness may be particularly raised up for such a day as this is, in being a shelter to those poore persecuted protestants in forraine parts. It is a worke, the more his heart is inlarged thereunto, the greater witnes I trust there will be from the Lord in owning of him. I hope providence will open some way for him therein. As to what you write concerning our transplantation heere, I am glad to understande you have so good a sence of it; for certainely it is a worke of very great publicque advantage, and that wherein the Lord will appeare in owening of it, though it hath been strangely obstructed and discouraged by the discountenance it hath receaved from England. There is no doubt, as bad, if not a worse spiritt in these people than is in those of Savoy. Wee are on in the graduall transplantation, though the hopes the people have from England of a dispensation makes them keepe off, and will not transplant so readilye as otherwise they would, if there thoughts were free from expectations out of England. If his highnes and the councell would but write a letter to incourage us in the prosecution of that worke, it would be of singular use. However, I hope the Lord will give me a heart to labour under all difficulties, for the accomplishment of so great and good a worke, till I am commanded the contrary. As for the fowre courts, I shall send you my private thoughts; I have no concernment but the publicques in the busines. I have not one neere kinsman in office in the three nations. My business is to serve the publicque, not myselfe; and therefore I can with the more confidence presume to write unto you these things, as my especiall freind, whose civill oblidgements are very thankfully owned, and would be manifestly acknowledged, if in any thing I could serve you. I desire you would acquaint his highnes and councell, that we cannot with any safety spare the number, which are ordered to be reduced, till those are returned to us, which are in England. Our wants of money are extremely great. What can be immagined will become of us, if not suddenly supplied ? I beg your care herein, and remaine
Your very affectionate friend and servant,
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to his father.
I have received with your last letter of the 29 of May, that of his eminence and of the earl of Brienne, which declare, that some had given to the court advice, which did differ much from that you had at Paris; for the court was assured, that it depended on me only to conclude, and that the protector complained, that the king had no other design but to amuse him; and you understood, that it was this government, which endeavoured nothing else but to deceive me. I will not tell you my opinion upon these two advices; but only I will assure you, that it must be, that I am very stupid for not observing, that they did endeavour here to delay my negotiation. In my mind I conceieve, that all my letters have still declared so much, and you may answer in my defence, when you hear any body speak of it, that I can see as well as those who are at Paris, and that I govern my conduct according to my orders. I expect upon my letter of the last week some kind of answer. I would have the court to take their last resolution as well upon this day's letter, as upon that which the lord protector faith he will send by an express. If the court doth write precisely in their letter, which I expect, I will soon dispatch my business here, being very weary of staying here any longer with so little satisfaction; besides I do ingeniously confess, I do find them now not to deal sincerely with me. However I do earnestly entreat you to do all what you can to procure me some money, in case it be my misfortune to make any longer abode in this country, that so I may have wherewithal to subsist. Without doubt the ill humour, which the news of this day will produce, will render my pursuances less favourable; but it may be after the first motions they will consider, that there is not any thing to be laid to my charge; that I have not been wanting in my cares and endeavours; and if that there hath been so much diversity in my advice within this month, it hath been occasioned through the different words, which have been given me; and unless I would make false relations, I could not write otherwise. But the court may remember, that I have always hinted in my letters, that the intention of the protector and this government was always to amuse us, and not to conclude till the very last: and this doth appear by what the secretary of state hath sent me this evening, instead of the treaty, which he promised to send me after it was writ out fair: he hath sent me word, that his highness would first send an express to the king, with a letter in favour of the protestants of Savoy, who suffer great persecutions; that they would send me to morrow the copy, and desire a pass of me. This pretence of delaying is a little coloured; besides, they could not find any other, in regard all the conditions are agreed on, and this government, it may be, doth think to render themselves agreeable to the people of England by such offices; and that the rupture with France would pass for a war for religion sake; but the people is disabused, and have learned more wit, having had experience enough of this fallacy in their own wars. And the people of condition and understanding, and foreign nations will not find, that after three years delay, the justice, though never so vigorous, which the duke of Savoy doth exercise, ought to produce upon good ground a war between France and England. Besides I can hardly believe, that the lord protector doth know himself so ill, that the power of the king, and the weakness of Spain, can cause him to hope any advantage from a war with the one, and from a strict league with the other: however the wisest may fail; and then it is hard, that the conjectural reasonings, such as mine are, should not be false. If I had not particular advice, I would not rely so much upon that, which to my thinking ought to be, and that which every body doth believe; and the design of their fleet, which is gone for America, is a sufficient argument to induce every body to believe it.
They have imprisoned some here on suspicion of a design against the person of the protector. The lawyers, who are in prison, say not a word, and the causes of their clients are put off till a further hearing.
I had hoped, that my express would have brought you the articles signed ere now; but now you must not any longer expect them, unless they alter their mind here, which is not likely. I could wish this might find you at Compiegne, that so you might send me word more particularly how you find the minds of the ministers; and that governing my conduct upon their intrinsical motions, I might not expose myself to be accused hereafter of precipitation, or of too much patience; and that you might according to the resolutions, which the court shall take, sollicit some orders for my particular interests.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to monsieur Fly, lieutenant of the admiralty at Calais.
I will not take from you the hope, which my former letters have given you of a speedy and happy issue of my negotiation; but I will withal advertise you, that you must not rejoice too much before the time; and that in treaties there is nothing sure, till all be signed, especially when one is to treat with the English. We have here no considerable news to write at present. You will do me a courtesy to write me of all that passeth upon our frontiers.
Bordeaux, the French. ambassador in England, to count Brienne.
It will require no small time to learn the humours of this government, their way of proceedings being altogether strange and different from others: this will appear unto you to be truth, if you will consider but this one passage. About two months since we were agreed upon all the articles; and at the time when I expected my commissioners to sign, they formed a difficulty upon that of the transporting of the goods of enemies. After that I had yielded to their desire upon the word, which the lord embassador of the United Provinces brought me on their behalf, of a speedy conclusion, they came to me with articles altogether differing from those, upon which we were agreed in writing, mentioning old questions having no ground to uphold them; neither would they have made any stir about it, or invented so many pretences, had their design not been, that they had a mind to stay for the embassador of Spain, to hear what he had to propound. After this happened some domestick troubles, which gave them some further matter to furnish me with new put-offs. Nothing could be resolved upon concerning my affairs during that time; and now it is about eight days since, that my commissioners gave me positive word not to defer it any longer. I have prest them ever since to sign the treaty; they have seemed still to desire the same, causing the treaty to be writ over fair; and having kept me in this hope till this afternoon, having sent to know in the morning how affairs stood, the secretary of state gave me the same hopes, which my commissioners had done; but since he hath altered his tone, and sent me word, charging my man to tell me, that his highness being moved at the cries and lamentations of the poor protestants of Savoy, had resolved first, before he would sign, to send an express to the king in their behalf; adding many protestations, that it was no pretence to hinder the accommodation; but that the great cruelties, which were exercised against their confraters, whereof the news came but to day, and the great authority, which the king hath upon the duke of Savoy, did oblige my lord protector to do them this office; and that he could not sign a treaty in such a rencounter as this. I confess I was surprized at this alteration; if one do consider the reasons I have for it; first the advantage this government will find in the amity of France; secondly the assurance my commissioners gave me of an accommodation. And thirdly the design of their fleet in America against the Spanish possessions there.
I know not now to what I shall attribute this proceeding so contrary to all expectation. The zeal of religion certainly is not able to shake the design of the lord Protector. It is true, that Spain hath employed several agents to spread this news up and down, to provoke the people to compassion. All that I am able to say is, that the sending of this express with a letter to the king doth give great jealousy of mistrust, and that it is a mere pretence, on purpose to delay the conclusion of the treaty; and in case they do not alter their resolution, I shall make my retreat, unless I am ordered to the contrary.
The prince of Condé to Barriere.
This letter will signify unto you, how that I have received your two packets of the 21st and 28th of the last month. It will also let you know, that I do approve of what you have said to 70. 29. 16. 9. 34. Continue to take care to give me all the advice you can from thence with the same exactness as you have done hitherto. I will also take care on my part, to let you know all that passeth during this campaign.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Here is this week arryved an Inglish ship from the East Indyes, cal'd the Jonathan, laden with peper from Bantam, som sugar, and a little ginger. This is the second ship, that in my tym has come to this place directly from the East Indyes. Shi has had a quick voyage, not being abov 11½ monthes since shi departed Ingland. Upon the coast of Spain shi met with a squadron of 6 Argier men of war, who tould her, that general Blak was departed from Argier towards the coast of Provence; and that his fleet had fownd as free entertainment ther, as if they had bin in Ingland. 'Tis not improbable, but wi shall in few dayes hav some letters from the fleet. At Genoa has bin publisht a free trade for the state of Millan, and at Naples has bin taken off the sequestration layd on the Genewes estates, all which speaks an ajustment betwixt Spayn and them. In the mean tym the duke of Modena goes on in levying soldiors, being countenanc't by France, and connyved at by the pope. The ould cardinal Medici is returned to Florence, being, as reported, som distast betwixt the pope and him. The pope begins to be myndful of his kindred, having made his brother captain of the guard, and begins to bi myndful of the rest of his kindred. A small Inglish ship arryved here 2 dayes since from Genoa met with 8 Spanish gallyes going from Naples for Finale with soldiors. They ar lykwys preparing to send som ships from Naples with soldiors for Cattalonia. All the world is in expectation what desyn generall Pen's fleet is gon on. Som say Hispagniola, others Cuba, Vera Cruz, Nombre de Dios, Cartagena, and Porto Bello. This latter by very knowing men would prov most advantagious, bicaus it would comand the trade and treasure of Peru. I am bould to wryt you what I hear; wherein I pray pardon the many errors of,
Leghorn, June 4, 2655. [N. S.]
your most humble
and faithfull servant,
A letter to monsieur Barriere, the prince of Condé's agent in England.
This is the 10th day that his highness parted from Brussels. That which did oblige him to part so soon was the rumour that went, that Rocroy was to be besieged; and in regard he would not neglect any thing for the welfare of his own places, as well as of those of his majesty, he came in all haste to Philipville, where was the rendezvous of his troops, which are now all together, and in a very good condition. The enemy hath put within these two days a new convoy into Quesnoy. Turenne was at the head himself with 200 horse; he found no resistance, the generals of Spain being all at Brussells, and his highness not having forces enough to oppose him, in regard he had put almost all his forces into several places, and that his horse was not then arrived. There happened a day since a very sad accident at Mariemburgh; the whole magazine was blown up, and half the town burnt, many were killed. As soon as his highness had notice of it, he sent presently two regiments of horse and one of foot with ammunition; so that the place is out of danger of being surprized.
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
I have no more to communicate unto you concerning the publick, then what I wroate you in my last of the 28th of May, affaires remayninge as they then were; only there are some rumours of the Sweedes movinge towards these parts, which gives a great alarm to the states. They are sendinge forces up the Ryne to strengthen their garrissons lyinge that way. The court of admiraltyes are resummon'd in the Hage, which is supposed to consult of a fleet to be made ready, cyther to go lye in the Sound or for the Streights. You need not feare they will doe any thinge of hostilitye to offend you. The surprizall of their ships at the Barbados is quietly digested by them. I heare nothinge that they are acting at Ceullen; therefore I shall only ad, that I am most faythfully,
Sir, your most humble servant,
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
If you were not in a country, where there doth fall oftentimes many things between the cup and the lips, I should be sure, that the next express would bring me the news of the signing of the treaty. I do expect it, but I still forbear to make ready the compliment, which I owe unto you upon this occasion, in regard I would be certain of the event of your negotiation. I am glad to understand by your letter of the 28th of the last month, that they spoke to you so moderately about the business, that had happened in Savoy; for it is not credible, what a deal of do they have made about it here. The pulpits have thundered it out to some purpose; and they accused us for giving of the counsel, and causing the same to be executed. In short, those, that do not love us, triumphed sufficiently for some days. Now they begin to be informed of the fact, they will be somewhat satisfied; but the people are still enraged about it.
I do very well believe what you write me, that the lord protector hath given leave to the Swedes to raise 6000 Scots; but I shall not be the only person, that doth admire, where Sweden will have money to pay those levies, after so many expences which they have been at of late years.
My lord, I have one request to make unto you, which I make no doubt but you will be willing to grant. Monsieur Servien having given me order to build a pleasure-boat here for the king to take his pleasure in upon the river Seine, the same being built in the name of the lord embassador Boreel in France, but the thing being discovered, now the question is, how to send it in safety. If your treaty be concluded, there is no danger of the English; but if not, it will be necessary, that we should have a pass from the lord protector, who, in my opinion, will not deny to give it for a pleasure-boat. And although your treaty be not concluded, this boat being acknowledged by my lord Boreel to belong to him, I make no doubt but monsieur Nieuport will do you the favour to get you a pass. I pray let this pass be had as soon as may be.
A Letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The earl of Stierumb hath caused to be represented, that being required on the behalf of the king of Sweden, to raise a regiment of horse, and for him to serve a campain as colonel, he hath well begun to raise the regiment, but will not engage in the service, without leave of this state, desiring permission at least for six months. And the commissioners of Zutphen said, that daily the taverns at Zutphen were full of cavaliers and Swedish officers, drinking to the health of the king of Sweden.
In the mean time that they are here in great jealousy of the said king or his design, there was but one province, which durst resolve in the negative; all the rest did receive it, and took time to consider of it. But in regard they have given leave to serve elsewhere, as well the king of France, as the electors of Brandenburgh, Heidelburgh, &c. they can hardly deny it.
It seemeth, that in the assembly of the states general they are very angry at those accidents in the Vallies of Piedmont; and after what manner they have writ, is to be seen by the enclosed, it being already resolved and agreed on to write so, yea, before the letter of Zurich was arrived. They did not think fit to write to the king of France, because there was already writ about it to the lord Boreel. I saw, that one of the states general (formerly a good Frenchman) in good company did drink to the health and good success of the marquis of Caracena, to the end that he may soundly beat those troops of the duke of Savoy; and withal said, that they regard and esteem the French by doing of such a thing not a hair better, yea worse than the Spaniard; so that the lord Nieuport will do well not to endeavour so much for the good of France.
There are some letters from the commissioners at Groningen of the 26th, advising that they were still busy in præliminaribus, and that either party did endeavour to lay and ground their right. The commissioners did endeavour to induce the parties to submit the difference.
There hath been likewise under hand a complaint of those of the reformed religion in the country of Juliers and Berges, how that the duke of Newburgh doth deal with them so rigorously, by taking from them their churches, and by hindering of them to preach.
In Zealand the office of calling the states together doth belong to the council of state; now it doth happen, that most of the council are for Holland party, who do delay the convocation, and will hinder it, if they can, till after St. John, to see how the election will go at Goes.
There is come a letter from the admiralty of Amsterdam, containing, that they have very much advanced the ships designed for the convoys towards the Mediterranean sea; such a name they give it. But whether at present they will make use of them before any thing else, to go and look to the Sound, will be seen upon this sudden assembly of Holland.
Accidentally also will be mentioned in this assembly the case of Gorcum, two of the magistrates having been here to complain to the council, how the court of Holland (which ought not to manage any other business, but the justice) hath interposed in a difference belonging purely to the state, declaring, that the court hath attempted upon their privileges.
The said council hath sent this complaint to the cities to come instructed upon it; and in all likelihood the most part will be for the magistrate, and will not have the court to meddle with affairs of state.
They are fully resolved to do good to the poor exiled Piedmontese; but they have writ, whether they do desire it in corn or in money. They would also willingly have it, (at least it hath been spoken in the assembly) that the protector, who is powerful at sea, should give some blow to the duke of Savoy, or his territories and harbours.
The accident of the Piedmontese doth still jog on, there having been deliberation to order a collection to be made for them; upon which the lords of Holland have promised to declare themselves. And there being printed here in the weekly intelligence, that the Piedmontese through the massacring of two capuchins had occasioned their own ruin, those of Holland caused the printer to be found out, call'd Breeckvelt, to know of whom he had that news: he absented himself, and is not to be had. It is supposed, that the embassador of France, or the council of that nation Janot, did cause it to be printed. The lord Nieuport hath writ, that the treaty between France and England is fully concluded. I do perceive, that the clearest sighted do conceive at present some jealousy from that, and would be willing, that that treaty might not be ended; for they do imagine, that France and Sweden are agreed to prejudice the house of Austria, and that the chiefest design of the Swedish preparations is against Austria. And the lord Nieuport will have no great thanks given him for helping to conclude the treaty between England and France.
The raet pensionary De Witt arrived here yesterday from Groningen; and although the bad Hollanders have published, that these commissioners of the generality, chiesly the Hollanders, were gone thither, more to embroil and egg on the business (to the end to discover the weakness of a stadtholder) than to accommodate it; however he hath done much good, and hath had good success, having been busy the last day from nine of the clock in the morning till past one at night, having made an agreement by provision; the rest remaining to finish the business. Good part of this morning was spent with this report; as also with the report of the arrears of those, who are come from Brazil; item, about the business of Limborch and Outremeuse. They have also proposed again to make a collection for the poor banished people of Piedmont, wherein nothing is yet resolved, in regard those poor people have not yet writ hither; and all that hath been resolved here hath been of their own accord. And they would be glad to see here, that the protector would undertake the re-establishment of those poor people.
As for the alliance with Brandenburgh, some press it; however, I am assured by a good hand, that on the behalf of Brandenburgh they do remain still cold and irresolute, which doth confirm the suspicion, that Brandenburgh is agreed with Sweden. Likewise they do here very much admire, that the city of Dantzick doth remain so secure; or that it doth not make any address to this state, to demand assistance in omnem eventum: but the truth is, that in the year 1651 this state did use that city a little rudely, inciting the king of Denmark against the city; and since during the war with the English, the private men of war have used great insolence against all the Easterlings, insomuch that the city of Dantzick doth make no address to this state.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
states of Holland
The 105 are assembled at present upon the abolition or continuation of the safe conduct money, and last money, and their complaints and reasons against the other cities are to be seen in the copy; so that I perceive not only a great uncertainty for the equipment, which was already projected in the end of the last year; but also an irresolution for the design and employment of those ships which are ready. It is true, that states of Holland have a great care and thought for Dantzick; or to speak better for their interest, fearing that Sweden being master of Prussia, will furiously charge the commerce. Sed multos in summa pericula misit venturi timor ipse mali.
It doth seem to me, that they have too much fear. In the mean time Dantzick doth not seem to be affected to Sweden; at least doth not yet make address here, nor to Denmark; and in effect Denmark is low and without power, and cannot nor dares not help the said city.
They do still treat with Brandenburgh; but they do doubt whether Brandenburgh be not likewise agreed
with Sweden. They have deliberated to make a collection for the Piedmontese; but they do
think it fitter to make some more effective endeavours, and to deliberate to help, that
those poor people may be re-established in their possessions and habitations; and this is to
be writ to the lords Nieuport and Boreel. I am
Your most humble servant.
Cardinal Mazarin to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
In regard your letter of the 25th of May doth not contain any thing more precise than your foregoing, upon the subject of the accommodation, I have not any thing to add to those I have formerly writ unto you; to which I refer my self.
I pray you in the mean time to send me, as soon as you can, at least four horses for my person, not having one left me, that is for my use, since the mortality that is come in my stable; and you may endeavour to buy others. The price I will not stand upon.
Brienne to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Your letter of the 26th of the last month doth give us hope, that through your patience you have at last overcome all the difficulties, which you had met with; and that in the end the conditions of the treaty being agreed on, there remained nothing but the appointing of a day and hour for the signing of them.
I confess to you ingenuously, that I am very impatient to receive your next letters. The business ought not to be left so long at an uncertainty: but whosoever knoweth the English, doth know, that whosoever will treat with them must arm themselves with much patience. There could not be better answered, than what you have done to the demand of your commissioners, who would pass for men altogether ignorant of the affairs of the world, if they had been ignorant, that the prince of Savoy is a sovereign prince, and one that doth dispose of the conduct of his state, as he thinks fit. But having employed the forces of France to chastise the obstinacy and rebellion of his subjects, (I repeat the proper terms, whereof he maketh use) it doth give occasion to intercede for those poor miserable creatures; and I dare believe, that if the protector is satisfied with what hath been demanded of you, that they may inhabit those places, which have been granted unto them, I make no doubt but it will have its effect; for the duke of Savoy cannot well deny to please his majesty therein. For my part I believe, that the said people are in the wrong, by the relation which I have seen of what past upon the subject of this business; and besides through the knowledge I have of those that profess the protestant religion, they are always inclined to meddle; and the ministers among them never get any reputation amongst them, but when they are stirring them up to sedition, and that they themselves are lookt upon as zealots for their religion.
We have cause to believe, that the embassadors of the catholick king did speak with sincerity enough to the embassador of the states general, that there will be very little for them to do in England, which they have confessed without declaring it, by the resolution taken by the marquis of Lede to return home, and to leave the business to the management of the cardinal.
I shall forbear to add any thing more, in regard I suppose it will be in vain; for either you have signed, or else you are upon breaking. Therefore what I have further to add shall be signified unto you by next. In the mean time I hope you have observed such orders in your agreeing to the articles, as have been given you from hence.
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, since my last preceding letter of the 28th of May, I have not been idle to inform myself further of the cruelties committed against the inhabitants of the Vallies of Piedmont; and I am more and more confirmed in the occurrences and circumstances, as I have related the same in my preceding letter.
This affair, by some papists here (as I likewise understand, that they do in the Netherlands) is coloured under pretence, that this said massacre has been made as a well deserved punishment for a great crime, committed by the inhabitants of the said Vallies; namely, that a papist in the said Vallies being a rich man, happening to die, had left by his will and testament his whole estate to the monks of the mission, upon this express condition, that they should make a monastery of the deceased's house, there to receive and lodge such missionaries and other priests of the Roman clergy, that should happen to pass there; which house being finished, those protestants that lived at the said place are said to have risen, and falling upon the said father missionaries had very much abused the same; and that after having murdered them, they had skinned them, and put their skins upon sticks, and carried the same in procession from place to place throughout the Vallies, to the greatest scorn and affront of the Roman religion. That some of the protestants of the said Vallies, who detested this pretended fact, had sent to Turin to excuse this great crime; and that his royal highness had shewn them that he was inclined to pardon them, but that it was impossible to leave the same unpunished, and thereupon it had thus happened.
High and mighty lords, from all those that pretend to know very well all that has happened in the Vallies, I cannot hear that there is any thing at all in the pretended will, the murther of the missionaries, the exposing of their excoriated skins, and the deputation sent to the court of Turin to excuse the same.
Before this they gave out here, that a certain inhabitant of the Vallies, (I mean a private man) out of a personal hatred, had killed a Roman priest; and that thereupon the said just punishment had fallen upon all the inhabitants of the Vallies; but at present they are hence so much ashamed of the untruth of the said fact, that they stumble from one thing to another as it seems to disguise this cruel example.
It is gone so far, that above two hundred Switsers (among whom also those of your
high mightinesses house here) are suddenly gone from hence to Switserland, in order, as
they say, to help to revenge the said cruelty. Now comes here a further advice from
Grenoble, which says, that the exiled Waldenses have retired out of Piedmont into
Dauphiné, and Pregelas, where the lord duke of Lesdiguierres, governor of Dauphiné,
had promised them his protection. However that they were attacked in an hostile manner, as also the reformed inhabitants of Pregelas, by the baron or marquis of St. Domain (being actually in the king's service) with French troops, who after having killed
some had set fire to a village there, which was done by the said St. Domain's French troops;
whereupon those of Pregelas and other adjacent Vallies of Dauphiné, having taken up
their arms, had repulsed the said St. Domain and his French troops back into Piedmont,
from whence he had made an irruption upon the French territories. I must leave the
truth hereof to the further advices,
Paris, June 4, 1655. [N. S.]
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, on monday last four Scottish lords, who have been here in the tower ever since the battle of Worcester, in the year 1651, were carried somewhere else, two in a coach by land, and two in a barge by water; their wives and servants could not obtain leave to follow them. About the same time, two or three English gentlemen were likewise sent from thence to another place. They have for some days again talked of a new plot, whereupon a strict search has been made in the houses in and about Covent Garden, where my lord Byron and some other gentlemen have been secured. Your high mightinesses have heard, without doubt, by the way of Leghorn, that general Blake has burnt nine men of war in the harbour of Tunis, and cannonaded the Moors violently in their forts. The merchants of the Turkey company here are afraid, that perhaps it may be revenged upon them; but in general this action is praised, and they wish, that for the future the ships of your high mightinesses, as well as of this state, might be employed to destroy the naval forces of these and other Corsairs. Some ministers and elders of sundry churches in London have been with the lord protector, and have petitioned with many moving arguments, that his highness would take to heart the mournful condition of the poor reformed inhabitants of some Vallies of Piedmont; for which he has thanked them, and declared, that he was shocked in the highest degree at the inhuman cruelties, which are practised there. Yesterday morning, before I received your high mightinesses letter of the 27th of May last past, I was told, that his highness had received a further and circumstantial information of what has happened, sent him from out of those quarters; whereat he was astonished to the utmost, as likewise was the whole council, hearing the relation, in what manner those poor wretches were butchered; that many women and virgins, after being scandalously ravished, were murthered, and their bodies ripp'd open, and numbers of infants dashed against the rocks. In the afternoon your high mightinesses above mentioned letter, with the other inclosed papers, being come to hands, I immediately demanded audience of the lord protector, which was given me in the evening between 7 and 8 o'clock. His highness having heard, how much your high mightinesses were concerned at those inhuman murders, and in what strong terms you had written to the duke of Savoy concerning the same, declared, that he was exceeding glad to observe your high mightinesses geeat zeal and affection, to intercede for these poor innocent people, assuring me that he was moved at it to his very soul, and that he was ready to venture his all for the protection of the protestant religion as well here as abroad; and that he most readily, with your high mightinesses, in this cause would swim or perish, trusting that the almighty God would revenge the same; that the example of Ireland was still in fresh memory, where he told me, that above two hundred thousand souls were massacred; that he would consider further what I had proposed him in the name of your high mightinesses, and do in this opportunity whatever should be judged needful and of service. Last tuesday letters came here from the fleet of general Pen, importing, that they were under sail the 31st of March, to put their design into execution, being, besides the sailors, above ten thousand land forces strong: they wait here impatiently for the success thereof. They assure me, that there are 28 good ships ready to reinforce the first fleet with men, ammunition, and other necessaries. The marquis of Argyle, whose son, with several other officers in Scotland, has made his composition, is expected here very soon. The impost of customs and excise will be introduced in Scotland and Ireland very speedily, on the same foot as it is here.
From Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England.
I am informed, that mr. Coyet, in his last audience, has desired leave in the name of the crown of Sweden, to raise six regiments of foot in Scotland of one thousand men each; but that the same being very suspicious for several reasons, would not be permitted. This day I have received from the hands of the lords of the great seal of England the known act of declaration and acquittance, both of them according to the form sent over. On the other hand mr. Peter van Dam, advocate and commissary of the Netherland East India company, has delivered the accepted assignations and bills of exchange, to the sum of eighty five thousand pounds sterling, to the aldermen sir Thomas Viner and others, who with consent of the English East India company, were authorised by the lord protector to receive the said money. Their high mightinesses act for the delivery of the island Poleron is exhibited likewise to the said commissaries, so that the known decision is now entirely complied with. I have made also this afternoon a request to mr. Thurloe, concerning the settling of the frontiers of New Netherland betwixt England and the United Provinces. He told me, that he would search for the papers; and that those of the English side had sent him as yet no informations at all; and that upon the sole allegations from one side, the lord protector having no knowledge of those affairs and circumstances, could not be desired to decide the same positively. However I intend, God willing, to make my further applications the beginning of next week; and in case I see that it cannot be done otherwise, I will insist upon this, that the directors or agents of both sides of the northern coast of America may be commissioned and appointed for that purpose. I have also, in obedience to their high mightinesses resolution of the 24th of May last past, touching the letter of intercession in favour of the English cloth, dated October 26, shewn to the said mr. Thurloe the authentick copies of sundry letters of the late kings of England, and desired, that the said lord protector writing to their high mightinesses might not treat them with less respect than the said serene kings have always done. Whereupon his honour declared to me, that his highness never had done otherwise; and that to the kings of France and Spain, the queen of Sweden, the kings of that realm, and of that of Denmark, the letters were never directed any otherwise, without any one's having shewn any dislike against it; that it was more than a superscription, and that understood, Celsi & potentes domini, under which he signed his name. However, in case their high mightinesses thought themselves prejudiced thereby, he believed that his highness would insist on no ceremonies, at a time, which ought to raise the one and the other to other thoughts; and that he therefore had directed accordingly the letter, which his highness had thought proper to write to their high mightinesses relating to the troubles of those of the protestant religion in the Vallies of Piedmont. He told me likewise, that the lord protector had sent an express with a letter to the king of France on that subject, as he assured me, written in the most civil and Christian like terms; and as I observe, an answer to the same will be expected, before the treaty with the lord embassador de Bordeaux Neusville will be signed.
The commissioners of the great seal to secretary Thurloe.
Uppon recept of your letters this morning, signifying his highnes's pleasure concerning the acquittance of the East India company, and his highnes's ratification left in our hands, which we have in readiness, wee have agreed to meet this afternoon att fowre a clock in the Middle Temple in the usuall place, where wee shall be ready to observe the directions of his highnes, and obey his commands intimated by your letters. Wee remaine,
May 25, 1655.
Sir Benjamin Wright to secretary Thurloe.
My laste unto your honor was of the 11th of May, accuseinge a former of the 22d of April by the way of Biluao, both which with another in answere to that which your honor was pleased to write unto me of the primo of February, I hope will come false unto your hands, and that you will vouchesafe to lett me know it by a letter from your honor for my better satisfaction. Now I shall lett you know of the arrivall at Rosas in Catalunia of a parte of the fleet the French had in Toulon, beinge, as is said, six gallies, twelve shippes, and some other small vessells, and in them came too thousand souldiers, which they landed ther with severall provisiones, and so departed to Cadaques, the which place they beseeged by land and sea; and it is doubted, that they will carry it suddenly, for we have neither an armie at land nor on the sea as yet to oppose them.
The galeones that are in Cadiz makeinge redy for the West Indias, are to goe presently for Barcelona, to joyne with those that are ther; for as yet the gallies and some shipes, that are expected from Naples, are not arrived. The shipes also that are att passage in Biscay are making ready with all expedition to goe into the Medeteranea sea, for ther the French wil be stronge in shipinge this summer, as it is reported. I pray God, they doe not the greatest parte of their buisnes, before wee be in a posture to resist them; for it is not to be beleeved, how backeward wee are in all things necessary to encounter them. The not comeinge home of the plate fleete from the West Indies, as was expected, hath caused great scarcetie of monies, the which hath very much hindered all our designes. There is lately arrived at Cadiz a ship of advize from Santo Domingo; shee departed thence the 18th of March, but bringeth no newes of your fleete under the command of generall Penn, to have appeared on those coasts; so that wee hope, that your designe is not for that island, nor that of Cuva, notwithstandinge wee still live in great feare.
The pope's nuntio, that did assist in this court, departed from hence towards Rome the
22d of the laste month; and 28th of this the nuntio, which hath bin these 14th months
in Spaigne, but deteyned in the kingdome of Valencia, and not permitted to come to this
court, because this king insisted that the ould nuntio might still remayne, had his first audience, but as extreordinary, not as nuntio to reside heere, unles his majestie shall heereafter give way therto, in regard he is heere looked on as too much affected to the Frenche
and the Barbarines, and reported also to be allied to the cardinal Mazarine. The ould
dutchesse of Mantua, after 22 yeers that shee had bin entertayned in this kingdome by this
kinge, now retorneth to the state of Milan. Shee departeth from Madrid this day towards
San Sevastian, and from thence shee goeth through France. The king sendeth with her
an Alcalde de corte to conduct her to the frontiers of France. Wee have advize from
Flanders, that the marques de Leyde was past over from Dunquerque into England for extreordinary ambassadour from this kinge to his highnesse; and I hope with ample order to
comply in all things with his highnesse pleasure; otherwayes in my opinion they cannot
subsist. Sir, wisheinge to your honor all health and true happines, I commit you to God's
protection, and remayne
Fom Madrid, June 5,
1655. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence.
By the last I did not write, having not much to say. Since I have only to tell you, that the dutchess royal fell into a convulsion apoplectic, which made her speechless for half an hour, but now she is well again.
The French embassador, that resides here, has received strict orders from his master, to
endeavour by all means possible to reconcile the Hugonots of the Valley to their prince.
In the mean time, the Hugonots continue their ordinary courses in the confines of the
Vallies. They have chose among them a chief, called Jayere, who was a butcher, and
takes upon him the title of chevalier of Genevae, prince of the Vallies, and defender of the
Christians of the said Vallies. He commands as an absolute prince. They have two principal
officers, that take a particular care to recollect all the dead bodies of their brethren,
which they set in a catalogue of their martyrs. They endeavoured this week newly to
attempt about Lucerne, but they were repulsed; they burnt notwithstanding 22 houses.
They endeavoured also to take the post of Miraboque, being a place of great importance; where they flew eight soldiers, but retired, seeing they could not gain the post.
They were pursued by a party out of Lucerne, sent by monsieur de Marolles, but they
could not be overtaken before they recovered the mountains. Of this particlar business
I hear no more at present: for other news here betwixt us, Modena and Milan, I presume
you will have better from Paris, than from,
Sir, yours, &c.
A letter of intelligence to mr. Petit.
We are informed, that part of our army hath invested Landrecy, and that the court is going from Compiegne to La Fere, to facilitate the good success of this enterprise. Mareschal Turenne begun yesterday to march, and mareschal de la Ferté cometh towards Rocroy to join him.
The princess of Carignan hath brought from court the spouse of the duke of Modena's son. She is to part next week for Italy, where the marquis of St. Andre Montbrun is gone to command under prince Thomas.
Our parliament met eight days ago, for the reception of two counsellors, which have been incorporated therein; and upon a proposition, which was made by mr. Benoist, councellor and clerk, in the great chamber, to examine his majesty's edicts, it was deliberated and agreed, that most humble remonstrances should be made unto his majesty, that he might be pleased to put off the execution until the parliament had examined them.
Some write from Genoa in date of the 20/10th of May, that general Blake having of late presented himself with his fleet before the ports of Sardinia, the Insulars had refused the refreshments he demanded, and that it was assured, that the English merchants dwelling in Spain secured their means, as if there should be some misunderstanding between England and that kingdom, where the Genoa embassador had received satisfaction.
We still expect the signing of our treaty with my lord protector, after which, it's said, the pretended duke of York is to go to Rome, in his brother Charles's name, to solicite the pope to a general peace, and to assist the Stuarts.